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NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone Rivista del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

Special Issue


Cover photo: Schematic view of the ESS layout.




L. Bianco

ESS: A Vision for Science with Neutrons, a Challenge for Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


P. Tindemans


Il è pubblicato a cura del C.N.R. in collaborazione con la Facoltà di Scienze M.F.N. e il Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”. Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 Special Issue Autorizzazione del Tribunale di Roma n. 124/96 del 22-03-96 DIRETTORE RESPONSABILE:

C. Andreani

CNR Initiative in Support of the Scientific Research of Italian Community using Neutron Scattering Techniques



C. Andreani

A Second Target Station at ISIS: A New Opportunity for Inter-Disciplinary Research Using Pulsed Neutrons




M. Apice, P. Bosi

J. Penfold and A.D. Taylor


L. Avaldi, F. Carsughi, G. Ruocco, U. Wanderingh

New Scientific Opportunities with the ESS


D. Richter and A. Wischnewski




K. Clausen, P. Giugni, M.A. Ricci, U. Steigenberger

The Role and Policy of INFM on Large Scale Facilities for Neutrons



om grafica via Fabrizio Luscino 73 00174Roma Finito di stampare nel mese di Aprile 2002 PER NUMERI ARRETRATI:

Paola Bosi, Tel: +39 6 49932057 Fax: +39 6 49932456 E-mail: PER INFORMAZIONI EDITORIALI:

Desy Catena, Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Presidenza Facoltà di Scienze M.F.N., via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 00133 Roma Tel: +39 6 72594100 Fax: +39 6 2023507 E-mail:

Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 - Special Issue




want to welcome the presentation of the European Spallation Source (ESS) project to the public, scientific organisations and funding agencies, taking place in “Bundeshaus Bonn” 15-17 May 2002. This research project is only one example, out of many, of the effective scientific collaboration among national and international research institutions and university communities. Indeed the Scientific Case for this project was formulated by a large portion of the scientific community in Europe, operating in universities, national and international research institutions and facilities and in industries ( Two articles hosted in this special issue outline the project – by P. Tindemans – and its novel scientific opportunities – by D. Richter and A. Wischnewski. Another article – by J. Penfold and A.D. Taylor – illustrates the Second Target Station Project ( for interdisciplinary research using pulsed neutrons at the ISIS neutron facility operating at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Chilton-UK). The ISIS facility, the world’s brightest pulsed neutron and muon source, is one of the European research institutions participating to the ESS project. In our country the research activity of the Italian community using neutron scattering techniques has

been supported by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) since 1985, the year of the first CNR- SERC (Science and Engineering Research Council) agreement for the ISIS source. This collaboration, up to date, has provided our community with a test ground for new experiments and techniques as well as training opportunities for young Italian researchers. It has also served British-Italian collaboration for the development of novel instrumentations. Since the middle nineties the Italian community has also benefitted of the support of Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia (INFM) for the research activities at the ILL Reactor (Grenoble-F). The latter European facility provides the most intense neutron flux – Reactor based source – operating in the world ( In 1998 CNR and INFM have both joined the ESS project. The scientific and R&D activities of the Italian community, within the ESS project during the last years, are outlined in two articles, by C. Andreani and F. Toigo. In this context, I do wish to acknowledge Marcello Fontanesi for his authoritative, precious and constant initiatives as CNR representative within the ESS R&D Council. Lucio Bianco

The updated ESS layout. The estimated costs are based upon this ESS science city.


Articolo ricevuto in redazione nel mese di Febbraio 2002


The European Spallation Source project on which 18 laboratories and organisations from 11 countries in Europe are working hard in the way up to its formal presentation to Europe in May 2002, should be the European cornerstone of the global strategy for neutrons developed by the OECD Megascience Forum. The world needs three spallation sources in the new MW power range; two of them are now under construction in the USA (SNS) and Japan (JNS). The brand new “European neutron landscape” published by the European neutron users ENSA underscores their commitment to ESS. ESS will be based on a 10 MW proton accelerator feeding 5 MW into a 50 Hz short pulse target and 5 MW into a 16 2/3 Hz long pulse target. There is no doubt about the need for neutrons complementary to photons or electrons to investigate condensed matter. A 2001 report by the working party on Fine Analysis of Matter prepared for high level representatives of the five major EU countries is clear about this. ESS will address a very wide range of scientific problems in the field of soft and hard condensed matter. These problems very often will have a direct technological and industrial relevance: engineering, new (nano-technology based) materials (magnetic and optical materials, polymers, glasses, soft-hard or organic inorganic composites), energy storage and conversion, chemical engineering, geotechnology, biotechnology etc. The new intensity realm ESS opens (even more than the SNS and the JSNS) with its two optimised target stations will allow us to carry out in situ, in vivo, real time, real life measurements. By reducing measurement times by a factor of 20 to 50 many experiments that now are impractical because they simply take far too long, come within reach. The science and technology case for ESS has been worked up in the Engelberg report (2001), and is being called a “strong one” according to the preliminary assessment of the German Wissenschaftsrat (December 2001-January 2002). In a companion document the considerable intensity gains (and the essential contribution of the source intensity to these) for almost all instrument classes with respect to both ISIS and ILL have been carefully established. As a consequence ESS will truly be a ‘super ISIS’ and a ‘super ILL’. Every project in the category of ESS is by definition a challenge to technology, and one will always keep developing the technologies used until the components are ac-

tually built and assembled. ESS has appointed a Technical Advisory Committee with experts from many laboratories in Europe (DESY, CERN, ESRF, ILL etc) and the USA and Japan. Their assessment (January 2002) is that if we continue the work that has been defined the laboratories and organisations behind ESS can build ESS as presently designed based on the huge efforts of the ESS partners over the past five to ten years. Just to substantiate a bit further what they stated: There are two convincing accelerator designs, one normal conducting, the other superconducting, further detailed comparison of the benefits should decide. The instrument suite proposed for Day-1 is very convincing. The stress problems in the 5 MW short pulse target one can be confident to solve according to the TAC. What rests is the new problem of ‘pitting’, a sort of corrosion. SNS, JSNS and ESS should tackle this together; very recent results in Japan look already promising. Of course, a decision to build ESS, and if so when, is not just based on its science case and feasibility. A lot of politics comes in. Yet the crucial arguments are straightforward: • Europe needs to maintain its uncontested scientific and technological leadership in neutron science and technology, and there by to secure its important pole in condensed matter science and technology. • With the advent of SNS and the JSNS a new realm of intensity for spallation sources and science will be opened; any gap of more than about 5 years would cause a brain drain for top neutron scientists and the younger generations in Europe, either to esp. the USA or outside the neutron area. • ESS is the only way Europe can in the end remain competitive. The first argument should be the overriding concern of European policymakers that pledge that Europe will be the most advanced knowledge-based economy in a couple of years. The second one essentially pinpoints the time scale for ESS: we should try to get the first neutrons out of ESS in 2010/2011. So what about the strategy Europe should follow in neutrons? The best short-term investment for neutrons in Europe is without doubt continuing the ILL for another ten years until 2013, and investing in the ILL Roadmap of 2001. Continued and extended use of ISIS is an essential component of any scenario. It is equally clear, however, that to be up against the competition in the next decade, a source well up in the MW

Special Issue • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE



range is a must. The source performance is what counts; all improvements on instruments will be universally shared. And ESS will be more then a factor of ten better than anything on offer now or in an advanced stage of decision making (including the AUSTRON plans). Compare that to the source gain of a factor of 4 only from the very first Chalk River reactor to the ILL reactor! On the other hand it is important to maintain, as ENSA – the European Neutron Scatterers Association – stresses, a network of sources including smaller ones, for training, development work, for those front ran to experiments that do not need the highest intensity, niche activities to which one can ‘tune’ a less powerful source, etc. This calls for a wider and more integrated European strategy than has been considered so far by individual countries, in order to arrive at a viable overall scenario for ESS on the one hand, and in ILL, ISIS and the ragional facilities on the other hand. It should take account of resonances

set… when facilities are closed, and precise assumptions about life times. Proposals to jointly produce technologies and components critical to the development of the infrastructure and the instrumentation of all European neutron research centres, could be an important part of such a strategy. Europe is facing difficult decisions in order to find its way in many areas. In science and technology policy the inevitable consequence of adopting a European perspective (and what other would make sense given the ambitions of its leaders and population?) is that national decisions should be considered as part of , and no longer as a datum for a European strategy. Sometimes one also will have to accept consequences for facilities that have been built up in a different competitive arena. The scientists understand this, because their environment is a global one. That is why there is such unanimous support in the European Neutron Scatterers Association for ESS.

Articolo ricevuto in redazione nel mese di Marzo 2002

CNR INITIATIVE IN SUPPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OF ITALIAN COMMUNITY USING NEUTRON SCATTERING TECHNIQUES C. Andreani Director of Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone Preamble In recent times Europe has accomplished a position of leadership by intertwining research and education at a world-class experimental facilities. Among these a prominent role is played by both neutron and synchrotron radiation facilities such as ILL - Institute Laue Langevin - at Grenoble (F), ISIS - at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), ESRF-European Synchrotron Radiation Source - at Grenoble (F), and ELETTRA - at Trieste (I). In recent times synchrotron radiation has developed tremendously and moved into some of the research areas, where neutron scattering, previously, represented a unique tool. Rather than being a threat to neutron scattering, synchrotron radiation, as a complementary technique, has to be regarded as an important stimulant for the continued development of neutron scattering techniques which will favour a jointly tackle of most complex scientific problems. In particular, as far as the research with neutrons is concerned, it is nowadays carried out by more than 4500 European scientists and currently performed at 14 national and 1 international (ILL)

facilities in Europe; 5 of these facilities being low flux facilities and only used locally. The research programme currently performed at these facilities encompasses both basic and strategic research, with much collaboration among academia, research institutions and industries and a ‘peer review’ system select, on the average twice a year, the experimental program to be performed. At these facilities, very sophisticated experimental techniques are used routinely in order to determine, at an high degree of precision, structural and dynamical properties of materials. The increasing sophistication, needed for the application of these tools, requires that users from Universities, research laboratories as well as from industrial laboratories, had a guaranteed access to Large Scale Facilities, where the specific experimental apparata are available. At the same time scientific research on complex themes, demands an interdisciplinary approach from the methodological point of view and both neutron spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation techniques, historically tailored to some specific research field, such as physics, are now, naturally, become of interest to a wide

NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • Special Issue



range of scientists working in other scientific areas. For instance the use of neutron as a microscopic probe of matter has expanded rapidly into other disciplines, such as materials science and engineering, polymer science, structural biology, dynamics of biological entities, biotechnology, structural materials, food science and technology, fundamental physics, and earth sciences1,2. Research activities of the Italian Community Nowadays, in Italy, neutron scattering users consist in a community of about 250 scientists with their scientific research at ISIS pulsed neutron source (Chilton-UK) and at ILL (Grenoble-F) being supported by the Italian Research Institutions CNR (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) and INFM (Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia), respectively. The former facility, the premier Pulsed Neutron Scattering Facility in the World (160 kW), operates at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory. Since in middle eighties ISIS source become operational, CNR has constantly invested in the research activities based at this facility, in that favouring a considerable development and strengthening of Italian research community using neutron scattering techniques. In the early eighties the Italian community was indeed represented by less than 10 users. CNR assures support to research activities based at Table 1 ROUND


88/1 89/1 89/2 90/1 90/2 91/1 91/2 92/1 92/2 93/1 93/2 94/1 94/2 95/1 95/2 96/1 96/2 97/1 97/2 98/1 98/2 99/1 99/2 00/1 00/2 01/1 01/2 02/1

Days 222,3 203,0 198,3 198,8 170,3 176,0 169,3 135,3 167,4 172,0 158,6 112,3 123,6 190,4 141,8 119,7 143,7 102,0 164 123 189 127 205 242 192 189 129 188



% 11,8 10,3 11,4 10,7 8,8 7,9 8,1 4,7 7,3 6,1 6,7 4,6 5,0 8,2 5,7 5,3 5,9 4,6 7,5 5,7 8,8 6,6 10,6 11,8 8,6 10,1 6,6 9,9


Days 100,1 55,1 64,8 33,0 53,5 61,8 57,4 49,8 61,3 45,9 51,9 39,4 51,1 72,4 56,5 53,3 57,7 56,3 71 52 92 68 105 104 93 93 81 82

% 10,5 6,0 9,8 5,5 7,6 7,9 5,8 4,6 7,5 4,9 5,1 4,2 4,9 6,5 4,7 4,6 4,7 4,5 6,0 4,1 6,6 5,6 7,3 8,7 7,3 7,4 6,3 8,0

pulsed neutron sources and R&D in neutron instrumentation of the Italian community through: • an international agreement signed, in the year 1985, with SERC (Science and Engineering Research Council), and presently in force with CCLRC (Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils). This initiative guarantees to the Italian community: 1) 5% (quoted presently about 1.8 M€) per year access to the ISIS experimental program with both neutron and muon probes (see Table 1); 2) financial support to Italian teams for research and developments program of novel pulsed neutron scattering instrumentation at ISIS; 3) support for training of young Italian scientists at ISIS. Within this agreement the Italian community has provided two inelastic neutron scattering spectrometers, i.e. PRISMA and TOSCA spectrometers. Both instruments, designed and constructed in Italy, at the CNR own laboratories, Istituto di Struttura della Materia (ISM) and Istituto di Elettronica Quantistica (IEQ), are nowadays operating the ISIS facility. The success of these projects and the high quality of the Italian scientific research at ISIS are the result of the effective collaboration among CCLRC, CNR as well as British and Italian researchers from universities. • an international agreement signed, in the year 1998, with the ESS R&D Council. The latest, a consortium of European Research Institutions and Universities, coordinates the initiative for a 5 MW, third generation, pulsed neutron source in Europe: the European Spallation Source (ESS) ( An exhaustive description of the initiative and research activities of the Italian community within the ESS project can be found in an article by Prof. Marcello Fontanesi3, published on this journal in the first issue last year. The contribution of the CNR to the ESS R&D project regards research and developments (R&D) of novel instrumentation. Present scenario on pulsed neutron sources Spallation was pioneered in the early 1980s in the United States and Japan with low-power sources of a few kilowatts. The success of the first spallation sources led to the construction of a source in the 50 kW range in the United States and one of 160 kW in the United Kingdom.


Special Issue • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE



The present scenario on pulsed neutron sources includes three third generation neutron pulsed sources and two second generation ones. • The American source SNS is the first third generation spallation neutron source which will come into operation. The construction of the SNS facility started with ground breaking on December 15th of the year 1999 at Oak Ridge in Tennessee. The approved 1.400 M$ project was for a 2 MW short pulse spallation source operating at 60 Hz. The facility will have one target station with a start-up due in the year 2006. A proposal for a Long Wavelength Target Station (up to 600 kW) operating at a lower frequency is also seriously considered. The design study for the second target station is funded by the National Science Foundation. The full facility is expected to operate with both target stations around the year 2008. • Japan has announced a decision to build a multi-purpose facility that will incorporate a high-intensity (1 MW, upgradeable to 5 MW) with a proton accelerator which will be completed by the year 2007. A multipurpose facility, built around a single high-intensity proton accelerator, will supply a variety of particle beams: neutrons, protons, neutrinos, muons, as well as exotic unstable particles (pions, kaons, etc.) for nuclear physics research. The facility will include a spallation neutron source and a muon source as well. • The European source is a 5 MW source, named the ESS (European Spalllation Neutron Source). This project is promoted and coordinated by a consortium of European Research Institutions and Universities, the ESS R&D Council (see article by P. Tindemans - page 3, and by D. Richter and A. Wischnewski - page 10, in this issue). The ESS Council, in a meeting held in Abingdon (UK) on 16 May 2001, decided to launch the ESS project on the 15-17 May 2002 . Aim of this initiative is to present officially the ESS project to the public, science organisations and funding agencies and to initiate both the decision process for the project and the process for finding a site for the ESS facility. The presentation will be embedded in a European

neutron users meeting and a symposium on neutron scattering - the scientific perspectives opened up by the ESS - to be held in “Bundeshaus Bonn“ - The old German house of Parliament – (see flyer included within this issue). In recent OECD documents prepared by the Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy, and Global Science Forum - Workshop on Strategic Policy Issues1 and Workshop on Large Facilities for Studying the Structure and Dynamics of Matter2 - the ESS project, given its strategic importance on both regional and global size, has been included among those initiative to be considered for future investment by the OECD countries. • Another pulsed neutron source is the Target Station II Project at ISIS (, a second, new next generation neutron production target, which will be furnished with a novel instrument suite, exploiting the latest technological advances in neutron beam line components. The provision of a Second Target Station would be combined with an upgrade to the ISIS accelerator to increase the beam current from 200 µA to 300 µA. The research programme will be strongly interdisciplinary, with particular emphasis on soft condensed matter, biological sciences and advanced materials (see article by J. Penfold and A.D. Taylor, pag 7). A 5% participation to ISIS-II projects is estimated in about 2.0 M€ ÷ 2.5 M€ per year. • AUSTRON pulsed neutron source, a 360 M€ project, aims to deliver, within the year 2008 a second generation pulsed neutron source of 0.5 MW) ( An overview of the timetables for the European projects on pulsed neutron sources is given in Table 2. Table 2 Pulsed neutron Sources






0.36 MW

0.36 MW 0.50 MW

0.36 MW 0.50 MW 5.00 MW

0.16 MW

Table 3 Research Institution/Funding Institution

Project title

CNR-ISM (Frascati-Roma) / CNR


Inelastic neutron spectrometer for the study of collective excitations

CNR-IEQ (Firenze) / CNR


Inelastic neutron scattering instrument for spectroscopic studies on molecular systems

INFM / European Community

XENNI / TECHNI Solid state detectors

University of Milano Bicocca and Rome Tor Vergata / European Community


INFM / European Community


Inelastic neutron scattering instrument for spectroscopic studies at the eV energies

INFM / European Community


Inelastic neutron scattering instrument for spectroscopic studies at low q and high energies (E>1 eV)


Research activity

γ_detectors for eV neutron spectroscopy

Large area crystal monochromators

University of Parma / European Community EMU

Development of second European Musr spectrometer

University of Parma / European Community SLOWMU

Development of an Ultraslow Muon Source for the EC Muon facility at ISIS

NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • Special Issue



Italian projects and CNR investments in neutron scattering at the ISIS facility It has to be recalled3 that, in the period 1985-2002 the CNR total staff effort in pulsed neutron sources activities has exceeded on the average 4.5 man year per year with a total investment of 3.5 M€ (PRISMA and TOSCA spectrometers at ISIS). The access to ISIS, in the same period, corresponded to a total investment of about 18 M€. Resources for activities within the ESS project have been about 20 K€ per year. The CNR supports to ISIS program has triggered several initiatives devoted to the design and development of novel neutron and muon instrumentations of interest for the R&D instrumental activity within the ESS project. These are listed in Table 3. Resources for these projects have come directly from both CNR and the European Community with some additional resources from INFM and Universities. It has to be stressed the CCLRC-CNR agreement has allowed our community to play a key role in the cost effective use of neutron scattering at ISIS, being a prerequisite of eligibility for most of the additional projects financed to the Italian Community, through the EU Access to Large Scale Facilities initiative. In addition these projects have triggered an effective international and national collaboration

among researchers from British and Italian Institutions, such as CCLRC, CNR and INFM, as well as European universities. Presently the CCLRC-CNR agreement is still in force and the access to ISIS scientific and instrumental program represents the best warranty for the efficient completion of those projects still in progress, listed in Table 3. In my opinion the preservation of this CNR initiative at ISIS is also the best way to guarantee, in the near future, a parallel effective and constructive participation of the Italian community to the several and distinct phases of both AUSTRON and ESS projects. References 1OECD Global Science Forum-Workshop on Strategic Policy Issues (High Intensity Proton Beam Facilities- Paris 25 Settembre 2000) 2 OECD Global Science Forum-Workshop on Large Facilities for Studying the Structure and Dynamics of Matter Copenhagen, 20 - 21 September, 2001 3Marcello Fontanesi, ‘Partecipazione del CNR al Progetto European Spallation Source (ESS) in ambito ESS R&D Council Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone’ Vol. 6, N. 1 (2001).

Articolo ricevuto in redazione nel mese di Gennaio 2002

A SECOND TARGET STATION AT ISIS: A NEW OPPORTUNITY FOR INTER-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH USING PULSED NEUTRONS J. Penfold and A.D. Taylor ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, CCLRC, Chilton, Didcot, OXON, UK The planned Second Target Station at the ISIS pulsed neutron facility at RAL represents a new generation of neutron production target and instrument suite. It will offer unique instrumentation and unrivalled potential for structural and dynamical studies of condensed matter, using cold neutrons and high resolution spectroscopy. Such studies will be inter-disciplinary, with applications in Soft Condensed Matter, Advanced Materials and Bio-molecular Sciences (‘A Second Target Station at ISIS’, CCLRC report, RAL-TR-2000-032).

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the Second Target Station at ISIS.

ISIS is currently the most intense and extensively instrumented pulsed neutron sources, and the effective and growing exploitation of ISIS over a broad range of condensed matter research has powerfully demonstrated the specific benefits of the time of flight technique in

Special Issue • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE



neutron scattering on pulsed sources. The Second Target Station will build on the success of ISIS, and extend its capability into new areas. The proposed Second Target Station at ISIS is a low frequency, low power target station, which would operate at 10 hz, taking 1-5 pulses from the ISIS Synchrotron (see figure 1). The low power dissipation and low frequency will enable it to be optimised for the production of cold neutrons, in a way not possible on the existing high power target station. Substantial gains in performance of greater than an order of magnitude over the existing target station at ISIS will be achieved for cold neutrons and high resolution instrumentation with a broad spectral range. These developments will maintain ISIS at the forefront of accelerator based pulsed neutron sources into the future, and provide effective competition in cold neutron instrumentation with the major new pulsed source developments, the SNS project in the USA, and the Joint Hadron Facility in Japan. The potentially impressive gains in the capability of cold neutron scattering and high resolution studies will provide exciting new opportunities in the technologically significant areas of Soft Condensed Matter, Advanced Materials and Bio-Molecular Sciences. Just as the advent of the high flux reactor at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble in the early 1970’s, with its dedicated cold neutron source, broadened considerably the appeal of neutron scattering, so the development of the Second Target Station at ISIS, optimised for long wavelength neutrons, will have a major impact on the study of complex condensed matter systems. The combination of the cold

neutron flux, the simultaneously available broad spectral range and the potential for high resolution, will provide facilities that are not available elsewhere. In the areas of Advanced Materials and Soft Matter the new scientific opportunities are in the study of complex, multi-component or multi-phase systems, the use of complex sample environments, and the investigation of non-equilibrium systems. In such systems the dimension scales of importance often range from molecular to meso-scale. This dictates the need for a broad wavelength range with a particular emphasis on cold neutrons. Kinetic studies (ranging from chemical reactions to probing dynamic surface tension) require the same broad spectral range with higher fluxes of cold neutrons. Multi-component or multi-phase systems are only tractable with the parametric studies possible using enhanced flux and high resolution. The Life Sciences are currently making an immense impact, with many health-related issues underlying this importance. The success of X-ray crystallography in solving complex proteins and virus structures to high resolution has been critical for understanding structure-function relationships, and this has been further boosted by the Human Genome Project and the prospects of post genome research on a large number of newly identified protein sequences. The role of neutron crystallography is secondary to these high resolution x-ray studies. However, there are important contributions that neutrons will make in, for example, determining water or hydrogen location at lower resolution. In the broader context the post Genome era will provide exciting and important

Fig. 2. Site layout of proposed Second Target Station.

NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • Special Issue



new opportunities in the broader bio-molecular sciences remit, in fields of pharmacy, food science, sensors, biocompatibility and bio-functionality. In these particular areas there is much overlap with the areas of interest identified in Soft Matter and Advanced Materials, and their specific requirements. The main scientific areas in which significant developments are envisaged are summarised as follows:

Fig. 3. Second Target Station Target Moderator Assembly.

Soft Condensed Matter: Surface, interfacial and bulk properties of complex fluids (polymers, surfactants, colloids). Bio-molecular Sciences: Pharmaceuticals, drug delivery formulations, membrane structures, membrane-protein interactions, bio-compatibility and functionality, and food technology. Advanced Materials: Crystalline, magnetic, disordered and engineering materials; including complex inorganic and organic assemblies, clathrates, intercalates, zeolites, nano-structured materials, high temperature superconductors, giant magneto-resistance materials, magnetic films and multi-layers, spin valves, glasses, complex fluids, porous media. The second target station will be situated on the southern side of the existing high power target (see figure 2), and one pulse in five from the ISIS synchrotron will be directed along a new proton beam line. The relatively low power target station will have a tantallum target, cryogenic moderators in “wing” geometry (a 25K decoupled solid methane moderator, and a 25K coupled liquid hydrogen moderator), and will be surrounded by a beryllium reflector. 9 instrument beam points will view each moderator (see figure 3). The relatively low proton power will allow target and moderator designs which are optimised for the production of long wavelength neutrons, and hence more efficient than those on the existing target station. In particular, the use of a pre-moderator and a grooved coupled solid methane moderator will provide a significant enhancement in cold neutron flux (with a relaxed pulse structure, ∆t ≤ 300 msec) (see figure 4). Further gains for the coupled moderator will be obtained using a grooved surface. It is now recognised that neutron flux does not

Fig. 5. Possible instrument suite layout.

Fig. 4. Summary of calculated performance for different moderators, and comparison with other developments.

simply scale with proton power/current, and that at modest target power levels there are gain factors and efficiency factors which are not available at higher power levels. This is particularly true for cold neutron production; and this coupled with the broad wavelength band more easily available at low source frequencies, is an attractive proposition. The detailed Monte Carlo calculations (see figure 4) to calculate and optimise the target station performance

Special Issue • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE



are now at a well advanced stage. The low power levels (~60 kW) enables a compact design with exceptionally good neutron coupling to be developed, and the use of moderator materials (solid methane) not possible at higher power levels. The predicted performance for cold neutrons is similar to that expected of a 600 kW source. A potential instrument suite, that will benefit from the characteristics of the Second Target Station, has been specified (see figure 5). The particular features, such as the enhanced cold neutron flux, the broad spectral range available (100ms time frame), and the potential for high resolution (long flight paths), will impact most on neutron reflectivity, small angle neutron scattering (SANS), very high resolution spectroscopy, non-crystalline diffraction, high resolution crystalline diffraction and large scale crystallography. For example, in small angle scattering a wide Q range (0.002 to 0.2 Å-1 at a scattered flight path of 10m) can be measured in a single measurement with a flux gain ~ x 30 compared to the existing ISIS SANS instrument, LOQ. For the reflectometers an increase in count rate ≥ x10 over the existing ISIS reflectometers CRISP and SURF, over an extended Q range available in a single

measurement (0.01 to 0.5 Å-1) is anticipated. The project funding has provision for an initial instrument suite of 7 instruments, comprising of 2 new instruments and 5 transferred from the existing 50Hz target station. It is planned to develop partnerships to more fully exploit the potential of the new and existing target stations. It is expected that the formal commencement of the project will be announced this April, and that the start of the major civil engineering work will start in January 2003. The project schedule is such that the first proton beam to the target is planned for December 2006, with full operation of the facility by mid-2007. With the new synchrotron radiation source, Diamond, commencing operation at RAL at about the same time, the Rutherford site will be an exciting and vibrant centre for Condensed Matter research over the next 10-15 years. Further details about the Second Target Station Project can be found on our web site (, or from Jeff Penfold (, Tim Broome ( or Andrew Taylor (

Articolo ricevuto in redazione nel mese di Febbraio 2002

NEW SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITIES WITH THE ESS D. Richter, A. Wischnewski Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Festkörperforschung, Jülich, Germany As the next decisive step in the evolution of neutron sources, ESS will offer a revolution in neutron science: it will provide for an enhancement in source performance for the different applications by factors between 10 and 100, i.e. much more than has been achieved since the pioneering days of Brockhouse. Since the development of research reactors at reasonable costs (and technical risk) has found its end with the ILL, the real challenge of ESS is that it has to transform the spallation source technique from being at present complementary to reactors to superior across the board. Recognising the scientific opportunities of third generation neutron sources like ESS and evaluating the demand for neutrons, the overriding need for such a source in Europe has been emphasised within the global neutron strategy compiled by the OECD Megascience Forum in 1998 and was endorsed by the OECD Ministerial Conference in 1999. The combination of a 50Hz

short pulse and a 16 2/3 Hz long pulse target station at a level of 5MW each will make ESS the best neutron source world wide for all classes of instruments. A conservative estimate based on existing instrumentation performed by a large group of instrumentation specialists revealed an average intensity gain factor for 28 instrument classes of about 50 compared to present “best of its class” instruments. Beyond that in particular the long pulse target station offers opportunities for novel instrumentation, where new experimental techniques like repetition rate and wavelength frame multiplication will be exploited. This will lead to further gains in efficiency. Scientific Opportunities For a strictly intensity limited technique these unprecedented improvements will open new scientific opportunities in many fields of condensed matter research. The ESS is a large facility for a broad range of science. It is

NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • Special Issue



motivated not by one central scientific problem, but rather by a multitude of fascinating questions from many fields of science. An increasing number of these questions impact upon the daily lives of people. The ESS will provide a centre of innovation and excellence for the scientific community not only in Europe but worldwide. In the following, these more general statements will be substantiated by some examples from different neutron research areas. Solid State Physics Magnetism and superconductivity are among the traditional areas of neutrons in condensed matter and one might, perhaps, expect a slowing of activity. Far from it. The discovery of heavy fermions, of high-Tc superconductors, spin-Peierls transitions, C60 and all its derivatives, molecular magnets and the explosive growth of multilayer science have provided a plethora of new phenomena in the last decade that call for neutron techniques. At the more exotic end are the studies at very low temperature, now down to 500 pK, on nuclei spin ordering, opening a completely new field of science. The centre of activity has, of course, been in the study of systems exhibiting novel effects due to strong electronic correlation, such as high-Tc materials, heavy fermions or colossal magnetoresistance manganites. For these materials, the unique capability of neutrons to disentangle structural and magnetic fluctuations by means of polarisation analysis is decisive, a recent example being the identification of structural and magnetic polarons in the manganites. With the ESS as a more powerful source, the emphasis will shift to complexity, including magnetic fluctuations in organic materials or in nanostructural materials such a quantum dots. Liquids and Glasses Liquids and glasses are an important part of our daily life and at the same time pose a central scientific problem. The scientific problem is to understand the atomic

Fig. 1. Sketch of the proposed neutron-neutron scattering experiments.

dynamics in the absence of long range order. Presently there is neither a satisfactory microscopic understanding of the low-temperature anomalies of glasses, nor of the nature of the glass transition. The crucial advantage of neutrons is the simplicity of their cross section in the scattering process. This well-understood cross-section allows detailed comparison to both theory and numerical simulation and it is this combination which presently drives understanding in these fields. Further drive comes from new developments in other techniques. In particular inelastic x-ray scattering and NMR which provide important complementary information. To take an example, x-ray Brillouin scattering with a resolution of 1.5 meV has stimulated neutron scattering measurements at 0.5 meV below the Brillouin line using long wavelength neutrons. This allowed the multiple scattering problem encountered there to be overcome. Fundamental Neutron Physics During the past 25 years, our world-view of nature has changed dramatically, from the constituents of elementary particles to the status of the universe. Neutron physics has made major contributions to this evolutionary process. In particular accurate measurements of neutron beta decay were instrumental in fixing the number of particle families at three. Moreover neutron experiments have made substantial contributions to our understanding of strong, electroweak and gravitational interactions. Neutron interferometry can be used to obtain non-classical states allowing us to check the very foundations of quantum mechanics. Yet many crucial questions remain to be answered at more powerful neutron sources: • Elucidate the origin of the handedness of nature by looking for an exotic decay mode of the neutron a two decades decrease of the present limit for the electric dipole moment of the neutron will supply information on the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. • It is believed that the strong nuclear force is essentially the same for protons and neutrons. The best way to check whether deviations in the singlet scattering lengths signal a breakdown of isospin invariance, is a direct scattering measurement of the neutron-neutron scattering at very low energy, which will become feasible at the ESS (Fig. 1). Soft Condensed Matter Soft matter (polymers, thermotropic liquid crystals, micellar solutions, microemulsions, colloidal suspensions, membranes and vesicles) is one of the major growth areas of neutron scattering; much of the research having direct implications and applications for industry. The two crucial points for the application of neutrons in this area are: the ability for H/D labelling, and the fact that

Special Issue • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE



Fig. 2. The study of biolubrication by neutron reflection. The high intensity neutron beam will allow the illuminated area of interface to be reduced to a size (less than 10mm2) that should be manageable in conjunction with a force balance. This will allow the direct study of the conformation of adsorbed polyelectrolyte by reflection while various forces are applied to the system.

the slow time scales of molecular motions are within the range of observation of slow neutron techniques, especially of the spin-echo method. Neutrons have already played a major role in understanding polymer conformation and rheology. Small angle neutron scattering remains the pre-eminent technique for establishing the conformation of polymers. The neutron spin-echo method begins to be able to check quantitatively the validity of the widely accepted reptation model, thus adding appreciably to our knowledge of the topological constraints present in polymer entan-

Fig. 3. Neutron reflectometry. ESS fluxes will allow the study of native plasma membranes extracted from living cells deposited to planar substrates. A specially designed polymer cushion between solid substrate and membrane will provide the soft interface required for keeping the membrane spanning proteins (ion channels, receptors, transporters) in their active state during the experiments.

glement. Furthermore, a significantly improved source like ESS will facilitate a large range of real time experiments which will follow non-equilibrium phenomena like polymerisation reactions, phase separation, polymer processing, etc. Another large class of materials are surfactants and selfassembling systems. Again, these are widely used in industry e.g. in both the oil and detergent industry. X-rays are often a very useful tool but the ability of the H/D substitution gives neutrons the key role. A striking example is the boosting effect of amphiphilic block copolymers added to the detergent in water-oil microemulsions. An effect discovered in neutron small angle contrast-variation experiments. This effect fuels the hope of improving the efficiency of detergents by an unexpectedly large factor. While today only a small class of interfaces or surfaces may be studied by reflectometry, the ESS will allow to investigate almost any interface. Two areas of particular importance are the liquid/liquid interfaces, where adsorbed polymers or amphiphilics play a crucial role in determining the stability of emulsions and biolubrication (see Fig. 2), where the delicate control of environmental factors (pH, ion concentration, etc.) is used to manipulate the conformation of polyelectrolytes at the lubricated interface. Biology and Biotechnology Neutrons have a unique role to play in determining the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules and their complexes. The similar scattering signal from deuterium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen allows the full determination of the positions and dynamics of the atoms “of life”. In addition the negative scattering length of hydrogen allows the well-known contrast variation method to be applied to dissect the component parts of multimacromolecular complexes. In the post genomic era structure determining techniques are reaching towards high throughput and a high number of proteins to be investigated. Thus, the ESS will offer major gains in neutron capability over the current technical frontier with reactor source technology whereby smaller samples, smaller quantities and lower concentrations all become viable. Thus, the major structure and dynamics techniques of protein crystallography, small angle neutron scattering, inelastic scattering and membrane reflectometry will all benefit in a major way. The considerably reduced measuring times will allow native rather than artificial membranes to be probed by reflectometry, including membrane bound proteins at the surface of actual cells. One example are membrane biophysical studies via native state reflectometry with impact to biosensors and nanobiostructures. Such biochips will become a crucial

NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • Special Issue



technology for many applications and diagnostics as well as proteomics. The technology to emerge from future research will provide the tools for finding molecular markers, allowing detection of illnesses at an early stage and the unravelling of the human proteon. Neutron data on such complex systems can become an important ingredient in the design of more advanced combinations of biological matter with solid surfaces for biochips including biosensors (see Fig. 3). Structural biology, as well as biotechnology, will benefit from the powerful ability of neutrons to contribute to the location of hydrogen atoms and water molecules in biological systems. Thus it will contribute to the production of missing complementary data relevant for molecular modelling and to the strategy of rational drug design, in synergy with other biophysical approaches.

y, mm

Chemical Structure, Kinetics and Dynamics There is a vast range of different chemical reactions investigated by elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. At least 90 % of this work relies on the different scattering cross sections of H and D, and on the great sensitivity of neutrons to light elements such as H and O in the presence of heavy ones. Both features are great assets compared to x-rays. The sensitivity to H and the simplicity of the cross section have allowed molecular vi-

x, mm Fig. 4. The extremes of compressive (blue) and tensile (red) strains in a steel plate carrying a weld overlay are shown by neutron diffraction mapping. Undesired welding process variations cause irregularities in the strain distribution.

brational spectroscopy to become quantitative in the sense that both eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be obtained. When combined with the Q-dependence this gives information on the shape of the chemical potential functions. These additional features, (as compared to optical techniques), allow a much more rigorous test of theoretical models. One of the main activities in this field is connected with catalysts. Such materials range from complex zeolite templates to relatively simple molecules such as the transition-metal sulphides. In all cases the key aspect of the catalytic activity concerns the residence time and position of a hydrocarbon molecule. This in turn affects the frequency of the hydrogen vibrations, which one can measure in an inelastic neutron scattering experiment. Here the ESS would enable the measurement of shorter residence times and smaller amounts of catalyst. Earth and Environmental Sciences and Cultural Heritage Neutron scattering has been added to the earth science portfolio of methods only recently due to the latest generation of diffractometers and spectrometers at the most modern neutron sources. Yet many areas of earth science research remain out of the reach of present day neutron instrumentation. One of the most significant issues is related to the prediction of earth quakes and volcanic eruptions. The reliability of the relevant models crucially depends on the knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of the materials involved (oceanic crust, upper mantle, continental crust). Foremost among these properties is the role of water in the materials and the behaviour of related magmas. Frontier applications of an ESS class neutron source are insitu studies, where mineral structures and material behaviours are investigated under extreme temperature and pressure conditions to simulate the real situation deep in the earth. Maintaining such conditions in the laboratory usually requires massive sample environment, which can, however, be penetrated by neutrons. Material Science and Engineering Materials science is concerned with property control by influencing, or at least understanding, the microstructure. Such microstructure concerns point defects, dislocations, interphase boundaries and internal interfaces with microcracks, pores, voids, bubbles etc. Materials science is intimately related to processing methods, e.g. casting, hot and cold working, tempering, powder metallurgy, mechanical alloying, molecular beam epitaxy, sol-gel synthesis etc. Since this covers such a wide field of materials it is natural that the material scientist uses a vast array of analytical tools. Use of neutrons at the microscopic and mesoscopic level is an important part of this arsenal. Two examples will

Special Issue • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE



demonstrate the variation in properties examined: In superconductors basic questions relate to vortex pinning that affect the critical current that can be passed. Neutrons can image this vortex lattice and help to determine the best methods of fabrication, of for example superconducting tapes. In the field of multilayers neutron reflectivity provide unique information about the extent of interfacial diffusion, and the direction and amplitude of the magnetic moments. These materials are at the forefront of technology especially since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance. In the area of internal strains/stresses neutron diffraction is now being used extensively. Its advantage over x-rays is the high penetrating power of the neutron and the large scattering angles involved, which allow a good definition of the “gauge” volume. At present the minimum gauge volume is about 1 mm3. If this could be reduced by three orders of magnitude, the tech-

nique would be of great interest in a large range of engineering problems, such as the remaining lifetime in turbine blades and the strains in and around rivets and welds (see Fig. 4). Although part of this reduction may be achieved by focussing techniques, there are clearly new horizons that can only be reached by a new powerful source. The next generation of high power pulsed neutron sources will dramatically alter the nature of the experiments which are possible, allowing for the first time investigations of materials in real time, with realistic dimensions and in real conditions. The ESS will be an extremely powerful tool for the analysis of advanced materials, which are of scientific, commercial and practical interest. In this respect the ESS will be highly significant for maintaining the competitive edge of materials science within the European Union as compared with that in other parts of the world.

Articolo ricevuto in redazione nel mese di Marzo 2002

THE ROLE AND POLICY OF INFM ON LARGE SCALE FACILITIES FOR NEUTRONS F. Toigo INFM President In the June 2001 issue of this Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone, Prof. Fontanesi - CNR representative in the ESS R&D Council - presented a clear and exhaustive description of the CNR participation in the Project for the European Spallation Source (ESS). In this article, after introducing the scientific motivations that make neutrons and synchrotron radiation the most versatile and powerful probes for a detailed investigation of the structure and dynamics of matter at a microscopic level, the author described, even though summarily, the role of CNR

in the promotion of the use of existing sources by the Italian scientists and of their participation to the design of new ones. Very appropriately, the description shows that the Italian participation in the design phase of ESS and, more generally in the utilization of large scale facilities for the fine analysis of matter, is supported in Italy, besides CNR, also by INFM. In this short note I will then try to outline the actions undertaken by INFM in this field so to supplement the information given by Prof. Fontanesi.


Number of Neutron Spectroscopy users (1998) %

Number of neutron sources +

Austria Denmark France Germany Italy Holland United Kingdom Spain Sweden Swisse

0.6 0.9 17.3 23.1 3.7 4.6 34.8 4.3 2.0 8.7

1S 1 M (off) 1 M 1/3 H 3 M 1/3 H 0 1S 1H + 1/3 H 0 1M 1M

NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • Special Issue


Ratio between users and population (%/%)

0.25 0.56 1.00 0.95 0.22 1.00 2.05 0.37 0.77 4.14

Financial engagement * (estimate 2001) %

2.4 3.8 21.3 27.7** 2.8 1.7 28.7 1.4 3.4 6.8


The role of the Institute as regards large scale research infrastructures descends from its founding law (June 1994), which, among its institutional tasks, assigned INFM the task of starting and coordinating national and internationals projects, also finalized to the construction and use of large scale facilities. Moreover, the law specifically conferred to INFM the role of reference institution - on the Italian Government’s account - for the ESRF source in Grenoble, of which INFM as well as CNR and INFN are the Italian partners. Following further specific laws, INFM also became the main financing organisation of the ELETTRA light source. For these reasons, starting from its first three-years plan approved by CIPE on August 1995, one of the primary goals clearly stated by INFM plans has been that of supporting and promoting the access to national and international infrastructures for the Fine Analysis of Matter for the whole national scientific community, on an interdisciplinary basis. Besides acting at the above mentioned ESRF and ELETTRA synchrotron radiation sources, INFM has also played a successful and important role in fostering the use of neutron spectroscopic techniques by the scientific Italian community operating in various disciplines (physicists, chemists, biologists, physicians, engineers, etc.). To this end, INFM has signed a partnership agreement with the ILL laboratory in Grenoble, supports the Italian access to the Orphée reactor in Saclay, and participates to the international working group for the feasibility study of ESS. It is to be mentioned however that, in spite of INFM and CNR’s efforts, the Italian presence in the field of neutron spectroscopy is extremely weak if compared with that of the West European countries, whatever parameters one considers (see enclosed table). For this reason, in the three-year plan 2002-2004 submitted last december, INFM has confirmed its engagement in the development of neutron spectroscopy by structuring its action along three major lines: • Maintenance and development of the access to the main neutron scattering facilities, ILL in particular. This is the key action to support an appropriate level of activity for the Italian research in the field. • Maintenance and development of the collaboration in the ESS project, as the strategic project to maintain the European leadership in the study of condensed matter by neutron spectroscopy. • Development of a national laboratory for the support of neutron research, both on the fundamental and technical aspects. Ideally, such development should be centred around a small neutron source. Besides supporting the already established group in Grenoble, INFM will also ensure the development of competencies in the field of targets design and construction, neutron production and moderators. Such competencies, which are essential to be

effective in the ESS collaboration, are also required in order to participate in other initiatives in the field of neutron sources, both existing or in a feasibility study phase. In some more detail the INFM policy with respect to neutron sources may be summarized as follows: ILL – As already mentioned, the most important current initiative for INFM is the formal agreement with the Institut Laue Lagevin in Grenoble. This agreement ensures the access to this world-leading neutron spectroscopy source, not only to INFM scientists, but to the whole Italian community, thus giving it full visibility and recognition at the international level. The participation in ILL allows to carry out research activities in various fields by making use of the most advanced available instrumentation in the world. The Italian community uses all the available beam-time, which is assigned through a severe selection of the proposals. Starting from 1997, the first year of our agreeement with ILL, every year Italian applications have been submitted requiring at least twice the beam-time available according to the agreement. An analysis of the experiment proposals reveals that roughly only half of the more than 230 scientists are associated to INFM. In the last two years the number of proposals as well as their scientific quality have both definitely increased, so that in the last assignment round the Italian quote has exceeded 5 %. The Italian research in biophysics at ILL has recently recorded a significant growth related to the presence of an INFM operational CRG (IN13, up to 2005) which partially counterbalances the shortage of assigned beam-time. The establishment of a second CRG (BRISP), foreseen for the second half of 2002, might improve the situation for a range of activities related to the study of disordered systems. The increase of the Italian participation share from 3% to 3.5%, at present limited to 2002 pending an assessment, should give new impulse to the activities at ILL. In the future however, we may expect that the requested beam-time by far exceeds the available time, since the Italian scientific activity in the field is no longer limited to the historical research units, since new groups are using neutron spectroscopy techniques. Following the increase in the Italian quota, the cost of the INFM-ILL agreement has increased from 2.050 K€/year to about 2.400 K€/year. This increase and the scientific appreciation gained at the international level by the Italian scientists working in the field, have allowed INFM representatives in the ILL Scientific Council and Steering Committee to request the upgrading of the instruments of interest to our community to the highest possible level, as planned by the Millennium Program. INFM plans to guarantee the maintenance and development of its two CRGs operating at ILL and, in view of the considerable enhancement in the use of ILL wishes

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to increase the number of researchers at the facility, both for the operation of the existing instrumentation and to stimulate new design projects in close connection with the national community, paying particular attention to the introduction of new technologies. LLB – In 2001 the collaboration between INFM and the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin in Paris was prosecuted and given its importance for the Italian scientific community - a further extension was proposed. At the same time a new project is under consideration, for upgrading and operating the small angle neutron scattering instrument (PAXE). Such a project would allow for the training of specialised technical personnel and, at the same time, it would ensure the access to the instrumentation of the laboratory, thus representing a significant opportunity for INFM to be involved and increase its visibility in LLB and establish a high level SANS facility in support of different research activities. Unfortunately, budget constraints have prevented INFM from starting this ambitious project in 2002 and forced it to confirm the agreement at the same conditions as in 2001 instead. Accelerator sources – New neutron sources and with higher intensity may only be based on accelerators. As previously observed, the development of the ESS project plays an extremely important role for European research. INFM is considering this project as the first strategic priority on a European basis, and consequently it has signed the Memorandum of Understanding for the years 2001-2003. It must be noted however, that the Italian role in the field of neutron sources is severely limited by the lack of a national source where to develop the basic scientific and technological training. Concerning accelerator-based sources, the ISIS source (Chilton, UK) is at present the world-leading infrastructure of this kind and such it will remain until the completion of the SNS source (Oak Ridge, US). As recalled in the above cited article by Fontanesi, the agreement between CNR and ISIS, (similar to the one of INFM with ILL), has allowed the entire Italian community to perform experiments at this source, thus gaining relevance and prestige. At ISIS a second target, presently under construction, will allow a significant increase of equipment. Through EU funding, INFM has taken part in the construction of advanced instrumentation located at this source. INFM is very carefully considering the possibility of increasing its presence in the construction of new instru-

mentation for pulsed neutron sources, especially in view of the development of ESS, but also in view of other initiatives that have the potential of involving the Italian Government directly, such as the AUSTRON project. A recent document produced by OECD, analizing and proposing policies for large infrastructures for the Fine analysis of Matter, points out the need of regionals projects, in addition to those established on a national or whole European basis. Regional projects would cover the necessity of personnel training and technological development and at the same time, provide beam-time for those research proposals which do not essentially require sources and instrumentation with the highest performances. In this context, and in view of the long commissioning period to be expected both for the US source (SNS, Oak Ridge) and the ESS European project before their foreseen final objectives can be achieved, it may be advisable to consider the AUSTRON project as a favoable choice in the medium term. The AUSTRON project aims at the realization of a source based on the spallation process, that allows the production of the maximum neutron flux and the highest performances, making use of the current technology for the construction of both the proton accelerator and the target for the production of neutrons from a spallation process. This choice permits of foreseeing the full operation of the source in a predetermined time and with the expected performances: a peak-flux higher than the one expected from SNS and only a factor 2-4 lower than the one from ESS. On the basis of these characteristics and the relatively low cost expected for the Italian participation in the project, INFM is carefully evaluating the evolution of the project and has expressed its interest in participating in the definition of the machine and instrumentation characteristics. The realization of all the actions described above requires considerable resources. INFM budget currently devoted to neutron spectroscopy activities is in the range of 3.300 K€/year, including the ILL agreement, the LLB agreement in its present form, users’ support and dedicated personnel, for which a small and dynamical increase is foreseen. To implement the accompanying measures planned above at ISIS, LLB or for the construction the national source INFM is applying on a competitive basis for additional funding from national or EU sources.

NOTIZIARIO NEUTRONI E LUCE DI SINCROTRONE • Vol. 7 n. 1 Aprile 2002 • Special Issue


NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Issue 7 n.1, 2002 - Special Issue