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This guide  will  show  you:     • How  to  layout  your  subject   • How  you  should  layout  your   background   • How  to  use  your  camera   equipment   • How  to  use  the  Rule  of  Thirds   • How  to  use  the  180  degree   • Camera  angles  and  movements   • How  to  use  shot-­‐reverse-­‐shot  

By Noor  Zakaria  

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When filming,  always   consider  the   persistence/purpose  of   why  you  have  chosen  to   film  in  this  way  before   you  set  it  up.   You  have  to  consider  why   you  have  chosen  to   choose  this  particular   way  of  shooting  this   scene  and  what  you  want   to  tell  your  audience.     You  want  to  know  what   your  characters  would   want  to  be  wearing,  what   props  would  they  be   using.   Also,  you  have  to  think   about  what  it  represents   and  whether  is  this  the   best  way  to  show  it.  

For every  shot,  you  need  to  consider  your  background,  as   this  will  present  the  atmosphere  of  your  scene.   Also  you  have  to  think  about  if  you  have  chosen  the  right   background  for  the  right  scene.  Consider  what  colors  and   textures  you  would  use.   Does  the  background  give  any  additional  information  to   your  subject  and  why?   By  choosing  particular  backgrounds,  you  can  make  your   subject  much  more  powerful  and  prevailing.  

In a  making  of  a  video,  you  need  to  have  a:   • Video  camera   • Tripod     This  is  because  a  tripod  is  used  to  keep  the  camera  in  place  and  to  make  it  stable  to  the   ground,  its  gives  the  scene  a  clear  and  professional  view.  On  the  other  hand,  if  you  film  using   your  hands,  this  will  give  the  scene  a  shaky  and  scary  look  to  look  like  something  is   happening.   If  you  are  using  the  tripod  to  give  your  scene  a  stable  look,  you  can  change  the  height  of  it  by   making  it  higher  or  lower.  This  is  often  used  to  give  the  audience  different  views  of  the   characters  in  your  film.  

When you  are  filming,  you  should  always  try  making  sure  your  main  point  focus  is  one   of  the  four  intersection  lines.  This  is  to  stabilize  the  audiences  view  and  to  make  them   concentrate  on  a  particular  point  of  the  scene.   This  makes  your  film  look  more  professional.  E.g.  if  you  were  shooting  the  scene  in  one   corner  of  the  camera,  then  it  wouldn’t  look  professional  whereas  if  the  eye  level  was   touching  one  of  the  crosses,  then  it  would  stabilize  the  audiences  view.   The  guideline  proposes  that  an  image  should  be  imagined  as  divided  into  nine  equal   parts  by  two  equally-­‐spaced  horizontal  lines  and  two  equally  spaced  vertical  lines  and   that  important  compositional  elements  should  be  places  along  these  lines  or  their   intersections.  

* The Rule of thirds means that you should

always try to make sure your main point of focus and the part you would like to highlig most is on one of the four intersection line

In filmmaking,  the  180-­‐degree  rule  is  a  basic  guideline  regarding  the  on-­‐screen  spatial   relationship  between  a  character  and  another  character  or  object  within  a  scene.  An   imaginary  line  called  the  axis  connects  the  characters  and  by  keeping  the  camera  on  one   side  of  this  axis  for  every  shot  in  the  scene,  the  first  character  will  always  be  frame  right  of   the  second  character,  who  is  then  always  frame  left  of  the  first.  If  the  camera  passes  over   the  axis,  it  is  called  crossing  the  line  or  jumping  the  line,  which  is  wrong.  

Camera angles  and  movements  combine  to  create  a  sequence  of  images,  just  as  words,   word  order  and  punctuation  combine  to  make  the  meaning  of  a  sentence.  You  need  a   straightforward  set  of  key  terms  to  describe  them.   Describing  shots   When  describing  camera  angles,  or  creating  them  yourself,  you  have  to  think  about  three   important  factors:   • The  framing  or  the  length  of  shot   • The  angle  of  the  shot   • If  there  is    any  movement  involved   When  describing  different  cinematic  shots,  different  terms  are  used  to  indicate  the   amount  of  subject  matter  contained  within  a  frame,  how  far  away  the  camera  is  from  the   subject  and  the  perspective  of  the  viewer.    Each  different  shot  has  a  different  purpose  and   effect.  A  change  between  two  different  shots  is  called  a  cut.  

The different  shots  that  there  are   is:   Extreme  long  shots  –  a  shot  taken   from  a  distance,  used  as  a  scene  –   setting.  Usually  shows  where  the   scene  is  set.   Long  shot  –  the  whole  of  the   person’s  body  is  shown.  More  than   1  person  in  the  scene  can  be   shown  as  well.   Medium  shot  –  a  shot  from  a   person’s  waist  up  or  down.  Only   little  background  is  shown.   Close-­‐up  –  shots  of  the  persons   face.  Focuses  on  object.  Not  much   detail  of  the  background  is  shown.   Extreme  close  up  –  no   background  is  shown  at  all.   Magnifying  beyond  what  the   human  eye  would  experience  in   reality.  The  person  wouldn’t  know   where  that  person  is.   Birds  eye  view  –  shots  from  the   top,  directly  overhead,  unnatural   and  a  strange  angle.   High  angle  –  filming  just  above   the  characters  head.  Gives  a  view   of  that  person  is  scared  of  view,   smaller  and  less  significant.   Eye  level  –  neutral  shot,  camera  is   positioned  face  to  face  with   someone  else  you’re  talking  to.   Camera  placed  approximately  five   to  six  feet  from  the  ground.  

Low angle  –  opposite  from  high  angle.   Lower  angle  from  the  ground  to  seem   small  and  other  character  more  bigger   and  powerful.   Oblique/canted  angle  –  tilted  angles  to   make  the  feel  that  the  place  isn’t  stable   /scary  or  that  something  isn’t  right.  

Shot reverse  shot  is  a  film  technique  where  one  character  is  shown  looking  at  another   character  and  then  the  other  character  is  shown  looking  back  at  the  first  character.  Since   the  characters  are  shown  facing  in  opposite  directions,  the  viewer  assumes  that  they  are   looking  at  each  other.   If  you  were  to  use  shot  reverse  shot  in  your  film,  this  would  make  you’re  film  more   professional  looking.  

Filming guide  

This is a guide on how to use the camera equipment