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ATLANTIS ENGLISH

PROGRAMME BOOK I

CREATED, DEVELOPED AND ILLUSTRATED

BY

DR. ROBERT RODRIGUEZ NOHLE .

FOR ROOTECH.

‘ENGLISH… YOUR WAY’ FIRST EDITION - 2012.

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THE VOICE WITHIN THE SPIRIT SOMETIMES THE GUNFIRE, UNJUSTICE, WAR, HATRED, INTOLERANCE AND IGNORANCE AROUNDS US MAKES IT HARD TO BE HEARD, BUT THE HUMAN VOICE IS DIFFERENT FROM OTHER SOUNDS.

IT CAN BE HEARD OVER NOISES THAT BURY UNMERCIFULLY EVERYTHING ELSE,

EVEN WHEN IT IS NOT SHOUTING… BUT YET STRONG. EVEN IF IT IS JUST A CHILD’S CRY WITHIN THE WIND….

EVEN THE LOWEST WHISPER OF HOPE CAN BE HEARD OVER ARMIES, EVIL AND OPRESSION.

OUR VOICE, MIND AND SPIRIT, EMPOWERED BY EVERLASTING FREEDOM, CAN NOT BE DEFEATED WHEN THEY ARE TELLING THE TRUTH!

DR. ROBERT RODRIGUEZ NOHLE.

e-mail: nohle72@gmail.com

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fono: 093 - 51 14 24 .


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I WOULD LIKE TO MAKE SINCERE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT FOR ALL THE HELP AND COOPERATION TO THOSE PEOPLE THROUGH TIME, WHOSE SUPPORT, VISION AND TRUST IN MY CAPACITY AND KNOWLEDGE HAVE ENCOURAGED ME TO DEVELOP THIS PROGRAMME THAT I NOW OFFER TO ALL THOSE WHO WISH TO LEARN THE LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS, SCIENCE, FUTURE AND SUCCESS.

I WANT TO THANK TO ALL THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS CONTRIBUTED WITH THEIR PATIENCE, ADVICE, TIME, CARING AND UNDERSTANDING IN THE MAKING OF THIS BOOK.

TO MY BELOVED MOTHER AMALIA FRIEND

NOHLE, MY ESTEEMED

YLEANA SALGUERO, DEAR

MATES, FRIENDS,

STUDENTS, COLLEAGUES AND TEACHERS AND DR.

HENRY JACOBS.

OF COURSE, I AM ALSO VERY GRATEFUL WITH GOD… THAT SUPREME BEING, EVERLASTING ENERGY AND SPIRIT WHO BINDS TOGETHER EVERYTHING AND EVERYONE…THANK YOU FOR THE UNCOUNTABLE BLESSINGS BESTOWED UPON ME, ALL MY GRATITUDE...

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PROLOGUE DR. ROBERT RODRIGUEZ NOHLE IT IS TRUE. I HAVE TO ADMIT THAT AT THIS VERY MOMENT I FEEL TREMENDOUSLY HAPPY. AFTER MANY MONTHS OF HARD WORK AND EFFORT I HAVE FINALLY MADE IT! THIS BOOK MEANS SO MUCH THAT IT IS DIFFICULT TO FIND THE RIGHT WORDS TO EXPRESS THE JOY IT BRINGS TO ME… IT WAS BORN ALMOST AS A CHALLENGE ISSUED TO ME SOME YEARS AGO, AND EVEN THOUGH IT IS NOT THE FIRST BOOK I HAVE WRITTEN IT IS VERY SPECIAL IN MORE THAN ONE WAY. ‘ATLANTIS ENGLISH PROGRAMME’ IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE BOTH THE TEACHER (INSTRUCTOR) AND THE STUDENT WITH A PRACTICAL TOOL FOR STUDYING, PRACTICING, LEARNING AND HAVING FUN WITH THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. IT CAN BE EASILY USED FOR A BASIC AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WITH A VERY WIDE VARIETY OF TOPICS FOR CONVERSATION, BRAINSTORMING, READING AND VOCABULARY LEARNING. BOTH NEW STUDENTS OR THOSE WITH SOME EXPERIENCE WITH THE LANGUAGE WILL BENEFIT OF THE INTERESTING DIALOGS AND DAILY SITUATIONS CAPTURED IN THESE PAGES AS WELL AS THE GREAT AMOUNT OF EXPRESSIONS AND VOCABULARY. OF COURSE, GRAMMAR IS IMPORTANT AND THIS PROGRAMME HANDLES IT PROPERLY. THERE IS SOMETHING MORE I WANT TO EMPHASIZE: THE INTENSIVE USE OF IMAGES. WITHIN THIS BOOK THERE ARE AROUND 740 ILLUSTRATIONS WHICH NOT ONLY REPRESENT VOCABULARY OR ITEMS BUT TOPICS FOR CONVERSATION, TOO. PRECISELY, THAT IS THE KEY OF EFFECTIVENESS IN THIS METHOD. ALL THESE GRAPHICAL RESOURCES ALLOW A FLEXIBLE FLOW OF LEARNING WHERE THE INTENSITY AND PROFUNDITY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE CAN BE ADJUSTED ACCORDING TO THE SKILLS AND LEVEL OF THE STUDENT. THAT’S WHY ‘ATLANTIS ENGLISH PROGRAMME’ CAN BE USED WITH MOST STUDENTS REGARDLESS THE LEVEL OF ENGLISH THEY COULD HAVE… IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING AND KNOWLEDGE OF GRAMMAR ‘ATLANTIS ENGLISH PROGRAMME’ IS USED WITH A SUPPORT TEXTBOOK CALLED ‘HANDY GRAMMAR’ WHICH PROVIDES EXPLANATIONS AND EXAMPLES TO THE RULES, PROTOCOLS AND DIRECTIVES OF THE LANGUAGE. ON AVERAGE, IT WILL TAKE FOUR MONTHS TO COVER ALL THE 20 LESSONS PLUS THE SUPPORT MATERIAL (GRAMMAR, LYRICS, VOCABULARY LISTS, ETC.) THAT MEANS FIVE LESSONS PER MONTH. THANKS A LOT, I REALLY HOPE YOU ENJOY THE BOOK, LEARN A LOT AND HAVE FUN WITH IT. GUAYAQUIL, MARCH 26, 2012.

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CONTENTS LESSON 1: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

GREETING PEOPLE - WHERE ARE YOU FROM? DIFFERENT GREETINGS. MAIN ARTICLES IN ENGLISH. SUBJECT PRONOUNS. THE VERB TO BE: SIMPLE PRESENT FORM. VOCABULARY.

LESSON 2: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

COLORS AND SHAPES

SHAPES: IDENTIFY FORMS - SENTENCES. AUXILIARY VERBS: DO - DOES. EXAMPLES. SPECIAL VERBS. VOCABULARY. EXERCISES.

LESSON 4: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

THE FAMILY!

THE GLADSTONE FAMILY. THE VERB TO BE: CONTRACTIONS. NUMBERS: VOCABULARY: MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY. EXERCISES. AGE: HOW OLD ARE YOU? DOMESTIC ANIMALS.

LESSON 3: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

INTRODUCING MYSELF - THIS IS ME!

THE ENVIRONMENT - LANDMARKS!

DESCRIBING MY CITY: GUAYAQUIL. THE USE OF LIKE - DISLIKE. WHAT IS AN ADJECTIVE? GUAYAQUIL: LANDMARKS. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES - VOCABULARY. REGULAR AND IRREGULAR NOUNS. THE THIRD PERSON SUBJECTS. 5


LESSON 5: AT HOME - LOOKING INSIDE THE HOUSE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

REDECORATING MY HOUSE. ROOMS OF THE HOUSE. PREPOSITIONS. WORKING WITH SHAPES. EXERCISES. QUESTIONS. VOCABULARY.

LESSON 6: THE HOUSE: FURNITURE - ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

HOME SWEET HOME. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES. HOME CHORES… RELATED VERBS. EXERCISES. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES. SENTENCES. KINDS OF BIRDS.

LESSON 7: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

JOBS AROUND THE WORLD: DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROFFESSIONS - OCCUPATIONS. OUR JOBS: RELATED VERBS. EXERCISES. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE - WH QUESTION WORDS?

LESSON 8: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

THIS IS MY JOB!

GOING AROUND THE CITY!

LOOKING FOR AN ADDRESS. GIVING DIRECTIONS. THE CITY - COMMON PLACES. OBJECT PRONOUNS. EXERCISES.

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LESSON 9: AT THE SUPERMARKET - GROCERY STORE! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

WHAT IS A SUPERMARKET? WHAT IS A GROCERY STORE? SECTIONS OF A SUPERMARKET. VEGETABLES - FRUITS. MEATS - POULTRY. EXERCISES.

LESSON 10: COOKING 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

- MEALS & BEVERAGES!

THREE DAILY MEALS. DAIRY PRODUCTS - GRAINS - CEREAL. BEVERAGES - LIQUORS. THERE BE: EXPRESSING EXISTENCE. COOKING: RELATED VERBS. EXERCISES.

LESSON 11: LET’S EAT SOMETHING DELICIOUS! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

FOODS: SOURCE OF LIFE AND ENERGY. FAST FOOD. HOUSEHOLD GOODS. SEA FOOD. QUANTITY - QUALITY. THE USE OF SOME AND ANY.

LESSON 12: PHISICAL APPEARANCE / PERSONALITY! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

WHAT DO YOU LOOK LIKE? PEOPLE FROM AROUND THE WORLD. DESCRIBE YOUR APPEARANCE / PERSONALITY. VOCABULARY. EXERCISES. VEHICLES - MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION.

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LESSON 13: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

HEALTH: OUR MOST IMPORTANT TREASURE. THE HUMAN BODY: ORGANS AND ELEMENTS. VOCABULARY. THE HUMAN BODY: RELATED VERBS. EXERCISES. PERSONAL HYGIENE.

LESSON 14: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

HEALTH: THE HUMAN BODY

WHAT YOU DO EVERYDAY: A SCHEDULE

MY DAILY ROUTINE. USING HAVE TO / HAS TO. EXERCISES. VOCABULARY. MORE VERBS. TOOLS FOR WORK AND HOME. WILD ANIMALS.

LESSON 15: THE CALENDAR: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

MEASURING TIME

MONTHS OF THE YEAR. EVENTS OF THE YEAR. THE SEASONS. DAYS OF THE WEEK. THE VERB “ BE “: SIMPLE PAST FORM. EXERCISES.

LESSON 16: THE WEATHER: A MIGHTY FORCE OF NATURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

THE WEATHER: OUR TOP RESPONSIBILITY. SOME NATURAL PHENOMENA. SIMPLE PAST TENSE: AUXILIARY DID / DIDN’T. VOCABULARY. EXERCISES. KINDS OF REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS.

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LESSON 17: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

SPORTS: A HEALTHY HAPPY STYLE OF LIVING. HOBBIES: FUN ANYTIME YOU WANT. VOCABULARY. THE AUXILIARY CAN / CAN NOT. EXERCISES.

LESSON 18: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

CLOTHING - GOING SHOPPING!

THE WORLD OF FASHION. CLOTHING: VOCABULARY. CLOTHING: RELATED VERBS. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. EXERCISES.

LESSON 19: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

SPORTS - ENTERTAINMENT AND MORE!

MUSIC AND MOVIES - TRIVIA

LIGHTS, CAMERA … ACTION! COMPARATIVES IN ENGLISH. PLAIN COMPARATIVES. COMPARATIVES OF EQUALITY. COMPARATIVES OF INFERIORITY. EXERCISES.

LESSON 20: FACTS AND RECORDS WORLDWIDE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

FACING THE FACTS. PLAIN SUPERLATIVES. SUPERLATIVES OF INFERIORITY. USING TOO (ADJECTIVE) - NOT + ENOUGH (ADJECTIVE). SUPER FACTS WORLDWIDE.

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LESSON

1:

INTRODUCING MYSELF - THIS IS ME!

GREETING PEOPLE

-

WHERE ARE YOU FROM?

- WHAT IS YOUR NAME?

- WHAT IS YOUR LAST NAME / SURNAME?

- HOW ARE YOU?

- ARE YOU OK?

KEVIN: - HELLO, MY NAME IS KEVIN ANDERSON. GINA:

- HI, MY NAME IS GINA CHANG.

KEVIN: - NICE TO MEET YOU GINA. GINA: - GLAD TO MEET YOU TOO KEVIN. KEVIN: - WHERE ARE YOU FROM GINA? GINA:

- I AM FROM SIDNEY - AUSTRALIA, AND YOU? 10

- HOW IS IT GOING?


KEVIN: - I AM FROM LOS ANGELES - USA. GINA:

- WHERE DO YOU LIVE?

KEVIN: - I LIVE IN NEW YORK, AND YOU? GINA:

- WELL, I LIVE IN MIAMI.

DIFFERENT GREETINGS: - GOOD MORNING

- GOOD AFTERNOON

- GOOD EVENING

- HELLO - HI.

- HOW IS IT GOING?

- WHAT’S UP?

- HOW ARE YOU?

- HOW DO YOU DO?

- BYE ( BYE BYE )

- SO LONG

- SEE YOU!

- SEE YOU LATER

- TILL TOMORROW

- SEE YOU SOON

- HOW ARE YOU DOING?

MAIN ARTICLES IN ENGLISH DEFINITE ARTICLE:

THE

( TALKING IN SPECIFIC )

INDEFINITE ARTICLE:

A - AN

( TALKING IN GENERAL )

PLURAL INDEFINITE ARTICLE:

SOME.

( TALKING IN GENERAL PLURAL )

EXAMPLES

- THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING

- THE STATUE OF LIBERTY

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- THE WHITE HOUSE


- THE UNITED STATES

- A NICE DRESS

- A BEAUTIFUL WOMAN

- AN AWESOME DINOSAUR

- THE EIFFEL TOWER

- A CAR ON THE STREET

- A LIGHTHOUSE

- AN APPLE

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- THE ENGLISH PARLIAMENT

- A MAN IN BLACK

- A CLOWN

- AN UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECT


- AN HONEST PERSON

- SOME BATS

- SOME LAPTOPS

- SOME CUTE DOGS

- AN ELEPHANT

- SOME TALL BUILDINGS

- SOME PRETTY DUCKS

- SOME FAST PLANES 13

- AN OSTRICH AT THE ZOO

- SOME DANGEROUS SHARKS

- SOME ELEGANT PENGUINS

- SOME PLAYFUL DOLPHINS


SUBJECT PRONOUNS THEY ARE EXECUTORS OF THE ACTIONS (VERBS) IN FIRST PLACE. THEY CAN REFER IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS TO PEOPLE, PLANTS, ANIMALS, IDEAS, CONCEPTS, THINGS, ETC.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

I

WE

YOU

YOU

HE

THEY

SHE IT

EXAMPLES:

- I AM A DOCTOR - HE IS MY BEST FRIEND - THEY ARE MARRIED - IT IS A NICE HOUSE - WE ARE AT WORK

- ALBERT (HE) STUDIES COMPUTER SCIENCE. - THE CAR ( IT ) IS CLEAN.

- KAREN ( SHE ) WORKS ON THE WEEKENDS. - THE KIDS ( THEY ) PLAY IN THE PARK .

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VERB TO BE: SIMPLE PRESENT FORM.

AM IS ARE

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

- I AM

- I AM NOT

- AM I?

- YOU ARE

- YOU ARE NOT

- ARE YOU?

- HE IS

- HE IS NOT

- IS HE?

- SHE IS

- SHE IS NOT

- IS SHE?

- IT IS

- IT IS NOT

- IS IT?

- WE ARE

- WE ARE NOT

- ARE WE?

- YOU ARE

- YOU ARE NOT

- ARE YOU?

- THEY ARE

- THEY ARE NOT

- ARE THEY?

EXAMPLES: AFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

- HE IS A GOOD FRIEND

- HE IS NOT A GOOD FRIEND

- IS HE A GOOD FRIEND?

- YOU ARE IN MIAMI

- YOU ARE NOT IN MIAMI

- ARE YOU IN MIAMI?

- THEY ARE MARRIED

- THEY ARE NOT MARRIED

- ARE THEY MARRIED?

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VOCABULARY - NAME

- ORIGIN

- TO MEET

- LAST NAME

- FRIEND

- TO WORK

- SURNAME

- MY

- TO STUDY

- NICKNAME

- YOUR

- TO LIVE

- FROM

- MARRIED

- TO SPEAK

- TO

- SINGLE

- TO GREET

LESSON

2:

THE FAMILY!

- FAMILY IS CONSIDERED A GROUP OF PEOPLE RELATED ONE ANOTHER BY A COMMON NAME, AFFECTION AND BLOOD. - THE FAMILY IS THE BASIC FORMING CELL OF ANY SOCIETY. - MOST OF THE TIMES, THE CORE OF A TRADITIONAL FAMILY IS FORMED BY TWO ELEMENTS: “ PARENTS AND CHILDREN ”. - OF COURSE, THERE ARE OTHER IMPORTANT MEMBERS OR RELATIVES: COUSINS, UNCLES, NEPHEWS, NIECES, ETC.

PARENTS

CHILDREN 16


THE GLADSTONE FAMILY HELLO, MY NAME IS ARES GLADSTONE, I’M 13 OLD.

THERE

ARE

FIVE

MEMBERS

IN

MY

YEARS FAMILY

INCLUDING ME. WE ALL LIVE IN MIAMI – IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA…

A

MULTICULTURAL CITY AND A

BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY. MY FATHER TODD GLADSTONE, HE IS 41 YEARS OLD, HE’S A VERY NICE GUY... HE'S ALSO VERY FUNNY AND FOND OF SPORTS, CHESS AND THE FAMILY, OF COURSE. MY MOTHER AMALIE GLADSTONE, SHE’S 37 YEARS OLD, SHE’S A VERY SWEET LADY WHO LOVES HER FAMILY VERY MUCH, VERY FOND OF COOKING, MUSIC AND GARDENING. SHE IS ALSO VERY CARING AND PRETTY. MY BROTHER JIM GLADSTONE, HE’S A 2 YEARS OLD BABY, HE’S A VERY CUTE LITTLE GUY. AND FINALLY MY SISTER KAREN GLADSTONE, SHE’S 9 YEARS OLD, SHE’S A BEAUTIFUL, SMART GIRL... SHE IS VERY FOND OF DANCING AND SINGING... SHE IS ALSO GOOD AT MATH. OF COURSE, I CAN'T FORGET MY BEST FRIEND, "TOTO" MY PET DOG... HE'S A HAPPY, PLAYFUL PUPPY... HE IS WITH ME ALL THE TIME... SOMETIMES EVEN AT SCHOOL. YES, EVERYBODY SAYS I HAVE A BEAUTIFUL FAMILY, WONDERFUL PARENTS, TERRIFIC BROTHERS AND A GREAT DOG. I AGREE. I'M A VERY LUCKY BOY. I LOVE MY FAMILY SO MUCH...

ACTIVITY: *

TALK ABOUT YOUR FAMILY.. NAMES, AGE, PROFESSION

VERB TO BE: CONTRACTIONS

I AM NOT =

I’M NOT.

IS NOT

=

HE ISN’T.

ARE NOT

=

YOU AREN’T.

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*


EXAMPLES AFIRMATIVE - SHE’S A SMART WOMAN

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

- SHE ISN’T A SMART WOMAN

- IS SHE A SMART WOMAN?

- I’M HAPPY

- I’M NOT HAPPY

- AM I HAPPY?

- WE’RE SAD

- WE AREN’T SAD

- ARE WE SAD?

TO BE: CONTRACTIONS

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

I'M

I'M NOT

AM I?

YOU’RE

YOU AREN’T

ARE YOU?

HE’S

HE ISN’T

IS HE?

SHE’S

SHE ISN’T

IS SHE?

IT’S

IT ISN’T

IS IT?

WE’RE

WE AREN’T

ARE WE?

YOU’RE

YOU AREN’T

ARE YOU?

THEY’RE

THEY AREN’T

ARE THEY?

EXAMPLES: - ISN’T SHE REALLY BEAUTIFUL ?

- YOU’RE THE BEST FRIEND OF THE WORLD.

- HE’S MY FAVORITE SINGER.

- WE’RE ON VACATIONS IN JAMAICA.

- THEY'RE TOGETHER SINCE COLLEGE.

- I'M AN ENGLISH TEACHER.

- SHE ISN'T HAPPY WITH HER JOB.

- IT ISN'T THE GIFT I WANT.

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NUMBERS:

1

ONE

11

ELEVEN

21

TWENTY ONE

2

TWO

12

TWELVE

22

TWENTY TWO

3

THREE

13

THIRTEEN

30

THIRTY

4

FOUR

14

FOURTEEN

40

FORTY

5

FIVE

15

FIFTEEN

50

FIFTY

6

SIX

16

SIXTEEN

60

SIXTY

7

SEVEN

17

SEVENTEEN

70

SEVENTY

8

EIGHT

18

EIGHTEEN

80

EIGHTY

9

NINE

19

NINETEEN

90

NINETY

TEN

20

TWENTY

10

100

1000

ONE THOUSAND

1’000000

10000

TEN THOUSAND

10’000000

100000

ONE HUNDRED THOUSAND

ONE HUNDRED

ONE MILLION TEN MILLION

ACTIVITY: *

PRACTICE WITH NUMBERS AND OBJECTS AROUND YOU

*

PRACTICE WITH HISTORICAL DATES AND EVENTS

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*

*


VOCABULARY:

MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY

- FAMILY

- RELATIVES

- AUNT

- FATHER

- COUSIN

- GRANDSON

- MOTHER

- GRANDFATHER

- GRANDDAUGHTER

- PARENTS

- GRANDMOTHER

- GRANDCHILDREN

- SON

- GRANDPARENTS

- GRANDCHILD

- DAUGHTER

-

NIECE

- CHILD

- SIBLING

-

NEPHEW

- HUSBAND

- CHILDREN

-

UNCLE

- WIFE

ACTIVITY: *

TALK ABOUR YOUR FAMILY AND RELATIVES

*

AGE: HOW OLD ARE YOU?... - HI. MY NAME IS KEVIN GLADSTONE AND I AM 24 YEARS OLD. - HOW OLD IS YOUR FATHER?.... MY OLD MAN IS 45 YEARS OLD. - MICKEY IS WRONG, TANYA COLLINS IS NOT 32 YEARS OLD. SHE IS 28. - TODAY IS CHARLOTTE’S BIRTHDAY… SHE’S TURNING 17. - I AM 25 YEARS OLD, BUT I HAVE FRIENDS OF ALL AGES.

- HOW OLD ARE YOU MY FRIEND?... I’M 39 YEARS OLD. - ARE YOU 25 YEARS OLD?... YES, THAT’S RIGHT. - IS YOUR COUSIN PATRICK 18 YEARS OLD?... NO HE ISN’T. HE’S 22. - YOU HAVE TWIN KIDS. HOW OLD ARE THEY?... THEY ARE 5 YEARS OLD.

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DOMESTIC ANIMALS AND OTHERS

- DOG

- CAT

- MOUSE

- COW

- BULL

- SHEEP

- GOAT

- CANARY

- RABBIT

- HORSE

- PIG 21

- DONKEY


- RAT

- GUINEA PIG

- BEAVER

- GORILLA

- GOOSE

- SNAIL

- PARROT

- TURKEY 22

- HEN

- PIGEON

- SWAN

- SQUIRREL


LESSON

3:

COLORS AND SHAPES

- WHITE

- BLUE

- GREEN

- BLACK

- YELLOW

- PURPLE

- PINK

- RED

- BROWN

ORANGE

- GREY

- LIGHT BLUE

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- SILVER

- GOLD

EXAMPLES

A - WHAT COLOR IS THE MOON? B - IT IS WHITE.

A - WHAT COLOR ARE MY EYES? B - THEY ARE GREEN.

A - WHAT COLOR IS THE SEA? B - THE SEA IS BLUE.

A - WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF THE SUN? B - THE SUN IS ROUND ( CIRCLE ).

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- RAINBOW


A - WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF A BRICK? B - IT IS A RECTANGLE.

A - WHAT IS THE SHAPE OF A DICE? B - IT IS A CUBE.

SHAPES

- SQUARE

- PYRAMID

- CYLINDER

- OVAL

- CIRCLE

- SPHERE 25

- RECTANGLE

- TRIANGLE

- CUBE


AUXILIARY VERBS:

DO - DOES.

THE AUXILIARY VERB ( DO - DOES ) IS USED IN SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE, BASICALLY IN SHORT ANSWERS - NEGATIVE SENTENCES AND INTERROGATIVE FORMS.

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

CONTRACTION

DO

DO NOT

DON’T

DOES

DOES NOT

DOESN’T

EXAMPLES

QUESTION?

DO YOU PLAY CHESS?

SHORT ANSWER:

YES, I DO / NO, I DON’T.

NEGATIVE:

I DON’T PLAY CHESS.

QUESTION?

DOES HE PRACTICE SOCCER?

SHORT ANSWER:

YES, HE DOES / NO, HE DOESN’T.

NEGATIVE:

HE DOESN’T PRACTICE SOCCER…

QUESTION?

DO THEY STUDY ENGLISH?

SHORT ANSWER:

YES, THEY DO / NO, THEY DON’T.

NEGATIVE:

THEY DON’T STUDY ENGLISH.

QUESTION?

DOES JULIAN LIKE POOL?

SHORT ANSWER:

YES, HE DOES / NO, HE DOESN’T.

NEGATIVE:

HE DOESN’T LIKE POOL... 26


SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE:

SPECIAL VERBS.

BASICALLY, THE MEANING OF THE VERB “ GET “ IS SIMILAR TO OBTAIN, ACQUIRE. IN COMBINATION WITH CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS ITS MEANING CHANGES.

GET IN: -

I DON’T KNOW HOW THOSE DOGS GET IN HERE.

-

THE RAIN GETS IN THROUGH THE ROOF.

GET OUT: -

PLEASE, GET THAT MONKEY OUT OF HERE.

-

WE HAVE TO GET OUT OF THIS BUILDING.

GET ON: -

SHE GETS ON THE BOAT QUICKLY.

-

YOU HAVE TO GET ON WITH YOUR LIFE.

GET OFF: -

WE HAVE TO GET OFF NEAR THAT BRIDGE.

-

COME ON PETER, GET YOUR DOG OFF ME!

GET UP: -

I GET UP EARLY EVERY MORNING.

-

KAREN GETS UP TO PREPARE BREAKFAST.

GET DOWN: -

I WANT TO GET THAT PICTURE DOWN FROM THE WALL.

-

YOU NEED TO GET YOUR WEIGHT DOWN A BIT.

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE:

MORE EXAMPLES

- JOHN DOESN’T SPEAK JAPANESE.

- DOES SHE KNOW THE TRUTH?

- WE WANT TO VISIT MIAMI.

- ALICE DOESN'T LIKE EGGS.

- DO THEY WORK AT NIGHT?

- HE STUDIES THE STARS.

- DOES DIANA SPEAK GERMAN?

- DO THEY COME FROM ITALY?

- CHARLIE NEEDS A NEW BOOK.

- KENT REALLY WORKS A LOT.

- PLEASE, DON’T RUN IN HERE.

- PLEASE, DON'T LIE TO ME.

- YOU PLAY THE GUITAR VERY WELL.

- I DON'T EAT MEAT.

- DON’T YOU LIKE FRENCH FRIES?

- KELLY GOES TO THE ZOO.

SENTENCES: - WHY DON’T YOU TAKE A NAP FOR A WHILE? - TELL ME SOMETHING, DO YOU SMOKE? - I DON’T WANT TO LOSE MY JOB.

- DOES CHARLIE PLAY THE FLUTE? - THAT CRATER DOESN’T SEEM DEEP. - THEY DON’T KNOW WHAT TO DO.

- WE DON’T HAVE ANY SAVINGS. - DOES YOUR BROTHER FIX SKATEBOARDS? - DON’T YOU LIKE RACING CARS? 28


LESSON

4:

THE ENVIRONMENT - LANDMARKS!

DESCRIBING MY CITY: GUAYAQUIL YES, MY HOME TOWN, ‘GUAYAQUIL’ , IS BIG, MODERN, VERY LIVELY AND BEAUTIFUL, WITH FORESTS AND HILLS ALL AROUND. IT IS LOCATED ON THE PACIFIC COAST IN SOUTH AMERICA. THE CITY LIES ON THE SHORES OF RIVER GUAYAS, WHICH IS THE WIDEST IN THE PACIFIC COAST. SURROUNDED BY WATER ( THERE ARE LOTS OF MANGROVES AND BRANCHES OF SEA FLOWING THROUGH THE CITY ) MY TOWN HAS PLENTY OF NICE AND INTERESTING PLACES (LANDMARKS), MONUMENTS AND PRETTY LANDSCAPES FOR TOURISTS AND LOCALS ALIKE TO VISIT. GUAYAQUIL IS THE LARGEST AND MOST IMPORTANT CITY AND SEA-PORT OF MY COUNTRY, ECUADOR.

IT IS THE HOME FOR AROUND TWO MILLION INHABITANTS, AND MANY OF THESE ARE FOREIGNERS FROM NEIGHBOR COUNTRIES AND DISTANT ONES, TOO. YES, GUAYAQUIL IS A COMMERCIAL CITY-PORT, VERY COMFY AND ATTRACTIVE IN SO MANY WAYS THAT IT IS CALLED “THE PEARL OF THE

PACIFIC”. THE PEOPLE HERE ARE NICE, FRIENDLY, AND WARM, PERHAPS IT’S BECAUSE WE’RE LATINS, (THAT’S OUR SPANISH HERITAGE)… WE WELCOME EVERYONE WITH OPEN ARMS. THE WEATHER IS HOT BUT MILD, IT IS VERY PLEASANT ACTUALLY. A LOVELY CITY TO ENJOY! SO MY FRIENDS, COME OVER AND VISIT ‘THE GREAT GUAYAQUIL’, WHERE FUN AND JOY NEVER ENDS!

29


ACTIVITY: *

WHAT DO YOU LIKE MOST ABOUT GUAYAQUIL?

THE USE OF LIKE

-

*

- DISLIKE

TO LIKE.

-

TO DISLIKE.

- I LIKE TO EAT BACON AT BREAKFAST.

- ANDY DISLIKES VEGETABLES.

- KEVIN LIKES TO STUDY A LOT.

- MARIE DISLIKES SMOKING.

- WE LIKE TO EAT CRISPY CHICKEN.

- YOU DON’T LIKE HORROR MOVIES.

- JOHN LIKES TO GO FISHING ON VACATIONS.

- KELLY REALLY DISLIKES BEER.

- THEY REALLY LIKE WORK OUT AFTER SCHOOL.

- KALEL DISLIKES ‘BULL FIGHTING’.

- WALDO AND MIMY LIKE SHELLFISH A LOT.

- OSCAR DISLIKES CONSUMERISM.

WHAT IS AN ADJECTIVE? - IT IS A QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION ABOUT A NOUN ( PERSON - ANIMAL - THING). - IT REMAINS THE SAME IN GENDER, SINGULAR AND PLURAL.

EXAMPLES - IT IS A NICE DAY.

- ALICE HAS A BEAUTIFUL SMILE.

- I KNOW WHY SHE’S SAD.

- YOU DREAM OF A GORGEOUS WOMAN.

- KEVIN LOVES RAINY DAYS.

- MY PARROT EATS SWEET CORN.

- SAM HATES FANCY SUITS.

- RANDY DRAWS FUNNY CARTOONS.

- I DON'T LIKE HOT WEATHER.

- THEY FIX HEAVY DUTY MACHINERY.

- ALICE SEEMS TO BE NERVOUS.

- I ADMIRE YOUR BOLD ATTITUDE.

30


- THERESA PREFERS RED APPLES.

- TOBBY READS BORING BOOKS.

- MELISSA LOVES WILD ANIMALS.

- ALLLAN HATES STORMY NIGHTS.

- JOREL COOKS A DELICIOUS SOLE.

- SHE THINKS SNAKES ARE DISGUSTING.

GUAYAQUIL:

LANDMARKS

-

LAS PEÑAS QUARTERS.

-

WATERFRONT 2000.

-

THE ROTONDA MONUMENT

- THE BARCELONA STADIUM.

-

THE HISTORIC PARK

- THE BOTANIC GARDEN.

-

CERRO BLANCO FOREST.

- THE CENTENARIO SQUARE.

-

THE GENERAL CEMETERY.

- LA BAHIA OPEN MARKET.

-

EL SALADO WATERFRONT.

- THE CIVIC CENTRE.

DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES SINGULAR

PLURAL

THIS

THESE

LOCATION = NEAR

THAT

THOSE

LOCATION = FAR

EXAMPLES - THIS COTTAGE BELONGS TO MR. ATKINS - THESE PEOPLE NEED HELP. - THAT GIRL WORKS WITH DAD.

31


-

I PLAY THIS PIANO EVERY NIGHT.

-

YOUR CHILDREN STUDY IN THIS ACADEMY.

-

THOSE CARS ARE REALLY FAST.

ACTIVITY: *

USE DIFFERENT ADJECTIVES IN OPEN CONVERSATION

*

REGULAR NOUNS SINGULAR

PLURAL

SINGULAR

PLURAL

KEYBOARD

KEYBOARDS

BABY

BABIES

GALAXY

GALAXIES

CROW

CROWS

LAYER

LAYERS

TAX

TAXES

POTATO

POTATOES

TOE

TOES

LADY

LADIES

MASS

MASSES

SINGULAR

PLURAL

IRREGULAR NOUNS SINGULAR

PLURAL

KNIFE

KNIVES

DEER

DEER

WOLF

WOLVES

ALGA

ALGAE

FOOT

FEET

LEAF

LEAVES

TOOTH

TEETH

WIFE

WIVES

MOUSE

MICE

CHILD

CHILDREN

LOUSE

LICE

MAN

MEN

32


MORE ADJECTIVES

- GOOD

- DUMB

- BEAUTIFUL

- THIN

- TALL

- BAD

- UGLY

- INTERESTING 33

- SHORT

- INTELLIGENT

- FAT

- BORED


- NEW

- CHEAP

- SLOW

- HAPPY

- OLD

- EXPENSIVE

- LONG

- FAST

- BIG

- SAD

34

- SMALL

- GORGEOUS


- GRUMPY

- SCARED

- WORRIED

- SURPRISED

- CRAZY

- NERVOUS

OTHER ADJECTIVES:

- CLEAN

- DIRTY

- LITTLE

- LARGE

- POOR

- RICH

- WIDE

- NARROW

- EASY

- DIFFICULT

- ALIVE

- DEAD

- COWARD

- BRAVE

- BOLD

- INSECURE

- SMOOTH

- DREADFUL

- SLEEK

- SMUG

- AWESOME

- LAME

- TERRIFIC

- DISGUSTING

- AWFUL

- HUGE

- TINY

- PLEASANT

- SKILLFUL

- CLUMSY

- BROAD

- TIGHT

- LOOSE

- STINGY

- GENEROUS

- MEAN

35


THE THIRD PERSON SUBJECTS: * IN SIMPLE PRESENT (ONLY AFFIRMATIVE) THERE IS A SPECIAL CONJUGATION WITH THE SUBJECT PRONOUNS “ HE - SHE - IT “ (AND ALL RELATED NOUNS).

1 - WITH MOST VERBS WE JUST HAVE TO ADD AN “ S ”. - ANDY WORKS HARD THE WHOLE DAY.

- SHE NEEDS TO REST, SHE’S SICK.

- HE LOVES THE COUNTRYSIDE.

- KAREN PLAYS CHESS.

- LUISA KNOWS WHAT TODO.

- HE WANTS TO GET YOU A JOB.

2 - VERBS FINISHED WITH “ SH - CH - S - O - X “, WE HAVE TO ADD “ ES “ - KEVIN FIXES MY CAR.

- SHE GOES TO THE BEACH.

- TONY DOES EXERCISE.

- YOUR SON WASHES THE WINDOWS.

- DAD WATCHES TV AFTER DINNER.

- PETER KISSES HIS GIRLFRIEND.

- ARNOLD TEACHES YOGA EVERY NIGHT.

- HE MIXES ALL THE INGREDIENTS.

3 - VERBS FINISHED WITH CONSONANT + “ Y “, WE REPLACE “ Y “ BY “ IES” - ( CRY )

- JENNY CRIES FOR HER DEAD MOTHER.

- ( STUDY )

- HE STUDIES COMPUTER SCIENCE.

- ( FRY )

- VANESSA FRIES SOME FISH FOR LUNCH.

4 - FINALLY, THE VERB “ HAVE “ TURNS INTO “ HAS “. - IT’S CLEAR THAT HE HAS TO PAY HIS PART OF THE RENT TONIGHT. - ANDREA HAS TO TELL YOU SOMETHING VERY IMPORTANT TODAY.

- EVERYBODY KNOWS MY BOSS HAS A LOT OF MONEY IN THE BANK. - THE CAT HAS TO CATCH SOME MICE… THAT’S WHY WE BOUGHT IT.

36


LESSON

5:

AT HOME - LOOKING INSIDE THE HOUSE

REDECORATING THE HOUSE HELLO THERE MY DEAR FRIENDS… WELCOME TO MY HOME. MY NAME IS PETER GLADSTONE. TODAY MY WIFE AND I REDECORATE OUR WONDERFUL HOUSE. THE KITCHEN IS SMALL, SO WE NEED TO INSTALL A NEW WOODEN CABINET TO GAIN MORE SPACE. WE HAVE TWO BEDROOMS AND NOW WE NEED TO PAINT ITS WALLS. THE GARDEN NEEDS A BENCH AND A HEDGE. FOR THE DINING ROOM WE HAVE A WIDE SOLID TABLE AND A SET OF MARVELOUS MAHOGANY CHAIRS FROM SWITZERLAND.

WE WANT TO INSTALL AN AUTOMATIC DOOR FOR OUR GARAGE, THAT WAY WE CAN OPEN OR CLOSE IT FROM INSIDE THE CAR. THE LIVING ROOM IS BIG ENOUGH FOR A LEATHER SOFA… IT IS REALLY COMFORTABLE AND LOOKS VERY NICE. WE ALSO HAVE TO REPLACE THE STAIRS AND PIPING FROM THE BASEMENT. YES, THE LAUNDRY ROOM REQUIRES A MORE EFFICIENT WASHING MACHINE AND FOR THE STUDIO WE HAVE A NEW WALNUT DESK AND A PAIR OF OAK BOOKCASES. LET’S NOT FORGET THERE IS A FABULOUS CYPRESS BUNK BED FOR THE GUEST ROOM, TOO… HEY, WAIT A MINUTE, THERE IS SOMETHING MORE I WANT TO TELL YOU: WE ALMOST FINISH TO EQUIP OUR COMFY GYM ROOM. THIS IS “OUR HOME SWEET HOME”.

ACTIVITY: * DO YOU HAVE PLANS FOR REDECORATION IN YOUR HOUSE OR OFFICE? HOW COME? * 37


ROOMS OF THE HOUSE

- BEDROOM

- LIVING ROOM

- DINING ROOM

- BABY’S ROOM

- LAUNDRY ROOM

- GUEST ROOM

- BALCONY

- KITCHEN

- GARDEN

- BASEMENT

- ATTIC

- PORCH

38


- SWIMMING POOL

- GARAGE

- SHED

- ORCHARD

- DOG HOUSE

- BATHROOM

ACTIVITY: *

TALK ABOUT THE ROOMS IN YOUR HOUSE - DESCRIBE THEM

*

PREPOSITIONS:

- IN / OUT

-

BEFORE

-

IN FRONT OF

- OVER

- ON

-

AFTER

-

BEHIND

- FAR / NEAR

- AT

-

IN THE MIDDLE

-

UNDER

- BELOW

- THROUGH

-

ACROSS

-

BENEATH

- ABOVE

- INTO / ONTO

-

TO

-

AMONG

- BETWEEN

39


WORKING WITH SHAPES:

-

WHAT SHAPE IS THE ICE?

-

WHAT SHAPE IS THE CLOCK?

-

WHAT SHAPE IS THE DIAMOND?

- WHAT SHAPE IS THE COUCH?

-

WHAT SHAPE IS THE TV SET?

- WHAT SHAPE IS THE MUG ?

-

WHAT SHAPE IS THE FLAG?

40

WHAT SHAPE IS THE BALLOON?


EXERCISES: - MELISSA WORKS IN PARIS. - THE BOOKS ARE IN THAT BOX. - PLEASE PUT THESE BAGS ON THE TABLE. - THE ENGLISH INSTITUTE IS ON OLIMPO STREET.

- WE ATTEND COLLEGE AT 7:30 AM. - DANIEL RETURNS HOME AT NOON. - SHE DRINKS SOME WINE BEFORE GOING TO SLEEP. - THE TRUTH IS JUST BEFORE YOUR EYES.

- WE HAVE TO GET BACK TO WORK AFTER LUNCH. - YOU CAN LEAVE AFTER THE MEETING. - THAT CAVE IS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE FOREST. - THERE IS A PICTURE OF YOU AMONG MY STUFF.

- SHE IS SITTING IN FRONT OF ME. - THE PALACE IS CLOSE TO THE HILLS. - THE POLICE STATION IS BEHIND THE DRUG STORE. - THERE IS A HOTEL BEHIND THE PARK.

- CARLOS SLEEPS UNDER A PALM TREE. - THERE IS A WONDERFUL WORLD UNDERWATER. - THE BRIDGE OVER THE RIVER IS STRONG. - IT’S AWESOME… WE FLY OVER THE CITY.

41


- MY FRIEND WILLIAM LIVES NEAR THE SCHOOL. - DON’T WORRY, THE HOSPITAL IS NEAR. - THE BEACH IS NOT VERY FAR, BE PATIENT. - SHE LIVES FAR FROM HERE.

QUESTIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS - IS THERE ANY DRUG STORE OR DOCTOR’S OFFICE NEARBY? - COME ON, DO YOU WANT TO BE END UP UNDER THE WAVES? - DO YOU HAVE ANY AFTER SHAVE LOTION AROUND HERE?

- WHO IS THAT CREEPY GUY BEHIND THOSE BUSHES? - ARE THEY SURE MY SNAKE IS NOT ON TOP OF THAT TRUNK? - PLEASE, CAN HELLEN PICK UP THE CHILDREN FROM SCHOOL?

VOCABULARY: - SCISSORS

- OUTLET

- CHIMNEY

- TILES

- TOILET

- FLOWER

- PILLOW

- LAMP

- SINK

- PLANT

- BED

- CEILING

- BATHTUB

- TREE

- CARPET

- WALL

- WARDROBE

- FAUCET

- FIREPLACE

- DESK

- SHOWER

- MATCHES

- STRAINER

- TOOLS

- DOOR

- WINDOW

- ROOF

- FLOOR

- KITCHENWARE

- FLOWERPOT

- FIRE EXTINGUISHER

- GARBAGE BIN

- PLANT POT

42

- LADLE

- NEST - RUG


LESSON 6: THE HOUSE: FURNITURE - ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

HOME SWEET HOME. “ A MAN’S HOUSE IS HIS CASTLE ”…. AND I AGREE, I LIVE ALONE IN AN APARTMENT AND IT IS SMALL BUT QUITE COMFORTABLE. IT HAS A COOL BEDROOM, A MINI STUDIO, A KITCHEN, A BATHROOM AND A SMALL LIVING ROOM, THERE’S A VERY PEACEFUL AND BEAUTIFUL VIEW OUTSIDE, TOO. IT IS REALLY QUIET, AT A CLEAN, SAFE AND FRIENDLY NEIGHBORHOOD. YES, THERE ARE LOTS OF BUSHES, PLANTS, TREES AND FLOWERS ALL AROUND. PEOPLE LIVE IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF PLACES, BUT THE PHISICAL CONSTRUCTION IS NOT THE IMPORTANT THING; WHAT REALLY MATTERS IS THE BEAUTIFUL COMBINATION OF LOVE, COMMITMENT, RESPECT, TOLERANCE FAMILY AND PEACE WHICH WE LOVINGLY CALL “ HOME “ . WHAT ABOUT YOU?

DO YOU LIVE ALONE?

DO YOU LIVE WITH YOUR FAMILY?, DO YOU

HAVE A ROOMMATE, PERHAPS?. SO, DON’T BE SHY … LET’S TALK ABOUT YOUR HOUSE!

ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

- TV SET

- RADIO

43

- REFRIGERATOR


- CLOCK

- COMPUTER

- IRON

- STEREO

- MICROWAVE

- WASHING MACHINE

- BLENDER

- DVD PLAYER 44

- WATCH

- OVEN

- VACUUM CLEANER

- FLASHLIGHT


- MP3 PLAYER

- STOVE

- DISH WASHER

- FAN

- LAPTOP

- POLISHER

- AIR CONDITIONER

- COFFEE MAKER

- TOASTER

ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT THE USE AND AVAILABILITY OF ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES * 45


HOME CHORES….

RELATED VERBS:

- TO CLEAN

- TO SEW

- TO SWEEP

- TO WASH

- TO COOK

- TO IRON

- TO VACUUM

- TO SHOP

- TO MOP

- TO HANDLE

- TO DUST

- TO DO

- TO POLISH

- TO RUB

- TO STEW

- TO KNIT

- TO WIPE

- TO PURCHASE

EXERCISES

- WE DO THE LAUNDRY AT HOME TWICE A WEEK… - MY WIFE SWEEPS THE FLOORS EVERY MORNING. - PETER SAYS THAT MELISSA COOKS DELICIOUS.

- SHE DUSTS THE ORNAMENTS IN HER LIVING ROOM. - I HAVE TO DO LOTS OF THINGS AT HOME TONIGHT. - KEVIN MOPS THE FLOOR OF THE KITCHEN.

- MY DAD DOESN’T KNOW HOW TO FIX THE DVD PLAYER. - MOM IRONS A COUPLE OF SHIRTS FOR MY BROTHER. - ANDY CLEANS THE FISH TANK AT HOME EVERY WEEKEND. 46


POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES: SINGULAR

PLURAL

- MY

- OUR

- YOUR

- YOUR

- HIS

- THEIR

- HER - ITS

EXERCISES: -

I PREPARE MY BREAKFAST EVERYDAY

- YOUR STUFF IS IN THAT SMALL LOCKER - TERRY LOVES HIS WIFE VERY MUCH.

- ALICE VISITS HER PARENTS ONCE A WEEK. - THAT CELL PHONE IS EXPENSIVE, ITS PRICE IS $600. - KAREN JONES DECORATES OUR OFFICE.

- EXCUSE ME SIR, IS THIS YOUR WALLET? - GENTLEMEN, OUR MONEY IS SAFE NOW. - MY PARENTS WORK A LOT, WE FOLLOW THEIR EXAMPLE.

- MY DAD AND YOUR MOM WORK TOGETHER. - DO THEY KNOW THEIR PASSWORDS? - A POLAR BEAR… ITS FUR BLENDS IN WITH THE SNOW AND ICE.

47


KINDS OF BIRDS

- EAGLE

- WOOD PECKER

- HERON

- PEACOCK

- SEAGULL

- HAWK

- HUMMINGBIRD

- PELICAN 48

- CONDOR

- OWL

- QUAIL

- VULTURE


LESSON

7:

THIS IS MY JOB!

JOBS AROUND THE WORLD:

“WE ARE MEANT TO WORK AS BIRDS ARE MEANT TO FLY“, AN INTERESTING AND WISE SAYING… LET’S TALK ABOUT DIFFERENT PEOPLE’S JOBS WORLDWIDE. TONY GLADSTONE IS AN ENGINEER AND SCIENTIST IN LONDON, HE DESIGNS HIGH-TECH MINING MACHINERY. HIS FRIEND VICTORIA ANDERSON IS A JUDGE IN NEW YORK, AS A LAWYER, SHE ADMINISTRATES JUSTICE.

JENNY DUKAKIS IS AN EXPERIENCED DOCTOR IN ATHENS, SHE HEALS AND TAKES CARE OF HER PACIENTS AT A HOSPITAL. KUNTA MABOTA IS A WOODCUTTER IN NAIROBI - AFRICA, HE CUTS TREES IN THE JUNGLE. HE ALSO SELLS FIREWOOD TO SMALL VILLAGES AND TOWNS.

MONIQUE LA FONTAINE IS AN ARCHITECT IN PARIS, SHE DESIGNS ‘INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS’ AND HUGE HANGING BRIDGES, WHILE ERICK GRUBER IS A VERY COMMITED TEACHER IN BERLIN, HE TEACHES HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY AT A HIGH SCHOOL.

JOE JARAMILLO IS A POLICEMAN ( COP ) IN GUAYAQUIL, HE PROTECTS AND SERVES THE COMMUNITY, WHILE SHENG JIU LEE IS A STOCK BROKER IN HONG KONG, HE DEALS WITH MONEY, INVESTMENTS, FUNDS AND STOCKS. AS YOU CAN SEE, THERE ARE LOTS OF DIFFERENT AND INTERESTING JOBS ALL AROUND THE WORLD… SO MY FRIEND, WHAT DO YOU DO FOR A LIVING?

ACTIVITY: *

TALK ABOUT OTHER JOBS, PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS

49

*


DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROFESSIONS - OCCUPATIONS

- COMPUTER PROGRAMMER

- BODYGUARD

- ELECTRICIAN

- GRAPHICS DESIGNER

- LUMBERJACK

- MECHANIC

- LAWYER

- MAID

- JUDGE

- PLUMBER

- SCIENTIST

- NEWSBOY

50


- VETERINARIAN

- TEACHER

- CASHIER

- ARCHITECT

- SECRETARY

- GARDENER

- BABYSITTER

- TAXI DRIVER 51

- ASTRONOMER

- ENGINEER

- POLICEMAN

- BAKER


- DOCTOR

- SOLDIER

- WAITER

- NURSE

- SAILOR

- MASON

- FIREMAN

- PAINTER 52

- SALESMAN

- CARPENTER

- COOK

- WELDER


OUR JOBS:

RELATED VERBS

-

TO DESIGN

- TO CUT

- TO SAIL

-

TO BUILD

- TO FIX

- TO HANDLE

-

TO PROTECT

- TO SELL

- TO SURVEY

-

TO SERVE

- TO BABYSIT

- TO INSTALL

-

TO TEACH

- TO FIGHT

- TO DRIVE

-

TO DEAL

- TO INVENT

- TO GAIN

-

TO ADMINISTRATE

- TO DISCOVER

- TO TEST

-

TO HEAL

- TO TRAVEL

- TO WIN

-

TO DRAW

- TO BUY

- TO LOSE

SENTENCES: - VICTORIA DESIGNS BEAUTIFUL EVENING DRESSES AND NICE SHOES. - THE POLICE PROTECTS AND SERVES THE WHOLE COMMUNITY. - WE NEED TO FIX THAT HYDRANT RIGHT NOW.

- PATRICK CUTS SOME CARROTS TO MAKE A PORK STEW. - YOUR BOSS ADMINISTRATES THE COMPANY EFFICIENTLY. - ANDREA TRAVELS A LOT TO EUROPE BECAUSE OF HER JOB.

- MY HUSBAND WORKS AT A LABORATORY…. HE TESTS PROTOTYPES. - THEY SAIL EVERY WEEKEND AND TRAVEL TO FANTASTIC PLACES. - YOUR COUSIN JOHNNNY DRIVES TO WORK EVEN ON THE WEEKENDS. - MY FRIENDS SELL COMPUTERS AND OFFICE EQUIPMENT DOWNTOWN. 53


SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE - WH QUESTION WORDS?

-

WHAT?

-

WHERE?

-

WHY?

-

WHO?

-

WHEN?

-

WHICH?

-

HOW?

-

WHOSE?

AUX

+

WH WORD

+

SUBJECT

+

VERB

+

COMPLEMENT?

WHAT

DOES

SHE

DO

AT NIGHT?

WHAT

DO

YOU

WANT

TO BE IN THE FUTURE?

WHERE

DOES

JOHN

COME

FROM?

WHERE

DO

THEY

BUY

THOSE NICE SHIRTS?

WHY

DO

PEOPLE

STUDY

ENGLISH NOWADAYS?

WHY

DOES

ALICE

THINK

ABOUT POLLUTION?

WHO

DO

YOU

LOVE

MOST?

WHO

DOES

PETER

LIVE

WITH?

WHEN

DO

AMERICANS

CELEBRATE

HALLOWEEN?

WHEN

DOES

KAREN

GO

TO THE GYM?

WHICH HOUSE

DO

YOU

WANT

TO BUY?

WHICH DRESS

DOES

GINA

PREFER

TO WEAR TONIGHT?

WHOSE LAPTOP

DOES

PETER

TAKE

TO SCHOOL ?

WHOSE CAR

DO

YOU

HAVE

TO FIX TONIGHT?

WHOSE DOG

DOES

JESSICA

WALK

ON THE WEEKENDS?

HOW

DO

THEY

DO

THAT?

HOW

DOES

VICKY

GET

MONEY?

54


WH WORD

+

BE +

SUBJECT

+

COMPLEMENT ?

WHAT

IS

THAT THING

ON THE CORNER ?

WHERE

ARE

YOU

FROM ?

WHO

IS

THE LADY

IN RED?

WHY

IS

CHARLIE

DEPRESSED ?

HOW

ARE

THE CHILDREN

NOW ?

WHEN

IS

ALICE

AT HOME?

WHOSE PEN

IS

THIS?

WHICH HOUSE

IS

YOURS?

ACTIVITY: * PRACTICE WITH DIFFERENT QUESTIONS USING WH WORDS. *

LESSON

8:

GOING AROUND THE CITY!

LOOKING FOR AN ADDRESS IT IS TRUE. MODERN CITIES OR TOWNS CAN BE REALLY HUGE AND WITH POPULATIONS OF SEVERAL MILLION INHABITANTS. IN FACT, THERE IS A NEW TERM CREATED FOR THEM, THEY’RE CALLED “MEGAPOLIS”. FOR INSTANCE, MEXICO CITY AND TOKYO HAVE MORE THAN 20 MILLIONS INHABITANTS EACH. IN COMPARISON, THE WHOLE POPULATION OF A COUNTRY LIKE ECUADOR IS 14 MILLION PEOPLE. YOU CAN IMAGINE ALL THE TROUBLES AND CONFLICTS THIS OBVIOUS GROWTH CAN CAUSE:

55


“HOUSING SHORTAGE, UNHEALTHINESSS, OVERCROWDING, TRAFFIC JAMS, HIGH INCIDENCE OF CRIME, ELECTRICITY AND WATER SHORTAGE, POOR - INEFFICIENT TRANSPORTATION, UNEMPLOYMENT, ALARMING POLLUTION, ETC.” THESE ARE SOME OF THE MAJOR PROBLEMS THAT BIG CITIES HAVE. IN A CITY YOU CAN IDENTIFY THE “DOWNTOWN” (WHICH IS THE CENTER OF THE CITY) AND THE “UPTOWN” (WHICH IS THE SUBURBS AND OTHER SURROUNDING AREAS). IN MOST MODERN CITIES THERE ARE FANCY “GATED COMMUNITIES”, “CONDOMINIUMS” AND “APARTMENT BUILDINGS”.

YES, OF COURSE, THERE IS POVERTY, TOO. “TENEMENT HOUSES” AND “SLUMS” WHERE POOR PEOPLE TRY TO MAKE A HOME. SOMETIMES “STATE SUBSIDIZED HOUSING” IS OFFERED AS AN EMERGENT AND POSSIBLE SOLUTION TO THIS HUGE PROBLEM. YOU CAN FIND A LOT OF TRAFFIC LIGHTS, “OVERPASSES”, HIGHWAYS, TUNNELS, MANY MALLS AND HUGE PARKS. IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE A BETTER ADMINISTRATION, CONTROL, SERVICE, COMFORT AND WELFARE ALL OVER THESE CITIES, THEY ARE DIVIDED IN SMALLER SECTORS OR AREAS. THESE SECTORS ARE CALLED DISTRICTS. IT’S VERY COMMON YOU CAN SEE THROUGH A CITY (OR AMONG ITS DISTRICTS) AVENUES, STREETS, LANES AND ALLEYS.

EACH ONE OF THESE HAS ITS OWN NAME, NUMBERS AND PURPOSE. WHAT IS THE MAIN AVENUE IN YOUR CITY OR TOWN? ARE THERE ANY HOUSING ESTATES NEARBY?, SKYSCRAPERS, THAT IS, REALLY TALL BUILDINGS PERHAPS?. A LOT OF PEOPLE SPEND TIME AT NICE PARKS, THEY ENJOY MUSEUMS, ART GALLERIES AND HAVE FUN AT NIGHT CLUBS, PUBS, THEATRES OR CAFETERIAS. IF A LOCAL OR TOURIST ASKS YOU ABOUT AN SPECIFIC ADDRESS, CAN YOU ANSWER PROPERLY?. HERE AND NOW I EXPLAIN YOU HOW YOU CAN DO IT AND BE HELPFUL TO YOUR FELLOW MAN… TRUST ME, IT IS WORTH IT MY FRIEND…!

56


ACTIVITY: *

TALK ABOUT YOUR FAVORITE COMMON PLACES IN YOUR CITY. *

EXERCISES: A -

WHAT IS YOUR ADDRESS?

B -

MY ADDRESS IS 728 VELEZ STREET, GUAYAQUIL.

A -

WHAT IS YOUR ADDRESS?

B -

I LIVE AT 1853 QUITO AVENUE, GUAYAQUIL.

A - EXCUSE ME, CAN YOU HELP ME WITH THIS ADDRESS? B - SURE, NO PROBLEM… IT IS AT 680 9 DE OCTUBRE AVENUE. A - WHAT’S YOUR ADDRESS? B

- IT IS ALBORADA 4 (ESTATES), BLOCK S14, HOUSE 8, GUAYAQUIL.

GIVING DIRECTIONS / INSTRUCTIONS FOR AN ADDRESS:

- WALK STRAIGHT AHEAD FOR TWO BLOCKS.

- BE CAREFUL, DON'T GET LOST.

- TURN LEFT AND KEEP WALKING.

- TURN RIGHT AND KEEP WALKING.

- TAKE THE SUBWAY

- TAKE THE BUS.

- CALL A TAXI.

- WAIT A MOMENT.

- DON’T MOVE.

- DON’T WORRY.

- CALL THE POLICE.

- IT IS NOT VERY FAR FROM HERE.

ACTIVITY: *

PRACTICE GIVING ADDRESSES AROUND THE CITY. * 57


THE CITY - COMMON PLACES

- CHURCH

- PARK

- HOSPITAL

- RESTAURANT

- BAKERY

- CLOTHING STORE

- LIBRARY

- POLICE STATION

- UNIVERSITY

- FIREHOUSE

- DRUG STORE

- STADIUM

58


- SUPERMARKET

- HARDWARE STORE

- DOCTOR’S OFFICE

- PUB

- FISH MARKET

- TOY STORE

- CEMETERY

- SCHOOL 59

- CAFETERIA

- CINEMA

- DISCOTHEQUE

- GYM


- GAS STATION

- BUS STOP

- SHOPPING MALL

- SQUARE

- REPAIR SHOP

- WATERFRONT

- TRAIN STATION

- MUSEUM 60

- THEATER

- PORT

- ZOO

- AIRPORT


OBJECT PRONOUNS: - OBJECT PRONOUNS PERFORM TWO IMPORTANT TASKS: 1 - RECEIVE THE ACTION ( VERB ). 2 - REPLACE A SPECIFIC NOUN, PRONOUN, SUBJECT OR NAME ( OBJECT ).

SINGULAR

PLURAL

ME

US

YOU

YOU

HIM

THEM

HER IT

EXERCISES: -

I’M A GOOD GUY, MOST PEOPLE LIKE ME.

-

KAREN WANTS TO TALK TO YOU, PLEASE HURRY.

-

TOBY WORKS HARD, HIS BOSS ADMIRES HIM.

-

GINA IS MY BEST FRIEND, I LOVE HER VERY MUCH.

-

PLEASE, GET ME THE REPORT, I NEED IT NOW.

-

THE MANAGER HELPS US WITH THE INVENTORY.

-

SHE DOESN’T WANT TO HEAR YOU.

-

THE BABY IS HUNGRY, PLEASE FEED HIM.

-

DO YOU WANT TO COME WITH ME?... DON’T BE AFRAID.

-

DOES ANDY KNOW THEM WELL?... I GUESS SO.

-

OF COURSE I LOVE YOU… EVEN THOUGH YOU’RE A THIEF.

-

MY DAD UNDERSTANDS US…. HE’S A VERY WISE MAN. 61


LESSON

9:

AT THE SUPERMARKET - GROCERY STORE!

WHAT IS A SUPERMARKET? IT IS A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE BUY FOODS, GROCERIES AND OTHER STUFF THEY NEED. WE CAN FIND MANY DIFFERENT PRODUCTS THERE. THEY ARE ALWAYS CLEAN, ORGANIZED AND NEATLY PACKED WITH VARIATY IN QUALITY AND QUANTITY. BESIDES, WE OFTEN FIND AN EXCELLENT AND POLITE SERVICE THERE. YES, THAT’S WHY WORLDWIDE MOST CONSUMERS PREFER THIS KIND OF USEFUL ESTABLISHMENTS.

WHAT IS A GROCERY STORE? IT IS A SMALL PLACE GENERALLY LOCATED IN NEIGHBORHOODS WHERE PEOPLE CAN FIND FOODS, GROCERIES AND OTHER PRODUCTS BUT IN LIMITED AMOUNT, VARIETY AND BRANDS. VERY OFTEN THESE SHOPS OCCUPY AND USE THE SIDEWALK AROUND, PLACING THEIR SHOWCASES, SHELVES AND BOXES WITH THEIR PRODUCTS SO THE PEOPLE PASSING BY CAN SEE AND BUY WHATEVER THEY NEED AND WANT.

OTHER KINDS OF TRADE ACTIVITIES. BESIDES SHOPPING THERE ARE OTHER POSSIBILITIES SUCH AS “BARTER” WHICH IS THE EXCHANGE OF A PRODUCT OR SERVICE FOR ANOTHER EQUIVALENT (NO MONEY IS INVOLVED). WE ALSO HAVE “LEASING”, PAWN SHOPS, FLEA MARKETS, AUCTIONS, STOCK MARKETS, HANDICRAFTS SHOPS, ETC. 62


SECTIONS OF A SUPERMARKET:

- TOYS SECTION.

- POULTRY SECTION.

- PLASTICS & CRYSTAL SECTION.

- MEATS SECTION.

- TOOLS SECTION.

- SEAFOOD SECTION.

- DAIRY PRODUCTS SECTION

- BEVERAGES SECTION.

- FROZEN FOODS SECTION

- CLOTHES & SHOES SECTION

- FRUITS SECTION.

- PERFUMES & MAKE UP SECTION.

- VEGETABLES SECTION.

- PERSONAL HYGIENE SECTION.

- CANDY & SWEETS SECTION.

- DRIED FOODS SECTION.

- CANNED FOODS SECTION.

- CLEANING PRODUCTS SECTION.

- PET FOODS SECTION.

- ELECTRONICS SECTION.

- HARDWARE SECTION.

- HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES SECTION.

ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOODS, GROCERIES AND PRODUCTS. *

KINDS OF VEGETABLES:

-

LETTUCE

63

CARROT

- CUCUMBER


- ONION

- POTATO

-

PEPPER

- TOMATO

- PUMPKIN

- BROCCOLI

- BEET

- CAULIFLOWER

- AVOCADO

- GARLIC

- CABBAGE 64

- EGGPLANT


KINDS OF FRUITS:

- MELON

- STRAWBERRY

- APPLE

- FIG

- PEAR

- PEACH

-

WATERMELON

- COCONUT 65

- BANANA

- ORANGE

- PINEAPPLE

- MULBERRY


- GRAPES

- GRAPEFRUIT

- KIWI

- LEMON

- PAPAYA

- MANGO

KINDS OF MEATS:

- BEEF

- BACON

- PORK

-

- LAMB

- HAM

SAUSAGES

66


- MUTTON

- VEAL

- STEAK

- DUCK

- TURKEY

- HEN

- GIBLETS

POULTRY

- CHICKEN

- EGGS

TALKING ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT FRUITS - MEATS - VEGETABLES. *

67


EXAMPLES - WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE FRUIT?

- WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE MEAT?

- WHAT VEGETABLES DO YOU LIKE - LOVE - HATE?

VOCABULARY: - NUTS

- CELERY

- SPICES

- EGGPLANT

- WATERCRESS

- GIZZARD

- POPCORN

- POTATO CHIPS

- NOODLES

- LEEK

- MUSHROOMS

- PEAS

- SALT & PEPPER

- SUGAR

- FLOUR

- CORIANDER

- BASIL

- CHICKPEAS

- HOT DOG

- PIZZA

- HAMBURGER

- CHILI

- COLESLAW

- MUSTARD

- RAISINS

- OMELETTE

- MAYONNAISE

LESSON

10:

COOKING - MEALS & BEVERAGES!

THREE DAILY MEALS: WE KNOW THAT EVERYBODY LIKES TO EAT, THAT’S A FACT, AND WHAT DO PEOPLE EAT? WHEN DO PEOPLE EAT? WHY DO PEOPLE EAT?... THOSE QUESTIONS HAVE DIFFERENT ANSWERS IF WE ASK IN DIFFERENT PLACES AND DIFFERENT CULTURES. THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF VERY DELICIOUS, NUTRITIOUS AND SOMETIMES EXOTIC AND WEIRD FOODS AND MEALS ALL OVER 68


THE GLOBE (GRASSHOPPERS, FISH’S EGGS, ANTS, SEA WEED, ETC). BUT BASICALLY, MOST PEOPLE ALL OVER THE WORLD EAT THREE TIMES A DAY, IF IT’S POSSIBLE, OF COURSE. BREAKFAST, LUNCH AND DINNER (SUPPER), IN THE MORNING, AFTERNOON AND EVENING, RESPECTIVELY. WE CAN NOT FORGET A NICE DELICIOUS DESSERT. JELLO, APPLE PIE, CHEESE CAKE, RASPBERRY JAM, BROWNIES, COOKIES, PUDDING, MARSHMALLOWS, MUFFIN, ICE CREAM, PEACH PUDDING… I STILL REMEMBER THE FABULOUS FIG JAM MY MOM USED TO MAKE… IT WAS VERY YUMMY!

IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO EAT AND COMBINE PROPERLY THE DIFFERENT FRUITS, VEGETABLES, CEREALS, SOME WHOLE WHEAT BREAD, DAIRY PRODUCTS, FISH, CHICKEN AND MEATS ON OUR DIET. IN SOME CASES IT IS NECESSARY TO TAKE VITAMINS AND MINERAL COMPOUNDS, TOO. THERE IS ONE MORE THING.... SOMETHING VERY IMPORTANT.... "WATER". DON'T FORGET TO DRINK LOTS OF WATER EVERY DAY, AT LEAST FIVE OR EIGHT GLASSES.

AND REGARDING MEAT, HOW DO YOU PREFER IT?... RARE, MEDIUM-RARE OR WELL DONE?... WHAT KIND OF FOOD DO YOU LIKE? CHINESE, CAJUN, THAI, PERUVIAN, HOME MADE, PERHAPS? DO YOU LIKE PORK CRACKLINGS? ARE YOU FOND OF “GOURMET FOOD OR CUISINE”? I JUST LOVE PORK CHOPS WITH CHILI SAUCE AND MAYONNAISE, AND OF COURSE MY FRIEND, A TASTY COLD BIG COKE… REMEMBER HOW IMPORTANT A HEALTHY DIET IS … “ YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT “.

TALKING ACTIVITY: * WHAT DO YOU USUALLY EAT FOR BREAKFAST, LUNCH AND DINNER? *

69


DAIRY PRODUCTS

- YOGURT

- MILKSHAKE

- BUTTER

- MILK

- CHEESE

- CHOCOLATE MILK

- RYE

- OATS

GRAINS - CEREAL:

- WHEAT

70


- BARLEY

- RICE

- CORN

DESSERTS AND SWEETS:

- COOKIES

- BROWNIES

- BREAD

- PIE

- POP CORN

- COFFEE 71

- CAKE

- ICE CREAM

- CEREAL


- JAM

- SPAGHETTI

- TEA

- LEMONADE

- A CAN OF TUNA

- SOUP

BEVERAGES - LIQUORS

- SODA

- WHISKEY

- MINERAL WATER

- RUM 72

- WINE

- VODKA


- TEQUILA

THERE BE:

- BEER

EXPRESSING EXISTENCE

SINGULAR

PLURAL

THERE IS

THERE ARE

THERE ISN’T

THERE AREN’T

IS THERE?

ARE THERE?

EXAMPLES - THERE IS ENOUGH BREAD FOR ALL OF US, I ASSURE YOU. - THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE IN THE OFFICE RIGHT NOW. - THERE ISN’T AN ANSWER FOR THAT QUESTION, YET. - THERE IS A TRICKY ISSUE HERE THAT I DON’T UNDERSTAND.

-

THERE AREN’T DRAWINGS IN THAT SHORT STORIES BOOK.

-

IS THERE ANY PROBLEM WITH THE ESSAY?.. TELL ME, PLEASE.

-

ARE THERE ANY BROKEN WOODEN TABLES IN THIS ROOM?

-

IS THERE ANYTHING THAT I CAN DO TO MAKE YOU HAPPY?

73

- COCKTAIL


TALKING ACTIVITY: * PRACTICE THE USE OF “ THERE BE “ WITH ANIMALS AND THINGS *

VERBS: - TO FRY

- TO COOK

- TO HEAT

- TO ROAST

- TO BOIL

- TO CUT

- TO CHOP UP

- TO SLICE

- TO BAKE

- TO WASH

- TO STIR

- TO SERVE

- TO BROIL

- TO PEEL

- TO SEASON

- TO MIX

- TO BLEND

- TO MARINATE

EXERCISES - MELANIE PEELS A BANANA FOR HER DAUGHTER. - CARLOS BLENDS SOME TOMATOES AND GARLIC. - KELLY CHOPS UP SOME CHILI FOR TOÑO’S TACOS. - MY MOM MARINATES THE FISH FOR THE PARTY TOMORROW.

- MARK FRIES SOME CHICKEN FOR THE GUESTS. - THE CHEF SERVES HIS BEST SKEWERS TO THE GUESTS. - CAN YOU BOIL SOME WATER AND MAKE COFFEE, PLEASE? - PLEASE, KEEP STIRRING THAT TOMATO SAUCE…

- MY MOM BAKES SOME RYE BREAD FOR BREAKFAST. - CODY’S BOSS MAKES A BARBECUE EVERY SUNDAY. - SHE SEASONS HER STEAK WITH CUMIN, PEPPER AND WINE. - CAN YOU SLICE SOME ONIONS FOR THE SALAD, PLEASE?

74


LESSON

11:

T SOMETHING DELICIOUS!

FOODS: SOURCE OF LIFE AND ENERGY. YES, WE HAVE PLENTY OF FOODS AND MEALS… GREEN, WHITE , YELLOW… SOLID, LIQUID … CANNED, SLICED, CHOPPED, GROUND, BOTTLED, FROZEN, DRIED, PACKED IN JARS, BAGS, BOXES…. SALTY, SWEET, BITTER, SOUR.. DELICIOUS FLAVORS ALL OF THEM. FOODS ARE AN ESSENTIAL PART OF OUR EXISTENCE, THEY GIVE US THE ENERGY AND VITALITY TO HAVE A HEALTHY, PRODUCTIVE AND HAPPY LIFE. FOODS AND MEALS COME FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES… ANIMAL PRODUCTS SUCH AS MEAT, MILK, EGGS. OTHERS ARE VEGETABLES AND FRUITS SUCH AS LETTUCE, SPINACH, CARROTS, PLUMS, DATES, NUTS, GRAPES. SOME OTHERS ARE MINERAL COMPOUNDS AND ELEMENTS SUCH AS VITAMINS, IRON, CALCIUM AND SO FORTH. WE EAT OR DRINK THESE FOODS IN DELICIOUS PREPARATIONS CALLED “MEALS“. MEALS CHANGE THEIR TASTE, APPEARANCE AND TEXTURE FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER, WORLDWIDE. THE INGREDIENTS CAN BE REALLY WEIRD OR EXOTIC SOMETIMES (FRIED ANTS, SHARK FIN SOUP, OSTRICH HAMBURGERS, SNAKE STEW, SWEET GRASSHOPPERS, ETC).

THERE ARE POPULAR DISHES IN EVERY COUNTRY, FOR INSTANCE, IN OUR BEAUTIFUL ECUADOR WE HAVE “GUATITA “, IN FRANCE “ ESCARGOTS “, IN JAPAN “ SUSHI “, IN ITALY “ LASAGNA “, IN ENGLAND “ ROAST BEEF “, IN SPAIN “PAELLA”, IN MEXICO "TACOS, BURRITOS, ENCHILADAS" ETC. PERSONALLY I PREFER THE ECUADORIAN FOOD. MY FAVORITE DISH IS “ RICE WITH BEANS IN SAUCE AND GRILLED BEEF ”…. REALLY YUMMY. DO YOU LIKE ITALIAN FOOD?, DO YOU PREFER CHINESE FOOD MAYBE?, A LOT OF PEOPLE LOVE FAST FOOD.... PIZZA, HOT DOGS, HAMBURGERS, DOUGHNUTS, FRENCH FRIES, POP CORN, NACHOS... MILK SHAKES, SODAS, MOCHACCINOS, CAPPUCCINOS AND OTHERS... SO, HOW ABOUT YOU MY FRIEND? WHAT IS YOUR FAVORITE DISH?. WHAT'S YOUR FAVORITE FOOD?, DO YOU LOVE EATING SNACKS, SODAS? DESSERTS, PERHAPS?... 75


FAST FOOD...

- PIZZZA

- FRENCH FRIES

- DONUT

- HAMBURGER

- NACHOS

- HOT DOG

- TACO

- SANDWICH

- CANDY BAR

- WAFFLES

- PANCAKES

- ONION RINGS

76


- MUFFIN

- CRISPY CHICKEN

- PUDDING

- JELLO

- CUPCAKE

- FISH & CHIPS

TALKING ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT DISHES, MEALS IN YOUR COUNTRY

*

VOCABULARY - HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND FOODS:

- SPOON

- SALAD

- SHELF

- LIGHTER

- KNIFE

- SOUP

- CUP

- GLASS

- FORK

- BARBECUE

- NAPKIN

- PAN

- DISH

- PORK CHOPS

- TABLECLOTH

- FRYING PAN

- BOWL

- CUPBOARD

- CANDLE

- STOOL

- CUTLERY

- CUTTING BOARD

- LEFTOVERS

- LID

77


SEAFOOD.

- CLAM

- CRAB

- LOBSTER

- FISH

- SQUID

- PRAWN

- SHRIMP

- TUNA 78

- MUSSEL

- OCTOPUS

- OYSTER

- SEAWEED


QUANTITY - QUALITY.

- A POUND OF CHEESE

- A POUND OF TOMATOES

- HALF A POUND OF ONIONS.

- HALF A POUND OF POTATOES.

- A BUNCH OF CARROTS

- A BUNCH OF BANANAS.

- A BAG OF LEMONS.

- A BAG OF CANDY.

- A DOZEN EGGS.

- A DOZEN SANDWICHES

- A CAN OF TUNA FISH.

- A CAN OF BEANS.

- A BOX OF CEREAL.

- A BOX OF RAISINS.

- A BOTTLE OF WINE.

- A BOTTLE OF HOT SAUCE.

- A QUARTER OF MILK.

- A LITRE OF OIL

- UNLEADED GASOLINE

- IN BULK.

SOME - ANY. SOME:

IT IS USED IN AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

ANY:

IT IS USED IN NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

ANY:

IT IS USED IN QUESTIONS.

PLENTY:

IT CAN BE USED IN AFFIRMATIVE - NEGATIVE AND IN QUESTIONS, TOO.

EXAMPLES: - SHE NEEDS SOME SUGAR AND FLOUR TO BAKE A CAKE. - SHE DOESN’T NEED ANY SUGAR AND FLOUR TO BAKE A CAKE. - DOES SHE NEED ANY SUGAR AND FLOUR TO BAKE A CAKE?

79


- THERE IS SOME CHICKEN AND SALAD IN THE FRIDGE. - THERE ISN’T ANY CHICKEN AND SALAD IN THE FRIDGE. - IS THERE ANY CHICKEN AND SALAD IN THE FRIDGE?

OTHER EXAMPLES: - I HAVE SOME FRIENDS IN ENGLAND, I LOVE THEM VERY MUCH. - SHE WRITES SOME PROGRAMS FOR MR. WILSON’S MAINFRAME. - THERE ISN’T ANY SAUSAGE ON THE TABLE.

- SHE DOESN’T HAVE ANY CLUE ABOUT THE CRIME. - DOES ALICE HAVE ANY EXPERIENCE WITH SEALS? - THERE ARE SOME PRAWNS IN THE MICROWAVE OVEN.

- I’M SURE THERE’S PLENTY OF CROPS IN THIS FARM. - DO YOU THINK THERE’S PLENTY OF GOLD IN THESE MINES? - IT TAKES PLENTY OF COURAGE TO FACE YOUR FEARS.

- WE SURE NEED PLENTY OF COAL FOR OUR BARBECUE. - DON’T WORRY. WE HAVE PLENTY OF GRAIN IN OUR BARN. - DON’T BE LATE. WE STILL HAVE PLENTY OF WORK TO DO.

80


LESSON

12:

PHISICAL APPEARANCE / PERSONALITY!

WHAT DO YOU LOOK LIKE? BLOND, BRUNETTE….. DARK OR LIGHT SKINNED PERHAPS?, ARE YOU HEAVILY OR SLIGHTLY BUILT?... TALL, SHORT, FAT OR THIN… SKINNY OR SLIM MAYBE?. ARE YOU SHY OR OUTGOING?. THERE ARE SO MANY DIFFERENCES AND SUCH VARIATY IN THE WAY WE HUMAN BEINGS LOOK OR BEHAVE THAT IS ALMOST IMPOSSIBLE TO COMPARE TWO PEOPLE AND SAY THEY ARE IDENTICAL.

WHAT IS THE ORIGIN OF MANKIND? … WHERE DOES THE HUMAN RACE COME FROM?... WELL MY FRIEND, THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION IS QUITE SIMPLE… IT’S AFRICA. THE OLDEST HUMAN FOSSILS WITH 4.5 MILLION YEARS WERE FOUND IN AFRICA, WHICH TURNS OUT TO BE THE CRADLE OF MANKIND… IN FACT, MODERN MAN CAME FROM THE AFRICAN CONTINENT TO EUROPE AND THE REST OF THE WORLD AROUND 200,000 THOUSAND YEARS AGO. “WE’RE ALL AFRICANS”. OF COURSE, ETHNOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY AND OTHER SCIENCES DIVIDE MANKIND INTO GROUPS WITH SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS BUILD, PERSONALITY, COLOR OF SKIN, HAIR , EYES AND SO FORTH.WE CAN LOOK DIFFERENT FROM ONE ANOTHER BUT WE ARE ONE SPECIES… ‘WE ARE HOMO SAPIENS’, SO, IT DOESN’T MAKE ANY SENSE THAT A PERSON, NATION, TRIBE, PEOPLE OR COUNTRY PRETEND TO BE SUPERIOR THAN ANY OTHER… ‘WE’RE ALL THE SAME… ONE KIND, ONE RACE… DON’T EVER FORGET THAT!’

TALKING ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT THE DIFFERENT RACES AMONG MANKIND, ARE YOU HALF-BRED? *

81


PEOPLE FROM AROUND THE WORLD

- CAUCASIAN

- AFRICAN

- RED SKIN

- ESKIMO

- ABORIGEN

- POLYNESIAN

- GIPSY

- INDIAN 82

- ASIAN

- ARAB

- AMERINDIAN

- JEWISH


DESCRIBING YOUR APPEARANCE / PERSONALITY

A - WHAT DO YOU LOOK LIKE? B - I’M AVERAGE HEIGHT, LIGHT SKINNED, I WEIGH 175 POUNDS, I HAVE BROWN HAIR AND BLACK EYES… KIND OF NORMAL, I THINK! A - WHAT ABOUT YOUR PERSONALITY? B - I’M A VERY OPEN OPEN-MINDED PERSON, WITH A STRONG CHARACTER, SINCERE, UNDERSTANDING, DETERMINED, FUNNY, SMART AND CARING.

A - WHAT DOES YOUR GIRLFRIEND LOOK LIKE? B - SHE’S QUITE TALL, AVERAGE WEIGHT , DARK SKINNED, A BEAUTIFUL BODY, A PRETTY SMILE, GORGEOUS BREAST, BLACK LONG HAIR AND GREEN EYES.

A - WHAT ABOUT HER PERSONALITY? B - SHE’S OUTGOING, PATIENT, UNDERSTANDING, TENDER AND VERY ROMANTIC.

A - CONGRATULATIONS.... YOU HAVE A VERY FINE LADY BY YOUR SIDE! B - THANKS A LOT..... VERY KIND OF YOU!... I’M A REALLY LUCKY GUY.

TALKING ACTIVITY: * DESCRIBE YOUR PHISICAL APPEARANCE

AND PERSONALITY

* WHAT DO YOU LIKE MOST ABOUT YOUR FACE OR BODY?

*

*

VOCABULARY:

- SHY

- BRAVE

- CARING

- OUTGOING

- MEAN

- SMART

- ILL-TEMPERED

- NICE

- DUMB

- GRUMPY

- BOLD

- GORGEOUS

- PATIENT

- ARROGANT

- SMELLY

- LIAR

- CONCEITED

- HIDEOUS

83


- POWERFUL

- WEAK

- FILTHY

- COWARD

- CHARMING

- SWEET

- UNDERSTANDING

- CHEEKY

- TENDER

- INTELLIGENT

- NIFTY

- COOL

EXERCISES: - MOST PEOPLE THINK OUR BOSS IS A VERY CONCEITED GUY. - ARNOLD IS DEFINITELY A VERY BOLD COP…. AND SMART, TOO. - JENNY’S DOG IS A LITTLE BIT COWARD… HE FEARS CATS. - SHE SEEMS CONCEITED, BUT SHE IS NOT... I KNOW HER WELL.

- YOUR BOYFRIEND IS VERY CHARMING… YOU’RE A LUCKY GIRL. - DON’T BE SHY MY DEAR... A BLIND DATE CAN BE REALLY FUN. - MY FATHER CAN BE QUITE ILL-TEMPER SOMETIMES… I’M SORRY. - I THINK THIS WORLD REALLY NEEDS MORE TRUE CARING PEOPLE.

- CHARLIE IS A VERY BRAVE GUY… NOTHING SCARES HIM. - THAT ALLIGATOR SEEMS VERY MEAN…. BE CAREFUL, PLEASE. - EVERYBODY KNOWS RATS ARE FILTHY AND DISGUSTING ANIMALS. - I’M SORRY TO TELL YOU BUT YOUR WIFE HAS SMELLY FEET.

- DR. JACOBS IS A VERY SMART GUY… HE INVENTS STUFF. - THAT ANCIENT SPEAR BELONGS TO MY UNCLE PETER. - THANK YOU FOR BEING SO UNDERSTANDING WITH ME. - PLEASE, BE PATIENT… YOUR COMPUTER IS NOT READY YET. 84


VEHICLES - MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION

- SUBWAY

- BICYCLE

- TROLLEY BUS

- CABLEWAY

- TAXI

- TRAIN

- PLANE

- MOTORCYCLE 85

- BUS

- HELICOPTER

- FERRY

- LIMOUSINE


- CAR

- SHIP

- HOT AIR BALLOON

- SUBMARINE

- TRUCK

- ROCKET

- VAN

- PICK UP TRUCK 86

- BLIMP

- SPACE SHUTTLE

- YACHT

- GLIDER


TALKING ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION IN YOUR CITY

EXERCISES: - I NEED TO GET ON THAT TRAIN AT 7 O’CLOCK. - MARIE DOESN’T WANT TO RIDE ON MY MOTORCYCLE. - MY BOSS WANTS TO TAKE US ON A BOAT TRIP. - THE SHIP WE HAVE TO BOARD ARRIVES TONIGHT

- THE OLD FERRY IS FULL OF VEHICLES AND PEOPLE. - CHARLIE WANTS TO BUY A SPARK PLUG FOR HIS BIKE. - YOUR BICYCLE HAS GOT A FLAT TIRE. - THE GARBAGE TRUCK YOU SEE OVER THERE IS ‘BRAND NEW’

- WE NEED TO REPAIR THE HEAD LIGHTS AND THE SHOCKS RIGHT NOW. - PETER HAS A LIGHT HANG-GLIDER READY TO FLIGHT IN HIS GARAGE. - THERE IS A COUPLE OF OARS ON THAT SHELF… PLEASE, GO GET THEM. - PLEASE, DON’T FORGET TO CHECK THE GASOLINE, OIL AND WATER…

- YOU NEED TO CARRY A JACK IN CASE YOU GET A FLAT TIRE. - JENNY NEEDS A NEW WINDSHIELD AND WIPERS FOR HER CAR. - THE STEERING WHEEL IS STUCK… PLEASE, TRY TO FIX IT. - THE ENGINE DOESN’T START… GO GET THE MECHANIC RIGHT NOW.

87

*


LESSON

13:

HEALTH: THE AMAZING HUMAN BODY

HEALTH: OUR MOST IMPORTANT TREASURE. WHAT A PRECIOUS GIFT IS HEALTH! AND SADLY, VERY OFTEN WE UNDERVALUE THIS WONDERFUL AND IMPORTANT PRESENT. WE LIVE AGAINST THE WISE PATHS OF NATURE AND IGNORE THE SIGNS WHEN SOMETHING SEEMS WRONG. A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE WORRIED ABOUT LOVE, MONEY, WORK, A CHANGING ECONOMICAL OR POLITICAL SITUATION. THEY WORRY ABOUT THE POLLUTION OF OUR ENVIRONMENT… THEY WORRY ABOUT THE FUTURE AND SO MANY OTHER THINGS THAT THEY FORGET ABOUT THE PRESENT AND HOW IMPORTANT AND WONDERFUL A HEALTHY LIFE IS. SADLY, NOWADAYS MOST PEOPLE NEGLECT THE BLESSING OF GOOD HEALTH.

EVERY NOW AND THEN WE GET SICK… OUR BODY IS LIKE A COMPLEX BIOLOGICAL MACHINE, WITH DIFFERENT TASKS TO DO. WELL, IT HAPPENS THAT SOMETIMES THIS ORGANIC MACHINERY ‘BRAKES DOWN’ AND OF COURSE, IT NEEDS PROPER REPAIRMENT. AS A RESULT, SOMEHOW THAT IS WHAT WE CALL “ ILLNESS “.

BUT, WHAT MAKES US GET SICK? THERE ARE DIFFERENT ANSWERS TO THAT QUESTION. IT CAN BE HARMFUL GERMS (BACTERIA, FUNGUS, VIRUSES), A HOSTILE POLUTED ENVIRONMENT, A WRONG DIET, OPEN AND INFECTED WOUNDS, SERIOUS PHISICAL TRAUMATISMS, GENETICAL DISORDERS, INFECTIONS. AND YES, SOMETIMES EVEN PHICOLOGICAL DISORDERS CAN MAKE YOUR BODY SICK…

88


WHAT CAN WE DO TO STAY HEALTHY? TO PRACTICE SOME PHISICAL ACTIVITY REGULARLY HELPS YOU KEEP HEALTHY AND YOUNG LONGER. TO VISIT YOUR FAMILY DOCTOR AT LEAST ONCE A YEAR FOR A COMPLETE MEDICAL CHECK UP JUST TO MAKE SURE YOU’RE OK. TAKE GOOD CARE OF YOUR TEETH VISITING A DENTIST AT LEAST TWICE A YEAR… DIGESTION BEGINS THERE…. A BALANCED DIET (MEATS, GRAINS, FRUITS - VEGETABLES) IS NECESSARY TOO. DRINKING PLENTY OF WATER (AT LEAST FIVE GLASSES) HELPS A LOT. ALSO ALWAYS KEEP IN MIND THAT A CORRECT PERSONAL HYGIENE IS A MUST.

BRAINSTORM: * TALK ABOUT YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH ANY ILLNESS OR AILMENT *

THE HUMAN BODY:

ORGANS AND BODY PARTS

- HEAD

- CHEST

- LEGS

- ARM

- BELLY

- FOOT

89


- FIST

- BRAIN

- LUNGS

- INTESTINES

- HAND

- LIVER

- EYES

- HEART 90

- FACE

- SPINE

- STOMACH

- EAR


- BACK

- NOSE

- TEETH

- BREAST

- MOUTH

- BLOOD

- TONGUE

- SKULL

- MUSCLES

- BONES

- LIPS 91

- KIDNEY


MORE BODY PARTS

- SHOULDER

- BELLY BUTTOM

- TOES

- KNEE

- HIPS

- ANKLE

- FINGERS

- BUTTOCKS

- NAILS

- MOLE

- FRECKLES

- WRINKLE

- EYEBROW

- CHIN

- NAPE

- CALF

- EYELASHES

- EYELID

- ELBOW

- THIGH

- THROAT

- TRUNK

- MUSCLES

- CHEEKS

- FOREHEAD

- BONES

- HAIR

- SKIN

- WAIST

- TEETH

- LIMBS

- SKELETON

- WRIST

ILLNESS / DISEASE:

- HEADACHE

- FEVER

- COLD

- HEARTACHE

- CHILL

- FLU

- BACKACHE

- WOUND

- SURMENAGE

- SMALLPOX

- SCAR

- STROKE

- EARACHE

- INFECTION

- ALLERGY

- TOOTHACHE

- BRUISE

- ASTHMA

- STOMACH ACHE

- SWELLING / LUMP

- MIGRAINE

- MEASLES

- CHICKENPOX

- SCABIES

- DANDRUFF

- RABIES

- SEIZURE

92


THE HUMAN BODY:

RELATED VERBS:

- TO BLUSH

- TO SMILE

- TO LAUGH

- TO SHIVER

- TO SHOUT

- TO BITE

- TO FEED

- TO YAWN

- TO COUGH

- TO SNEEZE

- TO SCREAM

- TO TREMBLE

- TO FLOSS

- TO FAINT

- TO CHEW

- TO RUN

- TO WALK

- TO SLEEP

- TO PANICK

- TO YELL

- TO SNORE

- TO WAKE UP

- TO BATHE

- TO JUMP

- TO HURT

- TO FEEL

- TO SUFFER

- TO SWEAT

- TO KNEEL

- TO PERSPIRE

EXAMPLES:

- MY FRIEND DIANA BLUSHES

WHEN SHE IS NERVOUS.

- JOE OFTEN FAINTS AT FUNERALS. HE’S VERY EMOTIONAL. - PAUL BATHES TWICE A DAY, SOMETIMES EVEN THREE. - OUR COUSIN CHARLIE FEEDS TUNA FISH TO HIS CAT.

- YOU REALLY MAKE ME TREMBLE EVERYTIME YOU ARE NEAR ME. - PLEASE, DON’T EVER WAKE HER UP BEFORE NINE O’CLOCK AM. - KATHY SNEEZES NOISILY CAUSE SHE’S VERY ALLERGIC TO DUST. - SONIA’S KIDS ALWAYS FLOSS RIGHT AFTER BRUSHING THEIR TEETH.

ACTIVITY: *

WHAT MAKES YOU SCREAM, BLUSH OR LAUGH? 93

*


PERSONAL HYGIENE

- SOAP

- TOWEL

- TOILET PAPER

- RAZOR

- SHAMPOO

- TOOTHPASTE

- COMB

- COTTON SWABS 94

- TOOTHBRUSH

- PERFUME

- NAIL CUTTER

- DEODORANT


LESSON

14:

WHAT YOU DO EVERYDAY:

MY DAILY ROUTINE

HELLO EVERYBODY, HOW DO YOU DO?. HERE, I WANT TO TALK TO YOU ALL ABOUT MY DAILY ROUTINE. IT ALL BEGINS VERY EARLY IN THE MORNING. I WAKE UP AT 6:30 AM, I MAKE MY BED, THEN I GO TO THE BATHROOM, TAKE A QUICK SHOWER, BRUSH MY TEETH, AND GET DRESSED. I HAVE BREAKFAST AT 7 O’CLOCK, GENERALLY IT’S JUST COFFEE, SOME TOASTS WITH CHEESE AND FRUIT… THEN I DO THE DISHES AND GO TO WORK.

I AM A COMPUTER SCIENCE INSTRUCTOR AND I TEACH GRAPHICS DESIGN AT AN INSTITUTE NEARBY, IT IS JUST A PART TIME JOB, BUT REALLY REWARDING AS WELL.

I START AT 7:45 AM. LATER ON, I’M OFF WITH MY CLASSES AT 11:00 AM, THEN I START MY SECOND JOB WHICH BASICALLY IS TECHNICAL SUPPORT ON COMPUTERS AND SOFTWARE SINCE I AM A SYSTEMS ANALYST AND I WORK FOR AN ELECTRONICS AND VIDEOGAMES SUPPLIER.

AT 5:00 PM I START MY THIRD JOB, I’M AN ENGLISH TEACHER AT A NICE ACADEMY IN TOWN. PERHAPS IT IS THE JOB I ENJOY MOST, I REALLY LIKE TO SHARE KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE WITH MY STUDENTS. I’M DONE AT 9 O’CLOCK PM AND THEN I FINALLY GO HOME.

95

A SCHEDULE


I ARRIVE TO MY PLACE AT 10 O’CLOCK PM, GET UNDRESSED, TAKE A SHOWER,

LISTEN TO MUSIC AND START COOKING MY

DINNER. GENERALLY IT IS SOMETHING LIGHT, IT IS NOT GOOD TO EAT TOO MUCH BEFORE SLEEPING.

AFTER DINNER, I WATCH TV, OR I PLAY VIDEOGAMES THEN I READ SOMETHING AND FINALLY GET TO WORK ON MY BOOKS AND ESSAYS, I’M A WRITER AS WELL. SO… MY DEAR FRIENDS, THIS STORY ENDS WHERE IT STARTED…. THE BED, OF COURSE…. “ I NEED SOME SLEEP, TOO “

ACTIVITY: *

DISCUSS YOUR DAILY ROUTINE WITH OTHER STUDENTS IN CLASS

*

USING HAVE TO / HAS TO THIS VERBAL STRUCTURE IS USED TO EXPRESS OBLIGATION, STRONG NECESSITY OR THAT SOMETHING IS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY. IT EXPRESSES CERTAINTY, TOO.

EXERCISES: - WHY DOES PETER HAVE TO TRAVEL TO PARIS TOMORROW MORNING?. - YOU DON’T HAVE TO DO IT RIGHT NOW. - WE HAVE TO SAVE THAT WHALE… SHE IS IN DANGER! - ANDREA HAS TO UNDERSTAND IT IS NOT YOUR FAULT. - THEY DON’T HAVE TO DO IT IF THEY DON’T WANT TO. - I HAVE TO TELL YOU SOMETHING VERY IMPORTANT.

96


- KEVIN HAS TO IMPROVE HIS FIGHTING SKILLS. - DO WE REALLY HAVE TO ATTEND THAT MEETING?. - MY TEAM HAS TO WIN THIS MATCH TO GO TO THE FINALS.

- ALICE DOESN´T HAVE TO QUIT HER JOB… IT IS UNFAIR… - TELL ME, DO YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEM WITH YOUR NEIGHBORS? - YOU DON’T HAVE TO TAKE PICTURES TODAY… IT’S YOUR DAY OFF.

VOCABULARY:

VERBS

- TO GET UP

- TO HAVE A BREAK

- TO TAKE A SHOWER

- TO DO PAPERWORK

- TO BRUSH ONE’S TEETH

- TO HANG OUT

- TO GET DRESSED

- TO BE OFF

- TO HAVE BREAKFAST

- TO ATTEND COLLEGE

- TO DRIVE

- TO HAVE FUN

- TO RETURN HOME

- TO SPEND

- TO PREPARE

- TO HELP

- TO HAVE DINNER

- TO PRAY

- TO HAVE LUNCH

- TO LISTEN TO

- TO WATCH TV

- TO PLAY CARDS

- TO TAKE A NAP

- TO THINK

- TO ENJOY

- TO SHARE

- TO DREAM

- TO SLEEP 97


TOOLS FOR WORK AND HOME

- HAMMER

- TAPE MEASURE

- SCREWDRIVER

- DRILL

- PLIERS

- NAILS

- PLANE

- TWEEZERS 98

- WRENCH

- HANDSAW

- BOLT

- SHOVEL


- WHEELBARROW

- FILE

- RULERS

- SOCKET

- FUNNEL

- PUTTY KNIFE

- CHISEL

- JACK 99

- PENKNIFE

- PADLOCK

- TROWEL

- AXE


WILD ANIMALS

- JAGUAR

- ELEPHANT

- LION

- RHINOCEROS

- HIPPOPOTAMUS

- TIGER

- GIANT PANDA

- BEAR 100

- KANGAROO

- CHIMPANZEE

- DEER

- WOLF


LESSON

15:

THE CALENDAR:

MEASURING TIME

SINCE THE VERY BEGINNING OF THE ‘CONTINUUM SPACE - TIME’ (RIGHT AFTER THE BIG BANG) 20 BILLION YEARS AGO TIME IS STILL PASSING BY... IT NEVER STOPS. OUR OWN RACE, MANKIND HAS PROGRESSED INCREDIBLY. WE’RE THE ONLY SPECIES CAPABLE TO CALCULATE THE PASSING OF TIME IN AN ABSTRACT SUBJECTIVE MATHEMATICAL WAY.

FOR THOUSAND

AND THOUSAND OF YEARS FROM THE VERY PRIMITIVE TRIBES TO OUR ADVANCED ‘DIGITAL CYBER CIVILIZATION’ MANY INGENIOUS DIFFERENT METHODS AND INVENTIONS TO RESEARCH, UNDERSTAND AND MEASURE THE INEXORABLE PASSING OF TIME HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED:

THE HOURGLASS, THE SOLAR CLOCK, ANCIENT OBSERVATORIES, THE MOVEMENT OF THE STARS, ETC. NOWADAYS WE USE A CALENDAR, WHICH DIVIDES THE

PASS OF TIME MATHEMATICALLY AS FOLLOWS:

A YEAR HAS 365 DAYS OR 12 MONTHS WITH 30 DAYS

EACH ONE,

AVERAGE (EXCEPT FEBRUARY WHICH HAS 28 DAYS).

SO, IN ORDER TO KEEP THIS CALENDAR THE MOST ACCURATE AND STABLE AN ADJUSTMENT IS DONE. BUT HOW DO WE DO THAT?.... IT IS VERY SIMPLE ACTUALLY, ONE DAY IS ADDED EVERY 4 YEARS, RESULTING IN THE EVENT THAT WE COMMONLY CALL “ A LEAP YEAR “ (A YEAR WITH 366 DAYS)… AN INTERESTING FACT, DON’T YOU THINK?

ACTIVITY: * WHAT PART OF THE YEAR IS MORE PRODUCTIVE, FUN, PROBLEMATIC FOR YOU? *

101


EVENTS OF THE YEAR: IT IS A FACT… EVERY SINGLE YEAR BEGINS WITH THE MONTH OF JANUARY AND NATURALLY ENDS WITH DECEMBER, ONE OF MY FAVORITE MONTHS I MUST SAY…. WHY?

CHRISTMAS, OF COURSE. I

REALLY LOVE IT… YOU CAN FEEL AND NOTICE THE ATMOSPHERE OF LOVE, JOY, PEACE, FRATERNITY, FRIENDSHIP, FULL UNITY, CARING AND GENEROSITY EVERYWHERE… CHILDREN LAUGHING AND PLAYING, SINGING CHRISTMAS CAROLS, WAITING FOR THEIR PRESENTS AND GIFTS. I’D WISH WE COULD KEEP THAT ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR ALL THE TIME.

BUT HEY, WAIT A MINUTE DUDE! LETS’S NOT FORGET ABOUT HALLOWEEN IN OCTOBER… LOTS OF FUN, SWEETS, CUSTOMS AND EVERYTHING YOU CAN IMAGINE. SO COOL!... DON’T YOU AGREE?... I MEAN, ‘TRICK OR TREAT’ IS NOT ONLY FOR KIDS TO HAVE PLENTY OF FUN. YES, WE CAN ALL ENJOY PARTYING, HANGING OUT WITH OUR FRIENDS AND NEIGHBOURS. WATCH SCARY MOVIES, PLAY TRICKS ON PEOPLE, WEAR DISGUISES… LOTS OF VAMPIRES, WITCHES, MUMMIES, GOBLINS, ZOMBIES, MONSTERS, PIRATES, AN ARMY OF UGLY UNDEAD AND SO MANY OTHER CHARACTERS OF FANTASY AND REALITY FOR YOU TO IMPERSONATE. TRUST ME, IT’S WORTH IT MY FRIEND… AFTER ALL, EVERYONE HAS A CHILD WITHIN.

FINALLY, ANOTHER IMPORTANT EVENT OF THE CALENDAR IS NEW YEAR’S EVE, BEGINNING THE LAST NIGHT OF DECEMBER AND GOING ON THE DAWN OF JANUARY FIRST. PEOPLE WEAR THEIR BEST ATTIRES (CLOTHES), AND AT 12 O’CLOCK AM SOMETHING VERY COOL HAPPENS… THE TRADITION IN MANY COUNTRIES FROM LATIN AMERICA IS TO ‘SET RAG DOLLS ON FIRE’. YES, THEY BURN DOWN TO THEIR ASHES… 102


IT IS A SYMBOLIC WAY OF LEAVING BEHIND ALL THE BAD THINGS, FAILURES AND DISAPPOINTMENTS IN THE PAST AND LOOKING FORWARD TO BETTER DAYS AND LUCK IN THE NEW YEAR COMING UP… LOTS OF FIREWORKS ON THE SKI, SPARKLING LIGHTS, SUDDENLY, THE POWERFUL SOUND OF EXPLOSIONS ALL AROUND. THEN, PEOPLE GIVE PRESENTS ONE ANOTHER, ENJOY A WONDERFUL DINNER, THEY DRINK A TOAST TO A BETTER YEAR FOR EVERYONE. CELEBRATIONS BEGIN EVERYWHERE… DANCING AND PARTYING.

ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT THE NICEST HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS ALONG THE YEAR *

MONTHS OF THE YEAR:

- JANUARY

- MAY

- SEPTEMBER

- FEBRUARY

- JUNE

- OCTOBER

- MARCH

- JULY

- NOVEMBER

- APRIL

- AUGUST

- DECEMBER

THE SEASONS:

- SPRING

- AUTUMN ( FALL ) 103


- SUMMER

- WINTER

ACTIVITY: * WHAT DO PEOPLE IN YOUR COUNTRY / CITY DO AS SEASONS CHANGE? *

DAYS OF THE WEEK: - A WEEK HAS SEVEN DAYS… EACH DAY CAN BE SPECIAL AND UNIQUE, FULL OF FUN AND DIFFERENT THINGS TO DO, STARTING ON MONDAY AND ENDING ON SUNDAY:

- MONDAY

- TUESDAY

- WEDNESDAY

- THURSDAY

- FRIDAY

- SATURDAY

- SUNDAY

- WEEKEND

- DAY OFF

- HOLIDAY

ACTIVITY: * HOW DO YOU ENJOY YOUR TIME DURING THE WEEK ? * * WHAT DO YOU DO ON THE WEEKENDS / HOLIDAYS / DAY OFF? *

104


THE VERB “ BE “:

SIMPLE PAST FORM

THE VERB “BE” HAS TWO POSIBLE CONJUGATIONS IN SIMPLE PAST:

-

WAS

- WAS NOT

- WASN’T

-

WERE

- WERE NOT

- WEREN’T

HERE YOU CAN STUDY SOME EXAMPLES… LET’S TAKE A LOOK!

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

INTERROGATIVE

I WAS

I WAS NOT

WAS I?

YOU WERE

YOU WERE NOT

WERE YOU?

HE WAS

HE WAS NOT

WAS HE?

SHE WAS

SHE WAS NOT

WAS SHE?

IT WAS

IT WAS NOT

WAS IT?

WE WERE

WE WERE NOT

WERE WE?

YOU WERE

YOU WERE NOT

WERE YOU?

THEY WERE

THEY WERE NOT

WERE THEY?

WH WORD

+ BE

+

SUBJECT

+

COMPLEMENT ?

WHAT

WAS

THAT THING

ON THE BRANCH ?

WHERE

WERE

THE VIKINGS

FROM ?

WHEN

WAS

THE PARTY

AT THE BEACH?

WERE

YOU

HURT AT WAR?

105


WH WORD

+ BE

+ SUBJECT

+

COMPLEMENT ?

WHY

WAS

MELANNIE

SO EXCITED ?

HOW

WERE

THE TOURISTS

TREATED ?

WHO

WAS

THE HOST

AT THE SHOW?

WHY

WERE

THEY

HELD HOSTAGES?

WHOSE PEN

WAS

STOLEN

YESTERDAY IN CLASS?

WHICH HOUSE

WAS

DESTROYED

BY THE TSUNAMI ?

WHOSE CAR

WAS

FIXED

WITH USED AUTOPARTS?

WHICH TABLET

WAS

HACKED

WHILE YOU WERE AWAY?

EXERCISES: - KAREN WAS FOUND DEAD IN HER APARTMENT. - WHERE WERE YOU THE NIGHT OF THE ACCIDENT? - KEVIN WAS NOT SICK WHEN I SAW HIM AT THE MALL. - LAYLA AND I WERE AT ANNIE’S PARTY LAST NIGHT. - THEY WEREN’T RIGHT ON THAT ANSWER. - IT’S TRUE. MY PARENTS WERE MARRIED FOR 50 YEARS.

- ROBERT WAS SURE YOU WANTED TO HELP HIM. - DO YOU KNOW WHY SHE WAS SO MAD AT US? - WERE YOU THERE WHEN THE BANK GOT ROBBED? - WHAT WAS HER OPINION ABOUT OUR PROJECT? - WHO WAS THE GUY YOU KILLED 3 YEARS AGO? - TELL ME, WERE YOU KIDNAPPED BY TERRORISTS?

106


LESSON 16:

THE WEATHER: A MIGHTY FORCE OF NATURE

THE WEATHER:

OUR TOP RESPONSABILITY

IT CHANGES ALL THE TIME, AND IT CAN’T BE PREDICTED WITH ACCURACY, YET WE OFTEN TRY TO DO SO. YES, WEATHER CHANGES AND VARIES WORLDWIDE. IT’IS HOT, WARM, NEAR THE EQUATOR (IT’S THE IMAGINARY LINE THAT SPLITS THE WORLD IN TWO ), SO COUNTRIES NEARBY LIKE OUR OWN (ECUADOR), CENTRAL AFRICA, BRAZIL , INDIA AND SO FORTH HAVE THAT KIND OF WEATHER. IN OTHER REGIONS OF THE GLOBE LIKE MOST EUROPE, NORTH AMERICA AND CERTAIN PARTS OF ASIA IT SHOWS REGULARLY IN THE FOUR DIFFERENT SEASONS WE ALREADY KNOW:

SPRING

- SUMMER

-

AUTUMN ( FALL ) -

WINTER.

THERE ARE STORMS, HURRICANES, BLIZARDS, FLOODS AND SNOWFALLS. YES, IN THE POLES THE WEATHER IS REALLY COLD, WITH FREEZING TEMPERATURES, THAT IS “BELOW ZERO“, IT IS SO COLD THAT EVEN WATER TURNS INTO ‘ ICE’… ‘ IT IS SO AMAZING’. THE POWER OF WEATHER CREATES AND DEEPLY CHANGES MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF ‘LIVE ENVIRONMENTS’ WHERE HIGHLY ADAPTED LIFE FORMS MAKE THEIR HOME… CAMELS LIVE IN HOT DRY PLACES LIKE DESERTS, MOST PENGUINS LIVE IN COLD AREAS LIKE ANTARCTICA ( THE SOUTH POLE ), FUNNY MONKEYS CAN BE FOUND IN JUNGLES AND FORESTS, WHALES AND DOLPHINS IN THE SEA, ETC. 107


THE WORLD WEATHER IS AFFECTED BY MAN AND HIS ACTIVITIES, TOO. THE GLOBAL WARMING AND THE ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION ARE TWO ISSUES PEOPLE ARE TALKING ABOUT MOST NOWADAYS. BOTH ARE DESTROYING THE BALANCE BETWEEN THE ‘EARTH’, OUR ONLY HOME, AND ITS VERY DELICATE WEATHER. THAT’S SOMETHING WE DEFINETELY CAN NOT ALLOW TO HAPPEN… JUST THINK: ‘ HUGE AND HARMFUL DROUGHTS, AWFUL FLOODS, POWERFUL HURRICANES, TORNADOES, DESTRUCTIVE TSUNAMIES, EARTHQUAKES, STORMS AND OTHER NATURAL DISASTERS ARE THE RESULT OF A TROUBLED AND AFFECTED CHANGING WEATHER THAT SOMETIMES SEEMS TO BE AGAINST US.

IT IS OUR TOP GOAL AND RESPONSABILITY TO STOP THIS MADNESS BEFORE IT IS TOO LATE… IF WE DON’T CHANGE OUR ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR THERE WILL BE NO FUTURE FOR OUR WORLD AND ITS LIFE. WE HAVE TO FIND A SOLUTION TO THIS PROBLEM AND RESTORE THE BALANCE TO THIS UNIQUE, BEAUTIFUL YET VERY FRAGILE PLANET (EARTH), NOT ONLY FOR US, BUT FOR OUR CHILDREN AND THE NEXT GENERATIONS. WE CAN STILL CHANGE AND REPAIR THE DAMAGE.

‘GOING GREEN’ (WHICH MEANS A FRIENDLY ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE ENVORNMENT) IS THE KEY… ‘RECYCLING’ INSTEAD OF WASTING OUR PRECIOUS NATURAL RESOURCES. SO, WHAT KIND OF WEATHER DO YOU PREFER? MILD, COLD, SUNNY, RAINY, CLOUDY, SNOWY, STORMY, DRIZZLY CHILLY, FOGGY?... DOES IT DRIZZLE OR RAIN ? WHAT’S THE WEATHER LIKE IN YOUR COUNTRY?

ACTIVITY: * WHAT IS THE WEATHER LIKE WHERE YOU LIVE? *

108


SOME NATURAL PHENOMENA:

- HURRICANE

- TORNADO

- TSUNAMI

- STORM

- EARTHQUAKE

- AVALANCHE

- LIGHTNING

- FLOOD

- VOLCANO

ACTIVITY *

TALK ABOUT HOW THE WEATHER AND NATURAL DISASTERS AFFECT PEOPLE * 109


SIMPLE PAST TENSE:

AUXILIARY DID / DID NOT / DIDN’T

- IN SIMPLE PAST TENSE THERE IS ONE AUXILIARY VERB: DID. THE NEGATIVE FORM IS DID NOT AND THE CONTRACTION NEGATIVE FORM IS DIDN’T. - THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF VERBS IN SIMPLE PAST TENSE: REGULAR AND IRREGULAR. - REGULAR VERBS FINISH WITH “ED” AND IRREGULAR ONES HAVE DIFFERENT ENDINGS.

REGULAR

IRREGULAR

- WANT / WANTED

- THINK

/ THOUGHT

- LOVE

/ LOVED

-

FEEL

/

- HATE

/ HATED

-

TELL

/ TOLD

- KISS

/ KISSED

-

SEE

/

SAW

- REACH / REACHED

-

HIDE

/

HID

- MAIL

-

TEACH / TAUGHT

/

MAILED

WH WORD + AUX +

SUBJECT +

VERB

+

FELT

COMPLEMENT?

WHAT

DID

HELLEN

DO

LAST NIGHT?

WHAT

DID

YOU

EAT

FOR LUNCH?

WHERE

DID

JOHN

COME

FROM?

WHERE

DID

THEY

GO

ON VACATIONS?

WHY

DID

JOHN

LEAVE

HIS COUNTRY?

WHY

DID

KATHY

MARRY

HER BOSS?

HOW

DID

YOU

DO

THAT?

HOW

DID

KELLY

FIND

THE TREASURE?

110


WH WORD +

WH WORD

+

AUX

+ SUBJECT +

VERB

+

COMPLEMENT?

DIDN’T

YOU

KNOW

THE PASSWORD?

DID

PETER

GET

THE JOB?

DID

WE

WIN

THE MATCH?

DID

THEY

TALK

TO YOU?

AUX + SUBJECT

+

VERB

+

COMPLEMENT?

WHICH BOOK

DID

YOU

READ

LAST WEEK?

WHICH SHIRT

DID

GINA

WASH

FOR YOU?

WHICH ROAD

DID

JON’S DAD

TAKE

LAST TIME?

WHOSE PICTURE

DID

ROBERT

RESTORE

RECENTLY?

WHOSE CAR

DID

CLARK

CRASH

THIS MORNING?

WHOSE LAPTOP

DID

JENNY

LOSE

AT THE HOTEL?

ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT THINGS YOU DID RECENTLY… TODAY, YESTERDAY, THIS WEEK *

EXAMPLES: - YOU DID WHAT YOU HAD TO DO… AND I AM OK WITH THAT. - I DIDN’T TELL YOU THE TRUTH CAUSE I WAS AFRAID OF YOUR REACTION. - TELL ME SOMETHING… DID THEY SIGN THE CONTRACT OR NOT?

- I REALLY DON’T GET IT… HOW DID PETER LEARN CHINESE SO FAST? - COME ON, DIDN’T SHE TELL YOU HOW TO DO THAT WITHOUT MISTAKES? - THAT’S WEIRD… WHY DID ISABEL LEAVE HER STUFF IN YOUR OFFICE? 111


KINDS OF REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS

- CHAMELEON

- GECKO

- COBRA

- TURTLE

- TOAD

- FROG

- SNAKE

- CROCODILE

- LIZARD

- ANACONDA

- IGUANA

- TADPOLE

112


LESSON

17:

SPORTS - ENTERTAINMENT AND MORE!

SPORTS: A HEALTHY HAPPY STYLE OF LIVING

EVERYBODY

LIKES SPORTS… SORRY,

MY

MISTAKE,

ALMOST

EVERYBODY… I KNOW SOME PEOPLE WHO DON’T, THEY PREFER “MORE INTELECTUAL THINGS“ AS THEY SAY… BUT THE POINT IS THAT SPORTS ARE PRACTICED WORLDWIDE. THERE ARE SEVERAL KINDS AND SEASONS FOR SOME OF THEM, THAT’S WHY WE HEAR ABOUT “ WINTER SPORTS “, “BEACH SPORTS”, “ EXTREME SPORTS”, “ RESISTANCE SPORTS “ EVEN “SCIENCE SPORTS” AND SO FORTH.

SOME SPORTS REQUIRE A LOT OF STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE LIKE “BODY BUILDING”, “WEIGHT LIFTING”, “BOXING”. OTHERS REQUIRE TEAMWORK

LIKE “BASKETBALL”, “ SOCCER”,

“VOLLEYBALL”,

“ROWING”, “BASEBALL”, ETC.

OTHERS

REQUIRE

CONCENTRATION

AND ACCURACY

LIKE “BOWLING”,

“SHOOTING”, “POOL”, “ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS”. OTHERS REQUIRE WHAT I CALL “ COLD BLOOD” AND LOTS OF COURAGE, LIKE “BUNGEE JUMPING” OR “PARAGLIDING”.

FOOTBALL - SOCCER, NO DOUBT ABOUT IT, IS CONSIDERED THE “KING OF ALL SPORTS”. IT IS THE MOST PRACTICED AND LOVED SPORT ALL OVER THE WORLD. THE WORLD SOCCER CHAMPIONSHIP IS A PROOF OF THIS. IT TAKES PLACE EVERY FOUR YEARS.

PERHAPS YOU ‘WORK OUT’ AT HOME, HIT YOUR PUNCHING BAG FOR A WHILE AND USE YOUR DUMBBELLS OCASSIONALLY. THAT’S ALL RIGHT... SOMETIMES I DO THAT, TOO. YES, ‘WORKING OUT CAN BE VERY FUN’ 113


SOME PEOPLE MAKE A LIVING OF SPORTS, THEY BECOME PROFESSIONAL

ATHLETES,

SOMETIMES

VERY FAMOUS

AND

SUCCESSFUL, SOMETIMES THEY’RE EVEN CONSIDERED ‘TRUE HEROES’ LIKE PELE, PETE SAMPRAS, TIGER WOODS, JEFFERSON PEREZ, MARADONA, MICHAEL JORDAN AND BRUCE LEE AMONG OTHERS. PERSONALLY I PREFER MARTIAL ARTS BECAUSE THEY COMBINE THE BEST OF MIND, BODY AND SPIRIT. BESIDES, THEY STRENGTHEN OUR DISCIPLINE AND CONCENTRACION. MY FAVORITE IS KARATE. I LOVE CHESS AS WELL… IT’S GREAT FOR DEVELOPING YOUR INTELLIGENCE AND LOGIC.

ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT YOUR FAVORITE SPORT, THE ONES YOU PRACTICE, ETC. *

HOBBIES:

FUN ANYTIME YOU WANT

A HOBBY IS A NICE RECREATIONAL ACTIVITY SOMEONE DOES EITHER REGULARLY OR EVERY NOW AND THEN. SOMETIMES YOU SHARE YOUR HOBBY WITH OTHER PEOPLE, WHICH IN FACT TURNS OUT MORE FUN. IT CAN BE SOMETHING VERY SIMPLE AS COLLECTING DIFFERENT ‘STUFF’ LIKE STAMPS, CAPS, CARDS, ROCKS, SHELLS, OR SOMETHING MORE COMPLEX LIKE BUILDING SCALE MODELS, CARVING OUT WOODEN FIGURES, ADVENTURE TRAVELLING, ETC. A HOBBY IS NOT ONLY SOME COOL KIND OF “TIME KILLING” BUT AN ATTRACTIVE WAY OF MAKING NEW FRIENDS, LEARNING COOL USEFUL STUFF AND HAVING LOTS OF FUN. SO, WHAT’S YOUR HOBBY? I HAVE SEVERAL: COLLECTING MUSIC CDS, VIDEO GAMES AND MOVIES. I ALSO LIKE READING A LOT AND PLAYING THE GUITAR, DRAWING, HIKING AND OF COURSE, LEARNING AWESOME THINGS… BE WISE MY FRIEND. LIFE IS SHORT AND TIME IS PRECIOUS… DON’T WASTE IT. JUST KEEP IN MIND:

THERE IS NO REASON TO BE BORED….. GO FIND YOURSELF A HOBBY AND ENJOY IT! 114


HOBBIES AND SPARE-TIME FOR EVERYBODY

- PHOTOGRAPHY

- MUSIC

- PAINTING

- READING

- SEWING

- DRAWING

- DARTS THROWING

- GUITAR PLAYING

GARDENING

ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT YOUR OWN HOBBIES - ARE THEY COMMON OR UNUSUAL? * 115


THE AUXILIARY CAN / CAN NOT / CAN’T THE AUXILIARY “CAN” EXPRESSES THE ABILITY OR POWER TO DO ( OR NOT ) SOMETHING. IT IS USED IN SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE, BUT IT IS POSSIBLE TO USE IT IN FUTURE.

EXAMPLES: - A SPACESHIP CAN TRAVEL TO THE MOON. - MY DAD CAN HOLD HIS BREATH UNDERWATER FOR 2 MINUTES. - TOMMY CAN FLY A HELICOPTER. HE’S A SKILLFUL PILOT.

- SORRY, I CAN’T LIFT THIS ENVIL . IT IS TOO HEAVY FOR ME. -

ALICE CAN’T MARRY YOU. I KNOW SHE DOESN’T LOVE YOU.

-

FACE IT, THEY CAN NOT DO MIRACLES, THAT’S A FACT.

- WHAT CAN I DO FOR YOU?

- HOW CAN WE GET MONEY FAST?

- CAN YOU DO ME A FAVOR?

- CAN MEN GET PREGNANT?

WH WORD

+ AUX

+ SUBJECT +

VERB

+

COMPLEMENT?

WHAT

CAN

I

DO

TO MAKE YOU HAPPY?

WHAT

CAN

FRANKIE

OFFER

US THIS TIME?

WHERE

CAN

WE

STAY

TONIGHT?

WHERE

CAN

THEY

FIND

FOOD?

WHY

CAN

FISH

BREATHE

UNDERWATER?

WHY

CAN

JENNY

SPEND

SO MUCH MONEY?

HOW

CAN

YOU

DO

THAT?

116


WH WORD

+ AUX

+ SUBJECT +

VERB

+

COMPLEMENT?

CAN’T

WE

GO

WITH YOU THIS TIME?

CAN

KEVIN

PLAY

POOL?

CAN

SHE

DANCE

TANGO?

WHOSE TIRE

CAN

BOBBY

FIX

BEFORE SUNSET?

WHOSE KID

CAN’T

MARIO

TAKE

TO THE DOCTOR?

WHICH DOOR

CAN

CAN

WE

SELL RIGHT AWAY?

ACTIVITY: * PRACTICE NAMING THINGS / SKILLS YOU CAN OR CAN NOT DO *

SPORTS

- SOCCER

- BOXING

- BASKETBALL

- SWIMMING 117

- SURFING

- MARTIAL ARTS


- VOLLEYBALL

- TENNIS

- ARCHERY

- RUNNING

- WORKING OUT

- DIVING

- GOLF

- GYMNASTICS 118

- SKIING

- BASEBALL

- CYCLING

- CLIMBING


LESSON

18:

CLOTHING - GOING SHOPPING!

THE WORLD OF FASHION ‘FASHION’ IS A WORD THAT PROBABLY BRINGS UP MANY IDEAS, TRENDS, CONCEPTS, DESIRES, THOUGHTS. YES, THERE ARE SO MANY PROS AND CONS INVOLVED. WHETHER YOU LIKE IT OR NOT IT’S A FACT THE FASHION BUSINESS MOVES HUNDREDS OF MILLION DOLLARS ALL OVER THE WORLD. PERHAPS YOU’RE FAMILIAR TO SOME VERY FANCY NAMES (BRANDS) SUCH AS “CHRISTIAN DIOR”, “GIORGIO ARMANI”, “VERSACE”, “OSCAR DE LA RENTA” AND “GUY LAROCHE” AMONG OTHERS. IT IS THE ‘DREAM OF A LIFETIME’ FOR MANY WOMEN, YOUNG GIRLS AND TEENAGERS TO BECOME A TOP MODEL SOMEDAY. THE SOPHISTICATION, GLAMOUR, FAME, BEAUTY, POPULARITY AND MONEY THAT SURROUNDS THIS ACTIVITY ATTRACTS MANY PEOPLE POWERFULLY, FROM PHOTOGRAPHERS, CREATIVES, DESIGNERS TO TOP MODELS, SPONSORS AND OF COURSE CUSTOMERS. YES, THEY’RE ALL DEEPLY INVOLVED IN THE WORLD OF FASHION.

BUT ‘ ALL THAT GLITTERS AIN’T GOLD’. JUST LIKE IN MANY OTHER ACTIVITIES THERE ARE SOME PEOPLE WHO CRITICIZE AND REJECT FASHION. THEY THINK IT IS VAIN, HOLLOW AND MEANINGLESS… SOMETHING JUST FOR SHALLOW PEOPLE, AN ABUSIVE DEGRADING CULT TO CONSUMERISM, MONEY AND BEAUTY. THEY COULD BE RIGHT, AT LEAST IN PART. I THINK THAT BOTH EXAGGERATION AND EXCESS ARE NEGATIVE AND INAPPROPRIATE IN THE FASHION BUSINESS. WE WANT TO LOOK GOOD AND MODERN, THAT’S WHY WE BUY THE LATEST CLOTHES TO WEAR. THAT SEEMS OK, I SUPPOSE…

119


BUT SOME PEOPLE SPEND MOST OF THEIR INCOMES IN BUYING FINE, FANCY BRAND CLOTHES JUST TO PRETEND THEY ARE ON TOP OF THE WORLD. THAT IS WRONG AND REPREHENSIBLE. YES, WHAT REALLY MATTERS IS THE INSIDE , WHAT WE HAVE DEEP WITHIN. APPEARANCES ARE DECEIVING, WE HAVE TO BE VERY CAREFUL AND PAY ATTENTION TO THE FINE, SINCERE AND EVERLASTING GIFTS OF THIS WORLD AND NOT TO BE BLINDED BY THE SUPERFLUOUS THINGS OF A SHALLOW EXISTENCE… TRUST ME, THE TRUE ESSENCE OF IS NOT ON THE OUTSIDE BUT INSIDE.

“REMEMBER MY DEAR FRIEND… PUT SOME BALANCE IN YOUR LIFE AND I ASSURE YOU THAT EVERYTHING WILL BE JUST FINE.”

ACTIVITY: * TALK ABOUT THE WORLD OF FASHION… ARE YOU A FOLLOWER? WHY?

*

CLOTHING:

- SHOES

- SUNGLASSES

- SANDALS

- UNDERWEAR 120

- PURSE

- GLOVES


- SHORTS

- SKIRT

- JEANS

- PANTS

- T-SHIRT

- BACKPACK

- TUXEDO

- VEST 121

- SOCKS

- DRESS

- TIE

- BATHING SUIT


- HAT

- JACKET

- COAT

- CAP

- BOOTS

- UMBRELLA

- EARRINGS

- BELT 122

- SHIRT

- RAINCOAT

- BLOUSE

- SUIT


- SCARF

- UNDERSHIRT

- BRASSIERE

- SWEATER

- PANTIES

- TRUNKS

ACTIVITY: *

TALK ABOUT CLOTHES YOU WEAR FOR SPECIFIC SITUATIONS

VERBS: - TO LOOK

- TO GET DRESSED

- TO SEW

- TO GET UNDRESSED

- TO FIT

- TO WEAR

- TO TRY ON

- TO GET NAKED

- TO PUT ON

- TO SHOW OFF

- TO TAKE OFF

- TO MODEL 123

*


EXERCISES: - KEVIN TAKES HIS CLOTHES OFF AND JUMPS INTO THE POOL. - COME ON, PUT THIS DIAMOND RING ON… IT IS BEAUTIFUL. - MELISSA LOOKED GREAT IN THAT BLACK LINGERIE. - ANDREA SHOWS OFF HER BEAUTY, SHE’S A TOP MODEL.

- MARK, WHY DON’T YOU TRY THESE TRUNKS ON? - HELLEN, THOSE SNEAKERS DON’T FIT YOU WELL. - YES, HE GOT NAKED IN FRONT OF EVERYBODY. - HER FRENCH DRESS AND SCARF DON’T MATCH.

- WHY DOESN’T MELISSA WANT TO WEAR JEANS? - DO YOU THINK I LOOK GOOD WITH THIS LIPSTICK? - PLEASE, GET UNDRESSED AND TAKE A SHOWER, QUICKLY. - MY DAUGHTER MODELS CHILDREN’S FANCY CLOTHES.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: THEY ACT AS A REFERENCE TO A PREVIOUS NOUN (OBJECT), EXPRESSING POSSESSION.

SINGULAR

PLURAL

- MINE

- OURS

- YOURS

- YOURS

- HIS

- THEIRS

- HERS - ITS 124


EXERCISES: - MY LIFE IS FULL OF FUN, HERS IS DEPRESSING AND YOURS IS A MYSTERY. - SORRY TO BOTHER YOU… IS THIS PEN HERS OR THEIRS? - HE HAD TO TAKE MY ACCOUNTING BOOK, HE CAN’T FIND HIS.

- WHERE ARE THE LAPTOPS?... ‘YOURS IS IN MY BACKPACK AND HERS IN THE CAR’. - THEIR LEATHER SUITCASES ARE BIG AND OURS ARE RATHER SMALL. - HER HUSBAND IS VERY HANDSOME, BUT MINE IS PATIENT AND SWEET.

- HIS JOB IS REALLY DEMANDING AND WELL PAID, HERS IS EASY AND FUN. - THIS POOL IS REALLY NICE, BUT OURS IS MUCH LARGER THAN THEIRS. - KELLY’S WEDDING DRESS IS AWESOME AND MINE IS QUITE OLD-FASHIONED.

VOCABULARY: - NECKLACE

- SNEAKERS

- CUFFLINKS

- MAKE UP

- ROBE

- PANTYHOSE

- PERFUME

- BRA

- HIGH HEELS

- LIPSTICK

- PANTIES

- SWEATER

- JEWELS

- SLIPPERS

- EARRINGS

- VEIL

- GLASSES

- BRACELET

- HANDKERCHIEF

- RING

- WATCH

- LINGERIE

- SHAWL

- HEADSCARF

ACTIVITY: * ASK YOUR CLASSMATES ABOUT WHAT THEY ARE WEARING 125

*


LESSON

19:

MUSIC AND MOVIES - TRIVIA

LIGHTS, CAMERA … ACTION! WHO DOESN’T LIKE MOVIES OR MUSIC?, EVERYBODY DOES. LET’S FACE IT, WITHOUT THEM LIFE WOULD BE A LITTLE BIT BORING. OH YES, AT A ‘CINEMA’ OR ‘NIGHTCLUB’ MANY OF US ENJOYED WONDERFUL MOMENTS WITH FRIENDS, FAMILY, A BOYFRIEND OR A GIRLFRIEND. IT IS AMAZING HOW A MOVIE OR SONG CAN CAUSE SO MANY EMOTIONS, FEELINGS AND SENSATIONS. THERE ARE SO MANY KINDS OF MOVIES: COMEDY, TRAGEDY, ACTION, SCIENCE FICTION, ADVENTURE, EPIC MOVIES AND THRILLER. WITH REGARD TO MUSIC WE HAVE ROMATIC SONGS LIKE BALLADS, TROPICAL MUSIC LIKE SALSA, MERENGUE, CUMBIA, POP MUSIC, ROCK AND ROLL, CLASSICAL MUSIC, REGGAE, FOLK MUSIC, INDIGENOUS MUSIC.

LISTENING A GOOD SONG CAN EASILY REMIND YOU OF SOMEONE YOU LOVED, A FRIEND FROM YOUR YOUTH, AN IMPORTANT HAPPY OR SAD EVENT IN YOUR LIFE… MUSIC HAS THE UNIQUE MAGICAL POWER TO CALM DOWN A RESTLESS SOUL AND BODY, IN FACT SOME PEOPLE LISTEN TO CLASSICAL MUSIC WHEN THEY ARE VERY STRESSED OR TIRED, THEY THINK MUSIC CAN SOOTHE BEATS AND EVEN HEAL. TRULY AMAZING, ISN’T IT?...

MOVIES ALLOW US TO SEE, KNOW AND UNDERSTAND THINGS THAT OTHERWISE WOULD BE VERY DIFFICULT OR IMPOSSIBLE. THINK OF A PANDA BEAR... PERHAPS YOU HAVEN’T SEEN ONE FACE TO FACE, BUT OF COURSE YOU KNOW WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE… THANKS TO A MOVIE, VIDEO, CARTOON, DOCUMENTARY OR EDUCATIONAL TV PROGRAMME. 126


YES. LOTS OF PEOPLE LOVE ‘SOAP OPERAS’… AND BY THE WAY, IT IS NOT JUST A LADIES’ THING. I LOVE MOVIES, I’M VERY FOND OF THE SCIENCE FICTION GENRE ( ALIENS, SPACESHIPS, INTERGALACTIC POWERFUL CIVILIZATIONS, SPACE TRAVELING AND SO FORTH ). DOES THE NAME “ STAR WARS “ SOUND FAMILIAR TO YOU?. GHREAT EPIC MOVIES LIKE “ THE LORD OF THE RINGS “, THAT SURE IS AN AWESOME SAGA. THOSE ARE THE MOVIES I LIKE MOST. MY FAVORITE ACTOR EVER IS THE GREAT ‘JONNNY DEPP’ FROM “ PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN “.

AND WHAT ABOUT MUSIC? I DEFINITELY LOVE ROCK AND ROLL, ESPECIALLY THE CLASSIC BANDS. I ENJOY CLASSICAL MUSIC, TRIBAL RHYTHMS, ELECTRONIC MUSIC AND GUITAR CONCERTS, TOO. OF COURSE, MY FAVORITE BAND IN THE WHOLE WORLD IS “ AC/DC “, ‘THE BEST ROCK AND ROLL OF ALL THE UNIVERSE’. THEY ARE FROM AUSTRALIA. ANOTHER BAND I REALLY LOVE IS “ LIFEHOUSE “ FROM USA. NO DOUBT MY FAVORITE SONG OF ALL TIMES IS “ SWEET CHILD OF MINE “ FROM THE AWESOME “ GUNS AND ROSES “. I ALSO LISTEN TO POP MUSIC, “INXS” IS A TERRIFIC AUSTRALIAN BAND AND MICHAEL JACKSON IS A GREAT PERFORMER AND DANCER, NO WONDER HE’S CONSIDERED THE ‘KING OF POP’…

ALLOW ME A PIECE OF ADVICE… FILL YOUR LIFE WITH GOOD MUSIC AND MOVIES, AND THEN MY FRIEND JUST ENJOY YOUR TRIP THROUGH LIFE… AFTER ALL, “YOU ONLY LIVE ONCE”…. AT LEAST, THAT’S WHAT MOST PEOPL E SAY, AND WHO KNOWS, THEY’RE PROBABLY RIGHT…

ACTIVITY: * PLAY A TRIVIA GAME ABOUT MOVIES / MUSIC / ACTORS / SINGERS *

127


COMPARATIVES IN ENGLISH WE USE THIS KIND OF ADJECTIVES TO MAKE COMPARISONS. BASICALLY THESE ADJECTIVES ARE DIVIDED IN TWO GROUPS DEPENDING ON THEIR SIZE:

FIRST GROUP

SECOND GROUP

- TALL

- TALLER

- INTELLIGENT

- MORE INTELLIGENT

- BIG

- BIGGER

- BEAUTIFUL

- MORE BEAUTIFUL

- SMALL

- SMALLER

- HORRIBLE

- MORE HORRIBLE

- THIN

- THINNER

- WONDERFUL

- MORE WONDERFUL

- SMALL

- SMALLER

- HORRIBLE

- MORE HORRIBLE

- NEAT

- NEATER

- CROWDED

- MORE CROWDED

- LIGHT

- LIGHTER

- CONFUSED

- MORE CONFUSED

- PRETTY

- PRETTIER

- BORING

- MORE BORING

- LAZY

- LAZIER

- DISGUSTING

- MORE DISGUSTING

- CRAZY

- CRAZIER

- EXPENSIVE

- MORE EXPENSIVE

- BUSY

- BUSIER

- INTERESTING

- MORE INTERESTING

- DUMB

- DUMBER

- AMAZING

- MORE AMAZING

- FAST

- FASTER

- EXOTIC

- MORE EXOTIC

- SMART

- SMARTER

- DESPICABLE

- MORE DESPICABLE

PLAIN COMPARATIVES: - GINO IS MORE INTERESTING THAN HIS STEP SISTER. - YOU LOOK MORE ELEGANT THAN MELISSA AND HER MOM. - ALBERT IS SMARTER THAN STEVEN… AND NICER, TOO. - GABRIEL’S NEW GUN IS HEAVIER THAN OURS. 128


- MY DAD’S CAR IS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN HERS. - A ROCKET IS MORE POWERFUL THAN A PLANE. - A COMPUTER IS MORE SOPHISTICATED THAN A COMPASS.

COMPARATIVES OF EQUALITY: - JENNY IS AS FRIENDLY AS HER SISTER. - YOU BUY AS MUCH CHOCOLATE AS KEVIN. - MY PARENTS WORK AS HARD AS YOURS. - TURTLES AREN’T AS SLOW AS SNAILS.

- A KITE CAN FLY AS HIGH AS MOST BIRDS. - MEN ARE AS INTELLIGENT AS WOMEN. - ERIC IS NOT AS CARING AS HIS BROTHER.

COMPARATIVES OF INFERIORITY: - ANDREA STUDIES LESS ENGLISH GRAMMAR THAN US. - THEIR FENCE IS LESS STEADY THAN MINE. - OUR RELIGIOUS IDEAS ARE LESS CONTROVERSIAL THAN THEIRS.

- MANOLO FIXES LESS MOTORCYCLES THAN HIS BOSS. - BOB SPEAKS LESS FRENCH THAN MR. PEMBERTON. - JENNY TALBOT SAVES LESS MONEY THAN HER HUSBAND. - MY BULLDOG EATS LESS MEAT THAN YOUR GERMAN SHEPHERD.

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VOCABULARY:

- ACTOR

- ACTRESS

- DIRECTOR

- BAND

- GUITAR PLAYER

- BASS PLAYER

- TO ACT

- TO SING

- TO PERFORM

- TO PRODUCE

- TO DIRECT

- CONCERT

- PLAY

- SHOW

- MOVIE

- SCENE

- FILM

- STAGE

- FAME

- JET SET

- RECORD

- BILLBOARD

- AWARD

- ANIMATION

- CASTING

- SPOTLIGHT

- SONG

SENTENCES: - I AGREE. NO DOUBT THAT’S THE BEST PERFORMANCE ON STAGE DURING THIS SEASON. - SHE THINKS THERE ARE SOME BROKEN SPOTLIGHTS BACKSTAGE… PLEASE, FIX THEM ALL. - BE WISE… BEAUTY, FAME AND MONEY DO NOT ALWAYS ASSURE A FULL, HAPPY LIFE. - THE AUDIENCE DOESN’T THINK THAT ACTRESS DESERVES SUCH A DISTINGUISHED AWARD.

- IT’S TRUE, THE CONCERT IN QUITO WE ATTENDED YESTERDAY WAS THE BEST SHOW EVER. - MY BIG BROTHER WAS NOT CHOSEN DURING THE CASTING FOR “THE MUPPETS MOVIE”. - THAT RAW NUDE SCENE SHE PLAYED IN THE MOVIE WAS REALLY HOT… WE ALL BLUSHED. - DIGITAL ANIMATIONS AND ‘3D’ SPECIAL EFFECTS ARE IN FACT VERY COMMON NOWADAYS.

ACTIVITY: * PRACTICE MAKING SENTENCES WITH THE VOCABULARY ABOVE

130

*


KINDS OF INSECTS

- BEE

- ANT

- GRASSHOPPER

- COCKROACH

- BEETLE

- FLEA

- SPIDER

- WASP

- DRAGONFLY

- TICK

- BUTTERFLY 131

- FLY


LESSON

20:

FACTS AND RECORDS WORLDWIDE

FACING THE FACTS: UNDOUBTEDLY THERE ARE LOTS OF THINGS WE JUST DON’T KNOW, THEY’RE FACTS TO US BUT FOR SOME REASON WE DON’T COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND WHAT CAUSE THEM. HERE AND NOW I WANT TO SHARE WITH YOU SOME OF THESE FACTS. THE WHOLE UNIVERSE IS FULL OF AMAZING THINGS, INCREDIBLE EVENTS AND STILL LOTS OF NEW DISCOVERIES TO MAKE… SO, LET’S GO EXPLORING…. LET’S GET STARTED AND ENJOY THIS REVEALING RIDE…

THE HUMAN BODY: - A PERSON CAN LIVE WITHOUT FOOD FOR ABOUT A MONTH, BUT ONLY ABOUT A WEEK WITHOUT WATER.

- YOUR HEART BEATS 101,000 TIMES A DAY. DURING YOUR LIFETIME IT WILL BEAT ABOUT 3

BILLION TIMES AND

PUMP ABOUT 400 MILLION LITRES (800 MILLION PINTS) OF BLOOD.

- YOUR MOUTH PRODUCES 1 LITRE (1.8 PINTS) OF SALIVA A DAY. (LUCKY YOU’RE NOT A BULLDOG).

- ON AVERAGE, PEOPLE CAN HOLD THEIR BREATH FOR ONE MINUTE. THE WORLD RECORD IS SEVEN AND A HALF MINUTES… (UNBELIEVABLE, ISN’T IT?) 132


- THE HUMAN HEAD (SKULL)CONTAINS 22 BONES.

- ON AVERAGE, YOU BREATHE 23,000 TIMES A DAY.

- UNLESS FOOD IS MIXED WITH SALIVA YOU CANNOT TASTE IT.

STATISTICS: - ONE IN TEN PEOPLE IN THE WORLD LIVE ON AN ISLAND.

- THE ODDS OF BEING STRUCK BY LIGHTNING ARE ABOUT 600,000 TO ONE.

- HALF THE WORLD'S POPULATION IS UNDER 25 YEARS OF AGE.

- ABOUT 27% OF FOOD IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ARE WASTED EACH YEAR. IT'S SIMPLY THROWN AWAY…. SUCH A WASTE!

- THERE ARE MORE THAN 150 MILLION SHEEP IN AUSTRALIA, A FIRST

WORLD NATION OF 18 MILLION PEOPLE.

- THE WORLD'S AVERAGE SCHOOL YEAR IS 200 DAYS PER YEAR.

IN THE US, IT IS 180

DAYS, IN SWEDEN 170 DAYS, AND IN JAPAN IT IS 243 DAYS.

- THE CHANCE OF A FIRST MARRIAGE ENDING IN DIVORCE IS BETWEEN 50% AND 67%... (NO WONDER WHY MANY PEOPLE STAY SINGLE)

133


EARTH AND UNIVERSE: - THE ONE PLACE WHERE A FLAG FLIES ALL DAY, NEVER GOES UP OR COMES DOWN,

AND DOES NOT GET SALUTED, IS THE MOON.

- A STORM BECOMES A HURRICANE WHEN CYCLONE WINDS REACH 119 KM/H.

- THE SAHARA DESERT EXPANDS AT ABOUT 1KM PER MONTH.

- MORE THAN 70% OF EARTH'S DRYLAND IS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GROWING DESERTIFICATION.

- OUR STAR, THE SUN, IS 330,330 TIMES LARGER THAN THE EARTH. - DURING A TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE THE TEMPERATURE CAN DROP BY 6 DEGREES CELSIUS. (AN AWESOME WAY TO COOL US DOWN)

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM: - AFRICAN ELEPHANTS ONLY HAVE FOUR TEETH TO CHEW THEIR FOOD WITH. (LUCKILY THEY DON’T GO TO THE DENTIST).

- MAMMALS ARE THE ONLY ANIMALS WITH FLAPS AROUND THE EARS.

- THERE ARE ABOUT 1 BILLION CATTLE IN THE WORLD OF WHICH 200 MILLION ARE IN INDIA.

- MOST OF THE TIMES AN ANNOYED CAMEL WILL SPIT AT A PERSON.

134


- A COMMON HOUSE FLY LIVES ONLY 14 DAYS.

- SHARKS ARE IMMUNE TO ALL KNOWN DISEASES.

- A DOG WAS THE FIRST IN SPACE AND A SHEEP, A DUCK AND A ROOSTER THE FIRST TO FLY IN A HOT AIR BALLOON.

- THE HEART OF A BLUE WHALE IS THE SIZE OF A SMALL CAR.

- AN OSTRICH CAN RUN UP TO 70 KM/H (43MPH).

- A GIRAFFE CAN CLEAN ITS EARS WITH ITS 50CM (20 IN) TONGUE.

- MILLIONS OF TREES ARE ACCIDENTALLY PLANTED BY SQUIRRELS WHO BURY NUTS AND THEN FORGET WHERE THEY HID THEM.

- DOLPHINS CAN REACH 60 KM/H (37 MPH). - FISH AND INSECTS DO NOT HAVE EYELIDS - THEIR EYES ARE PROTECTED BY A HARDENED LENS.

- THE SCALES OF CROCODILES AND TURTLES ARE MADE OF CERATIN, THE SAME SUBSTANCE THAT HOOVES AND FINGERNAILS ARE MADE OF.

SUPERLATIVES IN ENGLISH: WE USE SPECIAL MODIFIED ADJECTIVES TO EXPRESS THAT SOMETHING OR SOMEONE IS ON TOP, THAT IT HAS NO MATCH, THAT IT IS TO THE MAXIMUM OR SHOWS SUPERIORITY. BASICALLY THESE ADJECTIVES ARE DIVIDED IN TWO GROUPS DEPENDING ON THEIR SIZE:

135


FIRST GROUP

SECOND GROUP

- FAST

- THE FASTEST

- EXOTIC

- THE MOST EXOTIC

- NEW

- THE NEWEST

- INCREDIBLE

- THE MOST INCREDIBLE

- COLD

- THE COLDEST

- CHARMING

- THE MOST CHARMING

- OLD

- THE OLDEST

- STUBBORN

- THE MOST STUBBORN

- CLEAN

- THE CLEANEST

- SINCERE

- THE MOST SINCERE

- SWEET

- THE SWEETEST

- HANDSOME

- THE MOST HANDSOME

- LOW

- THE LOWEST

- EXPENSIVE

- THE MOST EXPENSIVE

- UGLY

- THE UGLIEST

- BRILLIANT

- THE MOST BRILLIANT

- HARD

- THE HARDEST

- CARING

- THE MOST CARING

SPECIAL CASES: ADJECTIVE

COMPARATIVE

SUPERLATIVE

- GOOD

- BETTER

- THE BEST

- BAD

- WORSE

- THE WORST

- OLD

- ELDER

- THE ELDEST

- FAR

- FARTHER

- THE FARTHEST

PLAIN SUPERLATIVES:

- SIR JONES WAS THE BRAVEST KNIGHT OF HIS LAND. - JANETH HAS THE PRETTIEST SMILE AT SCHOOL. - KUNTA KINTE IS THE STRONGEST WARRIOR IN THIS TRIBE.

136


- THIS PILLOW IS THE MOST EXPENSIVE IN THE STORE - YOU BAKED THE MOST DELICIOUS CAKES IN TOWN. - MY PARENTS ARE THE MOST SPECIAL PEOPLE IN MY LIFE.

SUPERLATIVES OF INFERIORITY:

- YOU ARE THE LEAST PREPARED TO DO THE JOB. - THE ROBBERY OF THE CROWN IS THE LEAST OF OUR PROBLEMS - ALICE WAS THE LEAST TALL IN OUR BASKETBALL TEAM

- PETER IS THE LEAST ROMANTIC AMONG MY FRIENDS. - THAT SWORD IS THE LEAST DANGEROUS OF YOUR WEAPONS. - THIS MATH EXERCISE IS THE LEAST DIFFICULT OF ALL.

THE USE OF “ENOUGH” WITH NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

WITH NOUNS: - WE DON’T HAVE ENOUGH APPLES TO BAKE A CAKE….. PLEASE GO AND GET SOME. - TELL ME SOMETHING… DID YOU GET ENOUGH SLEEP?... YOU LOOK TIRED. - IT LOOKS LIKE THEY DIDN’T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY TO PAY THE RENT.

- MR. KENT CAN HIRE ENOUGH EMPLOYEES IF HE GETS THE PROPER FUNDING. - WE HAVE ENOUGH EXPERIENCE TO BE ABLE TO SAY THAT THESE TECHNIQUES ARE SAFE. - ROBERT DOESN’T HAVE ENOUGH RESOURCES TO START HIS OWN BUSINESS. 137


WITH ADVERBS: - I CAN´T THANK YOU ENOUGH OLD FRIEND…. I’M IN YOUR DEBT NOW AND FOREVER. - THERE’S CHICKEN IN THE FRIDGE, BUT NOT ENOUGH TO MAKE NUGGETS FOR THE GUESTS. - KEVIN OPENED THE DOOR JUST ENOUGH TO SEE OUT… IT WAS TRULY A BOLD MOVE.

- NO MORE SALAD FOR US, PLEASE, WE HAVE ENOUGH… PERHAPS SOME LEMONADE. - HE CAN’T DO IT FAST ENOUGH… ‘CAR RACING’ REQUIRES SPEED AND QUICK INSTINCTS. - BABY YOU KNOW WELL ENOUGH HOW MUCH I LOVE YOU… OUR MARRIAGE IS FOREVER.

WITH ADJECTIVES: - I DON’T WANT THIS COMPUTER… IT’S NOT POWERFUL ENOUGH TO PROCESS THIS DATA. - HE’S OLD ENOUGH TO MAKE HIS OWN DECISIONS… WE HAVE TO TRUST HIM MORE. - ALICE WAS KIND ENOUGH TO SWITCH SEATS WITH US AT THE THEATER LAST NIGHT.

- KALEL WAS SMART ENOUGH TO SOLVE AND NEUTRALIZE ALL YOUR TRICKS AND TRAPS. - OUR TEAM IS NOT GOOD ENOUGH TO TAKE PART IN THE OLYMPICS… WHAT A SHAME! - THEY’RE NOT POOR ENOUGH TO BE ON WELFARE... WE HAVE TO STUDY THEIR SITUATION

USING (TOO + ADJECTIVE) IN SENTENCES - I REALLY THINK THIS CAR IS TOO EXPENSIVE FOR US… WE CAN’T AFFORD IT. - THE CAVES WE FOUND WERE TOO DEEP, THAT’S WHY WE DIDN’T EXPLORE THEM. - CHARLIE STAYED HOME IN BED… HE WAS TOO SICK TO GO SKATING LAST WEEK.

- ISABEL IS TOO YOUNG TO DIE. SHE CAN’T GIVE UP… SHE HAS TO SURVIVE. - WE CAN NOT PLAY BASKETBALL AGAINTS THESE GUYS… WE ARE TOO SHORT. - PATRICK DOESN’T TAKE ADVICE FROM ANYONE… TRULY HE’S TOO STUBBORN. 138


SUPER FACTS WORLDWIDE: - THE BEE HUMMINGBIRD OF CUBA IS CONSIDERED

THE SMALLEST BIRD IN THE WORLD. - THE WORLD'S SMALLEST DOG IS THE CHIHUAHUA, WHICH MEANS "TINY DOG INTHE SKY."

- THE OLDEST BREED OF DOG IS THE SALUKI.

- THE SLOWEST FISH IS THE SEA HORSE, WHICH MOVES ALONG AT ABOUT

0.016 KM/H.

- THE PIG IS RATED THE FOURTH MOST INTELLIGENT ANIMAL BUT ARE MENTIONED ONLY TWICE IN THE BIBLE.

- PORK IS THE WORLD'S MOST WIDELY-EATEN MEAT.

- THE SAILFISH IS THE FASTEST SWIMMER, REACHING 109 KM/H (68 MPH).

- THE LARGEST ICEBERG EVER RECORDED WAS 335KM (208 MILES) LONG AND 7KM WIDE.

- THE TALLEST WATERFALLS IN THE WORLD ARE ‘ANGEL FALLS’ IN VENEZUELA. AT 979 METRES, (ALMOST 1 KILOMETER) THEY ARE 19 TIMES TALLER THAN THE NIAGARA FALLS, OR 3 TIMES TALLER THAN THE ‘EMPIRE STATE’ BUILDING.

- PEA CRABS (THE SIZE OF A PEA) ARE THE SMALLEST CRABS IN THE WORLD.

139


- THE DEEPEST POINT IN THE SEA: THE MARIANA TRENCH OFF GUAM IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN; IT IS 10,9 KM (6.77 MILES) BELOW SEA LEVEL.

- EARTH IS CONSIDERED THE DENSEST PLANET IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND THE ONLY ONE NOT NAMED AFTER A GOD.

- THE ‘ALTHING’, WHICH IS THE OLDEST EXISTING GOVERNING BODY (SIMILAR TO A SENATE OR PARLIAMENT) OPERATES IN ICELAND (EUROPE). IT WAS ESTABLISHED IN 930 AD.

- THE ‘THREE GORGES DAM’ IS THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD, LOCATED IN HUBEI – CHINA. THIS HYDROELECTRIC DAM HAS AN INSTALLED CAPACITY OF 21,000 MEGAWATTS.

- THE DEEPEST MINE IN THE WORLD IS “WESTERN DEEP

LEVELS” NEAR CHARLETONVILLE, SOUTHAFRICA. IT’S 4,2 KM (2.6 MILES ) DEEEP.

- MOST OF THE AIR IS ABOUT 78% NITROGEN GAS. ONLY 21% CONSISTS OF OXYGEN. THE REMAINING 1% CONSISTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE, ARGON, NEON, HELIUM, KRYPTON, HYDROGEN, XENON AND OZONE.

- ONLY ONE OF THE ORIGINAL SEVEN ANCIENT WONDERS OF THE WORLD STILL SURVIVES: THE GREAT PYRAMID OF GIZA, IN EGYPT… IT IS ABOUT 5000 THOUSAND YEARS OLD.

THE END 140

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ENGLISH PROGRAMME