Making ICT work It is no longer sufficient for teachers to impart content knowledge. They must encourage higher levels of cognitive skills, promote information literacy, and nurture collaborative working practices. These new responsibilities are greatly facilitated by the use of ICTs in teaching. However, a genuine and sophisticated integration is necessary, so teacher training in this regard becomes crucial.
1. The Roles of Teachers in ICT-enhanced Teaching and Learning Teachers play a pivotal role in creating ICTenhanced learning environments. They provide scaffolding activities for students and intervene into their learning. In primary school, the value of ICT is to a large extent dependent on teachersâ€™ strategies. Teacher foster peer interaction among students in multimedia-based activities and for playing the cyclical role of observation, reflection, recording, discussion and feedback. They facilitate human interactions in ICT-enhanced learning activities. They provide psychological supports to students : they develop the trust of students, enhance studentsâ€™ confidence, allow them to control their learning, encourage reflection and sharing. They must be learners who keep on developing and enhancing their own ICT capacity, in order to guide their students. Those who are competent and professional in ICT tend to have high sensitivity and be effective in providing pedagogical guidance, promoting Internet safety, teaching students moral behaviours when navigating the Internet.
2. The competencies required of teachers to take up this role Teachers must be aware of policies and be able to specify how classroom practices correspond to and support policy. Teachers must have a firm knowledge of the curriculum standards for their subject, as well as knowledge of standard assessment procedures. In addition, teachers must be able to integrate the use of technology and technology standards for students into the curriculum. Teachers must know where, when (as well as when not), and how to use technology for classroom activities and presentations (pedagogy). Teachers must know basic hardware and software operations, as well as productivity applications software, a web browser, communications software, presentation software, and management applications. Teachers must be able to use technology with the whole class, small groups, and individual activities and assure equitable access (Organization & administration). They must have the technological skill and knowledge of Web resources necessary to use technology to acquire additional subject matter and pedagogical knowledge in support of teachersâ€™ own professional development.
3. Necessary conditions to support ICT for Teaching and Learning in Primary Schools Integration of ICT into classroom teaching is a complicated process that requires changes in various aspects of the learning environment. Policy-makers and school administrators need to apply strategies to address the various barriers to successful integration of ICT in the classroom, and support the creation of necessary and sufficient conditions for that purpose . The physical and technological infrastructure of ICT is a fundamental condition for implementing changes to use ICT in education (hardware and software, human resources). Various parties play a role in facilitating the development and execution of ICT curricula, including government, schools, and teachers. Many countries have official policies in place pertaining to the use of ICT to improve the whole system of education. Integration of ICT in the classroom involves development of ICT-based assessment across the school curriculum. Professional development is needed for all school staff to support the process of ICT integration in schools. Teachersâ€™ competencies are of special importance.