Jan. 19, 2011
New information on herbicide labels Intro Herbicides and agricultural chemicals are both one of the most effective control measures for weeds in Iowa corn and soybeans and also involve one of the most regulated aspects of crop production. This article appeared in the Integrated Crop Management News in December of 2010, and highlights how to interpret some new herbicide label information that is now provided. BOB HARTZLER Department of Agronomy Herbicide labels now include a standardized system to inform users of the product’s mechanism of action. A box labeled ‘Herbicide Group’ is present near the top of the label. The number in
the box represents MOA of the active ingredient, based on a system developed by the Weed Science Society of America. Premixes containing more than one mode of action will have multiple numbers listed. Following is an example of the new logo:
The intent of this information is to simplify development of herbicide programs that reduce the likelihood of selecting herbicide resistant weeds. In production systems relying largely on herbicides for weed management, using herbicides with different MOAs is the primary means of managing resistance. Generally, the greater number of
MOAs used, the less selection pressure placed on weeds. However, designing an integrated program is not as simple as randomly adding MOAs. The different MOAs used in the program must have good activity on the important weeds in the field to successfully reduce selection pressure. Following are a few examples where the inclusion of an herbicide in a system relying on glyphosate in Roundup Ready crops would provide little benefit in terms of managing resistance for specific weeds. • A Group 2 herbicide would provide little benefit for waterhemp since most waterhemp is resistant to these herbicides.
• A Group 15 herbicide would provide little benefit for giant ragweed or other large-seeded broadleaves due to its poor activity on these weeds. • Tank-mixing low rates (less than 0.75 lbs) of atrazine (Group 5) with glyphosate or other herbicides. The new labeling system eliminates the need for farmers, consultants and suppliers to learn the MOA of all the active ingredients used in Iowa agriculture. However, to use the information properly, users must still know the activity of the individual herbicides on the weeds present in the field to insure the target weeds are being affected by multiple MOAs.
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For more information, the Weed Science Society of America’s Mechanism of Action document is available at the website http://www.wssa.net/Weeds/Resistance/WSSA-Mechanism-of-Action.pdf, or you may contact your County Extension office for assistance.
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Jan. 19, 2011
Hybrid selection for corn following corn Intro During the past few years there has been a move toward more acres of corn planted following corn. This article was produced in the spring of 2010, and addressed questions about the selection of hybrids for planting in the second (or more) years of continuous corn, and also addresses effects from the hybrids that were planted in the previous year.
WADE KENT AND ROGER ELMORE Department of Agronomy Iowa State University Usually, corn yields suffer when corn follows corn in comparison with corn grown in rotation with soybean. A common misconception is, that over time, yield will recover within a continuous corn system. Instead, the greatest reduction in corn yield typically happens during the first year of corn following corn
and then remains at that level until the cropping system is changed. Producers can expect a 10-15 percent decline in grain yield when corn follows corn compared with a corn-soybean rotation. Several factors are associated with the yield deficit, but none have proven to be the “fix-all” for improving crop yield. This limits recommendations available to corn growers, and creates numerous possibilities as to what is decreasing yield. The question most asked is: “Does the hybrid grown in the previous season influence corn yields the following year?” Research addressing this question has not been conducted since the 1980s, which makes it difficult to provide solid recommendations for current corn hybrids and management systems. To better understand this issue, ISU conducted research at six Iowa locations in 2008 and 2009; three locations were in the northern half of Iowa and three were in the southern half. The research efforts were focused on understanding the influence of the previous-year hybrid on the performance of the second-year corn crop. In the second year, 12 hybrids were planted in crop residue from three corn hybrids, as well as soybean residue. Triple-stack hybrids with appropriate relative maturities for the different regions of the state were planted at 35,000 seeds per acre. Management practices were similar at all locations; soil fertility was maintained at levels that would not limit yield. Influence on second-year corn: Population and grain moisture To understand the overall influence of the previous-year hybrid residue on the current-year hybrid, researchers measured corn population, grain moisture and yield. Plant population did not change based on the hybrid grown previously. However, plant populations where corn followed soybean were higher than those with second-year corn. Seedling loss was greater for secondyear corn compared with corn following soybean. However, other research has shown slightly increasing seeding rates for corn following corn may not increase yield and will not overcome the 10-15 percent yield reduction associated with corn following corn.
Grain moisture of the current-year hybrids at harvest was not influenced by the corn hybrid grown in the previousyear in any of the trials. In addition, no grain moisture differences at harvest were observed between second-year corn and corn-following-soybean. Therefore, grain moisture at harvest is most dependent on the growing season and not related to residue type. In 2008, grain moisture averaged 19-20 percent across the northern and southern regions. However in 2009, four of the six locations had grain moistures greater than 25 percent at harvest, no matter the rotation. High grain moisture was common across Iowa in 2009, due to the abnormally cool growing season and wet fall. Previous hybrid does not impact second-year yields In 2008, second-year corn yielded 10 percent and 14 percent less for the northern and southern regions, respectively, when compared with corn following soybean. Similar yield differences were observed in 2009, where secondyear corn was 11 percent and 14 percent less for northern and southern regions, respectively. Although the rotation effect was obvious across the regions, the specific corn hybrid’s residue did not matter. Thus, the previous-year corn hybrid should not be an issue when selecting hybrids for the coming growing season. Continued use of the same hybrid over multiple growing seasons did not decrease grain yield any more than when hybrids were rotated. Summary Based on these results, the hybrid grown the previous year does not influence plant population, grain moisture or yield in second-year corn. These results seem to eliminate the hybrid grown previously as a variable to explain the yield reduction observed when corn follows corn. When selecting hybrids for the current growing season in corn following corn, the hybrid grown previously should not impact your choices in the second year. Nevertheless, you should still expect yields to decrease by 10-15 percent in continuous corn compared with corn grown in rotation with soybean.
Jan. 19, 2011
ACHIEVING A MORE PROFITABLE OPERATION: Iowa Corn Growers announce 2011 Crop Fair schedule The Iowa Corn Growers Association and Iowa Corn Promotion Board will join with local sponsoring groups to host 20 free crop fairs across Iowa this winter. “Our crop fairs are an established tradition for many growers,” ICGA/ICPB director of grower services Don Mason said. “They make top experts available at local gatherings where farmers can ask questions and tap into the latest information on issues that affect their profitability.” Mason especially thanked local sponsoring groups and businesses for making the crop fair program possible: “We would not have been able to offer up-to-date information to thousands of farmers without the support of our sponsors,” Mason said. The nearest Crop Fair for Harrison County residents will take place from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. Jan. 26 at the Rand Center in Missouri Valley. Registration will be held at 8:30 a.m. Others include: Jan. 25 in Fayette; Jan. 31 in Elkader; Feb. 2 in Paullina; Feb. 2 in New Hampton; Feb. 10 in Promise City; Feb. 10 in Ames; Feb. 11 in Guthrie Center; Feb. 11 in Mason City; Feb. 16 in Fort Dodge; Feb. 16 in Orient; Feb. 17 in Oakland; Feb. 18 in Boone; Feb. 24 in Wall Lake; Feb. 28 in Creston; and Mar. 10 in Fairfield.
Winter Application of Manure: Regulations and Common Sense Intro Western Iowa farmers who plan to apply manure to fields in the winter should be advised of the current rules for application to snow covered and frozen fields. This article from the Iowa Manure Management Action Group authored by Angela Rieck-Hinz points out the details of the law, and can be useful to help producers manage applications within the law. It was published in the Integrated Crop Management News in December of 2010. ANGELA RIECK-HINZ Department of Agronomy In 2009, the Iowa Legislature passed a bill pertaining to winter application of manure on snow-covered and frozen ground. The rules enforcing that legislation were completed earlier in 2010 and went into effect on Sept. 15, 2010. This law applies to liquid manure from confinement feeding operations that have more than 500 animal units in confinement. This law does not apply to: • Manure from open feedlots • Dry manure (frozen manure is not dry manure) • Liquid manure from small animal feeding operations (confinements with 500 animal units or less) • Liquid manure that can be appropriately injected or incorporated on the same date of application Confinement feeding operations with more than 500 animal units cannot legally apply liquid manure on snowcovered ground from Dec. 21 to April 1, or on frozen ground from Feb. 1 to April 1 except in an emergency. Frozen ground is defined as “soil that is impenetrable due to frozen soil moisture but does not include soil that is frozen to a depth of two inches or less.” Snowcovered ground is defined by “soil covered by one inch or more or snow or onehalf inch or more of ice.” Operations regulated by these rules can apply manure in an emergency. The emergency must be defined by circumstances beyond the control of the owner and include, but is not limited to, natural disasters, unusual weather or equip-
ment or structural failure. The emergency exemption does not apply to improperly designed or managed manure storage structures, the failure to account for the volume of manure to be stored. However, through the winter of 2014-2015 DNR will allow insufficient storage as a reason for emergency application. If you must apply manure under the emergency exemption, prior to land application of manure, you must contact DNR. You will also be required to report certain facts and follow a certain protocol to meet the emergency exemption requirements. If you are a producer that is regulated by this law and you have inadequate storage to get you through the dates listed above, you should begin to take action to rectify the situation. This may
include building additional storage or reducing animal numbers to reduce manure volume. Other Things to Consider Whether this law applies to you or not, there are other things you must consider. • Do you have a NPDES permit? Make sure you know and follow the requirements of your NPDES permit which may limit winter application. • Do you have a nutrient management plan or comprehensive nutrient management plan from NRCS? If so, you need to carefully review your plan to determine if you can apply manure in the winter. NRCS plans are based on the Iowa 590 Standard and that standard
See WINTER Page 5
Jan. 19, 2011
Winter Manure From WINTER Page 4 does not allow winter application of manure, except in defined emergencies, and that standard applies to all sources of manure. • If your operation is required to follow the Master Matrix, then make sure you are in compliance with land application for the Matrix since you may have gotten points for
injecting or incorporating manure and winter may cause you to surface-apply manure. Common Sense If you are regulated or not, application of manure on frozen or snow-covered ground is not recommended. The potential loss of nutrients to surface water can be significant based on snow depth, snow melt and rapid runoff. Proper storage or stockpiling of manure for spring applica-
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tion protects water quality and the dollar value of the nutrients in the manure. The DNR, Legislature, EPA and your neighbors are closely scrutinizing winter manure application and if the new regulations and related penalties are not sufficient to protect water quality, there may be additional restrictions. At what point will this winter application law apply to all animal feeding operations in Iowa?
Jan. 19, 2011
Corn: Just for Kids Just the Facts, Please • Maize is the more correct term for the plant more commonly known as corn in America. Its scientific name is Zea mays. In other “words,” it’s known as: maíz in Spain; maïs in France; gu wù in China; kykypy3a (kookoorooze) in Russia; and muhindi in Africa (Swahili). • Corn is a SUPER PLANT! Scientists recently mapped out corn’s genetic code and found it has more genes than a human! Genes are the instructions that make living things look and behave the way they do. • Corn is a grass native to the Americas and is thought to have been first grown in central Mexico 7,000 years ago. • Iowa farmers are growing almost twice as much corn now as they did 100
years ago on two-thirds less land. • Iowa has produced the largest corn crop of any state for the past 17 years. In an average year, Iowa produces more corn than most countries. An example? Iowa grows three times as much corn as a country like Argentina. • One ear of corn has about 16 rows and 800 kernels. The number of rows will always be an even number. • There is one silk for every kernel that grows in an ear of corn. • Many non-diet soft drinks and fruit drinks are sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup. This sweet liquid has the same number of calories as sugar. Corn syrup is used because it helps keep the flavor the same while it sits on a shelf. • Today, one American farmer feeds over 155 people across the world.
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Jan. 19, 2011
Iowa Corn offers new Corn root development scholarship program The Iowa Corn Growers Association and Iowa Corn Promotion Board are excited to announce a new scholarship program to aid in the development of future talent for the Iowa agriculture industry. This year Iowa Corn will award 10 scholarships through the Iowa Corn Future of Agriculture Scholarship program to undergraduate and graduate students who are pursuing a degree in the 2011-12 school year. “Iowa Corn understands that to remain successful as an industry, we
must develop a strong cadre of agricultural experts who are entering the industry – both producers and agribusiness professionals,” Iowa Corn committee scholarship chair Doug Holliday said. “This new scholarship program is an important component of developing youth in agriculture and to the future of the agriculture industry right here in Iowa.” The Iowa Corn Future of Agriculture Scholarship program will award five $500 first-year scholarships and five $500 upper-
classman scholarships for individuals who are pursuing a degree equipping them to contribute to the agriculture industry in Iowa. Applicants also must either be a member of ICGA or a dependent of a member. First-year scholarship applicants must be entering their first undergraduate year at an accredited junior college, college or university. Upperclassman scholarship applicants must be entering at least their second year at an accredited junior college or university.
Intro In 2010, wet and cool conditions early in the growing season caused many problems in several Harrison County fields. Proper assessment of seedling root health can greatly assist management decisions in the early season. This article which, in large part originally appeared in the ISU Integrated Pest Management newsletter, is a helpful guide to assessment of early season corn root health. LORI ABENDROTH AND ROGER ELMORE Department of Agronomy Iowa State University
Proper root development during the first few weeks following corn emergence is critical to the success of the crop. Mesocotyl rot can occur in corn seedlings at this stage of growth with the right combination of environmental conditions. Corn has two root systems that are easily visible early in the year. The initial root system, the seminal roots, is comprised of the radicle and the lateral seminal roots. The seminal roots help anchor the young seedling and provide it with nutrients and water. The young shoot is comprised of the mesocotyl and coleoptile. A second root system, the nodal roots, develops at the base of the
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coleoptile and serves the plant as the major root system throughout the corn plant’s life. Regardless of planting depth, the location of the nodal roots is typically the same unless the seed was planted extremely shallow. Nodal roots form approximately 1 to 1.5 inches below the soil surface. The mesocotyl connects the kernel and the coleoptile. The mesocotyl length will vary depending on seeding depth. Seminal roots cease new growth shortly after the coleoptile emerges from the soil surface. Once the plant is approximately growth stage V1 (one leaf fully unfurled), the nodal root system is visible. The corn in the picture is in between V1 and V2, and the initial development of the nodal roots is visible. The nodal root system becomes the dominant system by V6 (six leaves with unfurled with collars visible). A healthy mesocotyl is extremely important since it transports nutrients from the kernel to the developing seedling. The plant primarily depends on the kernel’s contents for its nutrients and energy until the nodal root system develops. Therefore, it is possible that seedlings may be stunted or even die if their nodal roots do not develop before the kernel reserves are exhausted. Check fields at this point in the season for root development to determine if seedlings are healthy. Another useful reference related to this topic is “Root development in young corn” by Bob Nielsen, Extension Corn Specialist, Purdue University, and available from Purdue University Extenison.
Jan. 19, 2011
The Great Corn Comeback It was heard quietly at first, but the chatter is growing like crickets on a summer night. Iowa’s corn farmers are talking louder and prouder about growing corn to feed and fuel a growing population, even among mounting misinformation and political attacks. In 2008, corn prices jumped to a history making price. Fuel prices mirrored the jump and we soon saw an escalator on your grocery store receipt. “Food versus fuel and corn’s role in rising grocery store prices were not correlated and consumers soon saw the real culprit when corn prices leveled out and prices on the shelf remained the same,” Dick Gallagher, Iowa Corn Promotion Board Chairman and a farmer from Washington, Iowa said. “Farmers were caught in the cross fire and were able to help consumers understand, but not until a little misinformation and confusion ran wild.” This experience left farmers across the country educated about their need to talk to the public about growing corn. How they do it, why they do it, and how that relates to the consumer who picks up the end product. Today, two-way dialogue is taking place on other corn issues, such as; climate change, corn ethanol, environment, and high fructose corn syrup. The growing chatter behind the sturdy stalks, coming from the tractor cabs, and rolling from the combines is part of: Corn’s Comeback. It is growing like the crops planted each year and this is where you can find it. Corn Farmers Coalition
The Campaign literally plastered corn grower images and messages on the walls throughout the Washington D.C. subway system. The messages were sciencebased numbers with farmer images sharing the facts. The messages were amplified through the Web site www.cornfarmerscoaltion.com, through a National Press Club event, ads and more. The campaign in the second year reached an estimated 60 million. Discovery Tour Not everyone knows about agriculture or growing corn. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and the Iowa Corn Growers Association worked with the Center for Food Integrity to bring in seven bloggers for two intense days on a “behind the scenes” tour of Iowa agriculture. “From the past to the present, we shared with them what we do every day and how we are able to share that with the world,” Kevin Rempp said, a farmer from Montezuma and a participant on the tour. “What we were able to share with them sitting down to meals and answering their questions was what they valued. It seems simple, but what we take for granted, they want to know.” The participants were from different areas across the country and their online presence scanned thousands. Many of them are still talking about their experience and 100% of the participants said
they would come back again. Common Ground Common Ground is based on the idea that we need to make food and farming personal. When consumers understand that real families are raising their food and they share common values and expectations, they have more trust in farming. This program is a joint partnership between the Iowa Soybean Association, Iowa Corn, the National Corn Growers Association and the United Soybean Board. Four women have been chosen to represent Iowa in this national campaign to talk to the consumer. The goal is to create awareness and put a face to farm families, while talking to women who are purchasing the food for their families. GameDay
Millions of Iowans follow Iowa or Iowa State athletics; it is just how you grow up. Because of the audience, Iowa Corn joined with both schools to promote the Iowa CornFed GameDay promotion through football, basketball and wrestling match ups. In the second year of the promotion, Iowa Corn has run 6,000 radio ads; 4,000 live mentions; 2,000 Drive of the Game messages and totaled over 100 million radio impressions. The promotion has also had 30 on-site marketing opportunities in both, Ames and Iowa City as well as 2 million in-stadium impressions. Overall, the campaign has reached over 120 million impressions in 2009 and 2010. Iowa Corn Indy 250
Iowa corn grower leaders and over 2,200 members witnessed the fourth running of the Iowa Corn Indy 250 presented by Pioneer at the Iowa Speedway in
Newton in June of 2010. Last year, the race ran on 100 percent corn ethanol, but witnesses saw the power of ethanol under the lights on June 25, 2010. “Iowa Corn is proud to sponsor the Iowa Corn Indy 250 to celebrate the power and performance of fuel from cornbased ethanol,” Tim Burrack said, past chair of the Iowa Corn Promotion Board. “We think it is important for consumers to know we have a renewable fuel resource that is grown here in Iowa and if 100 percent corn-based ethanol is good for Indy, than it’s good for consumers, the only difference is the speed limit.” NASCAR The Iowa Corn Promotion Board and the Iowa Corn Growers Association in conjunction with the National Corn Growers Association are among the organizations backing American Ethanol, a partnership including Growth Energy and NASCAR. “This partnership is an opportunity to communicate to a whole new audience, about American corn-based ethanol,” Dick Gallagher said, Iowa Corn Promotion Board Chairman. “NASCAR is literally driving the positive ethanol story into thousands of households across the U.S. and we hope consumers will continue to drive with it to work and the grocery store, just like the pros do.” “Today, America’s sport and America’s fuel have kicked-off one of the most exciting partnerships in the history of NASCAR,” NASCAR Legend Rusty Wallace said. “This is a great moment for our sport and a great moment for the hardworking men and women across the country who help make and produce this great fuel.” Plus, Iowa Corn has been working on issues such as water quality and high fructose corn syrup. For the latest information on corn, visit www.iowacorn.org The Iowa Corn Promotion Board, works to develop and defend markets, fund research, and provide education about corn and corn products. The Iowa Corn Growers Association is a membership organization lobbying on agricultural issues on behalf of its 6,400 farmer members. Both organizations work on the joint mission to create opportunities for long-term Iowa corn grower profitability.
Jan. 19, 2011 14 2 B OB H ARTZLER Department of Agronomy Herbicide labels now include a stan- dardized system to inform users of the product...