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SPECIAL EDITION

SITGES BEAUTIFUL & VIBRANT

CATALAN GASTRONOMY IN NAPA VALLEY AND DENVER

SPRING 2016 AICSUSA.ORG


Hellena Cardús Publisher AICS President Spring 2016

Welcome to the Spring 2016 edition of CATALONIA, a quarterly publication by AICS (American Institute of Catalan Studies) which is based in the mega metropolis Houston, Texas. This is the 9th edition which over the past 2 years has grown and expanded over several continents and consists of the following principal collaborators: Hellena Cardús, AICS President, V.P. of North America FIEC (Federation of Catalan Entities), CATALONIA Publisher Roslyn Smith, AICS Cultural Arts Chairperson, Editor in Chief, CATALONIA Jordi Guillem, AICS Vice President, Senior Writer, CATALONIA Mayte Duarte Seguer, AICS Cultural Liaison, Interviewer and Senior Writer CATALONIA Gonçal Mayos, Senior Writer, CATALONIA If you are interested in becoming a Sponsor for CATALONIA magazine, please contact: Jordi Guillem jguillem@cataloniamagazine.com For more information regarding AICS or CATALONIA Magazine, visit our Facebook Page and our website AICSUSA.org Share the Experience! Hellena Cardús hcardús@cataloniamagazine.com

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Roslyn Smith

Editor-in-Chief AICS Cultural Arts Chairperson

Spring 2016

CATALONIA LINKS

CATALONIA FACTS ° Population, 7·6 million people (like Switzerland) ° Surface area: 32,114 km2 (bigger than Belgium) ° GDP: €204,000 million (like Denmark) ° Over 10 million people speak Catalan in Spain, France and Italy (more than Swedish for example). ° Catalonia’s Government has had 129 Presidents to date. Its first Constitution dates back to the

Don’t forget to like us on Facebook.com/CataloniaMagazine rsmith@cataloniamagazine.com

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CONTENTS

CATALONIA 8 PUBLISHER’S NOTE

6 GASTRONOMY 12 A PIONEER SPACE PYSICIAN AND A PIONEER ASTRONAUT

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18 SITGES CHARMING, VIBRANT, HIP

20 THE PHYSICIAN OF SPACE INSTITUTE FOR CATALAN STUDIES , BARCELONA, CATALONIA

35 CATALONIA EN CATALÀ COVER ART | DALI

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CATALONIA MAGAZINE is published quarterly by AICS- American Institute for Catalan Studies . Contact: aicsusa.org Publisher Hellena Cardús hcardús@cataloniamagazine.com Editor-in-Chief Roslyn Smith rsmith@cataloniamagazine.com Senior Writer Jordi Guillem jguillem@cataloniamagazine.com © 2016 CATALONIA MAGAZINE. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. Printed in the U.S.


CATALONIA

GASTRONOMY

8 companies, 7 wineries and 2 chefs from Catalonia participate in “Worlds of Flavor” in Napa Valley Santa Helena (Napa Valley, California) April 20, 2016. - 8 companies, 7 wineries and 2 chefs from Catalonia participated in the leading American food event, Worlds of Flavor celebrated on the Santa Helena Greystone campus (Napa Valley, California). The event saw the presence of 800 top management figures from restaurant and hotel chains, as well as operators and chefs, came to see the latest international culinary trends. The Catalan Government, through Catalonia Trade & Investment agency, has organized a trade mission to the United States, led by the Minister of Business and Knowledge of Catalonia, Jordi Baiget. During Worlds of Flavor, the Catalan chefs Mateu Casañas and Sergio Andreu – from the restaurants Disfrutar and La Pepita, respectively – prepared different dishes in the event’s marketplace in order to raise awareness among the congress attendants on Catalan gastronomic trends and the symbiosis between traditional Catalan cuisine, innovation and local products. The 8 companies which travelled to the United States were Cadí, Moritz, Casa Pons, Caviaroli, Inpanasa, Priorat Natur, Sosa Ingredients and Urgasa. Also, the wineries, represented via a team from Catalonia Trade & Investment, are Caves Torelló, Mas Bertran, Agrícola Sant Josep, Celler 6 | CATALONIA | AICSUSA.ORG

JOAN ROCA Photo By Vadorgarbos

Mas d’en Blei, Molí Parellada, Cellers Unió and Buil & Giné. The event allowed these companies to network with other visitors and to participate in the more than 60 seminars held within the framework of the congress, organized by CAME RUSCALLEDA Photo By the Culinary Institute of Matti Hilling America (CIA), the world’s most prestigious university in the culinary training and food science field, and that has campuses in New York, Texas, California and Singapore. Furthermore, and as part of the Year of Gastronomy and Wine Tourism, the Catalan Tourist Board presented within the congress a sensorial presentation of Catalonia. Attendants were able to taste Catalan products, listen to the sound of a Patum (a traditional Catalan street celebration characterized by the use of firecrackers) and live the experience of being a casteller (the people who join together to form human towers) or of fishing in Catalonia, thanks to 360º panoramic videos seen with VR glasses. The event closed with attendants being offered seeds of Catalan products – scallions, tomatoes from Montserrat, rice from the Delta, etc. – so they could take a bit of Catalonia back home with


CATALONIA

This year Catalonia was named the European Region of Gastronomy 2016. This distinction was made by the Platform of European Gastronomy Regions, through the IGCAT Association (International Institute of Gastronomy, Culture, Arts and Tourism). The goal of the Catalonia European Region of Gastronomy 2016 is to promote Catalan gastronomy, food tourism and the Catalan food and drink products, as strategic sectors of Catalonia and also as essential, defining elements of Catalonia’s identity. Catalonia received this award thanks to the extremely high level of its cuisine. Catalonia is home to El Celler de Can Roca, named twice as the world’s best restaurant, and is also the land of world famous chefs such as Ferran Adrià, who revolutionized the concept of cooking and gastronomy, Joan Roca, Carles Gaig, Sergi Arola and Carme Ruscalleda, who was named Ambassador of the European Region of Gastronomy 2016. Furthermore, Catalonia has 60 stars in the Michelin Guide 2016, spread out among 50 restaurants.

Ferran Adrià

Carles Gaig AICSUSA.ORG | CATALONIA | 7


Moscatell de MontbriĂł del Camp

is a great, sweet wine rooted in the town of Tarragona, Catalonia , which has accumulated several awards in recent years. It is a wine made from a grape variety native called Moscatell d'Alexandria o Moscatell romĂ . Naturally golden in color and has primary aromas of floral references like rose petals and a fantastic lingering aftertaste. It is made from the muscat grape juice, which adds a small amount of alcohol in wine to prevent fermentation. It is usually eaten as a dessert, accompanied by dried fruit, cheese and pasta, as well as adding it in some culinary preparations.

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CATALONIA

17 Catalan wineries present their wines and cavas in Denver to enter the US market 05-19-2016

Barcelona, May 19 2016.- 17 Catalan wineries presented this week in Denver (Colorado) their wines and cavas to seventy American wine sector professionals, as part of the Catalan Wines USA program organized by Catalonia Trade & Investment, the Catalan Government public agency for foreign investment attraction and Catalan business internationalization. Organized by the Miami office of Catalonia Trade & Investment, the event allowed American importers, distributors, sommeliers and restaurant owners to taste and enjoy wines from different Catalan wineries in order to close distribution agreements aimed at introducing or increasing the presence of Catalan wine in the country. The participants in the event were: - Big 5 – DO Costers del Segre, DO Empordà and DO Terra Alta - Ca n’Estella – DO Cava and Penedès - Canals & Munne – DO Cava - Castell d’Or – DO Cava and Penedès - Celler Ronadelles – DO Montsant - Cellers Sant Rafel – DO Montsant - Cellers Unió – DOQ Priorat, DO Terra Alta and Montsant - Cervoles – DO Costers del Segre - De Muller – DOQ Priorat and Tarragona - Empordalia – DO Empordà - Mas Bertran / Viñedos Singulares – DO Penedès and Montsant - Mas Rodó – DO Penedes - Miquel Pons – DO Cava and Penedès - Nadal – DO Cava and Penedès The event was held in Hotel Magnolia in Denver’s city centre. Prior to the wine-tasting, a seminar – given by Lucas Payà, ex-sommelier from the El Bulli and Jaleo restaurants – was celebrated to present the Catalan wine sector to the American professionals present.

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GRAN RESERVA “VINTAGE” MAGNUM VARIETATS: Macabeu, Xarel·lo i Parellada.

50 wineries introduced into the United States The event in Denver is the twentieth wine-tasting since the Catalan Wines USA program was set up by Catalonia Trade & Investment in 2010, an initiative that provides Catalan wineries with a sales and logistics service in the United States, enabling them to enter the market and to increase their sales network. A total of 50 Catalan wineries have been promoted – representing 10 appellations of origin – to some 4,400 American wine professionals, including importers, distributors, sommeliers, chefs and restaurant owners. Thanks to these events 72% of the wineries participating in the programme have closed distribution agreements with US businesses. The next wine-tastings will be held in Raleigh (North Carolina), San Francisco (California) and New York (NY). Wine consumption in the US has grown by 51% over the last 18 years, reaching a total of 31 million hectoliters in 2014, while consumption has fallen in traditional wine drinking countries such as France and Italy. The wine sector in Catalonia Catalonia’s wine sector has a very sound and competitive structure, with over 11,705 vine growers and more than 500 bottling wineries. Over 22,000 people work in the vineyards, in wineries or in the service sector. Wine unites economy and culture. The Government of Catalonia has firmly committed itself to quality in order to make Catalonia the leading top-quality producer in Spain. Nearly all Catalonia’s wine production has an Appellation of Origin status, which provides the added value of guaranteed traceability and compliance with the quality regulations.

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CATALONIA

Catalan Business Schools Rank Amongst World’s Top 05-24-2016

The Iese Business School, Esade Business School and the Eada Business School Barcelona are ranked among the top 50 in the world, according to the 18th edition of the elaborate analysis by the Financial Times (FT) Executive Education 2016. We find Iese business school ranking among the top ten in the world in the number one position and Esade Business School in eighth position. The Eada Business School Barcelona is in 44th place.

The Iese Business school has secured first place by scoring first and second in two distinct surveys by the Financial Times, respectively in the Ranking of Customized Programs and in the Ranking of Open-Enrolment Programs. European schools still occupy highest rankings European schools occupy the top two places of both the rankings for Customized Programs and Open-Enrolment Programs, with North American schools taking third place.


A PIONEER SPACE PHYSICIAN AND A PIONEER ASTRONAUT By Mayte Duarte and Hellena Cardús

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John Glenn

is an icon for the generations who grew up looking at the stars! On February 20th 1962, Glenn became the third American in space and the first to orbit the Earth aboard the Friendship 7. When he returned from the 5 hour spaceflight, he was honored as a national hero. Glenn was also a US Senator from 1974 to 1999. In 1998 when his political career drew to a close, he returned to space at the age of 77, serving as a payload specialist on the space shuttle Discovery. He considered it important to be part of the research on the effects on the elderly of spaceflight and weightlessness. During 9 days he underwent rigorous testing (83 experiments) which measured the effects of zero gravity on the aging human body. Glenn’s experiences as an astronaut, as well as the other astronauts in the Mercury program, were portrayed in the 1983 movie, “The Right Stuff.” John Glenn inspired a generation of Americans to believe in themselves and what they could accomplish when committed to great challenges.

Dr. David Cardús

(1922-2003), a Catalan physician and scientist, was a pioneer on the effects of space travel on humans. From 1957 to 1960 he was a Research Associate in the Department of Physiology of the Lovelace Foundation for Medical Research in Albuquerque, New Mexico. During the 1950s, the Lovelace Foundation was considered the nation’s premier center for research in aviation and space medicine. In 1960 Dr. Cardús moved to Houston, Texas to work as a Research Associate at the Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR). During his tenure he held several positions, including Director of Research, Director of Work Tolerance Laboratory, Director of Cardiopulmonary and Vital Studies and Director of the Biomathematics Division. He also taught mathematics and statistics at Rice University in Houston, Texas.

Photo to the left Launch of Friendship 7, the first American manned orbital space flight. Astronaut John Glenn aboard, the Mercury-Atlas rocket is launched from Pad 14.

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In 1958 when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) unveiled its first space program, Project Mercury, Dr. Cardús started monitoring the health of the first 7 astronauts, chosen from 110 military pilots. Dr. Cardús developed both a professional and personal relationship with the pioneer astronauts: John Glenn, Alan Shepard, Virgil I. Grissom, Gordon Cooper, Walter Schirra, Deke Slayton, and Scott Carpenter. At NASA he performed studies on the effects of zero gravity. Dr. Cardús studied the effects of weightlessness on the anatomy and physiology of astronauts. His early research showed that loss of gravity would compromise bone growth, muscle tone and cardiovascular functions. Dr. Cardús researched a method to counteract those effects by simulating gravity inside space vehicles. He invented the artificial gravity simulator (AGS) which consisted of a short radius rotating platform capable of producing a centrifugal effect on astronauts which replicated gravitational force experienced on Earth’s surface. The AGS has been utilized in spacecraft to recreate gravity and on Earth to study the effects of gravitational forces in patients suffering from paralysis caused by spinal injury.


Despite having spent more than half of his life abroad, Dr. David Cardús maintained his ties to his homeland, Catalonia, as well as his love of the Catalan language and culture. In 1979, Dr. Cardús and his wife, Francesca, founded the American Institute for Catalan Studies (AICS) to raise awareness among Americans of the historical, cultural, and artistic aspects of Catalonia by organizing artistic, cultural events, concerts and publishing bulletins and Catalan literary works. Dr. David Cardús & Francesca Ribas AICS celebration Houston, Texas

Rotating platform used in spacecraft, to reproduce gravity, on Earth, it was used to study the effects of greater or lesser gravitational forces on human biological functions. Invented by Dr. David Cardús.

Bibliography:

     

https://www.nasa.gov/content/profile-of-john-glenn https://www.nasa.gov/content/john-glenn-historical-photos https://www.nasa.gov/johnglenn http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/40thann/humanspf.htm http://www.enciclopedia.cat/EC-GEC-0246322.xml

U.S. Human Spaceflight: A Record of Achievement, 1961-1998. NASA - Monographs in Aerospace History #9, julio de 1998.

 

Project Mercury: A Chronology, de James M. Grimwood (NASA SP-4001, 1963).

Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center from Sputnik to Apollo, de James R. Hansen (NASA SP-4308, 1995).

Space Medicine in Project Mercury, de Mae Mills Link (NASA SP-4213, 1965).

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DESTINATION

Sitges Sitges is a lovely Mediterranean coastal town, a seaside resort some 21 miles southwest of Barcelona in Catalonia. It is a seaside town with gorgeous beaches along Costa Dorada with excellent tourist facilities. Recognized as one of the most charming towns and prestige of the Catalan coast, enjoys a mild and temperate micro climate, which means that visitors can enjoy enviable temperatures every month of the year Sitges is vibrant and hip. The beaches are very colorful and fun! The city which overlooks the Mediterranean has large avenues, narrow streets, four museums.

Jef Nickerson

Sitges is a privileged enclave and is protected by the Garraf's Parc mountains. Throughout the year there are countless events, such as the Sitges International Film Festival, Sitges Carnival, local festivities, Theatre Festival, Vintage, Gay Pride, concerts and more. Its cultural and artistic, its extensive and varied range of activities throughout the year and its intense nightlife, justify a visit, which promises to be unforgettable. Sitges is well know for its cuisine which includes many Catalan sailors' rice dishes served with alioli (Catalan garlic sauce), bull de tonyina (made with tuna tripe, potatoes, and garbanzos), fideuada, (seafood and or meat, fish stock baked together with small vermicelli noodles and savory stuffed peppers with cod fish).

stvcr

Photo by Oh-Barcelona.com

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CATALONIA

Garraf Park

Garraf Park covers an area of around 31,678 acres of limestone hills, which in contact with water and air, have eroded over time to form caves, potholes, sinkholes and limestone pavements. The landscape is mostly Mediterranean scrubland, featuring the typical vegetation of the area: dense thickets of low rise shrubs and herbs such as rosemary and thyme. There are some wooded areas with aleppo pine trees and holm oaks most of which have been affected by forest fires and are in the process of regeneration. Other trees include wild olive, fig and arbutus. The margalló is a special plant in the area, it is a Mediterranean fan palm, which is the most characteristic plant of the area and is a protected species. In the valley bottoms the vegetation is more typical of evergreen oak woodland and features, madder, boxwood, lentiscus honeysuckle and viburnum. Wildlife is limited and adapted to the hot climate, lack of water, sparse vegetation and abrupt terrain which includes wild boar, rabbits, Mediterranean tortoises, quails, Bonelli's eagles, falcons and other birds of prey.

Photo by Claudio B.

The park may be reached by car, by bike or on foot. There are many cyclists and hikers. The easiest way to get to the park from Sitges is from the commercial/industrial estate Polígono de Mas Alba. There are not many buildings in the park, the most representative are the masías (farmhouses) that were linked to agricultural activity such as Can Marcer, Mas Quadrell and Can Grau (wine) and Mas Maiol, el Carxol and Vallgrassa (goat herding).

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CATALONIA

David Cardús THE PHYSICIAN OF SPACE Mercè Piqueras,1 Ricard Guerrero2 Catalan Society for the History of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Catalonia Institute for Catalan Studies, Barcelona, Catalonia

On June 1, 2003, David Cardús, a Catalan physician and scientist who had lived and worked in the United States for almost 50 years, died in Spring, Texas. Trained as a cardiologist, Cardús conducted research in a wide array of medical fields, including the effects of gravitation on human physiology, spinal cord injury rehabilitation, respiratory physiology, aging, and the use of computational and mathematical systems to analyze biological data. Throughout his life, he maintained close ties with Catalonia and Catalan language and culture, working actively to ensure an awareness of both in the United States. The tenth anniversary of his death is a good opportunity to remember him not only as an outstanding physician and scientist, but also as a passionate advocate of the interests of his country. David Cardús was born in Barcelona on August 6, 1922. He studied at the Institut Escola, a public school whose core values were mass literacy and equal access to education. In 1939, following the Spanish Civil War, he moved to France with his father—his mother had died in 1933. In 1942, after his graduation in Arts and Science (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) from the University of Montpellier, France, he returned to Barcelona, and he was forced to serve in the army for four years. Afterwards he studied medicine at the University of Barcelona, earning his M.D. degree in 1949. He did his internship at the Clinic Hospital of the University of Barcelona and completed his residency, from 1950 to 1953, at the private Sanatorium of Puig de l’Olena, in Sant Quirze de Safaja, a small village in the mountains, north of Barcelona. During that time, despite the recent availability of antibiotics to treat tuberculosis, mountain air was still considered curative of the disease and was a therapeutic option adopted by those families who could afford it. During his time at the sanatorium, Cardús met Joan Colomines Puig (1922–2011), a laboratory physician who familiarized Cardús with the Dubos and Middlebrook hemagglutination test in the diagnosis of tuberculosis [1]. The Puig d’Olena sanatorium, which was in operation from 1933 to 1954, was more than a health center; it was a private hospital owned by Maria Plana, a woman who sympathized with Catalanists. Many of the people who had fled to France at the end of the Civil War but returned because the insecure conditions of German-occupied France, made a stop at Puig d’Olena before going to Barcelona. The sanatorium’s patient population included intellectuals and artists, such as the painter Antoni Tàpies (1923–2012), the poet Màrius Torres (1910–1942), who died in the sanatorium, and the writer, literary critic, publisher, and editor, both in Catalan and in Spanish, Josep Maria Castellet.

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The abovementioned physician Joan Colomines went on to become the author of poetry, plays, and essays, as well as a political activist, first clandestinely, during Franco’s years, and later as a member of the Parliament of the Autonomous Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya). Political exiles tend to meet to maintain links to their countries and so did the Catalans in the countries that hosted them after the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). In France, Cardús met Francesca Ribas, the woman he would marry. Her father, Francesc Ribas, had been a Conseller (Minister) in the Catalan Government during the Spanish Second Republic (1931–1939), and was the personal physician of the Catalan President, Lluís Companys, who was also an exile in France. (In 1940, Companys was arrested by the Nazi authorities and extradited to Spain, where he was accused by the dictatorship of militar rebelion; he was executed in Barcelona on October 15, 1940.) Once David Cardús and Francesca returned to Catalonia, she enrolled at the University of Barcelona, obtaining her M.S. in Pharmacy in 1956 and her Ph.D. in Pharmacy in 1960. That same year, the Cardús family moved to the United States. In Houston, she worked as a Research Associate at Baylor College of Medicine, a position she held from 1970 to 2000. Between 1953 and 1954, Cardús was in Paris, on a scholarship awarded to him by the French Government that allowed him to specialize in cardiology at the Bucicot Hospital and La Pieté Hospital. There, he published his first scientific article (see Bibliography at the end). He then returned to Barcelona to become certified in cardiology, at the University of Barcelona. In 1957, with a scholarship from the British Council, he moved to Manchester, UK, where he worked at the Royal Infirmary of the University of Manchester. From 1957 to 1960 he was a Research Associate in the Department of Physiology of the Lovelace Foundation for Medical Education and Research (currently, the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. During the 1950s, the Lovelace Foundation had expanded the scope of its research and was the USA’s premier center for research in aviation and space medicine, in the context of which its researchers had developed a protocol to test candidates for their fitness for space missions. In 1960, Cardús settled in Houston, Texas, to work as a Research Associate at The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR). He remained at the Institute until his retirement. During his tenure there he held various high-level positions, including Director of Research, Director of the Work Tolerance Laboratory, Director of the Cardiopulmonary and Vital Studies Laboratory, and Director of the Biomathematics Division. The TIRR is a teaching hospital of Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas Medical School at Houston, a leader in medical rehabilitation and research. Its roots go back to the Southwestern Poliomyelitis Respiratory Center, set up in the early 1950s, when poliomyelitis was a devastating disease in the United States. With the introduction of the polio vaccine, the incidence of the disease decreased dramatically and the expertise and know-how of the center were subsequently applied to the rehabilitation of handicapped patients suffering from other disabling diseases and injuries.

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CATALONIA In 1966, Cardús obtained a Ph.D. in mathematics at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. He had a great interest in mathematics and sought to establish a connection between the life sciences and mathematics. He emphasized the importance of quantitative measures in medicine and biology and the need to apply mathematical models to the study of cardiac function. Later, he became interested in computer science and its application to the life sciences. Cardús realized that physiological data, such as temperature, pulse, and respiration rate, if expressed as discrete data points, could be processed in a computer almost instantaneously. If the data could be entered into a computer in real time, biological functions and any related changes could be studied as they were happening. Cardús even set up a system that, at his office in Houston, allowed him to record and analyze in real time data from a person performing exercises in Barcelona. The results could then be transmitted and visually displayed in Barcelona [4]. It is clear from his bibliography that his interest in these methods stems from as far back as the late 1960s. By 1970, he and his collaborator Lawrence Newton had published a paper describing the development of a computer technique that allowed the transmissions and longdistance analysis of three analog signals: instantaneous air-flow, O2, and CO2. In addition to his research and his clinical practice, Cardús pursued an academic career, not only at Baylor College of Medicine, where he had several appointments including Professor of Rehabilitation, of Physiology, and of Biomathematics, but also at Rice University, Houston, Texas, where he taught both mathematics and statistics. In 1970, he served as vice-chairman in the organization of a Gordon Conference on biomathematics. (The Gordon Research Conferences are prestigious scientific meetings with a long tradition; they were initiated in the 1920s to promote the exchange of ideas and knowledge at the research frontiers of the biological, chemical, and physical sciences.) Both Cardús and Joan Oró—a Catalan biochemist who also settled in Houston [see COntrib sCi 2:579-594]—tend to be associated mainly with the work they did for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). However, the collaboration with NASA was only part of their research. Cardús studied the effects of weightlessness on the anatomy and physiology of astronauts. His early studies showed that a loss of gravity, such as experienced by astronauts in outer space, would compromise bone growth, muscle tone, fluid distribution, cardiovascular function, and other biological factors. Cardús searched for a method to counteract these effects, by simulating gravity inside the space vehicles. He invented the artificial gravity simulator (AGS), which consists of a short-radius rotating platform capable of producing a centrifugal effect on astronauts’ bodies that replicates the gravitational effect humans experience on the Earth’s surface . That rotating platform has been used both in spacecraft, to reproduce gravity, and on Earth, to study the effects of greater or lesser gravitational forces on human biological functions.

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CATALONIA In addition, Cardús applied his research to health problems common in the normal population. He considered human physical activity at three scales: (i) the capability of performing certain functions, (ii) the optimization of these functions depending on the individual’s general health, and (iii) the adaptability of the individual to environmental changes. Based on these considerations, he used a short-radium centrifuge to study cardiovascular disorders in patients suffering from paralysis caused by spinal injury [3]. The scope of Cardús’ medical interests went beyond the strictly scientific to include social aspects, to which he devoted significant efforts. He believed in medical progress based on the prevention of a disease rather than on its eradication after it had become established in the body. He found a contradiction in references by health managers to a “health system” given that what actually interested them was disease, not health. Similarly, he found the term “Health Center” a misnomer, and “Medical Center” closer to the true aim of these institutions, since their focus was diagnosis and treatment rather than disease prevention [3]. The scientific output of David Cardús has been analyzed thoroughly by Jacint Corbella, in an article published in the journal of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Catalonia [2]. Corbella examined the production of Cardús, in terms of scientific articles indexed in Medline, regarding their distribution over time, the coauthors, and the topics of research. The 54 articles thus identified were published between 1965 and 1997, with the most productive year being 1967 (8 articles indexed). Wesley G. McTaggart and Carles Vallbona, Cardús ’ colleagues at Baylor College, were his most frequent coauthors. Vallbona was also a Catalan physician and was already working at Baylor College when Cardús arrived [6]. The subjects of Cardús research, as reflected in his publications, can be summarized as follows: the physiopathology of the bladder; the effects of bedrest on various physiological functions; cardiac physiopathology and respiratory functions in people suffering from injuries of the central nervous system and the effects on respiratory functions; physical exercise and rehabilitation; spinal cord injury with respect to rehabilitation; public health; mathematics as applied to medicine; the simulation of changing gravity; and books on various topics, in which Cardús was either coauthor or an editor [2]. In 1979, Cardús and his wife, Francesca, founded the American Institute of Catalan Studies (AICS), with the goal of raising awareness among Americans of the historical, cultural, artistic, and economics aspects of Catalonia that distinguish it as a nation. AICS promotes scientific, literary, and educational studies related to Catalonia; translates and publishes Catalan literary works; and organizes artistic and popular events such as concerts, demonstrations of castellers (human towers), and the annual celebrations of Sant Jordi’s Day (April 23) and the National Day of Catalonia (September 11). It also publishes the bulletin Catalonia. In 1999, Cardús promoted the federation of all the Catalan entities in the United States.

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CATALONIA

He was an active member in many other professional associations, Cardús served as an officer in several of them. He was president of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology, member of the Board of Directors of the Society for Mathematical Biology, chairman of the board of the Institute for Hispanic Culture in Houston, founding member and president of the Spanish Professionals in America, and member of the editorial boards of several scientific journals. Both Baylor College of Medicine and the Autonomous University of Barcelona made him Doctor honoris causa. The Autonomous Government of Catalonia awarded him the Sant Jordi Cross and the Narcís Monturiol Medal, and the Spanish Government the “Encomienda de la Orden de Isabel la Católica”. In July 2005, Francesca Ribas, Cardús widow, donated a collection of books from her husband’s library to the Institute for Catalan Studies (Fig. 2). It consists of more than 1000 books on biology, medicine, physics, and mathematics. The books will be classified and kept at the science library of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the institution that recognized Cardús achievements with an honorary doctorate in 1994. Cardús belonged to a generation of Catalan scientists who emigrated to other countries to search for what they could not find in Spain, which was recovering from a civil war and was isolated internationally. Most of the country’s best researchers and those that might have been their mentors had either gone into exile or died during the war. In Houston, there were other Catalan researchers, not only physicians but also, for example, the aforementioned biochemist Joan Oró, who after teaching at Baylor College of Medicine became Full Professor of Biochemistry at Houston University; Carles Vallbona, Distinguished Service Professor of Community Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine; and Lluís Delclós, Margaret and Ben Love Professor in Clinical Cancer Care at M.D Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas. While all of these men were well integrated in their host country, they maintained their ties to Catalonia. because, as Pasteur said, even if science does not have homeland, scientist do. Cardús’ spirit still hovers over the AICS—currently presided by his daughter, Helena Cardús—which continues to promote Catalan culture in the United States.

References Colomines Puig, J (2004) Notes on the evolution of the clinical laboratory in Catalonia. Gimbernat 42:235-255 (In Catalan) Corbella, J (2004) The scientific work by Dr. David Cardús. (Barcelona 1922–Houston 2003). Rev Reial Acad Med Catalunya 19:71-76 (In Catalan) Guerrero R (2006) David Cardús: space’s physician. Catalunya Recerca 4:14-15 (In Catalan) Newton DE (2007) Latinos in science, maths and professions, A to Z of Latino Americans. Facts on File, New York Oleski W (1998, updated 2004) Cardús, David. Hispanic-American Scientists. American Profiles. Facts On File, New York http://www.fofweb. com/History/MainPrintPage.asp?iPin=HisAmSci2&DataType=AmericanH istory&WinType=Free (accessed, November 2013) Ugalde A, Homedes N (2003) The diaspora of the Catalans to the United States throughout the 20th century: the migratory process and the contribution of Catalan scientists in the field of health. Gimbernat 39:237-257 ( In Catalan )

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David Cardús’ Curriculum Vitae and Bibliography Note: This CV and list of publications is based on the list that one of us (R. Guerrero) received from Prof. David Cardús in 1997.

Curriculum vitae

Professor of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Adjunct Professor of Mathematical Sciences and Statistics, Rice University, Houston, TX Education

1942: Bachelor of Arts and Sciences (Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics), University of Montpellier, France 1949: M.D. Degree Magna Cum Laude, University of Barcelona Medical School, Barcelona, Catalonia 1949-1950: (Internship) Clinic Hospital of the University of Barcelona 1950-1953: ( Residency) Sanatori Puig d’Olena (Respiratory Diseases), Sant Quirze de Safaja, Barcelona 1956: ( Certification) Postgraduate School of Cardiology, Diploma in Cardiology, University of Barcelona 1953-1954: Postgraduate Department of Cardiology of Hôpital Boucicaut and Hôpital de la Pitié, Paris, France ( Fellow, French Government ) 1954-1956: Postgraduate School of Cardiology, University of Barcelona 1957: Department of Cardiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, University of Manchester, England (Fellow, British Council) 1966: Summer Institute in Mathematics for Life Scientists, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (National Institute of Health Trainee), Michigan, USA Major areas of interest

Cardiology · gravitational physiology · preventive medicine · rehabilitation · aging Major research interests

Exercise physiology (applications to space research, health and aging) Rehabilitation medicine (applications to cardiac rehabilitation, bladder dynamics and body composition in extensive paralysis) Application of computers and mathematical models to medicine Application of benefit-cost theory to rehabilitation medicine Honors and awards

University of Barcelona Medical School, M.D. Degree Magna Cum Laude, 1949 Fellowship of the French Government, 1953-1954 Fellowship of the British Council, 1957 Fellowship of the Institute of International Education, 1957-1960 Society Sigma Xi (Rice University Chapter), 1963 National Institutes of Health Trainee, 1966 American Urological Association 1st Prize for Exhibit on Clinical Research, 1967 American Congress of Rehabilitative Medicine, Gold Award for Scientific Exhibit, “Micturition Following Spinal Cord Injury”, 1967 Institut d’Estudis Catalans, August Pi-Sunyer Prize of Physiology for paper “A New Method for Respiratory Measurements in Man”, 1968 5th International Congress of Physical Medicine, 1st Prize for Scientific Exhibit, “Micturition Following Spinal Cord Injury”, 1968 Vice-Chairman, Gordon Conference on Biomathematics, 1970 Gold Medal for Demonstration on “Use of Computers and Telecommunications in Rehabilitation Medicine”, 6th Intemational Congress of Physical Medicine, 1972 Member, Societal Catalana de Biologia, 1972 Charter Member, Society for Mathematical Biology American Medical Association, Physician’s Recognition Award in Continuing Medical Education, 1974-1977 Member, Instituto de Cultura Hispánica de Madrid Elisabeth and Sidney Licht Award for Excellence in Scientific Writing, The American Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1980 Commendation of Isabel La Católica, awarded by H.M. King Juan Carlos de España, 1980 Medal Narcís Monturiol, awarded by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Autonomous Government of Catalonia) for his contributions in rehabilitation and space biomedical research, 1985 Catalunya Enfora Award, presented by the Institute of Iberoamerican Cooperation, 1987 Creu de Sant Jordi (St. George’s Cross), awarded by the Generalitat de Catalunya, 1992 Honorary Doctor’s Degree (Doctor Honoris Causa), Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain, 1993 Joan d’Alòs Award. Centre Cardiovascular Sant Jordi, Barcelona, Spain, 1996

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Professional experience and background

Research Associate, Department of Physiology, University of Barcelona, 1954-1955 Research Associate, Department of Physiology, The Lovelace Foundation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1957-1960 Research Associate in Physiological Studies, Texas Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (ITRR), 1960– Director, Work Tolerance Laboratory, TIRR, 1960– Active Medical Staff, TIRR, 1960– Director of Research, TIRR, 1962-1966 President Active Medical Staff, TIRR, 1967-1968 Chairman, Information Sciences Committee, TIRR, 1968-1978 Director, Cardiopulmonary and Vital Studies Laboratory, TIRR, 1969-1978 Director, Biomathematics Division, TIRR, 1970– Academic appointments

Professor, Department of Rehabilitation, Baylor College of Medicine, 1969– Professor, Department of Physiology, Baylor College of Medicine, 1973– Adjunct Professor of Mathematical Sciences, Rice University, 1970-1988 Adjunct Professor of Statistics, Rice University, 1989– Director, Biomathematics Program, Baylor College of Medicine, 1966-1968 Graduate Executive Committee, Baylor College of Medicine, 1968-1969 Chairman, Biomathematics Committee, School of Graduate Studies, Baylor College of Medicine, 1968-1969 Visiting Professor of Physiology, Fac. of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 1970 Consultant positions

Scientific Advisory Council, Common Research Computer Facility, Texas Medical Center, Houston, 1965-1966 Rehabilitation Subcommittee, Texas Heart Association, 1967-1969 U.S. Public Health Service, Division of Health Facilities, Planning and Construction Service, 1967 Mathematical Association of America, 1968 Veterans Administration Hospital, Houston, Texas, 1969– Community Medicine, Harris County Hospital District, 1974– Pan American Health Organization, 1977– Professional organizations and positions held

American College of Chest Physicians, 1960– New York Academy of Sciences, 1962– Harris County Medical Society, 9th District Medical Society, 1963Texas Medical Association, 1963– American Congress of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1964– American Physiological Society, 1964– Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1964– Houston Academy of Medicine, Texas Medical Center Library, Scientific Advisory Committee, 1964– American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1965– American College of Cardiology, 1965– Institute of Hispanic Culture of Houston, 1966– (President, 1967; Chairman of the Board of Directors, 19681969 , and 1971-1976) American Heart Association, Texas, Affiliate, 1967– Biomedical Engineering Society, 1970– Automedica Advisory Editorial Committee, 1970– American Association of University Professors, 1971– American College of Sports Medicine, 1971– Society for Mathematical Biology, 1972– (Board of Directors, 1982) Methods of Information in Medicine, Editorial Board, 1977– Founding member and first president of the American Institute for Catalan Studies (AICS), 1980– Catalan Review, Editorial Board, 1980– Cuadernos de ALDEEU, Editorial Board, 1983– Founding Member and president of the Spanish Professionals in America, Inc. (Asociación de Licenciados y Doctores Españoles en Estados Unidos, ALDEEU), 1984-1985

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American College of Preventive Medicine, 1989– Aerospace Medical Association, 1989– American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology, 1990– International Society for Gravitational Physiology (ISGP), President, 1993 Journal of Gravitational Physiology (ISGP), Editorial Board, 1994– Grants awarded for the following research projects

The Effects of Bedrest on Various Parameters of Physiological Function. Co-Principal Investigator. NAS-9 1461 (1963 -1965) Micturition Studies in Spinal Cord Injury. Co-Investigator. PSH NB-3751-(1965-1968) General Clinical Research Center for Chronic Illness. Chairman of the Clinical Research Center Advisory Committee. DHEW FR-00219 (1963-1970) BUCM Computational Research Center Program. Director of Mathematics and Statistics Program. FR-00259 (19651968) A Work Tolerance Evaluation Research and Training Unit for a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program. Principal Investigator. DHEW 13-P-55235/6 (1969-1974) Body Composition Determinations on Paralytic Persons. Principal Investigator. DHEW RD-1871-M-66 (1969-1974) National Research and Demonstration Center for Heart and Vessel Disease Demonstration Project. Establishing an Outpost in the Community for Screening and Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease. Principal Investigator. DHEW HL-17269 (1974-1975) Rehabilitation Research and Training Center no. 4. Principal Investigator in the following projects. DHEW 16D5681/6 (1969-1980) Total Creatinine in Patients with Extensive Muscular Paralysis Estimated by Radioisotopic Tracer Methods (R-22 1969 -1973) Exercise and Lipids Profile in Ischemic Heart Disease (R-139.1972-77) Quantitation of ST-segment Changes in Exercise ECG Using Computer Techniques (R-159.197447S) Quantitation of ST-segment Changes in Exercise ECG Using Computer Techniques (R-159.1974-75) Cardiac Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Myocardial Ischemia and Arterial Hypertension [R-179 (PR-7) 19771980] Evaluation of Physiological Responses and Diagnostic Criteria for the Application of Exercise Stress Testing within the Biomedical Space Program. Principal Investigator. NAS 9-14661 (1975-1977) Cost-Benefits in Vocational Rehabilitation Project. Director and Principal Investigator. DHEW 12-P-59636 (19711981) Cost-Benefits in Spinal Cord Injury. Project Director and PI. NIHR C-008005862 (1982-1983) Research and Training Center for the Rehabilitation of Persons with Spinal Cord Dysfunction. Project: Development of a Stress Testing Procedure and a Re-conditioning Exercise Program for Patients with paraplegia (R4). NIHR-G08005862 (1983-1987) Development of a Reconditioning Exercise Program for Patients with Paraplegia. Principal Investigator. NIHRG008300044 (1983-1987) Research Center for Spinal Cord Injury Census Project: Cardiorespiratory Function in Spinal Cord Injury, Follow-up and Aging Effects. Principal Investigator. NIHR H-133B80020 (1988-1992) +Gz 100% Gradient Centrifugation During Sleep and Exercise. Its Utility in Counteracting Physiological Microgravity Effects. Principal Investigator. NAGW-1691 (1989-1992) –Gz and +Gz experimentation with the AGS. Principal Investigator. NASA (Subcontract USRA 9910-29-103 ) (19921994) Nutritional Status of Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Relationship to Community Integration. Co-Principal Investigator. NIDRR (Grant No. H133B40011-95 (1993-1999) Artificial Gravity as a Countermeasure of Cardiovascular Deconditioning in Simulated Microgravity. Principal Investigator. NASA/TMC (1995-1996)

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CATALONIA Student doctoral theses

Couch, James R. Jr. “The development of the electrophysiology of the embryonic and fetal heart.” Baylor College of Medicine Smith, Laura K. “Passive motion as a stimulus to ventilation in man.” Baylor College of Medicine Lehman, Jim R. “Quantitative aspects of the inter-conversion of androgens in rat testis and ovary.” Baylor College of Medicine Batiz-Solorzano, Sergio (1979) “On decisions with multiple objectives: Review and classification of prescriptive methodologies, a group value function problem, and applications of a measure of information to a class of multi-attribute.” Rice University Hammons, Charles B (1979) “On subjective data in the multicriteria decision problem.” Rice University Chan, Shou Chao (1979) “Benefit-cost analysis in rehabilitation programs.” Rice University Littell, Elizabeth H (1980) “Neural regulation of blood flow in on-working muscles.” Baylor College of Medicine Domingo, Enric (1982) “Utility of the electric impedance technique in the study of the cardiovascular system.” Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Post-doctorate fellows in Dr. Cardús’ programs

Ernest Pevney. Medical School of Komenius, University of Bratislava, Czechoslovakia Luis I. Vera. School of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Spain Ramón Segura. School of Medicine, University of Sevilla, Spain Eduardo Larrousse. School of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Spain Francisco Fuentes. School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain Alfred Johnston. Department of Electronics, Rice University, Houston, Texas Joe Murdock. Mathematical Sciences, Rice University, Houston, Texas Jacobo Rosenthal. School of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venezuela Domingo Hernández. Departamento de Rehabilitación, Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social, Caracas, Venezuela Ramachandra Srinivasan. Electrical Sciences Department, California Institute of Technology, California Andrés Pie. Department of Physiology, University of Zaragoza, Spain Enric Domingo. School of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain Norman Fuentes. Departamento de Rehabilitación, Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social, Costa Rica. Branco Lovic. Institute Niska Banja, University of Nis, Yugoslavia Philippe Vidal. École Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Constructions Aéronautiques (ENSICA), Toulouse, France Laurent Bonsergeant. École Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Constructions Aéronautiques (ENSICA), Toulouse, France Publications

1954–1964 Lian C, Vilenski J, Cardús D (1954) Les syncopes des constipés (Syncopal accidents in patients with constipation). L ’Hôpital, Revue Mensuelle de Clinique et Thérapeutique 42:7-10 Gilbert-Queraltó J, Cardús D (1955) Exploración de la función ventilatoria en el cardiópata (Study of the ventilatory function in the cardiac patient). Rev Port Mad Mil 3:356 Cardús D, Llauradó JG (1955) Observaciones prácticas sobre las determinaciones de sodio, potasio y calcio por la fotometría de llama (Practical observations of determinations of sodium, potassium and calcium by flame photometry). Med Clin 24:193-202 Llauradó JG, Cardús D (1955) El fotómetro de llama en la valoraci6n de la aldosterona, halocortisoles, DOCA y substancias aldosterosímiles (The flame photometer in the evaluation of aldosterone, halocortisoles, DOCA and aldosteronelike substances). Med Clin 25:151-157 Cardús D, MacKinnon J, Wade G (1958) Circulatory effects of changing position in mitral disease. Br Heart J 20:233-243 Cardús D, Vallbona C (1959) Electrónica y enseñanza (Electronics and Teaching). Insula 162:13 Cartwright RS, Palich WE, Lim TPK, Proper R, Cardús D (1960) Experiences in extra-corporeal circulation. Am Surg 26:792-799 Cardús D (1960) Estudios sobre la capacidad humana para el esfuerzo mecánico (Studies on the human capacity to perform mechanical work). University of Barcelona-Frontis, Barcelona, Spain Cardús D, Luft UC, Spencer WA, Hoff HE (1962) Considerations on appraisal of physical fitness. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 43:222-227

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Cardús D, Vallbona C (1962) Acerca de la teoría de la información (On the theory of Information). Insula 192:10 Pie A, Vallbona C, Cardús D (1962) Un programa moderno para la enseñanza práctica de la fisiología (A modern program for the practical teaching of physiology). Arch Fac Med de Zaragoza 10:3-16 Vallbona C, Spencer WA, Cardús D, Dale J (1963) Control of orthostatic hypotension of quadriplegic patients with pressure suit. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 44:7-18 Cardús D, Luft UC, Beck B (1963) Measurements of total circulating hemoglobin with the carbon monoxide re-breathing method. J Lab Clin Med 61:944-952 Cardús D, Quesada EM, Scott PB (1963) Use of an electromagnetic flowmeter for urine flow measurements. J Appl Physiol 18:845-847 Cardús D, Hoff HE (1963) Pulmonary ventilation response to the metabolic action of 2,4-dinitrophenol. Arch lnt Pharmacodyn T 144:563-570 Cardús D, Quesada EM, Scott FB (1963) Studies on the dynamics of the bladder. J Urol 90:425-433 Luft UC, Cardús D, Lim TPK, Anderson EC, Howarth JL (1963) Physical performance in relation to body size and composition. Ann NY Acad Sci 110:795-808 Cardús D (1963) A study of the frequency of the heart in the early phase of recovery following muscular exercise. Proceedings 5th IBM Medical Symposium, Endicott, NY Scott FB, Quesada EM, Cardús D (1964) Studies of the dynamics of micturition: observations on healthy men. J Urol 92:455-463 1965–1974 Spencer WA, Cardús D, Vallbona C (1965) Considerations in use of information processing technology in clinical investigations. Proceedings NASA Symposium on the Analysis of central nervous system and cardiovascular data using computer methods. NASA SP72 Washington Aeronautics and Space Administration Vallbona C, Cardús D, Spencer WA, Hoff HE (1965) Patterns of sinus arrhythmia in patients with lesions of the central nervous system. Am J Cardiol 16:379 Cardús D, Beasley WC, Vogt FB (1965) A study of the possible preventive effect of muscular exercises and intermittent venous occlusion on the cardiovascular deconditioning observed after 10 days bed recumbency. Experimental design. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (Contract NAS-9-1461) Vallbona C, Vogt FB, Cardús D, Spencer WA, Walters M (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part I: Review of the literature on the physiological effects of immobilization. NASA Contractor Report CR-171 Vallbona C, Vogt FB, Cardús D, Spencer WA (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part II: Experimental design. NASA Contractor Report CR-172 Vogt FB, Lamonte RJ, Hallen TO, Vallbona C, Cardús D, Spencer WA, Holt TW (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part III: Bioinstrumentation. NASA Contractor Report CR-173 Vallbona C, Spencer WA, Blose W, Cardús D, Vogt FB, Leonard J (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part IV: A system for processing data collected in the immobilization study unit. NASA Contractor Report CR-174 Walters M, Vallbona C, Cardús D, Vogt FB, Spencer WA (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function, Part V: Dietary Requirements. NASA Contractor Report CR-175 Vogt FB, Cardús D, Vallbona C, Spencer WA (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part VI: The effect of the performance of periodic flack maneuvers on preventing cardiovascular deconditioning of bedrest. NASA Contractor Report CR-176 Cardús D, Spencer WA, Vallbona C, Vogt FB (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part VII: Cardiac and ventilatory response to the bicycle ergometer test. NASA Contractor Report CR-177 Vallbona C, Cardús D, Vogt FB, Spencer WA (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part VIII: The effect on the cardiovascular tolerance to passive tilt. NASA Contract Report CR-178 Vallbona C, Spencer WA, Vogt FB, Cardús D (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part IX: The effect on the vital signs and circulatory dynamics. NASA Contractor Report CR-179

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Vogt FB, Spencer WA, Cardús D, Vallbona C (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part XI: The effect of bedrest on blood volume, urinary excretion, and urinary electrolyte excretion. NASA Contractor Report CR-181 Vogt FB, Mack PB, Beasley WG, Spencer WA, Cardús D, Vallbona C (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part XII: The effect of bedrest on bone mass and calcium balance. NASA Contractor Report CR-182 Cardús D, Vallbona C, Vogt FB, Spencer WA, Lipscomb HS, Eik-Nes KB (1965) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part XIV: The effect of bedrest on plasma levels and urinary excretion of 17- hydrocorticosteroids. NASA Contractor Report CR -184 Cardús D, Vallbona C, Vogt FB, Spencer WA, Lipscomb HS, Eik-Nes KB (1965) Influence of bedrest on plasma levels of 17hydroxycorticosteroids. Aerosp Med 36:524-528 Scott FB, Quesada EM, Cardús D, Laskowskl T (1965) Electronic bladder stimulation: dog and human experiments. Invest Urol 3:321 Cardús D (1965) Abstracts of papers presented at the 3rd Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Computer Science in the Life Sciences (ed). Report and Recommendations by the Workshop Conference on Biomedical Computer Training for Research. Houston, TX Vallbona C, Vogt FB, Cardús D, Spencer WA (1966) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part X: The effect of bedrest on the circulatory response to Valsava Maneuver. NASA Contractor Report CR-180 Vogt FB, Spencer WA, Cardús D, Vallbona C (1966) The effect of bedrest on various parameters of physiological function. Part XIII: A review of possible mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance to passive tilt. NASA Contractor Report CR-183 Cardús C, Vallbona C, Spencer WA (1966) Effects of three kinds of artificial respirators on the pulmonary ventilation and arterial blood patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. Dis Chest 50:297-306 Cardús D (1966) Quantitation in biology and medicine. J Chronic Dis 19:319-324 Cardús D (1966) Effect of 10 days recumbency on the response to the bicycle ergometer test. Aerosp Med 37:993-999 Cardús D (1966) The heart rate response to exercise before and after bed recumbency. NASA Contract NAS 9-1461, Houston, TX Cardús D, Scott FB,Quesada EM (1966) Computer processing of data generated in micturition studies (preliminary report). Invest Urol 4:262-266 Scott FB, Quesada EM, Cardús D (1967) The use of combined uroflowmetry, cystometry, and electromyography in evaluation of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. In: Boyarsky (ed) The Neurogenic Bladder. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD Cardús D, Spencer WA (1967) Recovery time of heart frequency in healthy men: Its relationship to age and physical condition. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 48:71 Scott FB, Cardús D, Quesada EM, Riles T (1967) Uroflowmetry before and after prostatectomy. South Med J 60:948-952 Cardús D (1967) Computer processing of data generated by a bicycle ergometer test. J Sport Med Phys Fit 7:155-161 Cardús D (1967) Establishing a biomathematics program in a medical school. J Med Educ 42:1116-1121 Cardús D (1967) O2 alveolar-arterial tension difference after 10 days recumbency in man. J Appl Physiol 23:934-937 Spencer WA, Vallbona C, Levy AH, Cardús D (1967) Future of computers in medicine. Proceedings 7th Annual Biomedical Engineering Symposium. San Diego, CA Scott FB, Cardús D, Quesada EM (1967) A study of micturition in patients with cauda equina injury. Proc Annu Spinal Cord Inj Conf 16:141-145 McTaggart WG, Cardús D (1967) An analysis of errors in a technique for the combined use of multiple radioisotopes. Int J Appl Radiat Isot 20:429436 Cardús D, Ziegler RK (1967) Heart-beat frequency curves: A mathematical model. Comput Biomed Res 1:429-436 Quesada EM, Scott FB, Cardús D (1968) Functional classification of neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 49:692-697 Cardús D (1968) Physical exercise and inactivity. Proceedings National College of Physical Education for Men Cardús D (1968) Un nou mètode per mesures respiratòries en l’home (A new method for respiratory studies in man). Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Barcelona, Spain Cardús D, McTaggart WG, Young CL (1969) The effect of exercise on determination of total body water by tritium oxide. J Appl Physiol 27:1-3 Cardús D (1969) Proprioceptive stimulus in the regulation of pulmonary ventilation in man. Cardiovasc Res Center Bull 8:23-32 Cardús D, Spencer WA, McTaggart VG (1969) A study of the gross composition of the body of patients with extensive muscular paralysis. Final Report. Social and Rehabilitation Service, Project RD 1871-M

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Cardús D, Newton L (1970) On-line computer processing of the pneumotachogram, and the O2 and CO2 concentrations of the respiratory gas. Proceedings 10th annual Biomedical Symposium Cardús D, Newton L (1970) Development of a computer technique for the online processing of respiratory variables. Comput Biol Med 1:125-131 McTaggart WG, Cardús D (1971) Tritium oxide movement in body water of healthy and paralytic men. In: Organic Scintillators and Liquid Scintillation Counting. Academic Press, New York, pp 621-634 Cardús D (1971) Computerized unit for the Cardiac Rehabilitation Program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 52:416-421 Cardús D (1972) Introducción a las matemáticas para médicos y biólogos (Introduction to Mathematics for Biomedical Investigators). Vicens-Vives, Barcelona, Spain Cardús D (1973) Comprehensive testing in ischemic heart disease. In: Zsywietz C, Schneider B (eds) Computer Application on EGG and VCG Analysis. North Holland, pp 551-559 Cardús D (1973) Towards a medicine based on the concept of health. Prev Med 2:309-312 Cardús D (1973) Implicacions mèdiques d’una nova aproximació al concepte de salut (Medical implications of a new approach to the concept of health). Annals de Medicina XX:507-537 Cardús D (1974) Energy expenditure on-the-job: An approach to its assessment. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 55:260-264 Thrall RM, Cardús D (1974) Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis in rehabilitation research programs. Methods Inf Med 13:147-151 Cardús D, Vera L (1974) Systolic time intervals at rest and during exercise. Cardiology 59:133-153 Claus-Walker J, Cardús D, Carter RE, Vallbona C (1974) Reappraisal of the metabolic and endocrine profile of subjects with cervical spinal cord transaction. Proc Int Congress Phy Med 2:753-757 Cardús D (1974) The impact of electronic data processing on medicine (Introductory remarks). Proc Int Congress Phys Med 2:213214 Cardús D (1974) Quantitative evaluation of work tolerance with computer assistance. Proc Int Congress Phys Med 2:215-216 1975–1984 Cardús D, Fuentes F, Srinivasan R (1975) Cardiac evaluation of a physical rehabilitation program for patients with ischemic heart disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 56:419-425 Thrall RM, Cardús D (1975) Benefit-cost modeling in the presence of multiple decision criteria. In: Venedictov DO (ed) Health System Modeling and the Information System for the Coordination of Research in Oncology. Proceedings IIASA Biomedical Conference, pp 225-237 Cardús D, Thrall RM (1975) The concept of positive health and the planning of health care systems. In: Venedictov DO (ed) Health System Modeling and the Information System for the Coordination of Research in Oncology. Proceedings IIASA Biomedical Conference, pp 211-223 Cardús D (1976) La matemàtica i les ciències de la vida (Mathematics and the life sciences). Treballs Soc Cat Biol 33:135-144 Cardús D, Thrall RM (1977) Overview: Health and the planning of health care systems. Prev Med 6:134-142 Claus-Walker J, Cardús D, Griffith D, Halstead LS (1977) Metabolic effects of sodium restriction and thiazides in tetraplegic patients. Paraplegia 15:3-9 Cardús D (1978) Electronic processing of cardiac rehabilitation data. Med Inform 3:15-26 Cardús D (1978) Exercise testing: methods and uses. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 6:59-103 Cardús D (1978) A Hispanic Look at the Bicentennial (ed and contributor). Symposium on the Bicentennial sponsored by the Institute for Hispanic Culture of Houston. Houston, TX Fuhrer MJ, Cardús D, Rossi CD (1979) Judgements of the potential benefits of rehabilitation research. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 60:239-246 Jameson JP, Canzoneri J, Cardús D (1979) A prototype cardiotachometer histogram indicator. Automedica 3:1-6 Cardús D, Hammons C, Thrall RM (1979) Multiple objective benefit-cost modeling for decision makers. Decision Information. Academic Press, New York, pp 73-83 Cardús D, McTaggart WG, Ribas-Cardús F (1980) Exercise training in ischemic heart disease: Effects on physical performance and plasma lipids, ACTH and cortisol. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 61:303-310 Thrall RM, Cardús D, Fuhrer MJ (1981) Multicriterion decision analysis. In: Cobb L, Thrall R (eds) Mathematical Frontiers of the Social and Policy Sciences. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp 131-154

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Cardús D, Vallbona C (1981) Computers and Mathematical Models jn Medicine (eds). [Medical sessions of the 1st Conference on Mathematics at the Service of Man. Barcelona, Spain, 1977.] Springer Verlag, New York Cardús D, Fuhrer MJ, Thrall RM (1981) Quality of life in benefit-cost analyses of rehabilitation research. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 62:200-212 Fuhrer MJ, Cardús D, Thrall RM (1981) Proposed rehabilitation research of demonstration projects: Estimating target population size. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 62:156-160 Cardús D, Fuhrer MJ, Martin AW, Thrall RM (1982) Use of benefit-cost analysis in the peer review of proposed research. Manage Sci 28:439-445 Cardús D, Rosenthal J (1982) The pressure-heart rate product. Its quantitative relation to physical work. Academia Latinoamericana de Rehabilitaci6n 4:18-26 Blocker WP, Cardús D (1983) Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease (eds). Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY Cardús D (1983) The natural history of ischemic heart disease. In: Blocker WP, Cardús D (eds) Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease. Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY, pp 79-86 (chapter 7) Cardús D (1983) Exercise stress testing in ischemic heart disease. In: Blocker WP, Cardús D (eds) Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease. Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY, pp 115-126 (chapter 11) Cardús D, Blocker WP (1983) Assessment of obesity in the cardiac patient. In: Blocker WP, Cardús D (eds) Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease. Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY, pp 141-146 (chapter 14) Cardús D (1983) Implementing the exercise prescription. In: Blocker WP, Cardús D (eds) Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease. Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY, pp 199-202 (chapter 24) Tjen LH, Cardús D (1983) Electrocardiographic monitoring during exercise. In: Blocker WP, Cardús D (eds) Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease. Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY, pp 213-224 (chapter 27) Quiñones J, Cardús D (1983) Blood pressure response to submaximal exercise. In: Blocker WP, Cardús D (eds) Rehabilitation in Ischemic Heart Disease. Spectrum Publications, Jamaica, NY, pp 231-236 (chapter 29) Cardús D, Fuhrer MJ, Thrall RM (1983) Benefit-cost approach to the selection of medical research. In: Van Bemmel JH, Ball MJ, Wiggertz O (eds) Medinfo 83. North-Holland, pp 905-908 Blocker WP, Merrill JM, Krebs MA, Cardús D, Osterman HJ (1983) An electrocardiographic survey of patients with chronic spinal cord injury. Am Correct Ther J 37:101-104 Domingo E, Cardús E (1983) Apexcardiogram and ischemic heart disease. J Card Rehabil 3:771-774 Cardús D, McTaggarti WG (1984) Total body water and its distribution in men with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 65:509-512 Cardús D, McTaggart WG, Domingo E (1984) Cardiovascular changes with head-down ankle suspension. Physiologist 27:(suppl no. 6) S45-S46 1985–1995 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1985) Body composition in spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 66:257-259 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1985) Body sodium and potassium in men with spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 66:156159 Domingo E, Cardús D (1985) Simultaneous cardiovascular studies by electrical impedance. Automedica 6:193-208 Cardús D (1985) Acerca del envejecimiento cardiovascular (On the cardiovascular aging). Cuadernos de ALDEEU (Fronteras de Medicina) 2:1-4 Cardús D (1985) Consideraciones fisiológicas y psicológicas del vuelo espacial (Physiological and psychological considerations in space flight) XI Semana Astronáutica, Barcelona, Spain. Agrupación Astronáutica Española /Caixa de Barcelona, pp 38-41 Cardús D (ed) (1986) Emigración española en USA (Spanish emigration in the USA). Monografias de ALDEEU no. 2 Cardús D (1986) Emigraci6n y desarrollo científico (Emigration and scientific development). Monografías de ALDEEU 2:23-29 Domingo E, Cardús (1987) Exercise cardiac output by electrical impedance. Automedica 8:287-299 Cardús D (1987) Investigació mèdica a l’espai (Biomedical research in space). Rev Catalunya 13:106-112 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1988) Electric impedance measurements in quadriplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 69:186-187 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1988) Body fluid shifts in spinal cord transection and simulated microgravity. Physiologist (suppl.) 31 (1): S20-S21 Loubser PG, Cardús D, Plckard LR, McTaggart WG (1988) Effects of unilateral, low-frequency, neuromuscular stimulation on superficial circulation in lower extremities of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Med Instrument 22:32-87 Cardús D (1988) Acerca de la hispanidad. Cuadernos de ALDEEU vol. IV (1):85-90

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Cardús D, McTaggart WG, Ribas-Cardús F, Donovan WH (1989) Energy requirements of gamefield exercises designed for wheelchair-bound persons. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 70:124-127 Bunch D, Cardús D, Puhrier MJ, Thrall RM (1989) When are additive models valid for evaluating proposed research? Method Inform Med 28:168177 Cardús D, Linnarsson D, McTaggart WG, Tedner B (1990) Electric impedance measurements in body fluid shifts in simulated microgravity. Automedica 12:211-219 Cardús D, Diamandis P, McTaggart WG, Campbell S (1990) Development of an Artificial Gravity Sleeper (AGS). Physiologist 33 (1):S112-S113 Cardús D, McTaggart WG, Campbell S (1991) Progress in the development of an Artificial Gravity Simulator (AGS). Physiologist 34(1):S224-S225 McTaggart WG, Cardús D (1992) Data acquisition system for the artificial gravity simulator (AGS). Physiologist 35(1):S119S121 Cardús D, Cardús FR, McTaggart WG (1992) Coronary risk in spinal cord injury: assessment following a multivariate approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 73:930-933 Cardús D, Ribas-Cardús F, McTaggart WG (1992) Lipid profiles in spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 30:775-782 Cardús D (1992) Medicina i biologia: la informació i la vida (Medicine and biology: information and life). Rev Catalunya 67:1126 Cardús D (1992) Gravitació i medicina (Gravitation and medicine) (Admission speech at the Royal Academy of Medicine of Catalonia). Rev Reial Acad Med Catalunya 18:24-31 Cardús D (1992) La recerca cientíca i la pràctica mèdica (Scientific Research and Medical Practice). Bull Unió Catalana Hospitals, Barcelona 23:2729 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1993) Observations on the cardiovascular response to the AGS. The First International Design for Extreme Environments Assembly (IDEEA I). Final Conference Proceedings Report. University of Houston, Houston, TX, pp 742-745 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1993) The cardiovascular response to the AGS. Physiologist 36: S155-S157 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1994) Artificial gravity as a countermeasure of physiological deconditioning in space. Adv Space Res 14:409-414 Cardús D (1994): Artificial gravity in space and in medical research. J Gravitational Physiol 1:19-22 Cardús D, Jaweed M, Taggart WG (1995) Electrical impedance measurements in the arm and the leg during a thirty day bed rest study. J Gravitational Physiol 2:P70-71 Cardús D (1995) Artificial gravity research: A potential source of benefits in space and in Earth. AIAA, LS-58 1996 – Cardús D (1996) Cardiovascular effects of a traditional -Gz force during relatively prolonged exposure J Gravit Phisiol 3:65-67 Cardús D, McTaggart WG (1997) Cardiovascular effects of a sustained -Gz force in the horizontal position. Aviat Space Environ Med 68:1099-1103

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CATALUNYA TÉ UN HIMNE: ELS SEGADORS I HO ÉS PER VOLUNTAT DEL POBLE CATALÀ By Mayte Duarte

La seva història és desconeguda per a molts catalans, que fins no fa gaire l’havíem après a cantar-lo no pas a l'escola, sinó en la més plena clandestinitat.

L'himne té dues lletres: L’anomenada "antiga", "històrica" o "tradicional", i la versió oficial, de tres estrofes. La lletra d'Els Segadors és la d'una cançó popular datable en el segle XVII, quan es produí la guerra dels catalans comandats per Pau Claris, president de la Generalitat, contra el rei de Castella Felip IV i molt especialment contra el seu privat, el comte-duc d'Olivares. La lletra forma una mena de "memorial de greuges". Les ofenses que les tropes castellanes allotjades a Catalunya feien als catalans, les intrigues del comte-duc, la revolta del dia de Corpus -el Corpus de Sang- del 1640, i l'alçament del poble català enfront dels abusos dels ocupants. Aquesta lletra es la que anomenem històrica i fou recollida i estudiada en el segle XIX per l’historiador Manuel Milà i Fontanals, que en publicà la variant més difosa en el seu Romancerillo catalán, publicat el 1853 i reeditat el 1882. Cap a l'any 1887, una colla d'amics catalanistes que procedien de les files de l'entitat La Jove Catalunya -entre els quals hi havia Àngel Guimerà, Lluis Domenènech i Montaner, Francesc Matheu, Fracesc Alió, Pere Nanot i Renart, Joan Montserrat, entre d'altres, i que es reunien amb personalitats com Verdaguer o Gaudí- decidiren que per facilitar-ne la difusió, calia escollir i fixar alguna de les diferents variants melòdiques existents de la cançó d'Els Segadors, que com a poema ja era ben conegut en els ambients catalanistes. 36 | CATALONIA | AICSUSA.ORG


A finals del segle XIX, fou el músic Francesc Alió qui en féu la primera harmonització, basant-se en la melodia d'una altra cançó popular catalana -també anomenada Cançó dels segadors-, que cantava la mare de Jacint Verdaguer amb la melodia d’una cançó popular de taverna que li va cantar el canonge Jaume Collell, la lletra de la qual era de tall eròtic, "Els tres garberets" -sinònim de segadors- que oralment ja es cantava abans i tot dels fets de 1640. La música era sensiblement igual a la que cantem avui, però calia afegir-hi una tonada més vibrant al final de cada estrofa. Fou l'escriptor Ernest Moliné i Brasés qui va aconsellar el "Bon cop de falç!" que Alió harmonitzà lliurement. Des d'aleshores, la cançó d'Els Segadors -encara amb lletra tradicional- s'imposà com a cant de les manifestacions del catalanisme. No fora fins l'any 1899 que la Unió Catalanista convocà un concurs per a dotar l'himne català d'una lletra mes curta (la tradicional té més de seixanta versos), que s’adaptés a les reivindicacions modernes de Catalunya. Tot i que els elements més tradicionals s'hi oposaren al·legant que, si el poble havia creat la cançó era el poble el que l'havia de canviar, se celebrà el concurs i en fou guanyador el poeta Emili Guanyavents que llavors signava com a Guanyabens -procedent d'ambients anarquistes, espiritistes i maçons-. Els segadors es va difondre amb el tren mentre els governadors civils feien mans i mànigues per prohibir-ne el cant. Entre els que s'hi oposaven podem trobar al bisbe Torras i Bages, el poeta Jacint Verdaguer i el patriarca dels Jocs Florals, Francesc Matheu qui afirmava que si bé ell no creia gaire en els concursos, en definitiva seria el poble català el que acceptaria o refusaria el canvi. La nova lletra -de tres estrofes, que és encara la que es canta avui- motivà un seguit d'harmonitzacions musicals molt valuoses. Cal destacar sobretot les de Lluis Millet, Enric Morera, Mas i Serracant, Pau Casals, Francesc Pujol (per a cobla) i, molt especialment, la que Joan Lamote de Grignon féu per a la Banda Municipal de Barcelona, i que en l’ anterior període de la Generalitat era interpretada en els actes oficials; actualment, s'ha difós moltíssim l'harmonització feta per Josep Viader per a tot el Moviment Coral Català. Els Segadors fou declarat himne oficial per un decret de la Generalitat, si bé no ho fou per l'Estatut de Catalunya del 1933, que declarava oficials la senyera de les quatre barres i la llengua catalana. Però en la pràctica i en tots els actes oficials l'himne que s'interpretava en públic era Els Segadors. En proclamar-se la República catalana el dia 14 d'abril de 1931, algunes persones -entre les quals el conseller de cultura Ventura Gassoldesitjaven un nou himne de caràcter menys bel·licós. Fou encarregat al mestre Amadeu Vives, que en feu la música basant-se en la composició Els Xiquets de Valls, d'en Clavé, i la lletra, al poeta Josep Maria de Sagarra. AICSUSA.ORG | CATALONIA | 37


Aquest himne titulat El cant del Poble -i que comença amb els coneguts versos: "Glòria, catalans, cantem! Cantem amb l'ànima!"- fou estrenat la nit del 18 d'abril de 1931, per l'Orfeó Català. Però la reacció del públic no fou gaire favorable i, en acabar, reclamaren tumultuosament Els Segadors. Fou així -diguem que per plebiscit popular- que Els Segadors quedaren de nou consagrats com a l'himne nacional de Catalunya. Els Segadors, com totes les manifestacions de la nostra personalitat col·lectiva, ha estat prohibit en ocasions ben diverses. La dictadura de Primo de Rivera prohibí l'himne, i aquest fou substituït popularment per altres cants, com La Santa Espina (una sardana cantada amb lletra d'Àngel Guimerà i música d'Enric Morera) o per La Balanguera, amb lletra de Juan Alcover i música d'Amadeu Vives. També L'Emigrant -lletra de Verdaguer i música d'Amadeu Vives - substituí sovint, en actes públics, Els Segadors. En el decurs dels darrers quaranta anys de persecució de la llengua i de la cultura catalanes va trobar-se "recanvi" més acceptat de tots: El Cant de la Senyera, amb lletra de Joan Maragall i música de Lluis Millet -la interpretació del qual, com a himne de l'Orfeó Català i de l'antiga Germanor dels Orfeons de Catalunya, també fou prohibida per les autoritats franquistes, i donà lloc a la detenció de Jordi Pujol, desprès d'uns incidents al Palau de la Música Catalana l'any 1960. També s'ha interpretat L'Emigrant i fins i tot les estrofes patriòtiques del Virolai. Però potser el substitutiu que feia mes impressió, en els difícils anys quaranta, era la sardana Juny de Juli Garreta i que Enric Casals la instrumentà per a orquestra simfònica, i Joan Lamote de Grignon per a banda el 1923. La gent, en acabar la ballada, l'escoltava dempeus, en silenci, com si fos l’ himne nacional. Després de la seva prohibició el 1939, Els Segadors només foren interpretats a Catalunya, públicament, de manera clandestina. La primera vegada de forma col·lectiva fou a Montserrat, el dia de l'enterrament de l'abat Aureli M. Escarré, per un nombrós grup d'assistents. El dia 11 de setembre de 1970, al vespre, també els barcelonins pogueren escoltar l'himne català per uns altaveus que els joves del Front Nacional havien connectat a un magnetòfon amagat en un pis, davant l'Arc de Triomf de Barcelona. I ja per fi, en acabar la Diada Nacional del 1976, a la plaça de Sant Boi, milers i milers de catalans arribats d'arreu de Catalunya entonaren les notes vibrants del nostre himne, dirigits per la mà mestre i emocionada de l'Oriol Martorell. La Diada del 1977 i l'arribada del President Tarradellas, el 23 d'octubre de 1977, li donaren valor oficial. En acabar la sessió constitutiva de la Primera legislatura de la Catalunya autonòmica amb Heribert Barrera com a President del Parlament de Catalunya, el 10 d'abril de 1980, tots els parlamentaris s’aixecaren i espontàniament entonaren Els Segadors. En la cerimònia d’inauguració dels Jocs Olímpics de Barcelona el 25 de juliol del 1992 s’interpretà Els Segadors abans de l’himne espanyol. Per llei del Parlament de Catalunya de 17 de febrer de 1993, Els Segadors fou declarat himne oficial de Catalunya. El registre sonor oficial va ser realitzat i divulgat l'any 1994. 38 | CATALONIA | AICSUSA.ORG


“ELS TRES GARBERETS” Cançó popular catalana, que cantava la mare de Jacint Verdaguer amb la melodia d’una cançó popular de taverna que li va cantar el canonge Jaume Collell, a l’Emili Guanyavents, la lletra de la qual era de tall eròtic, "Els tres garberets" -sinònim de segadors- que oralment ja es cantava abans i tot dels fets de 1640.

Si n’eren tres garberets/ de la plana de Cerdanya./ Se’n van ‘nar a segar a l’Urgell/ una llarga temporada. Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany. Ja un porta el volant d’or/ l’altre li’n porta de plata/ i el més petit de tots/ porta la falç daurada. Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany.. Una senyora l’ha vist,/ n’ha quedat enamorada./ L’han enviat a buscar/ per una de les criades. Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany. - Déu lo guard, lo segador,/ la mestressa us demana./ -Digueu-li que ja n’hi aire/ a les quatre de la tarda. Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany. Quan les quatre en van tocar,/ el segador en puja l’escala:/ - Déu la guard, la dolça amor,/ què és lo que vostè em demana? Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany. - Segador, bon segador,/ em segarà un camp de civada?/ - La civada li segaré/ si els tractes m’hi agraden. Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany. - La civada no és al pla/ ni tampoc a la muntanya;/ n’és a sota el davantal,/ la camisa me l’amaga. Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany. - Segador, el bon segador,/ quantes n’heu desponcellades?/ - Trenta-vuit o trentanou,/ quaranta la que faig ara. Sega-me’l arrany, sega-me’l arrany / que la palla va cara,/ sega-me’l arrany.

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CATALONIA EN CATALÀ

CATALUNYA, COMTAT GRAN Versió que canta Rafael Subirachs i Vila interpreta la versió popular de l'himne nacional català, "Catalunya, comtat gran" segons va documentar Milà i Fontanals a "Romancerillo Catalán" (1882) i Francesc Alió (1892 al recull "Cançons populars catalanes".

Catalunya, comtat gran,/ qui t'ha vist tan rica i plena!/ Ara el rei Nostre Senyor/ declarada ens te la guerra. Segueu arran!/ Segueu arran, / que la palla va cara!/ Segueu arran! Lo gran comte d'Olivars/ sempre li burxa l'orella:/ - Ara es hora, nostre rei,/ ara es hora que fem guerra.Contra tots els catalans,/ ja veieu quina n'han feta:/ seguiren viles i llocs/ fins al lloc de Riu d'Arenes; n'han cremat un sagrat lloc,/ que Santa Coloma es deia;/ cremen albes i casulles,/ i caporals i patenes,/ i el Santíssim Sagrament,/ alabat sia per sempre. Mataren un sacerdot,/ mentre que la missa deia;/ mataren un cavaller,/ a la porta de l'església,/ en Lluís de Furrià,/ i els àngels li fan gran festa. Lo pa que no era blanc/ deien que era massa negre:/ el donaven als cavalls/ sols per assolar la terra. Del vi que no era bo,/ n'engegaven les aixetes,/ el tiraven pels carrers/ sols per regar la terra. A presencia dels parents/ deshonraven les donzelles./ Ne donen part al Virrei,/ del mal que aquells soldats feien: - Llicència els he donat jo,/ molta més se'n poden prendre.-/ Sentint resposta semblant,/ enarboren la bandera;/ a la plaça de Sant Jaume,/ n'hi foren les dependències. A vista de tot això/ s'és avalotat la terra:/ comencen de llevar gent/ i enarborar les banderes. Entraren a Barcelona/ mil persones forasteres;/ entren com a segadors,/ com érem en temps de sega. De tres guàrdies que n'hi ha,/ ja n'han morta la primera;/ ne mataren al Virrei,/ a l'entrant de la galera;/ mataren els diputats/ i els jutges de l'Audiència. Aneu alerta, catalans;/ catalans, aneu alerta:/ mireu que aixís ho faran,/ quan seran en vostres terres. Anaren a la presó:/ donen llibertat als presos./ El bisbe els va beneir/ Amb la ma dreta i l'esquerra: - On es vostre capità?/ On és vostre bandera?-/ Varen treure el bon Jesús/ Tot cobert amb un vel negre: - Aquí és nostre capità,/ aquesta es nostre bandera.-/ A les armes catalans,/ Que ens ha declarat la guerra! Segueu arran!/ Segueu arran, / que la palla va cara!/ Segueu arran!

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ELS SEGADORS (Himne nacional de Catalunya) Basat en un idil·li popular del segle XVII, que havia recollit el filòleg i escriptor Manuel Milà i Fontanals, lletra actual d'Emili Guanyavents. Amb música de Francesc Alió, que va adaptar la melodia, l’any 1892, d'una cançó ja existent. L'himne fa al·lusió al Corpus de Sang, el motí ocorregut a Barcelona el 7 de juny de 1640 i que va donar lloc a la guerra dels Segadors, la contesa que va enfrontar els catalans i les tropes de Felip IV. En el text destaquen les al·lusions als pagesos, a la terra i a les llibertats.

Catalunya triomfant/ Tornarà a ser rica i plena./ Endarrera aquesta gent/ Tan ufana i tan superba. Bon cop de falç! Bon cop de falç,/Defensors de la terra, Bon cop de falç! Ara és l'hora, segadors,/ Ara és l'hora d'estar alerta,/ Per quan vingui un altre juny,/ Esmolem ben bé les eines. Bon cop de falç! Bon cop de falç,/Defensors de la terra, Bon cop de falç! Que tremoli l'enemic/ En veient la nostra ensenya,/ Com fem caure espigues d'or,/ Quan convé seguem cadenes. Bon cop de falç! Bon cop de falç,/ Defensors de la terra, Bon cop de falç!

© Mayte Duarte for Catalonia-AICS - 2016

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CATALONIA SPECIAL EDITION

Catalonia Spring 2016  

CATALONIA SPECIAL EDITION

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