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AICSUSA.ORG SPRING 2014


AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR CATALAN STUDIES SINCE 1979 CONNECTING NORTH AMERICA TO CATALONIA

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Hellena Cardus Publisher AICS President Spring 2014

Benvinguts! I’d like to welcome our readers to the third edition of CATALONIA, a quarterly publication by AICS (American Institute for Catalan Studies), which will discuss current topics regarding Catalan news in politics, visual arts, music, culinary trends and sports. Dr. David Cardus created AICS in Houston, Texas in the late 1970s, the first Catalan organization founded in the U.S. with the principal purpose of introducing and promoting a myriad of aspects of Catalan culture and society. Throughout the years, AICS has organized and hosted several Texas fairs and concerts promoting known Catalan artists and musicians in Texas, including Josep Carreras, Josep Tero, Toni Xucla, and many others. Castellers (human towers) have also adorned the streets of Houston, juxtaposing their splendid towers with the backdrop of Houston’s skyscrapers. AICS has also been very active in translating and publishing Catalan literary treasures including Joan Sales, Uncertain Glory, Josep Carner-Ribalta, The Catalan Nation and its People and Philip B. Taylor, Public Power in Catalunya. AICS was the first North American organization to publish a Catalan Bulletin in English, Catalonia Today, which was published 3 times a year for over 10 years and distributed to over 500 organizations in North America, including multiple libraries and universities with courses in Mediterranean studies. We encourage you to become a member by going to our website aicsusa.org, receive a complimentary copy of CATALONIA and share the experience! hcardus@cataloniamagazine.com

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Roslyn Smith

Editor-in-chief Aics Cultural Arts Director Spring 2014

Welcome to our Spring 2014 edition. We’ve added a couple of new sections that are packed with Catalan food and fashion. We have a fantastic recipe for a very old, traditional Catalan dish called “Rossejat d’ arròs” (baked rice). You could also call it something like bronzed, toasted, then baked rice. Any name will do, bottom line it is delicious. After we celebrated Sant Jordi this year in Houston, we all became very inspired to continue working on this edition. We have a wonderful article about Sant Jordi, what he means for many people in Catalonia and around the world. We also explore “castellers” (human tower builders), in which I was truly captivated by the article and the great images throughout it. I hope you enjoy this edition as much as I did and thanks for reading CATALONIA. Don’t forget to like us on Facebook.com/CataloniaMagazine rsmith@cataloniamagazine.com

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On the cover : Concurs de Castells: (Human Tower Competition). Tarragona


CONTENTS

CATALONIA

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20

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3 PUBLISHER’S NOTE

6 AICS NEWS American Institute for Catalan Studies “35th Annual Sant Jordi Celebration in Houston,Texas”

8 ASSEMBLY OF CATALONIA

The ANC is a fundamental tool of the new political process

10 A TASTE OF CATALONIA “Rossejat d’ Arròs” Recipe for a traditional Catalan dish

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12 SANT JORDI “The Patron Saint of Catalonia” BY MAYTE DUARTE

16 MODA Inside “080 Barcelona Fashion”

20 HUMAN TOWERS “Castellers” and Castelles”, how do they do that? 29 CATALONIA EN CATALÀ

8 CATALONIA MAGAZINE is published quarterly by AICS- American Institute for Catalan Studies . Contact: aicsusa.org Publisher Hellena Cardus hcardus@cataloniamagazine.com Editor-in-Chief Roslyn Smith rsmith@cataloniamagazine.com Creative Director Jordi Guillem jguillem@cataloniamagazine.com © 2013 CATALONIA MAGAZINE. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. Printed in the U.S.


AICS NEWS

Sant Jordi 2014 Houston, Texas The 35th Annual AICS Saint Jordi Celebration took place on the 29th of April in Vintage Park, in Houston, Texas. New AICS members from Texas were welcomed by the board and other members of the Institute. Catalan literature was given to the members and beautiful traditionally wrapped roses were given to the women. Special guests from the ANC (Assemblea Nacional Catalana) attended to the event and collected signatures for the Signa un Vot per la Independencia ANC campaign.

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Why a referendum? Catalonia has always had a distinct culture and language and a strong desire for selfgovernment. Though Catalonia lost its independence in 1714, there was a political and cultural renaissance in the 19th century which eventually led to the proclamation of the Catalan Republic in 1931. Subsequent negotiations with the Spanish Republic led to a widereaching autonomy. However, General Franco’s fascist victory in 1939 led to the suspension of Catalonia’s autonomy, a ban on the Catalan language, and a fierce repression forcing 200,000 Catalans to go into exile. Franco also ordered the execution of Catalonia’s President at that time, Lluís Companys.

After Franco’s death, 1977 saw the return of the Catalan President, Josep Tarradellas who had been elected in exile. This allowed for the reestablishment of the autonomous government. Subsequently, the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and the 1979 Statute of Autonomy for Catalonia set the limits of its autonomy. Spain has become economically and socially modernized since then but it has not fully accommodated its internal diversity into its political setup. A new statute of autonomy, agreed by referendum in Catalonia and passed by the Spanish parliament in 2006, was drastically altered by a controversial court ruling in 2010. Catalonia’s proposal for greater fiscal autonomy was then rejected out of hand. Attacks against Catalonia’s education system and linguistic rights have also increased and more and more recentralization measures are being taken. A referendum on self-determination is necessary to reset the relationship between Catalonia and Spain. It is the popular demand of mor e than 80% of Catalans in opinion polls, and of a clear majority of members of the Catalan parliament.

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CATALONIA

ANC Assemblea National Catalana The Catalan National Assembly The ANC is a popular movement which, alongside other civil society organizations, is leading the process towards the creation of a new Catalan state.

The ANC is in no way a public institution. It is not a parliament or a political party. It has no interest in participating in electoral processes. It works at a grassroots level, with the aim of building up even further the social majority that is committed to the independence of Catalonia and increasingly tired of an inward-looking, discriminatory Spain. The ANC promotes wide-ranging initiatives and encourages Catalan political parties not to deviate from the citizens’ mandate that emerged from the November 2012 elections: to convene a consultation in the near future to exercise the right of Catalans to decide their own future. The ANC sprang from the realization that Spain is incapable of addressing the Catalans’ aspirations for self-government. Catalonia is a nation with a history going back over a thousand years. Catalanism – the political expression of the Catalans will to exist – has for decades tried to modernize Spain, to adapt it to European standards and to achieve a comfortable recognition of our political reality. These efforts have doubled since the end of the Franco dictatorship and the restoration of democracy. In this context, to improve the political and territorial fit, the government of Catalonia led a federalizing reform of the Statute of Autonomy in 2006. However, the Spanish Constitutional Court severely cut it back in 2010, even though it had already been endorsed by the people in a democratic referendum. This made it absolutely clear that autonomy had hit its ceiling and this was the understanding of the vast majority of Catalans. Since then, public opinion has opted for exercising the right of self-determination as the only way to ensure the survival of Catalonia, which through its Parliament has defined itself as a nation.

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Barcelona 2012

Today the ANC is a fundamental tool of the new political process, partly thanks to the Catalan assembly tradition, which has always been inclusive and civic: the Catalan sovereignty movement is open to all, regardless of people’s birthplace, culture or mother language. Catalanism is thus a political and citizen movement that goes back a long way. In this context, a group of Catalans without a partisan political background got to work to “change the course of our country’s history”, in the words of one of the ANC’s founders. A unitary tool was put in place to channel the people’s desire for liberty.

Although the Assembly is a new platform, it has deep roots. One of its most obvious precursors was the Assemblea de Catalunya (Assembly of Catalonia), a unitary movement that brought together all the country’s democratic groups towards the end of the Franco dictatorship, with the goal of restoring the national and social liberties that the dictatorship had tried to suppress for ever.

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A TASTE OF CATALONIA

Rossejat d’ Arros (Baked Rice with squid, clams, pork ribs and shrimp) Ingredients:         

  

1 3/4 cups of round medium grain rice 1 lb squid 16 peeled shrimp 1/4 lb baby pork ribs 1 dozen clams 2 vine tomatoes Pinch of saffron 2 1/4 cups fish stock 1/2 cup of dry white wine 1 tsp sea salt olive oil pinch black pepper

Clean squid. Cut it into pieces. Peel the shrimp and set aside the heads and

skins. Peel the onion and and shrimp heads where finely chop it. Puree to- fried. Remove from the matoes. Toast saffron. pan and set aside. In the same pan cook the pork rib Press garlic in a mortar. pieces. Remove from pan Add the toasted saffron and set aside. In the same with the garlic. Heat up a pan add onion and turn large flat pan with oil on heat on low. Add 1/2 tsp low heat setting. Pan fry salt cook for 5 minutes at heads and skins of shrimp. least. Add the squid conSet them aside. tinue to cook for 10 minutes. Add white wine Bring fish broth to a low boil in a small pot. Turn up the heat just a litAdd 2 tablespoons of fish tle bit. When all the wine broth and a little salt to has evaporated add mortar to loosen garlic and the tomato and cook for 5 toasted saffron. min. Add rice stirring constantly for 5 min in the Heat oven to 350 degrees. mixture, making sure Pan fry the peeled shrimp, not to let it stick or burn. just a moment until they After cooking the rice for take color, in the same flat 5 minutes, add the shrimp pan with the same oil and pork that were previwhere the shrimp skins ously cooked. Add the

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clams, then add the boiling broth. Make sure it is well distributed in the pan, and then stir . Cook 5 minutes on medium to high heat, making sure it does not stick or burn. Remove from cook top and put it in the oven and bake for 10 more minutes. Remove from oven. Let it rest for 2-3 minutes then serve.


Rossejat d’ Arros is a typical dish of fishermen, of humble origin, who prepared the fish from the sea that did not sell. Today many still use simple ingredients to prepare the dish. It can be enjoyed in many coastal towns of the Catalan Countries, particularly in Terres de l'Ebre northern regions of Valencia, such as Ametlla, Amposta, Sant Carles de la Rapita, Calafell, Vinaròs, etc.

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CATALONIA

Culture

Sant Jordi (Saint George)

The Patron Saint of Catalonia By Humanist, Mayte Duarte Translated from Catalan by Francesc Beltran

You ask what is the Saint George’s National Holiday? I could tell you that Saint George is the patron saint of Catalonia. That George is a Greek name that means one who works the land, farmer or peasant. Goerge was a martyr who enjoyed much popularity and universal veneration in the Middle Ages. The fact that he was a Knight gave him prestige amongst armed people and that meant that he was chosen patron of the Catalan nobility and chivalry. That, to pay him honors, in Barcelona at the Born marketplace there were held tournaments and other mounted combat games which with great solemnity gave the parties a feudal and aristocratic tone, regardless of the townspeople, in which the ladies were flattered with roses and flowers. That nowadays, in our country we find paintings, sculptures, engravings, stamps, coins, flags, costumes, embroidery, tiles, furniture, pottery, jewelry, miniatures, etc. A Saint George, knight and martyr, that the universal common voice places him at the legendary land of Capadòcia, but that Catalan tradition believes he lived around the vicinity of the village of Montblanc where a fierce and terrible monster lived which had the powers of walking, flying, swimming and had a stale breath, so terrible that from far away he poisoned the air with its breath causing death to all who breathed it. The dragon ravaged herds and was people’s deeper source of terror and, after St. George freeing the princess and having wounded the beast, from its blood a wonderful rose sprung where it had touched the ground.

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Centuries later, the custom of giving a rose to a loved female would become popular until becoming a typical festival celebrated by everyone in Catalonia, as a nationalistic holiday -even more so when the Catalan nationality was denied- with its most iconic symbol being the flag hanging in all of the towns’ halls and from balconies of every home.


St. George's Day commemorates the death of this saint, on April 23 of the year 303 and coincides with the Day of the Book which commemorates the burial of Miguel de Cervantes in 1616 as well as the death of the playwright William Shakespeare who died the same year and the death of Joseph Pla in 1981, which aims to disseminate and promote one of the most important tools in the educational development of humans: the book. I should tell you that in Catalonia this holiday is associated as a lover’s day as well, being the traditional custom (since the fifteenth century) to give a red rose –blood like- to the female beloved one. It will be at the beginning of the twentieth century that this custom will become popular adding -at the end of the first third of this century- the custom of giving a book to the male beloved one, on World Book Day, and that nowadays nor gender, race or religion is regarded and that everything revolves around the gift of books and roses. I can tell you that it was proposed to make it an official holiday for the first time in 1436, when a proposal was made to the Parliament of Catalonia becoming effective in 1456. To the popularity of the saint many Catholic monarchs contributed, such were Jaume I and Pere the Ceremonious. Despite being traditional, the popularization of gifting roses was actively restored in 1914, through the efforts of the Mancomunitat. The Valencian writer and editor Vicent Clavel, by then residing in Barcelona as Director of Editorial Cervantes, was who proposed to the Official Chamber of Books in Barcelona and to the Editors and Booksellers Guild to hold a holiday to promote and publicize books in Catalonia. The day chosen was October 7th, 1927 however, in 1929, during the International Exposition in Barcelona, the booksellers took to the streets and the initiative was so successful that it was decided to change the date permanently. The holiday from the very beginning was instrumental in giving a strong impetus to the production and marketing of books in Catalan and did not stop even during the Spanish Civil War. On November 15th 1995, the General Conference of UNESCO declared April 23rd as World Book Day and writer’s Copyright Day. St. George holiday was declared a national holiday by the Government of Catalonia, but it is still a work day: businesses are open and there is school for students. I could tell you that St. George's National Holiday in Catalonia is… is everything and more, it’s everything and nothing. It is smiles, emotions, desires and dreams. It is something that goes beyond common sense or impulse. But about all this, what should I know? I'm just a dragon, a dragon that knows that St. George is identity, a feeling. It is tradition and it is what Catalans are.

ON PAGE 13:

Sculpture of Sant Jordi slaying the dragon on the Palau de la Gen-

eralitat de Catalunya. It houses the offices of the Presidency of the Generalitat de Catalunya. It is located in the Gothic Quarter of Catalonia's capital, Barcelona

Sculpted by Andreu Aleu (1860)

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CATALONIA

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DISCOVER THE DRAGONS OF CATALONIA

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MODA

080 Barcelona Fashion is conceived as a meeting point for the textile and fashion industries in Catalonia. They strive year after year to provide a space for all the distinct branches of design to express themselves in, with 080 Barcelona Fashion as their ally. For this reason, new designers, who are making their debut at their first fashion show, model their garments on the catwalk alongside those who already have a name and a trajectory in the industry as well as alongside some of the big local multinationals. The spectacular modernist complex of St. Pau that hosts this edition will showcase the 34 fashion shows and the 40 creative proposals on display in the pop-ups in the open area of the enclosure. Past Editions:

9TH EDITION

10TH EDITION

11TH EDITION

5TH EDITION

6TH EDITION

7TH EDITION

1ST EDITION

2ND EDITION

3RD EDITION

12TH EDITION

8TH EDITION

4TH EDITION


CATWALK

MARTINEZ LIERAH

CUSTO

DESIGUAL

CELIA VELA ZAZO & BRULL


CATALONIA

FUTURE

Bioscience and Innovation

Biocat faces the future as the organization leading a strong and well-structured biotechnological and biomedical cluster, knowing how to extract-out all the potential from the research capabilities of Catalonia, and promoting the its leadership within an innovative Europe. Biocat’s mission is to dynamise all the agents and initiatives involved in the biotechnology, biomedicine and medical technology sector in Catalonia, shaping an environment with a strong research system, active in technology transfer, and with an industrial tissue capable of becoming the economic driver of Catalonia and contributing to society’s quality of life. Dedication to actions are key drivers for the success of the planned strategy and to attain the results of their vision.

Biocat fulfils its mission by supporting its actions on the following values: Collaboration: fr om Biocat they facilitate the networ king and the team wor k among the active agents in the Catalan biotechnology, biomedicine and medical technology sector. They act as knowledge partner and foster the collaborative relations among entities and Administration to ensure the development and consolidation of the sector. To provide with more effective answers, they involve organizations and companies in the design of their programs, and act as a platform and meeting point to national and international projects and networks. Flexibility and innovation: fr om Biocat, they ar e aware to the signs of change in the environment, and prompt to design today’s strategies for tomorrow’s challenges that the sector will have to face. With a flexible structure, and adaptable to an uncertain context, they are permanently open to innovation, and they actively promote it. Their projects respond to a constantly-evolving context, and fit the changeable needs of a young and growing sector.

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Quality and efficacy: Biocat pur sues in all its pr ojects and actions the highest standards of quality, aligned with the excellence of the Catalan research system and the professionalism that characterizes our companies. Efficacy and rigor are key mottos to boost the Catalan biotechnology towards the world and the future. Customer orientation: Biocat pledges for a constant and fluent dialog with the sector stakeholders to monitor their needs in real-time and in detail, so that they can provide answers in an effective and versatile way. They understand that an essential part of their work is to reduce the obstacles that companies and centers find in their daily activity, and design tailored solutions for the different typologies of organizations that form the sector.

Commitment: Biocat’s pledge must be driven by commitment with objectives and sustained actions to yield results. An ongoing support in processes and intense dedication to actions are key drivers for the success of the planned strategy and to attain the results of their vision.

biocat.cat

XPCAT A Catalan Network of Science and Technology Parks

XPCAT is a network of Science and Technology Parks of Catalonia (Xarxa de Parcs Científics i Tecnològics de Catalunya - XPCAT) that holds big spaces of production, transfer, diffusion and use of knowledge. It also works as the point of contact for the research and the innovative community. It consists of an important number of centers and groups for university research, technological centers, large companies and their associate R&D centres, companies focusing on innovation as well as new knowledge based companies. The Network of Science and Technology Parks of Catalonia is a central instrument for science, technology, company and market systems because it is a collaboration formula for the future of Catalonia’s scientific, technological, economic and social development.

xpcat.cat


HUMAN TOWERS


The motto for the “castellers”: strength, balance, courage and common sense. These four ideas define a tradition with a history of over two hundred years, which is one the liveliest popular expressions of Catalan culture. The basic features of the idea of the “castells” are the structures built using the strength of a group of people. These structures feature three constant parts and three variable parts. Of the first, there is the “pinya” (pinecone), formed by the people who support the castle; the “tronc” (trunk), which comprises the levels prior to the “pom de dalt”(top bunch); and the “pom de dalt”, composed of three levels of two people, plus the “acotxador” (or ‘aixecador’) (riser) and the “enxaneta”(child at the top). The variable parts are the ‘folre’ (cover/lining), which is located above the ‘pinya’ and provides support in the most difficult structures; the ‘manilles’ (handles), on top of the “folre”and used in “pilars de 8” (one person per level in an eight-level tower), “torres de 9”(two people per level in a nine-level tower) or “castells de 10” (three people per level in a ten-level tower); and the “puntals”(props), situated above the “manilles” in exceptional cases such as the “pilar de 9” with “folre”, “manilles” and “puntals”. The “tronc” is the part of the castle that not only determines the structure’s difficulty, but also gives it its name. Except in a few cases of proper names –the ‘Carro Gros’ (large cart) for a four-person per level eight-level tower, and the “Catedral” (cathedral) for a five-person per level eight-level tower–, each castle is named by the number of levels and by the “castellers” in each level: a “3 de 6” is therefore a castle of six levels with three people on each level. The “castellers” who make these structures form groups known as “colles”, which are associated with the town or neighborhood where they were created –the Xiquets from Valls, the Minyons from Terrassa or the Castellers from Sants, for example– and can be differentiated from one another by garments that were first worn during the performance of the Colla Vella dels Xiquets de Valls at the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition. As well as the trousers, the scarf and the sash, the shirt color also identifies the different ‘colles’ who take part at the festivals on the season’s annual calendar. The most important of these are the festivals of Saint John in the Plaça del Blat in Valls, Saint Felix in the Plaça de la Vila in Vilafranca del Penedès and Saint Tecla in the Plaça de la Font in Tarragona. In addition to these festivals, at which three castles and one guest tower are usually erected, there is also the Tarragona castle contest, held every two years since 1980. Although this is clearly a competitive event, historically “castellers” did not score points and their main aim was to raise the most complex castle possible. Indeed, until 2006 there was no unified scoring or criteria that take the difficulty of the castle and the shape it eventually assumes into account: “intent desmuntat”, when the “gralles” (flageolets) have started playing and the castle falls upon dismantling; “intent”, when the castle falls before it has been completed; “carregat”, when the castle falls while being dismantled; and “descarregat” when upon completion, all the “castellers” involved descend successfully.

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To understand the spirit of ‘casteller’ festivals, one should note that the music of the “gralles” not only produces a highly typical musical atmosphere, but also plays the very specific role of informing the ‘pinya’ of how the castle is developing. The ‘Toc de Castells’, which is the name of the music played when the castle is being built, starts at different times, depending on the castle type, and continues until the ‘enxaneta” [the child on top] ‘fa l’aleta’ [gestures to crown the castle], or the ‘colla’ is dismantled without falling. It then plays the ‘baixada’ [descent] until the ‘sortida’ [break-up of the ‘pinya’], which indicates the castle has been successfully dismantled. This elaborate ‘casteller’ ritual did not appear from nowhere, but is the result of a process that has developed over centuries. Historians place the origin of these human structures (records of which date as far back as the fifteenth century) in the dances known as ‘Dels Valencians’, which were held during religious processions. Later, when the dances were separated from the processions, castle-building spread in southern Catalonia –mainly in Camp de Tarragona– in the eighteenth century: the first castle in Alborç, the ‘castell de sis sotres, acompanyat de dolçaina’ [six-level castle accompanied by flageolet], was recorded in 1770. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Valls, which is known as the ‘birthplace of castles’, and Tarragona were the only towns with ‘colles’, although these performed at the festivals of neighboring towns and became very popular. The rivalry that emerged between the first ‘colles’, moreover, encouraged the development of the structures, which gradually grew in difficulty.

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The mid-nineteenth century saw the start of what is known as the Golden Age of ‘castells’, which was to last until 1889. During this time, Vilafranca, Tarragona and Valls formed a triangle known as the ‘traditional castle zone’, where the largest number of and highest quality performances took place. References from these years only include what were considered completed castles and available records are not always reliable. These decades nonetheless saw the first legendary ‘casteller’ performances, like that which took place at the festival of Santa Tecla in Tarragona in 1851 when a ‘3 de 9’ with ‘folre’ (nine-level castle with three people per level and cover/lining) was successfully dismantled for the first time. Thirty years later, also in the city of Tarragona, there took place what is considered to be the best festival of all time: the two ‘colles’ from Valls successfully dismantled a ‘torre de 8 neta’ [two people per level in a eight-level tower with no base], the Nova ‘colla’ added the ‘3 de 9 net’ [three people per level in a nine-level tower with no base], and the Vella ‘colla’ erected a ‘4 de 9 net’ [four people per level in a nine-level tower with no base]. This last castle was stuff of legends that have been passed down to the present day. This is not surprising considering that it was not equalled until 1998, when the Minyons de Terrassa achieved the same feat at the festival of Saint Narcissus in Girona. This Golden Age ended at the festivals of Santa Tecla in 1889, when the different ‘colles’ successfully dismantled a large number of 8 and 9-level castles. After this performance, there was a decline in ‘casteller’ activity until 1926, partly because of migration to Barcelona prompted by the arrival of the railway in Valls. In addition to the commitment to castle-building of towns like Vilafranca, the establishment of the Community of Catalonia in 1917, and the celebration of the ten-yearly festival of Valls in 1921, led to the resurgence of ‘casteller’ activity, with the reappearance of the ‘colles’ of Valls and Tarragona and the establishment of the ‘colla’ of El Vendrell. It was in these years that ‘colles’ began to perform one after the other. Some noteworthy festivals included the ten-yearly festival of La Candela in 1931 and the festival of Alborç in 1932.

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Unfortunately, the Civil War interrupted this recovery and in the initial years of the post-war period, the “colles” of Valls, Tarragona and El Vendrell were forced to regroup under the name of “Colla dels Xiquets de Valls”, also known as “La Barreja”. As the nineteen-forties progressed, the former “colles” separated again and renewed rivalry led to some outstanding contests organized by Can Jorba –stores acquired by “Galerías Preciados” in 1963– in the mid-nineteen sixties. The standard achieved by the “castellers” was such that in 1969 the Nens del Vendrell were able successfully to dismantle the “pilar de 7” with “folre”, the century’s first structure with “folre”. Against this background, with the arrival of democracy, a new golden age of castle building was experienced from 1981 to 1993. These years began with the “4 de 9” with “folre” successfully dismantled by the Colla Vella dels Xiquets de Valls at the Valls festival of Saint Ursula in 1981. It continued with the first nine-level castle of the twentieth century, and culminated in 1993, when the Minyons de Terrassa successfully dismantled the first “2 de 9” with “folre” and “manilles” in history, at the festival of the “colla” in Raval de Montserrat in Terrassa. Thereafter, the popularity of castles, the attention given to them by the media, and the spectacular structures built all helped to spread this tradition throughout Catalonia and usher in a platinum age. In the nineteen-nineties, “colles” appeared in towns such as Lleida and Manresa and even in regions like Majorca, a long way from traditionally castle-building areas. At the start of this century, although the number of “colles” has remained at between fifty and sixty, one notable development is the creation of the “colles” overseas like those in Chile and Brazil. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, the popularity and quality of the castles has, moreover, been growing. The historical performances of the nineteennineties also include the “5 de 9” successfully dismantled by the Minyons de Terrassa at the 1995 festival of La Mercè; the “4 de 9” with “folre” and “agulla” of the “castellers” of Vilafranca at the town’s 1996 All Saints’ Day festival; and the “3 de 10” with “folre” and “manila” by the Minyons de Terrassa at the festival of the “colla” in 1998, which also produced the first ten-level castle in history.

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Recent notable feats have been the “9 de 8” successfully dismantled by the Colla Vella dels Xiquets de Valls at the 2001 Mercadal festival in Reus; the completion of the ‘2 de 9’ with “folre” by the “castellers” of Vilafranca at the festival of Saint Felix in 2005; and the “2 de 9” with “agulla”, successfully dismantled by the “castellers” of Vilafranca at the festival of Saint Raymond in 2009. On November 16th, UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Committee for Intangible Cultural Heritage, appointed in Nairobi, inscribed the Castells on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. On November 16th, UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Committee for Intangible Cultural Heritage, appointed in Nairobi, inscribed the Castells on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

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A celebration open to the entire world Sant Jordi’s official website is now open to the world. The website www.catalanday.cat will be the central meeting point for the different initiatives organized around the to celebrate Sant Jordi’s day of this year. The website is in three languages (Catalan, Spanish, and English), and is intended for users to be able to enjoy a selection of digital resources (postcards with verses from Catalan poems and cultural applications), participate in a photo competition, and become prescribers of the Catalan language. And culture by sharing these resources with family and friends around the world. The website will also include the schedule of events, photo and video footage of the actions organized by the Catalan communities abroad and by the delegations of institutions in charge of promoting Catalan culture on the world stage. Specifically, the resources users will find include: Regala versos (Give the Gift of Verse), Vinyoli Postcard, Photo Competition, eBooks, 300 Years of Catalan Literature, Cultural Mobile Apps, Social Networks.

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EN CATALÀ


CATALONIA

EN CATALÀ

Sant Jordi En Poesia El Cavaller Lo cavaller Jordi guerrer cuida avançar per defensar del rei la filla on era el drac tal premi n'hac: molt poc après ell ne fou pres e fort batut; dins en Barut fou escorxat per mig serrat. Jaume Roig (1401-1478)

La Diada de Sant Jordi La diada de Sant Jordi és diada assenyalada per les flors que hi ha al mercat i l'olor que en fan els aires, i les veus que van pel vent: "Sant Jordi mata l'aranya". L'aranya que ell va matar tenia molt mala bava, terenyinava les flors i se'n xuclava la flaire, i el mes d'abril era trist i els nens i nenes ploraven. Quan el Sant hagué passat tot jardí se retornava: perxò cada any per Sant Jordi és diada assenyalada per les flors que hi ha al mercat i l'olor que en fan els aires. Joan Maragall (1860-1911)

Una Rosa Sant Jordi, santa diada del passat i l'avenir, Fe i Pàtria nostrada del meu cor fas sobreixir. Oh la bella matinada! Quina joia de collir una rosa perlejada, una rosa a mig obrir! Maria Antònia Salvà (1869-1958)

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DIADA DE CATALUNYA, 23 D’ABRIL, SANT JORDI Per Mayte Duarte, Humanista Em pregunteu què és la diada de Sant Jordi? Us podria dir que Sant Jordi és el patró de Catalunya. Que Jordi és un mot grec que vol dir el qui treballa la terra, llaurador o pagès, que va ser un màrtir i que va gaudir de molta veneració i popularitat universal a l’Edat Mitjana. Que ser cavaller li donava categoria entre la gent d'armes i això féu que l'escollissin per patró de la cavalleria i noblesa catalana. Que per retre-li honors, a Barcelona, es celebraven en el Born, torneigs, justes i altres jocs d'armes. Aquests revestits de gran solemnitat li donaven a la festa un to senyorívol i aristocràtic, al marge del poble, en la qual les dames eren obsequiades amb roses i flors.Que avui en dia, al nostre país el trobem a les pintures, escultures, gravats,segells, monedes, banderes, vestits, brodats, rajoles, mobles, ceràmica, joies, miniatures, etc. Un Sant Jordi, cavaller i màrtir que la veu popular universal situa a les terres llegendàries de la Capadòcia. I que la tradició catalana creu esdevinguda als voltants de la vila de Montblanc. On un monstre ferotge i terrible amb les facultats de caminar, volar, nedar i un alè pudent, fins el punt que des de molt lluny, amb les seves alenades enverinava l'aire produint la mort de tots els qui el respiraven. Essent així l'estrall dels remats i de les gents, font del terror més profund. I que en alliberar a la princesa i ferir la bèstia, de la seva sang en tocar terra va sorgir una rosa meravellosa. Segles després, el costum d'obsequiar l'estimada amb una rosa s’aniria estenent fins arribar a ésser una festa típica, celebrada arreu de Catalunya per tothom com a festa de caire nacionalista, més gran encara quan la nacionalitat catalana era negada. I el seu símbol ha estat la senyera penjada de la casa de la vila de cada localitat i de cada llar.Cervantes el 1616, així com la mort del dramaturg William Shakespeare el mateix any, o la mort d’en Josep Pla al 1981 i que pretén potenciar i donar difusió a una de les eines més importants del desenvolupament educatiu de l'home: el llibre. Dir-vos que s’associa a Catalunya com un dia dels enamorats, essent el costum tradicional (des del segle XV) regalar una rosa vermella «com la sang» a l'estimada. I que serà als inicis del segle XX que aquest costum es popularitzarà afegint-se a finals del primer terç d'aquest segle el costum de regalar un llibre al noi, amb motiu del dia el llibre, i que avui dia ja no contempla ni gènere, ni raça, ni religió i que tot flueix envers l’obsequi de llibres i roses. La Diada de Sant Jordi commemora la mort d’aquest sant, el 23 d'abril de l'any 303 i coincideix amb el dia del llibre que commemora l’enterrament de Miguel de Va proposar-se convertir aquesta data en festa de precepte per primer cop el 1436, quan es va formular la proposta a les Corts catalanes essent efectiva el 1456. A la popularitat del sant hi van contribuir els monarques Pere el Catòlic, Jaume I i Pere el Cerimoniós. Tot i ser tradicional, la popularització del fet de regalar roses es va restablir activament el 1914, gràcies a l'impuls de la Mancomunitat. L'escriptor i editor valencià Vicent Clavel, aleshores establert a Barcelona i director de l'Editorial Cervantes, va proposar a la Cámara Oficial del Libro de Barcelona i al Gremio de Editores y Libreros celebrar una festa per promoure i difondre el llibre a Catalunya.

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EN CATALÀ

El dia escollit va ser el 7 d'octubre de 1927 però al 1929, en plena Exposició Internacional de Barcelona, els llibreters van sortir al carrer i la iniciativa va tenir tant èxit que es va decidir canviar la data. La festa des d'un bon principi va contribuir decisivament a donar un fort impuls a la producció i comercialització del llibre en català, i no es va aturar ni tan sols durant la Guerra Civil Espanyola. El 15 de novembre de 1995, la Conferència General de la UNESCO va decretar el 23 d'abril com a Dia Internacional del Llibre i del Dret d'Autor. La de Sant Jordi ha estat declarada Festa Nacional de Catalunya per la Generalitat, però aquest dia no és festa laboral: és feiner i lectiu per als estudiants. Us podria dir que la diada de Sant Jordi a Catalunya és... és tot i més, és tot i res. És somriures, emocions, desitjos i il·lusions. És quelcom que va més enllà del seny i la Però d’això que en dec de saber jo? Tan sols sóc un Drac. Un Drac que sap que Sant Jordi és identitat, un sentiment. És tradició, és el que som.

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A mi hi ha una cosa que em preocupa. Bé, potser tres i quatre també, però pel que m'ocupa, una. I és la mania que teniu molts contraris als postulats independentistes, tant a casa com a fora, a negar la consulta."Com que no vull que Catalunya sigui un estat independent, no vull que es faci una consulta." I ara em criticareu i em direu de tot perquè he deixat fora, voluntàriament, el bonic terme "iŀlegal". Va home va. Legal o no, no voleu que es faci la consulta. Si no, no posarieu pals a les rodes a una consulta popular no vinculant. I legal? Aleshores sí? Entenc que no vulgueu que Catalunya esdevingui un estat independent. I em sembla molt bé que no vulgueu. Però d'aqui a no voler que es pregunti la opinió de la gent hi ha un pas on em perdo. No vull una resposta contraria al que jo penso, per tant, no votem. Dieu, però, que sou una majoria silenciosa. Doncs amics, donem veu a aquesta majoria ara silenciosa, a les urnes. Si sou tants, ajudeu a treure les urnes i demostreu la vostra força.

No tindria més sentit, per exemple, explicar el vostre punt de vista i intentar guanyar adeptes en una campanya pel no, que negar una consulta popular no vinculant? Així potser podríem saber què pensa la gent. Potser no voleu saber-ho, o potser ja ho sabeu i no voleu que ho sabem nosaltres. No sé, sigui com sigui, la qüestió és que no voleu que es voti. I aquest és el fons de la qüestió. Hi ha molta gent contrària a la independencia que vol votar. Quanta no ho sabrem mai. Si en comptes d'haver-vos dedicat a carregar-vos la consulta us haguessiu dedicat a fer una campanya seriosa pel no, abraçant la consulta com a legitima eina democràtica per conèixer la opinió de la gent, la dels que pensen com vosaltres, i la dels que no, avui tindrieu més tirada i menys antipatia. No hi a cap motiu, segur, perdeixar que la gent voti, i intentar convèncer com més gent millor dels vostres pos-

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EN CATALÀ

Puc admetre-ho. Jo sóc dels optimistes Moderadament optimista, però optimista by XAVI SALAT I FOIX

Per què optimista però moderadament? Doncs perque penso que en Luis Enrique els té molt ben posats, li agrada la maranya, el fútbol d’atac, el control de la pilota, i la rauxa. El que els castellanoparlants en diuen “garra”. El que nosaltres en diríem “pebrots”, vaja. Pero no les tinc totes. No les tinc totes. Prepareu-vos, perque serà una temporada mogudeta, plena d’altibaixos. Hem de tenir en compte que fa un parell d’anys que les coses no funcionen com haurien de funcionar, i que malgrat vendre aquest projecte com una continuació de l’anterior, amb ADN Barça i tot el que vulgueu, el que ve realment, es una etapa d’aclimatació i regeneració. Fa massa temps que el Barça no és un equip amb gana. Amb en Luis Enrique tornarem a tenir gana i a fruir del joc, però caldrà paciència i temps. En el fons, es tracta d’un equip nou. Qui vetlla els pals, nou, sigui qui sigui. Tres defenses nous (Mathieu, Douglas i Vermaelen) i amb un Bartra que està cridat a rellevar un Piqué distret, que comença a no convèncer. Jo també estaria distret si em llevés amb la Shakira mirant-me. En Rafinha i en Rakitic han d’agafar la batuta d’aquest nou Barça. Els noms, com en Xavi o l’Iniesta han de deixar pas. No dic que ja no valguin per aquest equip. Dic que cal donar el relleu. Al davant, un triedent que fa por, però que caldrà treballar. Un Suárez que no ha competit en mesos s’adaptarà. ràpid i bé. La devantera es on menys moderadament optimista sóc. Sóc optimista sense moderació. Quina por farà la davantera del Barça, un cop acoplada. Però aquell Barca que ens va encandilar a tots, aquell Barça d’en Pep, ja no hi es. Aquell Barça no tornara, i ens n’em de comencar a fer a la idea. Tornarem a ser un equip fort i envejable, però potser no fins al març. Paciència doncs.

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