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Indoor air total dust, respirable dust, total bacteria, total fungi in close rooms and sick building syndrome levels of student lecturers and officer in university Sirilak Wongvijitsuk Chanya Cheamjai Occupational Health and Safety Faculty of Public Health and Environment, Huachiew Chalermprakiet University

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the levels of air contaminants and sick building syndromes prevalence and determined the relationship between Sick building syndrome factors and sick building syndromes prevalence. Air contaminants including total dust, respirable dust, total bacteria and total fungi were studied. Air samples in 77 rooms, including 8 lecturer rooms, 17 office rooms and 52 lecture rooms were taken. 683 persons including 93 lecturers, 135 officers and 410 students were studied. It was founded that total dust and respirable dust in offices had the highest levels, but contaminants were not exceed the standard in all rooms. The levels of total bacteria and fungi in office were the highest levels. These microorganism contaminants in 26.67% of office and 2.78 % of lecture rooms exceeded the standard. Comparison of air contaminants in each room types showed the levels of respirable dust and total bacteria levels were statistical significant different at p<0.05. Sick building syndrome were determined by frequency of symptoms expression (1-3 day/week), number of symptoms ( > 2 symptoms in 1 group) and these symptoms must expressed in workplace only. The results showed the highest symptoms of sick

THAILAND JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH October - December 2010

115


∫ ∑ «‘ ∑ ¬ “ ° “ √ building syndrome was neurological symptoms group (25.08%). Considering job characteristics of subjects, the officers had more than 1 symptom groups of sick building syndrome such as eye symptoms group, nose symptoms group and neurological symptoms group. The neurological symptoms group was found in lecturer and students. The results also showed total bacteria levels had significant relationship with sick building syndrome (p<0.05). Finally, this study showed that officers had the highest prevalence of sick building syndrome due to their exposure to the highest levels of indoor air pollution which was the main factor of sick building syndrome. Although, the relationship of some factors were not significant but they might effect the personsû a way of life and morale. Therefore, the management of sick building syndrome and its contributing factors should carefully considered. Keywords: Indoor air, Air pollution, Sick building syndrome

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THAILAND JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH October - December 2010

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º≈°“√»÷°…“ „π°“√«‘®—¬§√—Èßπ’È¡’°“√‡°Á∫µ—«Õ¬à“ß„πÀâÕß ª√—∫Õ“°“»∑’Ë¡’≈—°…≥–ªî¥≈âÕ¡ ®”π«πÀâÕß∑’Ë §”π«≥‰¥â‡∑à“°—∫ 81 ÀâÕ߇ªìπ°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß ·µà  “¡“√∂‡°Á∫‰¥â®√‘ß®”π«π 77 ÀâÕß §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 95.06 ®”π«π¥—ß°≈à“«Õ¬Ÿà„π™à«ß§à“§«“¡§≈“¥ ‡§≈◊ËÕπ∑’ˬա√—∫‰¥â ± 5% µ“¡∑’ËÕÕ°·∫∫°“√ »÷°…“‰«â·≈–‰¥â·∫àßÀâÕß∑’¡Ë Õ’ ¬Ÿ„à πÕ“§“√ÕÕ°‡ªìπ 3 °≈ÿࡥ⫬°—𠵓¡≈—°…≥–°‘®°√√¡·≈–ºŸâ„™âß“π §◊Õ Àâ Õ ß∫√√¬“¬¡’ °‘ ® °√√¡∑’Ë ‡ °‘ ¥ ¢÷È π ¿“¬„πÀâ Õ ß ‡ªìπ°“√‡√’¬π°“√ Õπ ÀâÕßæ—°Õ“®“√¬å¡’°‘®°√√¡ ¿“¬„πÀâÕ߇ªìπ≈—°…≥–ß“π‡¢’¬π Õà“π·≈–°“√„™â §Õ¡æ‘ « ‡µÕ√å ·≈– ”π— ° ß“π≈— ° …≥–°‘ ® °√√¡ ‡ªì π °“√∑”ß“π‡°’Ë ¬ «¢â Õ ß°— ∫ ‡Õ° “√ °“√„™â Õÿª°√≥åº≈‘µ‡Õ° “√ ‰¥âº≈°“√»÷°…“¥—ßπ’È 1. §ÿ≥¿“æÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÀâÕßªî¥ º≈°“√°“√µ√«®«—¥·≈–‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫§à“ ¡“µ√∞“π¢Õߪ√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ°¢π“¥ (Total Dust) ΩÿÉπ¢π“¥∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß ≈¡ªÕ¥‰¥â (Respirable Dust) ·∫§∑’‡√’¬„π Õ“°“»·≈–√“„πÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÀâÕßæ—°Õ“®“√¬å¡’ §à“§«“¡‡¢â¡¢âπ‡©≈’ˬ¢ÕßΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ°¢π“¥ (Total Dust) (µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1) æ∫«à“ª√‘¡“≥ ‘Ëߪπ‡ªóôÕπ ¿“¬„πÕ“°“» §◊Õ ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿπÉ √«¡∑ÿ°¢π“¥ (Total dust) ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ¢π“¥∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß·≈– – ¡ „π∂ÿß≈¡‰¥â (Respiratory dust) ª√‘¡“≥‡™◊ÈÕ ·∫§∑’‡√’¬ ·≈–ª√‘¡“≥‡™◊ÈÕ√“„πÕ“°“» „πÀâÕß ∑”ß“π‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë ¡’®”π«πª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ°¢ π“¥·≈–ª√‘ ¡ “≥ΩÿÉ π ¢π“¥∑’Ë   “¡“√∂‡¢â “ ∂÷ ß ·≈–  – ¡„π∂ÿ ß ≈¡‰¥â ª√‘ ¡ “≥‡™◊È Õ ·∫§∑’ ‡ √’ ¬ ·≈– ª√‘ ¡ “≥‡™◊È Õ √“„πÕ“°“» Ÿ ß ∑’Ë  ÿ ¥ √Õß≈ß¡“§◊ Õ ÀâÕ߇√’¬π ·≈–ÀâÕßæ—°Õ“®“√¬å‡ªìπÀâÕß∑’Ë¡’ª√‘¡“≥  ‘Ë ß ªπ‡ªóô Õ π‡À≈à “ π’È πâ Õ ¬∑’Ë  ÿ ¥ ·≈–‡¡◊Ë Õ π”§à “ ª√‘¡“≥¢Õß ‘Ëߪπ‡ªóôÕπ‡À≈à“π’ȉª‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫°—∫

§à“¡“µ√∞“π§ÿ≥¿“æÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÕ“§“√ æ∫«à“ ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ°¢π“¥·≈–ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ∑’Ë¡’¢π“¥ ∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß≈¡‰¥â¡’ª√‘¡“≥‰¡à ‡°‘ π ‡°≥±å ¡ “µ√∞“π¢ÕßÀπà « ¬ß“π„πª√–‡∑» Õ‡¡√‘°“ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)(14) ·≈– American Society Heating, Refrigerating and Air condition Engineer (ASHREA)(15) µ“¡≈”¥—∫ ª√‘¡“≥¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ ·∫§∑’ ‡ √’ ¬ ·≈–‡™◊È Õ √“‰¥â „ ™â ‡ °≥±å ¡ “µ√∞“π¢Õß Àπ૬ߓπ American Conference of governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH)(16) ª√–‡∑»Õ‡¡√‘ ° “‡ªì π ‡°≥±å ‡ ª√’ ¬ ∫‡∑’ ¬ ∫ ´÷Ë ß °”À𥉫â«à“ °“√∑”ß“π¿“¬„πÕ“§“√µ≈Õ¥ 8 ™—Ë « ‚¡ß°“√∑”ß“π ∂“π∑’Ë π—È π µâ Õ ß¡’ §à “ ¢Õ߇™◊È Õ ·∫§∑’‡√’¬·≈–‡™◊ÈÕ√“‰¡à‡°‘π 500 CFU/m3 æ∫«à“ ÀâÕßæ—°Õ“®“√¬å¡’ª√‘¡“≥¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ‰¡à‡°‘π‡°≥±å ¡“µ√∞“π„π∑ÿ°ÀâÕßµ—«Õ¬à“ß ·µàÀâÕß∑”ß“π¢Õß ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë√âÕ¬≈– 13.33 ·≈– 26.67 ¡’ª√‘¡“≥ ¢Õ߇™◊È Õ ·∫§∑’ ‡ √’ ¬ ·≈–‡™◊È Õ √“∑’Ë ª π‡ªóô Õ πÕ¬Ÿà „ π Õ“°“»¡“°°«à“§à“¡“µ√∞“πµ“¡≈”¥—∫ ÀâÕ߇√’¬π ¡’ª√‘¡“≥¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ·∫§∑’‡√’¬·≈–‡™◊ÈÕ√“∑’˪π‡ªóôÕπ Õ¬Ÿà„πÕ“°“»¡“°°«à“§à“¡“µ√∞“π√âÕ¬≈– 16.67 ·≈– 2.78 µ“¡≈”¥—∫ ‡¡◊ËÕ∑”°“√‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫§«“¡·µ°µà“ß∑“ß  ∂‘µ‘¢Õß§à“§«“¡‡¢â¡¢âπ¢ÕßΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ°¢π“¥ ΩÿÉπ ∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß≈¡ªÕ¥ ·∫§∑’‡√’¬ ·≈–√“ ∑’˪π‡ªóôÕπ„πÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÀâÕߢÕß∑—Èß 3 °≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß æ∫«à“§à“§«“¡‡¢â¡¢âπ¢ÕßΩÿÉπ√«¡ ∑ÿ°¢π“¥·≈–§à“§«“¡‡¢â¡¢âπ¢ÕßΩÿÉπ∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“ ·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß≈¡ªÕ¥„π·µà≈–°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß¡’§à“ ·µ°µà“ß°—πÕ¬à“ß¡’π—¬ ”§—≠∑’Ë P < 0.05  à«π§à“ §«“¡‡¢â¡¢âπ¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ·∫§∑’‡√’¬·≈–√“„πÕ“°“» ¢ÕßÀâÕß„π·µà≈–°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“߉¡à·µ°µà“ß°—π∑’Ë P< 0.05

THAILAND JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH October - December 2010

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120 µÿ≈“§¡ - ∏—𫓧¡ 2553 °√¡Õπ“¡—¬

 à߇ √‘¡„Àâ§π‰∑¬  ÿ¢¿“楒

100

100 100

0.1312±0.0694

0.2791±0.0699

0.2389±0.1207

14

30

97

0.1363±0.0622

0.1557±0.0940

0.0840±0.0670

100

100

100

212.70±156.36

222.36±113.40

110.04±27.91

83.33

86.67

100

74.06±49.07

85.67±23.15

56.14±10.91

Mold (CFU/m3)

97.22

73.33

100

ª√‘¡“≥ ¡“µ√∞“π√“ 500*** (CFU/m3)

* À¡“¬∂÷ß §à“¡“µ√∞“π¢ÕßΩÿÉπ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà„πÕ“°“» ¿“¬„πÕ“§“√¢ÕßÀπ૬ߓπ Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ª√–‡∑»Õ‡¡√‘°“ ** À¡“¬∂÷ß §à“¡“µ√∞“π¢ÕßΩÿπÉ ∑’¡Ë ¢’ 𓥇≈Á° “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß≈¡ªÕ¥„πÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÕ“§“√¢ÕßÀπ૬ߓπ American Society Heating, Refrigerating and Air Condition Engineer (ASHRAE) ª√–‡∑»Õ‡¡√‘°“ *** À¡“¬∂÷ß §à“¡“µ√∞“π¢Õß·∫§∑’‡√’¬ À√◊Õ √“ „πÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÕ“§“√¢ÕßÀπ૬ߓπ American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) ª√–‡∑» Õ‡¡√‘°“

ÀâÕßæ—° Õ“®“√¬å (8 )  ”π—°ß“π (17) ÀâÕß ∫√√¬“¬ (52)

°≈ÿ¡à ®”π«π §à“‡©≈’ˬ¢Õß “√¡≈æ‘…∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà¿“¬„πÕ“§“√ (Mean ± Sd) (®”π«π µ—«Õ¬à“ß ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿπÉ √«¡ √âÕ¬≈–¢ÕßÀâÕß∑’Ë ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ¢π“¥ √âÕ¬≈–¢ÕßÀâÕß∑’Ë ·∫§∑’‡√’¬ √âÕ¬≈–¢ÕßÀâÕß∑’Ë ÀâÕß) ∑ÿ°¢π“¥ ºà“π ¡“µ√∞“π ∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß ºà“π¡“µ√∞“π (CFU/m3) ºà“πª√‘¡“≥ 3 (µ ΩÿπÉ ∑ÿ°¢π“¥ ·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß ΩÿπÉ ∑’ Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“ ¡“µ√∞“π µg/m ) ·∫§∑’‡√’¬ 75* ∂÷ß·≈– – ¡„π ≈¡ªÕ¥ 3 # (µ 500*** ∂ÿß≈¡ªÕ¥ (µ µg/m ) µg/m ) (CFU/m3) 150** # µg/m ) (µ

µ“√“ß∑’Ë 1 · ¥ß®”π«π·≈–§à“√âÕ¬≈–¢Õß®”π«π®ÿ¥‡¡◊ËÕ‡ª√’¬∫‡∑’¬∫§à“¢Õß “√¡≈æ‘…∑’ËÕ¬Ÿà„πÕ“§“√°—∫§à“¡“µ√∞“π

∫ ∑ «‘ ∑ ¬ “ ° “ √


ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ°¢π“¥ ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß≈¡ªÕ¥œ

µ“√“ß∑’Ë 2 · ¥ßÕ—µ√“§«“¡™ÿ°¢Õß°“√‡°‘¥°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬„π·µà≈–°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß Õ—µ√“§«“¡™ÿ°¢Õß°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ °≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√ Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬

∑ÿ°°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß (N=638 §π)

Õ“®“√¬å (N=93 §π)

‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë (N=135 §π)

π—°»÷°…“ (N=410 §π)

¡’Õ“°“√ ‰¡à¡’Õ“°“√ ¡’Õ“°“√ ‰¡à¡’Õ“°“√ ¡’Õ“°“√ ‰¡à¡’Õ“°“√ ¡’Õ“°“√ ‰¡à¡’Õ“°“√ µ“ ®¡Ÿ° ≈”§Õ ∑“߇¥‘π À“¬„® √–∫∫ ª√– “∑ º‘«Àπ—ß

107 (16.77) 100 (15.67) 80 (12.54) 37 (5.80) 160 (25.08) 36 (5.64)

538 (83.23) 538 (84.33) 558 (87.46) 601 (94.2) 478 (74.92) 602 (94.36)

16 (17.20) 11 (11.83) 16 (17.20) 2 (2.15) 29 (31.18) 5 (5.38)

77 (82.80) 82 (88.17) 77 (82.80) 91 (97.58) 64 (68.82) 88 (94.62)

2. ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈∑—Ë«‰ª¢Õß°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß °“√·®°·∫∫ Õ∫∂“¡„Àâ°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß¡’ºŸâ∑’Ë  àß·∫∫ Õ∫∂“¡°≈—∫§◊π ª√–°Õ∫¥â«¬Õ“®“√¬å ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ 92 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 46.94 ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë ∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ 135 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 74.19 ·≈– π—°»÷°…“∑—ÈßÀ¡¥ 410 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 111.72 ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈∑—Ë«‰ª‰¥â Õ∫∂“¡‡°’ˬ«°—∫ Õ“¬ÿ ‡æ» ª√–«—µ‘°“√‡®Á∫ªÉ«¬ æ∫«à“°≈ÿà¡Õ“®“√¬å ¡’Õ“¬ÿÕ¬Ÿà „π™à«ß 31 - 40 ªï ‡ªìπ à«π„À≠à ®”π«π 35 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 37.6 ª√–«—µ°‘ “√‡ªìπ‚√§æ∫«à“  à«π „À≠à‡ªìπ‚√§¿Ÿ¡‘·æâ √âÕ¬≈– 38.7  à«π¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈¥â“π  ÿ¢¿“ææ∫«à“¡’ºŸâ∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√∑“ß “¬µ“ ®”π«π 65 §π ‚¥¬¡’Õ“°“√ “¬µ“ —Èπ®”π«π 40 §π ‡ªìπ Õ“°“√∑’Ëæ∫¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ „π™à«ß 1 ‡¥◊Õπ∑’˺à“π¡“¡’ Õ“®“√¬å®”π«π 27 §π ‰¡à¡Õ’ “°“√∑“ßµ“ ∑“ß®¡Ÿ°

37 (27.41) 36 (26.67) 25 (18.52) 11 (8.15) 47 (34.81) 8 (5.93)

98 (72.59) 99 (73.33) 110 (81.48) 124 (91.85) 88 ( 65.19) 127 (94.07)

54 (13.17) 53 (12.93) 39 (9.51) 24 (5.85) 84 (20.49) 23 (5.61)

356(86.83) 357(87.07) 371(90.49) 386(94.15) 326(79.51) 387(94.39)

≈”§Õ √–∫∫∑“߇¥‘πÀ“¬„® √–∫∫ª√– “∑ º‘«Àπ—ß §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 29.0 ·µà„π°≈ÿà¡∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√¡’®”π«π 66 §π ·≈–∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√·µà‰¡à√∫°«π°“√∑”ß“π¬—ß §ß∑”ß“π‰¥âª°µ‘ ¡’®”π«π 41 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 44.1 „π™à«ß 1 ‡¥◊Õπ∑’ºË “à π¡“¡’Õ“°“√‰¢âÀ«—¥ (‰¢â/ πÈ”¡Ÿ°/‡®Á∫§Õ/‰Õ/ª«¥‡¡◊ËÕ¬µ“¡µ—«) ®”π«π 56 §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 60.2 ‡ªìπÕ“°“√∑’Ëæ∫¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë ®”π«π 135 §π  à«π„À≠à‡ªìπ ‡æ»À≠‘ߧ‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 74.1 ·≈–¡’Õ“¬ÿÕ¬Ÿà„π™à«ß 31-40 ªï§‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 49.6 ª√–«—µ‘°“√‡ªìπ‚√§ æ∫«à“  à«π„À≠à‡ªìπ‚√§¿Ÿ¡‘·æâ ®”π«π 49 §π §‘¥ ‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 36.3  à«π¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈¥â“π ÿ¢¿“ææ∫«à“¡’ºŸâ ∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√∑“ß “¬µ“ ®”π«π 97.0 ‚¥¬¡’Õ“°“√  “¬µ“ —πÈ ®”π«π 54 §π ‡ªìπÕ“°“√∑’æË ∫¡“°∑’ Ë ¥ÿ „π™à«ß 1 ‡¥◊Õπ∑’ºË “à π¡“¡’‡®â“Àπâ“∑’®Ë ”π«π 30 §π

THAILAND JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH October - December 2010

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∫ ∑ «‘ ∑ ¬ “ ° “ √ ‰¡à¡’Õ“°“√∑“ßµ“ ∑“ß®¡Ÿ° ≈”§Õ √–∫∫∑“߇¥‘π À“¬„® √–∫∫ª√– “∑ º‘«Àπ—ß §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 22.2 ·µà„π°≈ÿà¡∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√¡’®”π«π 104 §π ·≈–∑’Ë¡’ Õ“°“√·µà‰¡à√∫°«π°“√∑”ß“π¬—ߧß∑”ß“π‰¥âª°µ‘ ¡’®”π«π 67 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 49.6 „π™à«ß 1 ‡¥◊Õπ∑’ºË “à π¡“¡’Õ“°“√‰¢âÀ«—¥(‰¢â/πÈ”¡Ÿ°/‡®Á∫§Õ/ ‰Õ/ª«¥‡¡◊ËÕ¬µ“¡µ—«)®”π«π 87 §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 64.4 ‡ªìπÕ“°“√∑’Ëæ∫¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ °≈ÿà¡π—°»÷°…“®”π«π 410 §π  à«π„À≠à ‡ªìπ‡æ»À≠‘ߧ‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 81.9 ¡’Õ“¬ÿÕ¬Ÿà„π™à«ß 21-30 ªï §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 62.7 ª√–«—µ‘°“√‡ªìπ ‚√§æ∫«à“  à«π„À≠à‡ªìπº◊Ëπ∑’˺‘«Àπ—ß®”π«π 177 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 43.2  à«π¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈¥â“π ÿ¢¿“æ æ∫«à“¡’ºŸâ∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√∑“ß “¬µ“ ®”π«π 183 §π ‚¥¬¡’ Õ “°“√ “¬µ“ —È π ®”π«π 155 §π ‡ªì π Õ“°“√∑’Ëæ∫¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ „π™à«ß 1 ‡¥◊Õπ∑’˺à“π¡“¡’ ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’®Ë ”π«π 107 §π ‰¡à¡Õ’ “°“√∑“ßµ“ ∑“ß ®¡Ÿ° ≈”§Õ √–∫∫∑“߇¥‘πÀ“¬„® √–∫∫ª√– “∑ º‘«Àπ—ß §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 26.1 ·µà„π°≈ÿà¡∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√ ¡’®”π«π 303 §π ·≈–∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√·µà‰¡à√∫°«π °“√∑”ß“π¬—ߧß∑”ß“π‰¥âª°µ‘ ¡’®”π«π 157 §π §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 38.3 „π™à«ß 1 ‡¥◊Õπ∑’˺à“π¡“¡’ Õ“°“√‰¢âÀ«—¥(‰¢â/πÈ”¡Ÿ°/‡®Á∫§Õ/‰Õ/ª«¥‡¡◊ËÕ¬ µ“¡µ—«)®”π«π 298 §‘¥‡ªìπ√âÕ¬≈– 72.7 ‡ªìπ Õ“°“√∑’Ëæ∫¡“°∑’Ë ÿ¥ 3. ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈≈—°…≥–°“√‡°‘¥Õ“°“√°≈ÿà¡ Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬„π°≈ÿࡵ—«Õ¬à“ß·µà≈–°≈ÿà¡ °“√»÷°…“§√—Èßπ’ȉ¥â Õ∫∂“¡∂÷ß≈—°…≥–¢Õß °“√‡°‘¥Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ ·≈– ∂“π∑’Ë∑’ˇ√‘Ë¡¡’ Õ“°“√‡°’ˬ«°—∫°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√∑“ß µ“, ®¡Ÿ°, ≈”§Õ, ∑“߇¥‘πÀ“¬„®, √–∫∫ª√– “∑·≈–º‘«Àπ—ß ‰¥âº≈  √ÿª‡°’ˬ«°—∫≈—°…≥–·≈–¢π“¥¢Õß°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√ Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬∑’‡Ë °‘¥¢÷πÈ „π·µà≈–√–∫∫¢Õß°≈ÿ¡à Õ“®“√¬å ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë ·≈–π—°»÷°…“ 122 µÿ≈“§¡ - ∏—𫓧¡ 2553 °√¡Õπ“¡—¬

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°“√‡°‘¥Õ“°“√¢Õß°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ ∑’‡Ë °‘¥¢÷πÈ µ“¡Õ«—¬«–µà“ßÊ „π°≈ÿ¡à µ—«Õ¬à“ß Õ“®“√¬å ‡®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë ·≈–π—°»÷°…“ ‚¥¬æ‘®“√≥“®“°ºŸâ∑’Ë¡’ Õ“°“√°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ §◊Õ ¡’§«“¡∂’Ë¢Õß °“√‡°‘¥Õ“°“√µ—Èß·µà 1-3 «—πµàÕ —ª¥“Àå ·≈–¡’µ—Èß ·µà 2 Õ“°“√„π 1 °≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√ ‚¥¬Õ“°“√π—Èπ®– ‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ‡©æ“–„π∑’Ë∑”ß“π‡∑à“π—Èπ „π¿“æ√«¡æ∫ «à“°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√√–∫∫ª√– “∑‡ªìπ°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√∑’Ëæ∫ ¡“°·≈–¡’Õ—µ√“§«“¡™ÿ°‡∑à“°—∫√âÕ¬≈– 25.08 ¢Õß ®”π«π°≈ÿà ¡ µ— « Õ¬à “ ß·≈–‡¡◊Ë Õ æ‘ ® “√≥“·¬°„π ·µà ≈ –°≈ÿà ¡ µ— « Õ¬à “ ßæ∫«à “ °≈ÿà ¡ ‡®â “ Àπâ “ ∑’Ë ¡’ ° ≈ÿà ¡ Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ¡“°°«à“ 1 °≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√ ‚¥¬®–æ∫°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√∑“ßµ“ °≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√∑“ß®¡Ÿ° ·≈–√–∫∫ª√– “∑  à « π°≈ÿà ¡ µ— « Õ¬à “ ß∑’Ë ‡ ªì π Õ“®“√¬å · ≈–π— ° »÷ ° …“æ∫«à “ ¡’ Õ “°“√‡æ’ ¬ ß°≈ÿà ¡ Õ“°“√‡¥’ ¬ «§◊ Õ √–∫∫ª√– “∑ ¡’ √ “¬≈–‡Õ’ ¬ ¥ · ¥ß„πµ“√“ß∑’Ë 2 4. ¢âÕ¡Ÿ≈· ¥ß§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å√–À«à“ß ªí®®—¬¥â“π§ÿ≥¿“æÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÀâÕß ªí®®—¬ ¥â“π∫ÿ§§≈°—∫°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ °“√»÷°…“§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å√–À«à“ßªí®®—¬¥â“π §ÿ ≥ ¿“æÕ“°“»°— ∫ ®”π«π§π∑’Ë ‡ °‘ ¥ Õ“°“√°≈ÿà ¡ Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ æ∫«à“ª√‘¡“≥¢ÕßΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ° ¢π“¥·≈–ΩÿÉπ¢π“¥‡≈Á°∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“ Ÿà∂ÿß≈¡ªÕ¥ ‰¥â¡§’ “à ‰¡à‡°‘π¡“µ√∞“π®÷߉¡à “¡“√∂§”π«≥º≈‰¥â ¥—ßπ—πÈ ®÷ß· ¥ßº≈‡©æ“–®”π«π·∫§∑’‡√’¬·≈–‡™◊ÕÈ √“ „πÀâÕß∑”ß“π/‡√’¬π ‚¥¬æ∫«à“®”π«π·∫§∑’‡√’¬ ∑’ºË “à π‡°≥±å¡“µ√∞“πÀ√◊Õ‰¡àº“à π‡°≥±å¡“µ√∞“π ¡’§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å°∫— ®”π«π§π∑’¡Ë Õ’ “°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ Õ¬à“ß¡’π—¬ ”§—≠∑“ß ∂‘µ‘∑’Ë P< 0.05  à«π§«“¡  —¡æ—π∏å√–À«à“ß®”π«π‡™◊ÈÕ√“°—∫®”π«π§π∑’ˇ°‘¥ Õ“°“√°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ æ∫«à“®”π«π‡™◊ÈÕ√“ „πÀâÕß∑”ß“π/‡√’¬π ∑’˺à“π‡°≥±å¡“µ√∞“πÀ√◊Õ ‰¡àºà“π‡°≥±å¡“µ√∞“π ‰¡à¡’§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å°—∫


ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ√«¡∑ÿ°¢π“¥ ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ∑’Ë “¡“√∂‡¢â“∂÷ß·≈– – ¡„π∂ÿß≈¡ªÕ¥œ

®”π«π‡™◊ÕÈ √“„πÀâÕß∑”ß“π/‡√’¬π ∑’Ë P< 0.05 ·≈– º≈°“√»÷°…“§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å√–À«à“ßªí®®—¬¥â“π∫ÿ§§≈ §◊Õ ‡æ» Õ“¬ÿ ·≈–°“√¡’‚√§ª√–®”µ—«°—∫®”π«π §π∑’ˇ°‘¥Õ“°“√°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ æ∫«à“‰¡à¡’ ªí ® ®— ¬ ¥â “ π∫ÿ § §≈™π‘ ¥ „¥∑’Ë ¡’ § «“¡ — ¡ æ— π ∏å °— ∫

®”π«π§π∑’Ë¡’Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ Õ¬à“ß¡’π—¬ ”§—≠ ∑“ß ∂‘µ‘∑’Ë P< 0.05 ¡’√“¬≈–‡Õ’¬¥¥—ßµ“√“ß∑’Ë 3 ·≈– 4

Õ¿‘ª√“¬º≈°“√»÷°…“ º≈°“√»÷°…“§√—Èßπ’È°≈ÿà¡∑’Ëæ∫«à“¡’°“√‡°‘¥

µ“√“ß∑’Ë 3 · ¥ß§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å√–À«à“ßªí®®—¬¥â“π§ÿ≥¿“æÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÀâÕß°—∫®”π«π§π∑’ˇ°‘¥ Õ“°“√°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬∑’ËÕ«—¬«–·≈–√–∫∫µà“ß Ê ªí®®—¬¥â“π§ÿ≥¿“æÕ“°“»

®”π«π‡™◊ÈÕ ·∫§∑’‡√’¬ ®”π«π‡™◊ÈÕ√“

≤ 500 (ºà“π) > 500 (‰¡àºà“π) ≤ 500 (ºà“π) > 500 (‰¡àºà“π)

Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬(√âÕ¬≈–) ¡’Õ“°“√

‰¡à¡’Õ“°“√

257 (54.8%) 79 (16.8%) 277 (59.1%) 77 (16.4%)

90 (19.2%) 43 (9.2%) 99 (21.1%) 24 (5.1%)

χ2

p- value

3.85

0.05

0.75

0.38

µ“√“ß∑’Ë 4 · ¥ß§«“¡ —¡æ—π∏å√–À«à“ßªí®®—¬¥â“π∫ÿ§§≈·≈–®”π«π§π∑’ˇ°‘¥Õ“°“√°≈ÿà¡Õ“°“√ Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬∑’ËÕ«—¬«–·≈–√–∫∫µà“ß Ê ªí®®—¬¥â“π∫ÿ§§≈

‡æ» Õ“¬ÿ

‚√§ª√–®”µ—«

™“¬ À≠‘ß πâÕ¬°«à“ 20 ªï 20-30 ªï 31-40 ªï 41-50 ªï ¡“°°«à“ 50 ªï ¡’

Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬(√âÕ¬≈–) ¡’Õ“°“√

‰¡à¡’Õ“°“√

93 (14.6%) 361 (56.6%) 55 (8.6%) 268 68 46 15 439

40 (6.3%) 144 (22.6%) 18 (2.8%) 117 29 15 5 181

χ2

p- value

0.12

0.72

1.80

0.77

1.34

0.25

THAILAND JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH October - December 2010

123


∫ ∑ «‘ ∑ ¬ “ ° “ √ Õ“°“√Õ“§“√ªÉ«¬ Ÿß§◊Õ °≈ÿࡇ®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë ´÷Ëß¡’ ªí®®—¬À≈—°§◊Õ §ÿ≥¿“æÕ“°“»¿“¬„πÕ“§“√ ∑’ˉ¡à ‡À¡“– ¡¡“°°«à“°≈ÿà¡Õ◊ËπÊ ‡π◊ËÕß®“°ª√‘¡“≥ΩÿÉπ ∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß°—π¡“®“°°‘®°√√¡∑’ˇ°‘¥¢÷Èπ¿“¬„πÀâÕß ∑”ß“π·≈–ÀâÕ߇√’¬π¡’°‘®°√√¡∑’Ë·µ°µà“ß°—π „π ÀâÕß∑”ß“π¢Õ߇®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë®–¡’°“√„™âÕÿª°√≥åµà“ßÊ ∑’Ë°àÕ„À⇰‘¥ΩÿÉπ‰¥â ‡™à𠇧√◊ËÕß∂à“¬‡Õ° “√ ‡§√◊ËÕß  à߇հ “√(17,18)  à«π„π°√≥’¢ÕßÀâÕß∫√√¬“¬∂÷ß ·¡â «à “ ®–‰¡à ¡’ ° “√„™â Õÿ ª °√≥å ‡ À≈à “ π’È · µà æ ∫«à “ ®”π«π§π∑’Ë„™âÀâÕß¡’®”π«π¡“° ‚¥¬¡’®”π«π§π ∑’Ë„™âÀâÕß¡“°°«à“ 71 §π Õ¬Ÿà√âÕ¬≈– 30 ´÷Ë߇ªìπ  “‡��µÿÀπ÷ßË ∑’∑Ë ”„À⇰‘¥°“√ªπ‡ªóÕô π¢ÕßΩÿπÉ ‰¥â (19,20)  à«πª√‘¡“≥¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ·∫§∑’‡√’¬·≈–‡™◊ÈÕ√“ æ∫«à “ Àâ Õ ßæ— ° Õ“®“√¬å ¡’ ª √‘ ¡ “≥¢Õ߇™◊È Õ ‰¡à ‡ °‘ π ‡°≥±å ¡ “µ√∞“π„π∑ÿ ° Àâ Õ ßµ— « Õ¬à “ ß ·µà Àâ Õ ß ∑”ß“π¢Õ߇®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë·≈–ÀâÕ߇√’¬π¡’ª√‘¡“≥¢Õß ‡™◊ÈÕ·∫§∑’‡√’¬·≈–‡™◊ÈÕ√“∑’˪π‡ªóôÕπÕ¬Ÿà„πÕ“°“» ¡“°°«à “ §à “ ¡“µ√∞“π„π∫“ßÀâ Õ ß ‡π◊Ë Õ ß®“° ≈—°…≥–ÀâÕß∑”ß“π¢Õ߇®â“Àπâ“∑’Ë‚¥¬ à«π„À≠à®– ¡’ ≈— ° …≥–Àâ Õ ß∑’Ë ¡’ æ◊È π ∑’Ë ¢ 𓥇≈Á ° ‡¡◊Ë Õ ‡∑’ ¬ ∫°— ∫ ®”π«π§π ´÷Ëßæ∫«à“ªí®®—¬¢Õߪ√‘¡“≥§π∑’Ë„™â ÀâÕß(19,20) ∑”„Àâª√‘¡“≥¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ®ÿ≈‘π∑√’¬å¡’§«“¡ ·µ°µà“ß°—π ·≈–®“°°“√»÷°…“§√—Èßπ’ȉ¥â∑”°“√ ‡°Á ∫ µ— « Õ¬à “ ßÕ“°“»„π™à « ß∑’Ë ¡’ ° “√„™â Àâ Õ ßµ“¡ ≈—°…≥–ª°µ‘ ´÷Ëß°“√ªπ‡ªóôÕπ¢Õ߇™◊ÈÕ®ÿ≈‘π∑√’¬å„π Õ“°“» “¡“√∂‡°‘¥¢÷Èπ‰¥â®“°µ—«∫ÿ§§≈∑’ˇ¢â“‰ª„™â ÀâÕß‚¥¬æ∫«à“À“°¡’ºŸâ¡’‡™◊ÈÕ®ÿ≈‘π∑√’¬å·≈–¡’Õ“°“√ ∑“ß√–∫∫À“¬„® ‡¡◊ËÕ®“¡ÕÕ°¡“‡™◊ÈÕ®ÿ≈‘π∑√’¬å∑’Ë ‡°‘¥®“°°“√®“¡ “¡“√∂·æ√à°√–®“¬„πÕ“°“»‰¥â ·≈– “¡“√∂Õ¬Ÿà‰¥âπ“πÀ“° ¿“«–„π∫√‘‡«≥π—Èπ ‡À¡“– ‡™àπ ¡’§«“¡™◊Èπ∑’ËæÕ‡À¡“– 70% À√◊Õ ‰¡à¡’ · ß·¥¥‡¢â “ ∂÷ ß °“√ªπ‡ªóô Õ π¢Õß “√Õ‘ π ∑√’ ¬å „ π Õ“°“»´÷Ë߇ªìπ·À≈àßÕ“À“√∑’ˇ™◊ÈÕ “¡“√∂‡°“–·≈– ‡¢â“ Ÿà√à“ß°“¬‚¥¬°“√À“¬„®‰¥âßà“¬¢÷Èπ(11) À√◊Õ¡’ 124 µÿ≈“§¡ - ∏—𫓧¡ 2553 °√¡Õπ“¡—¬

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THAILAND JOURNAL OF HEALTH PROMOTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH October - December 2010

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