NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Issue 19 n1, 2014

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ISSN 1592-7822 - Vol 19 n.1 Gennaio 2014 Aut. Trib. Roma n. 124/96 del 22-03-96 - Sped. Abb. Post. 70% Filiale di Roma - CNR p.le Aldo Moro7, 00185 Roma

Volume 19 n. 1

Neutroni e luce di Sincrotrone

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Associazione School of Neutron Scattering “Francesco Paolo Ricci” School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci

THEORY AND TECHNIQUES OF NEUTRON SCATTERING AND APPLICATIONS TO CULTURAL HERITAGE XII EDITION | ERICE | APRIL 30th – MAY 9th 2014

XII SCHOOL EDITION Director:

IAN S ANDERSON (ORNL, US)

Vice-Directors: GABRIELE SALVATO (CNR, I) ANTONELLA SCHERILLO (CNR, I and ISIS, UK)

42 http://www.sonsfpricci.org/sons-school-2014

The School Francesco Paolo Ricci is an international school, established in 1994, providing a comprehensive training in the fundamental concepts of neutron scattering. The school provides an excellent introduction to neutron scattering which is developed through to its application in contemporary research. It consists mainly of lectures and tutorials covering both the theory and technical aspects of neutron scattering with a particular emphasis on applications to Cultural Heritage. In addition to lectures on theory, sources and neutron instrumentation, students will be tutored by world leading experts in the various scattering techniques including diffraction, quasi-elastic and inelastic scattering, imaging, small-angle scattering, reflectometry, and neutron-spin-echo. Introduction to the theory and techniques of neutron scattering and applications to Cultural Heritage. The school will be held at the ETTORE MAJORANA FOUNDATION AND CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC CULTURE, Erice (Sicily, I) as a specialized course within the International School of Solid State Physics (Director: Prof. Giorgio Benedek), between the 30th of April and the 9th of May 2014. The course is normally highly oversubscribed, so we encourage applicants to apply early, as late applications will not be accepted. Students are selected for the course based on their need to utilize neutron scattering techniques as part of their present and/or future research activities.


SUMMARY

PUBLISHED BY CNR (Publishing and Promotion of Scientific Information) in collaboration with the NAST Centre of the University of Rome Tor Vergata Vol. 19 n. 1, January 2014 Aut. Trib. Roma n. 124/96 del 22-03-96

EDITORIAL NEWS

EDITOR Carla Andreani

SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

CNR - PROMOTION AND COLLABORATION Sara Di Marcello

M. Förster, I. Crespo,

•   Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials 4 F. Basoli U, R. Senesi, A. I. Kolesnikov

ON LINE VERSION Vincenzo Buttaro

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES

CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE Francesco Basoli, Federico Boscherini, Kurt Clausen, Inês Crespo, Miriam Förster, Innokenty Kantor, Yoshiaki Kiyangagi, Alexander I. Kolesnikov, Silvia Licoccia, Chun-K. Loong, Trevor Mairs, Carlo Marini, Oliver Mathon, Sakura Pascarelli, Florian Perrin, Sebastian Pasternak, Roberto Senesi, Cornelius Strohm, Werner Wagner, Ulderico Wanderlingh

•   Time resolved and Extreme conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy: TEXAS 9 S. Pascarelli, O. Mathon, I. Kantor, C. Marini, C. Strohm, T. Mairs, S. Pasternak, F. Perrin

•   Enhancing interaction between industry and large-scale research facilities 16 M. Förster

NEUTRON & MUON & SYNCHROTRON RADIATION NEWS •   Recent activities of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Society (SILS)

EDITORIAL INFORMATION AND SUBSCRIPTION Sandra Fischer GRAFIC DESIGN Riccardo Simi www.risendesign.it

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F. Boscherini

SCHOOL & MEETING REPORTS •   The Fourth Meeting of the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) 20 Y. Kiyanagi, C. K. Loong

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CALL FOR PROPOSAL •   Neutron Sources •   Synchrotron Radiation Sources

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CALENDAR •   Calendar 28

FACILITIES Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

•   Neutron Sources •   Synchrotron Radiation Sources

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Editorial News

EDITORIAL

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Dear Readers, I am very pleased to welcome you to the newborn online edition of the Notiziario​ Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone a biannual magazine, for the dissemination of s​ cience with neutron, muon and synchrotron radiation! After 18 years NNLS has a​ lso become an newsletter journal with a fresh new layout and will be dispatched to an extended mailing list of the science community. Each issue will feature scientific reviews, news and events from neutron and synchrotron radiation research infrastructures in Italy, Europe and from all over the world, along with reports from schools and meetings. You are all invited to send your contributions! Next issue is due in July. You can go directly to http://neutronielucedisincrotrone.cnr.it to download PDF files or read the articles.

A NEW WEBSITE FOR THE NEUTRON COMMUNITY: Bookmark Neutronsources.org! M. Förster, NMI3 project manager I. Crespo, NMI3 information manager The idea of course is not new – it was just called the “Neutron web” at the time. It all started in 1994 when Ray Osborn from the Argonne National Laboratory convened the first workshop to promote collaboration in software development for the analysis and visualisation of neutron data in the US. On this occasion he also invited Mark Koennecke from ISIS, who was working to establish a European data format. This initiative was merged with an Advanced Photon Source proposal by Jon Tischler, to form NeXus, which has been developed ever since. That is how the Neutron web and NeXus became intertwined.

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As a consequence of Ray Osborn’s 1994 workshop, a website and mailing list needed to be set up for better and faster exchange of information. This was made possible with the help of Tom Worlton, head of computing at IPNS1. In February 1995 the first call to subscribe to the neutron mailing list was sent out and immediately proved to be a great success. Subscribers posted information on workshops, source run-cycle dates, calls for proposals, newly-commissioned instruments, analysis software, websites, and any other fresh news, and this 1 Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (operation: 1982 - 2008) in Argonne (IL), US.

The Neutronsources.org contributions

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automatically provided content for the “Neutron Scattering Web” (Fig.1). Ray ran the site and mailing list for years, until 2012 when NMI32 offered 2 Neutron scattering and Muon spectroscopy Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (www.nmi3.eu)


Editorial News

The new website, launched in July 2013 at ICNS, Edinburgh to revamp the web page; in the end this was a great relief, as the old content management system was no longer able to manage the rising flood of content. While the website is now maintained by the information manager of NMI3 in Munich, Germany, Ray is still the mailing list moderator and there are over 1200 subscribers in the world. To subscribe, just send an email to Neutronrequest@neutronsources.org. The European Neutron & Muon consortium NMI3 exists in its current form since 2002 and has received support from many European Commission Framework Programmes. To ensure continued support it is essential that its members’ research and the services offered by the different facilities are publicised; NMI3 therefore decided to employ an information manager for project-related activities. The advantages of an international website for the whole community have become ever more obvious over time however, and the Neutronsources.org pages are a direct response to this. A first Neutron facility press officers meeting

was organised in 2011 and the participants jointly decided to accept the new design and define the content. The new website centralises the most important information on neutron scattering, the different facilities in the world, their sources’ operating schedules, job offers, training announcements, workshops and conferences. It also serves as the community archive, as the announcements sent via the

mailing list feed into the relevant section on the website. Neutronsources.org is also the place to advertise and showcase scientific highlights. So please do not hesitate to send us your ideas. (info@neutronsources.org) The content under “Science with Neutrons” will evolve, of course, over time. Here too, contributions are most welcome! The new website has been online since 8th July. The launch was announced during the opening ceremony of the International Conference on Neutron Scattering (ICNS2013) in Edinburgh by Paul Attfield. A growing number of the 37 facilities and users’ associations currently contribute content to the website, ensuring up-to-date neutron-related information and news. Bookmark Neutronsources.org as your reference for upcoming events, neutron delivery cycles, proposal deadlines and a lot more... A “Muonsources.org” website is now also in the pipeline, following the Neutronsources model.

The original Neutron Scattering website, created by Ray Osborn, Argonne National Laboratory

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Scientific Reviews

SHORT TIME PROTON DYNAMICS IN BULK ICE AND IN POROUS ANODE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MATERIALS

F. Basoli Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche and Centro NAST R. Senesi Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro NAST A. I. Kolesnikov Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory S. Licoccia Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche and Centro NAST Abstract Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse reaction of oxygen evolution play a crucial role in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) applications. However a detailed understanding of the kinetics of the corresponding reactions, i.e. on reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials, is still missing. These include a thorough characterization of the binding potentials experienced by protons in the lattice. We report results of Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) measurements of the vibrational state of the protons in NiYSZ highly porous composites (75% to 90% ), a ceramic-metal material showing a high electrical conductivity and thermal stability, which is known to be most effectively used as anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. The results are compared with INS and Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) experiments on the proton binding states in bulk ice. Introduction The oxygen conducting properties of yttrium stabilized zirconia are of widespread use in modern technology solid electrolytes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) [1]. Oxygen reduction and incorporation into solid electrolytes and the reverse

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Figure 1 . Kinematic wave vector and energy transfers plane accessed during the DINS experiment on SEQUOIA ( black continuous lines). The expected locus of the “stationary” proton recoil peaks (red dashed line) and the loci of the proton recoil peaks with momenta equal to 15 Å-1 and to -15 Å-1, are also reported as red dotdashed lines.

Figure 2. Neutron Compton profiles for ice at T=271 K. Data recorded on SEQUOIA (direct geometry) with incident energy Ei= 6 eV and constant wave vector cut at Q= 20 Å-1 are reported as red dots with error bars in y space. Previous results from an experiment on VESUVIO (inverse geometry) with scattered energy Ef= 4.9 eV and constant angle cut at ϑ = 32º are reported as black dots with error bars. Figure 3. Contour plot of the scattering intensity (color from black to red) as a function of wave vector and energy transfers for the porous anode sample at 5 K, Ei =160 meV.


Scientific Reviews

reaction of oxygen evolution play a crucial role in SOFCs applications [2, 3]. Despite this high fundamental and technological relevance there is an ongoing debate on the kinetics of the corresponding reactions, such as reaction mechanisms, rate limiting steps, reaction paths, electrocatalytic role of materials [4].

Figure 4. INS spectrum for the porous anode sample at 5 K using incident energy Ei=600 meV (blue line). The same spectrum for the dried sample is reported as a red line, and the difference is reported as a green line. The use of porous electrodes, similar to those used in technological applications, leads to ambiguous experimental results (e.g. in impedance measurements) that are difficult to interpret mechanistically. Moreover, it is far from trivial to draw quantitative conclusions on materials properties since inevitably not only material but also morphology strongly affects the results. Nickel-based YSZ porous composites are one of the most effective materials used as anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. This ceramic-metal composite shows a high electrical conductivity and thermal stability. It has been shown that changes in the microstructures, such as pore size, pore distribution, grain size, are correlated

to changes in the so-called three phase boundary (TPB) and have a profound impact on the electrochemical performance of the anode material in solid oxide fuel cells. Enhancing the TPB surface in the electrodes, and the use of a highly porous medium through which the reactant gasses can easily flow, thus lowering concentration polarization (Ρdiff), is fundamental to achieve the goal of lowering SOFCs operating temperatures [5].

Figure 5. INS spectrum for the porous anode sample at 5 K using incident energy Ei=160 meV (blue line). The same spectrum for the dried sample is reported as a red line, and the difference is reported as a green line. The SOFC architectures based on porous ceramics foams are high flow capable structures. NiO/YSZ-YSZ half cells are fabricated using in situ polymerization as a direct foaming technique which has already been demonstrated to be an easy, cheap, fast and reliable method for fabricating porous ceramics [6] with porosities which range from 75% to 90% in volume depending on the ceramic powder content used [7]. In the proton-incorporated phases, these structures contain hydrogen potentially disordered over different length scales. Moreover, the knowledge of the interaction between the framework and

mobile (light and heavy) ions is of basic interest in elucidating the atomistic description of these systems. Inelastic neutron scattering is a probe of the vibrational state of the protons in the lattice, providing an insight into the structure-property relationship [8,9]. More recently, Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS), has been successfully carried out to determine the quantum ground state of the proton in materials [10]. DINS experiments are carried out at high wave vector (typically above 20 Å-1 ) and energy (typically above 1 eV) transfer, thereby probing the single particle momentum distributions and kinetic energies in materials. The INS and DINS techniques allow to garner complementary information for the determination of single particle properties and on the anharmonicity of the binding potentials of the proton in the system. Indeed, for a molecular system, DINS measures almost directly the kinetic energy of the equilibrium state, that means the kinetic energy of ground and excited states for the low energy vibrations (that is, with energies comparable with kBT) and only the ground state for the intramolecular bending and stretching modes which are not excited at the measurement’s temperature. INS in energy loss configuration measures the transition from the ground state to the first excited state, thus the anharmonicity of the local proton potential can be determined by the combination of the two techniques [11]. DINS measurements are routinely carried out using inverse-geometry instruments at electron-volt energies, such as the VESUVIO instrument at the ISIS source (UK) [10], while INS measurements make use of direct geometry chopper instruments, such as SEQUOIA at the SNS source (US) [12]. This paper presents results of neutron spectroscopy measurements performed

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Scientific Reviews

on polycrystalline ice, and on Ni-YSZ highly porous composites carried out on SEQUOIA beamline, using incident

energies up to 6 eV and up to 600 meV respectively. Aim of this study was to experimentally assess the short time

dynamics and the vibrational dynamics of protons simultaneously via DINS and INS techniques.

The larger width of the SEQUOIA data is due to the slightly broader resolution of chopper spectrometers in this energy range, which further degrades at energies above 10 eV, in agreement with the expected estimates [13]. These results confirm the capability of a high-flux instrument such as SEQUOIA to access simultaneously the high energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering as well as Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regimes, which can be exploited for systematic studies of vibrational and local potential probing in materials. The Inelastic Neutron Scattering measurements on the Ni-YSZ highly porous composites have been carried at a sample temperature of 5 K to determine the hydrogen projected vibrational ground state spectra in the sample. The SOFC samples, specifically tailored for the INS/QENS and DINS measurements, have been fabricated thanks to peculiar characteristics of porous ceramics structures and were prepared a s follows: YSZ (Yttria Stibilized Zirconia 13 mol% United Ceramics) was used as an electrolyte powder. The load in the polyurethane system was set at 20 vol% [6]. Ceramic charged polyurethane was prepared according to the following procedure: in a first step the chosen powder was homogeneously dispersed in 0.8 mL of polymethylenepolyphenylisocyanate containing MDI (Voranate M220 or PAPI 27, Dow Chemicals); then, 0.4 mL of polyethylene glycol (PEG 200, Aldrich), 0.1 mL of polyoxyethylenesorbitanmonooleate (Tween 80, Fluka Chemie), 1 mg of 1,4-diazabicyclooctane (DABCO, >98%, Aldrich),

and 10 μL of water were added under mechanical stirring creating a slurry. The polymerization process was carried out in a polymeric cylindrical open mold in order to have a free expansion of the foam without constrains. The polymerization led to a rigid green body in about 15 min. After the green de-molding and the cut of the exceeding foam the samples were annealed in air at 600 °C for 1 hour after reaching this temperature at a very slow rate, 1 K/min, to ensure the complete removal of all the residual gasses, and then sintered at 1650 °C for 4 h to ensure a good densification of the electrolyte layer. Samples after thermal treatment were of 18 mm in diameter and 4 mm high. Impregnation of the anode was made using Ni(NO3)2·6H2O (99.999%, Aldrich) as Ni source. After diluting Ni(NO3)2·6H2O in deionized water the ceramic foam was immersed into the solution, where the porous structure absorbed the molten salt by capillarity effects almost instantaneously. The sample was then heated to 900°C for 1h to decompose nickel nitrate into NiO. Preparation of the samples before experiment foresee an overnight step in water vapor atmosphere. Thus, samples were inserted in a Pt crucible and then into a sealed quartz tube and heated in water vapor atmosphere till 900°C with a ramp of 10 K/min. Cooling down was performed in water vapor atmosphere until 150° C at which temperature only dry gas was flowed into the chamber. For the INS experiment on SEQUOIA six entire pallets and a series of broken parts of another two pallets, to fill all the empty spaces for a total amount

Dins and INS Experiments The measurements on the bulk ice were carried out on a slab-shaped sample contained in an aluminium container. The incident energy was varied between 1 and 6 eV to access the DINS regime. Figure 1 reports the wave-vector and energy transfers kinematic plane accessed with incident energy of 6 eV, together with the expected locus of the “stationary” proton recoil peaks and the loci of the proton recoil peaks with momenta equal to 15 Å-1 and to -15 Å-1, respectively. The data recorded for a polycrystalline ice sample at T=271 K were analysed and expressed in terms of the proton longitudinal momentum, y=P·Q/Q, where P is the momentum of the struck proton in the scattering event and Q is the wave vector transfer in the scattering event. The corresponding spectra obtained are represented in terms of the Neutron Compton profile, F(y,Q), which, in analogy with the Compton profiles determined by high energy X-Ray Compton scattering, represents the momentum distribution along the scattering vector. A comparison of experimental results of the Neutron Compton profile from present experiment on SEQUOIA and previous experiment on VESUVIO are reported in Figure 2. Data recorded on SEQUOIA (direct geometry) with incident energy Ei~ 6 eV and constant wave vector cut at Q= 20 Å-1 are reported as red dots with error bars in y space. Previous results from an experiment on VESUVIO (inverse geometry) with scattered energy Ef= 4.9 eV and constant angle cut at Θ = 32º are reported as black dots with error bars.

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Scientific Reviews

of 13,073 gr, where inserted into a 50x50x6 mm3 aluminium flat container. After the first run another experiment with dry samples were made in order to set up a background signal. Hence pallets were annealed in dry atmosphere at 800°C. The INS experiment was carried out using incident neutron energies, Ei =160 meV and Ei =600 meV respectively and the INS spectra have been acquired in the momentum and energy transfer range 0 Å-1<Q<16 Å-1 and 0 meV < E< 600 meV, respectively. As an example, Figure 3 reports the contour of scattering intensity for the Ei =160 meV incident energy at T=5 K. The aim of the INS measurements is to probe the bonding potentials experienced by the protons in the SOFC lattice, providing an insight into the structure-property relationship. We stress that previous INS measurements in analogous materials

(BCZY) [14] showed that the observed vibrational peaks at 104 and 150 meV and absence of a peak around 420 meV indicate the hydrogen occupation in the structure but the absence of any hydroxyl groups (hydrogen covalently bonded to oxygen). Indeed the dry-wet difference spectra, reported in Figures 4 and 5 for two incident energies, i.e. Ei=600 meV, Ei=160 meV, show a vibrational feature at approximately 110 meV, suggesting that hydrogen is chemically bound to the composite. A complete characterisation of the single proton dynamics in this system will be complemented by the analysis of a quasielastic neutron scattering measurement, which was recently carried out at the BASIS spectrometer at the SNS. The potential of combined and simultaneous INS-DINS measurements is still to be exploited at its full capability, and while

relevant information has been recently reported using the combined use of the two techniques [15], we envisage that its systematic use for proton-containing systems will provide an unique opportunity for inelastic neutron instrument at new and forthcoming generation spallation neutron sources. Acknowledgements: Authors acknowledge the support of the META (Materials Enhancement for Technological Applications) project PIRSES-GA-2010-269182, Marie Curie Actions, People, VII Framework Programme. The neutron scattering experiment at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

nickel-cermet anodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells”, Journal of Power Sources 196, 7076 (2010). [6] A. Rainer, F. Basoli, S. Licoccia, and E. Traversa, ‘‘Foaming of Filled Polyurethanes for Fabrication of Porous Anode Supports for IT-SOFC,’’ Journal of the American Ceramic Society 89 [6] , 1795 (2006). [7] L. Wucherer, J.C. Nino, F. Basoli, E. Traversa “Synthesis and Characterization of BaTiO3-Based Foams with a Controlled Microstructure” International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology 6, 651 (2008). [8] B. Gross, Ch. Beck, F. Meyer, Th. Krajewski, R. Hempelmann, H. Altgeld ,” BaZr0.85Me0.15O2.925 (Me=Y, In and Ga): crystal growth, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high-temperature X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering experiments” , Solid

State Ionics 145, 325 (2001). [9] T. Yildirim, B. Reisner, T. J. Udovic, D. A. Neumann, “The combined neutron scattering and first-principles study of solid state protonic conductors”Solid State Ionics 145, 429 (2001). [10]C. Andreani, D. Colognesi, J. Mayers, GF Reiter, R Senesi, “ Measurement of momentum distribution of light atoms and molecules in condensed matter systems using inelastic neutron scattering”, Advances in Physics 54 (5), 377 (2005). [11] R. Senesi, D. Flammini, A. I. Kolesnikov, E. D. Murray, G. Galli, C. Andreani, “The quantum nature of the OH stretching mode in ice and water probed by neutron scattering experiments”. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 139(7), 074504 (2013). [12] G. E. Granroth, A. I. Kolesnikov, T. E. Sherline, J. P. Clancy, K. A. Ross, J. P. C. Ruff, B. D. Gaulin, and S. E. Nagler,

References [1]S.C. Singhal, “Solid oxide fuel cells for stationary, mobile, and military applications”, Solid State Ionics 152, 405 (2002). [2]S.P.S. Badwal, “Stability of solid oxide fuel cell components”, Solid State Ionics 143, 39 (2001). [3] R. Hemplelmann, Ch. Karmonik, Th. Matzke, M. Cappadonia, U. Stimming, T. Springer, M.A. Adams, “Quasielastic neutron scattering study of proton diffusion in SrCe0.95Yb0.05H0.02O2.985” Sol. State Ionics 77, 152 (1995). [4]S. B. Adler, “Factors governing oxygen reduction in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes”, Chemical Reviews 104, 4791 (2004). [5] L. Holzer, B. Münch, B. Iwanschitz, M. Cantoni, T. Hocker, and T. Graule, “Quantitative relationships between composition, particle size, triple phase boundary length and surface area in

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“SEQUOIA: A Newly Operating Chopper Spectrometer at the SNS” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 251, 012058 (2010). [13] A. Pietropaolo, R. Senesi, “Electron volt neutron spectrometers”, Physics Reports 508 (3), 45 (2011). [14] Yaping Li, Alexander I. Kolesnikov,

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James W. Richardson Jr, Chendong Zuo, Tae H. Lee and U. Balachandran, ” Structure, proton incorporation and transport properties of ceramic proton conductor Ba(Ce0.7Zr0.2Yb0.1)O3-δ” , MRS Proceedings 835 K1.4 (2004) DOI: 10.1557/PROC-835-K1.4.

[15] A. A. Aczel, G.E. Granroth,G.J. MacDougall, W. J . L . B u ye r s, D.L. Abernathy, G.D. Samolyuk, G.M. Stocks, S.E. Nagler, “Quantum oscillations of nitrogen atoms in uranium nitride”, Nature Communications 3, 1124 (2012).


Research Infrastructures

TIME RESOLVED AND EXTREME CONDITIONS X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY: TEXAS

S. Pascarelli, O. Mathon, I. Kantor, C. Marini, C. Strohm, T. Mairs, S. Pasternak, F. Perrin European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France)

Abstract The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility is fully engaged in an ambitious project spread over 10 years aimed at an upgrade of the accelerator, beamlines and infrastructure. One of the first upgrade beamlines (UPBLs) to become

operational, UPBL11, is totally dedicated to Time resolved and Extreme conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (TEXAS). This facility, based on the upgrade of the former energy dispersive XAS beamline ID24, offers the

user community new opportunities for investigating matter at extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and magnetic field.

DE is of the order of the kiloelectronvolt corresponding to the binding energies of core electrons. When core electrons start participating to bonding, a totally new type of chemistry becomes accessible. A quote from Percy Williams Bridgman (Nobel Prize in Physics in 1946) says: “Compression offers a route to breaking down the electronic structure of the atoms themselves and to the possibility of creating entirely different bulk properties”. And in fact, the literature of the past few decades is full of examples of pressure-induced electronic, magnetic and structural phase transitions: insulator to metal transitions, breakdown of ferromagnetism, onset of superconductivity, valence crossovers, triggering of chemical reactions, etc.. [1 - 5] Similarly, extreme magnetic fields, orders of magnitude larger than those created on Earth, exist in white dwarfs (105 T) and in neutron stars (1010 T). Calculations suggest that new types of chemical bonding could occur and as-yet-unseen molecules could form at such extreme fields [6]. On Earth, fields

of the order of 30 – 40 T have been created in the lab and have seen to induce structural, magnetic and electronic transitions such as new spin structures of anti-ferromagnetically coupled sublattices, magnetic quantum phase transitions, exotic phenomena (non-Fermi liquid, unconventional superconductivity) [7,8]. Many breakthroughs have been achieved at synchrotrons worldwide, in fields ranging from Earth and planetary sciences to fundamental physics, chemistry and materials research, and even in the life sciences where questions on life and biological function under extreme conditions have been studied. Achieving these conditions in the laboratory and being able to probe the structure and the electronic and magnetic properties of matter in such extreme conditions is important not only from a fundamental point of view or to understand our solar system and beyond, but also for the synthesis and design of new materials with advanced properties, that will become essential in the development of future

Introduction The last decades have witnessed an unprecedented surge in the study of matter and materials at extreme values of pressure, temperature, and magnetic field. The fundamental importance of this research stems from the fact that, first of all, “ambient” conditions are not at all “ordinary”. In our universe, most condensed matter is found inside planets at pressures of several hundreds of GigaPascals and thousands of Kelvin, while most atomic and molecular matter is found in stars, subject to magnetic fields of millions of Tesla. Secondly, such extreme conditions can deeply modify chemical bonds and induce myriad changes in materials. This is easily understandable by considering the order of magnitude of the change in internal energy E of a system that is for example subject to a pressure P and compression -DV: DE = - PDV. For pressures of ~ 100 GPa (comparable to the interior of the Earth) DE is of the order of the electronvolt and the chemical bond starts to be profoundly changed. For pressures of ~100 TPa (interior of large exoplanets)

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Research Infrastructures

UPBL11: Time resolved and Extreme conditions XAS (TEXAS) energy resources, such as inertial confinement fusion reactors. Many of the physical and chemical consequences of extreme pressure and temperature or magnetic fields on matter, such as changes in local structure, melting, changes in sublattice magnetizations, modifications of the valence state, breaking or formation of chemical bonds, are optimally observed through X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy. For this reason, within the framework of the upgrade program, the ESRF has invested in a facility totally dedicated to Time resolved and Extreme conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (TEXAS). The scientific case for TEXAS is schematically illustrated in Figure 1. The core of the future activities on TEXAS lies in the intersection area between two large ellipses: on the left, the blue ellipse corresponds to “time resolved” applications, and on the right, the green ellipse represents “extreme conditions” applications. Whereas all the scientific issues listed in the large ellipses have been addressed by XAS in the past (at the ESRF as well as at many other synchrotrons worldwide), those listed in the intersection area are still largely unexplored.

time resolved

extreme conditions

heterogeneous catalysis

ms cleaner chemical processes

µs ns

emission free vehicles new energy resources

solution chemistry microfluidics photochemistry

recombination radiative decay ps rotational motion

P > 100 GPa; T > 3000 K

pulsed laser heating

melts local order electronic structure

kinetics at HP HT melting chemical reactions matter at high pulsed magnetic fields

earth and planetary science speciation, oxidation states partition coefficients complexation in aqueous fluids

materials science HP properties of catalysts synthesis of new materials

warm dense matter fm atomic displacements P > 100 GPa; T < 10 K magnetostriction, piezoelectricity laser shocked structure and magnetism at HP matter reversible H2 storage processes magnetism/structure correlation energy-driven magnetic materials breakdown of ferromagnetism local structure

Figure 1: Pictorial view of the scientific case for TEXAS: the core of the future activities lies in the intersection area between the “time resolved” and the “extreme conditions” ellipses. The underlying reasons are to be found in the very stringent time resolution (below the millisecond in most cases) coupled to small focal spot (few microns) requirements that are difficult to achieve simultaneously. The TEXAS facility, also referred to as UPBL11 (UPgrade BeamLine 11), is illustrated in Figure 2. It consists in the association of a general purpose Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) beamline on bending magnet port 23 (BM23) and an energy

dispersive XAS (EDXAS) beamline on a 6 meter high beta undulator straight section (ID24). BM23 is a mildy upgraded version of the former general purpose EXAFS beamline [9], which was dismounted from port BM29 and rebuilt on port BM23 in 2010. BM23 welcomed its first users in March 2011. On the other hand, the new ID24 beamline is a re-designed upgraded version of the former EDXAS beamline ID24, which was shut down in the summer of 2010 and was partly opened to user operation in 2012.

Description of the Facility The concept of combining a general purpose EXAFS beamline and a stateof-the-art high brilliance EDXAS beamline into a unique facility appeared as a logical step to provide the users community the best possible conditions for the research outlined in Figure 1. As we will illustrate in this section, the two beamlines BM23 and ID24 complement each other, and together provide a complete experimental bench for time-resolved and extreme conditions XAS. We provide here a brief description of the beamlines, with

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Figure 2. Layout of the TEXAS (or UPBL11) facility emphasis on the upgrade effort, which was particularly focused in three areas: stability, efficiency in use of beamtime and providing additional facilities

to the users. a. The new features of the general purpose EXAFS beamline at the ESRF: BM23.


Research Infrastructures

Figure 3: The BM23 experimental station BM23 is the only ESRF beamline dedicated to “standard” EXAFS, and is one of the most demanded beamlines, i.e. those with the highest oversubscription rate. This situation, which reflects the present deficiency of standard XAFS beamlines in Europe, manifests itself also at other major European synchrotron facilities, where the standard EXAFS beamlines are all highly oversubscribed. Besides the complementarity with ID24, BM23’s mission is to serve the whole XAS use community by providing access to a basic service in addition to the many state-of-the-art techniques on specialized instruments available at the ESRF: soft and hard polarized x-ray spectroscopy, micro and nano-spectroscopy, high energy resolution absorption and emission spectroscopy, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, energy dispersive XAS, etc.. The key missions of BM23 are to provide high quality EXAFS in a large energy range (5-75 keV), with high S/N up to large k-range, with a high degree of automation, featuring online EXAFS data reduction and a flexible sample environment. As the former BM29, BM23 has a simple optical scheme: a double crystal

fixed exit monochromator, followed by a double mirror harmonic rejection and mildly focusing device. The optics cabin provides monochromatic radiation to a single experimental station (shown in Figure 3) hosting standard XAS sample environments (cryostats, ovens, capillary reactors, etc…) and detectors (ion chambers, Ge multi element fluorescence detector, Si Vortex detector, etc..). To increase stability and reduce vibrations, granite supports were implemented for the monochromator and for the experimental bench on one side, and the monochromator cooling scheme was upgraded from the previous closed loop, cryogenic helium gas circuit to a liquid nitrogen circulator on the other side. To increase efficiency in use of beamtime, the design of the crystal support within the monochromator vacuum vessel was modified to host permanently three pairs of crystals. Also, continuous scanning, as opposed to step-by-step scanning, was implemented and will eventually become the default data acquisition mode. This development led to the possibility to offer quick-EXAFS in timescales of the second/spectrum [10]. Finally, in 2012 a new micro-XAS station was made available to the users community, providing a focal spot of ~ 3x3 mm2 in the energy range 5-40 keV, with an increase in brilliance varying from 2 to 3 orders of magnitude depending on the energy. The implementation of the latter two experimental facilities (quick-EXAFS and micro-XAS) provided the missing bridge between the time-resolved and extreme conditions activities on BM23 and ID24. High quality large k-range EXAFS can be recorded on BM23 in static mode or with mild time resolution, be it at ambient conditions, at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell or in-situ and

in-operando in a chemical reactor. This data is often of paramount importance to complement lower quality data (lower S/N, smaller k-range, etc..) recorded in more challenging conditions on ID24. For example, the local structure in the initial and final state of a system undergoing a fast reaction can be elucidated from BM23 data, whereas the signature of a short lived intermediate state can be detected from ID24 data [11]. b. The upgraded energy dispersive XAS beamline ID24 Since the development of EDXAS at synchrotron sources, no other synchrotron in the world has so heavily invested in high-brilliance EDXAS as the ESRF. By combining the characteristics of an energy dispersive spectrometer (i.e. intrinsic energy scale and focal spot stability during acquisition and parallel detection of full absorption spectrum) to a high brilliance source such as the ESRF undulator, ID24 served the users community for many years as a powerful facility for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism studies at extreme pressures well above the Mbar [12]. In parallel, it became a reference instrument for time-resolved structure–function studies on functional materials [13]. The beamline covers absorption edges of elements between Titanium to Uranium. The original optical scheme of ID24 consists in a pair of mirrors (VFM and HFM) in a Kirkpatrick Baez configuration, and of a polychromator in Bragg or Laue geometry. The role of the HFM is to transform the highly collimated undulator beam into a diverging beam on the horizontal plane, to provide a large footprint on the crystal and therefore a large energy range in the polychromatic fan to enable EXAFS. A position sensitive detector placed at the end of the 2ϑ spectrometer arm converts energy (x-ray direction) into

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Research Infrastructures

position (detector pixel). The homemade FReLoN camera featuring minimum readout time of ~ 1 msec and interfaced through a specially designed optical system, was the workhorse detector of ID24 [14]. After 10 years of operation during which the focal spot was reduced by two orders of magnitude (from ~ 50 x 200 mm2 to 5 x 5 mm2) and the total flux increased of one order of magnitude (today ~ 10e14 photons/s on the sample), it became apparent that a major modification of the optical scheme, of the experimental stations and of the detection systems was required to adapt the beamline to the future scientific challenges. Contrary to the previous design [15], the upgraded version of ID24 features two branches [16], as illustrated in Figure 4. This double branch scheme increases efficiency in use of beamtime

Figure 4. Upgraded version of ID24: the new design features 2 branches as it allows complex experiments to be assembled, interfaced and tested on one branch while experiments are running on the other. The EDXAS_S branch is optimized for applications requiring a small focal spot (extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, micro-XAS hyperspectral mapping, etc..). Here an elliptically bent polychromator crystal in Bragg geometry (PLC-S), coupled to a vertically refocusing mirror (VFM2), delivers a 3 x 3 mm2 FWHM focal spot. The energy range covered by EDXAS_S is roughly ~ 5-13 keV, where the high energy limit is intrinsic to penetration

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depth effects which spoil energy resolution and focal spot. This branch hosts the newly commissioned in-situ laser heating facility for high pressure applications with the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) [17, 18] (Figure 5). The sample within the DAC is heated

Figure 5. Schematic drawing of the in-situ laser heating facility for high pressure studies with the DAC. from both sides by two 120 W fiber IR lasers operated either in pulsed (pulse width ~ 0.1-100 ms) or in continuous mode. Fast data acquisition (~ few ms per spectrum) is required because laser heated samples are unstable and can react with their environment. Temperature is measured by collecting and analyzing the emitted radiation from both sides of the sample, using a Princeton Instruments SP300i spectrometer and fitting it with the greybody approximation [19]. Pressure can be measured from the shift of fluorescence signal from the ruby, or by the shift of the Raman signal from the surface of the diamond culet. The EDXAS_L branch is optimized for high energy applications covering the range ~ 9-28 keV and exploits a hyperbola-shaped polychromator in Laue geometry (PLC-L). The low energy limit here is dictated by thermal stability issues due to high power load on the crystal. The minimum horizontal focal spot size on this branch is expected to be close to 10mm FWHM. The implementation of the Laue polychromator is

one of the remaining technical challenges of TEXAS, and will be done in 2014. Much effort was made in redesigning the area around the polychromators in order to approach as much as possible the sample to the crystal, with the aim to increase the energy range of the diffracted polychromatic beam at low energies, one of the critical limitations of the previous design. The minimum focal distance today is 0.6 m and 0.7 m on EDXAS_L and EDXAS_S respectively, leading to a kmax > 12 A-1 at the Fe K-edge allowing to perform an, albeit limited, EXAFS analysis. To reduce vibration levels, granite supports were used for all optical elements, sample environments and detection systems. Granite slabs were substituted to the floors in the two experimental stations, and experimental blocks are placed into and out of the beam by means of air pads. Figure 6a shows the schematic

Figure 6. EDXAS_L experimental station: schematic drawing (a) and a photograph (b) of this station hosting the cryostat especially designed for the pulsed high magnetic field coil from Laboratoire National Champs Magnetiques Intenses (LNCMI) in Toulouse.


Research Infrastructures

picture of the experimental station on EDXAS_L as it appears in the technical design report, whereas Figure 6b illustrates a photograph of this same station today. One of the most important issues addressed by the upgrade of ID24 was related to detection and in particular to the urgent need to move towards faster readout time while maintaining a high dynamic range, linearity and spatial (or, equivalently, energy) resolution. The acquisition frequency limitation of the FReLoN camera (~1KHz), in many cases does not allow to use all the photons emitted by the source due to saturation effects. At low energies a Si strip, direct detection system [20] is also available, with acquisition frequency ~ 50 KHz. In the framework of the upgrade, a major effort was made to develop, in collaboration with the Science & Technology Facility Council (STFC), a new position sensitive, direct detection system capable of pushing acquisition frequency towards the MHz, and that would be resistant to high energy x-rays. A Ge strip detector equipped with a new acquisition electronics has recently been delivered and is presently under commissioning.

was compressed in a DAC to 40 GPa, and then laser heated up to ~ 3000 K [23]. Strong damping of the EXAFS oscillations is observed on this data set. The evaluation of the harmonic and anharmonic contributions to the Fe-O bond thermal vibrations can shed light on the suggested softening of shear acoustic waves at the Fe high spin - low spin transition, known to occur at these

depths. Figure 9 reports images of this sample after laser heating. In Figure 9a, a photograph shows the sample imaged as a dark oval surrounded by a lighter border. The two small white spheres on the upper left are small ruby spheres used for pressure calibration, while the dark spherical hole on the left is the acceptance pinhole of the spectrometer.

Figure 7: Xe K-edge absorption (left) and EXAFS k 2χ(k) measured on a pure Xe sample compressed to 90 GPa in a DAC [21].

First Results Figure 7 shows a Xenon K-edge (E = 34.5 KeV) EXAFS spectrum collected on a pure Xe sample compressed to 90 GPa [21] in a nano-polycrystalline DAC [22]. The measurements took advantage of the small focal spot delivered by the new micro-XAS station on BM23. Figure 8 reports representative data obtained during the commissioning of the in situ laser heating facility on ID24 installed in EDXAS_S. Magnesiowustite (Fe0.85Mg0.15O), one of the most abundant minerals of Earths lower mantle,

Figure 8. Fe K-edge EXAFS on magnesiowustite at P=40 GPa and temperatures up to 3000K [23].

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Research Infrastructures

Figure 9: Images of the magnesiowustite sample within the DAC at 40 GPa, after laser heating [23]: a) optical image, b) and c) 2D and 3D maps of Fe K-edge jump showing strong Fe diffusion in the laser heated region. Two ruby spheres on the top left of the sample are also visible.

collected every 50 ms. In a previous experiment, the Fe K-edge on this same sample was investigated [28]. These experiments therefore allow to perform “element selective” magnetometry, which is particularly interesting in ferrimagnetic systems with two inequivalent antiferromagnetically coupled sublattices, such as these garnets, allowing to study each sublattice independently. The emergence of a field induced canted phase below a critical temperature is one of the characteristic properties of these ferrimagnets. The signal from the tetrahedral Fe sites at 70 K allowed the detection of two transitions at 10 and 23 T bounding the canted phase and the direct observation of the reversal of the Fe sublattice magnetization within this phase [28]. 1

1200

0.9 0.8 900

0.7 0.6 0.5

600

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time (µs)

non-heated Fe0.85Mg0.15O sample. Within the laser heated region, strong diffusion of Fe is observed, with the formation of an iron-depleted (Mg0.92Fe0.08O) and an iron-enriched (Mg0.76Fe0.24O) zone. Figure 10 reports the first data collected on EDXAS_L using the pulsed high magnetic field coil developed at the ESRF. This coil, which fits in the palm of the hand, delivers 30 T in a 300 ms FWHM pulse (right panel) [26]. The panel on the left shows Er L2 edge XMCD data collected on a ferrimagnetic erbium iron garnet (Er3Fe5O12) at 30 K, during the magnetic field pulse [27]. Data was

XMCD (arb. units)

Thanks to the acquisition speed, the DAC was rapidly scanned over a grid of points in the vertical and horizontal directions to obtain a hyperspectral map, where each pixel contains full EXAFS information [24,25]. The maps reported in Figures 9b and 9c plot the value of the Fe K-edge absorption jump in 2D and 3D respectively. The availability of these mapping tools allows to observe and quantify thermal gradients through the laser heated spot, as well as phenomena that are induced by them, such as diffusion effects. In this example, the light blue region in Figure 9b represents the

0.3 300

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0 60

90

120 pixel

150

180 0

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field (T)

Figure 10. Left: Er L 2 edge XMCD on ferrimagnetic erbium iron garnet (Er3Fe5O12) at 30 K, measured as a function of time. Right: Magnetic field pulse dependence with time [27].

Conclusion and Perspective Built in the framework of the upgrade programme of the ESRF, TEXAS has started welcoming first user groups in 2012. This new facility, totally dedicated to Time resolved and Extreme conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy,

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provides new opportunities to explore matter at extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and magnetic field. We have shown recent data obtained during first attempts to probe the electronic and local structure in melts at high

pressures. Target experiments for the future include kinetic studies of chemical reactions at high pressure and temperature, and investigation of extreme states of matter generated in tiny spaces and over very short periods of time.


Research Infrastructures

References [1] S. Minomura and H.G. Drickamer J. Phys. Chem. Solids 23 451 (1962) [2] M. Bastea et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 3108 (2001) [3] A. G. Gavriliuk et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 086402 (2012) [4] R. Torchio et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 237202 (2011) [5] M. Citroni et al., High Press. Res. 22 507 (2002) [6] K.K. Lange et al, Science 337 327 ( 2012) [7] T. Wu, et al. Nature Communications 4, 2113 (2013) [8] A. Shekhter et al., Nature, 498, 75 (2013) [9] A. Filipponi et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 6 (2000) [10] C. Prestipino et al., J. Synchrotron

Rad. 18, 176 (2011) [11] M. Tromp et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 117 7381 (2013) [12] S. Pascarelli and O. Mathon, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12 5535 (2010) [13] M. A. Newton Chem. Soc. Rev. 39 4845 (2010) [14] J.C. Labiche, Rev. of Sci. Instr. 78, 091301 (2007) [15] S. Pascarelli et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 13 351 (2006) [16] O. Mathon et al., SRI 2009 Conference Proc. 1234 117 (2010) [17] C. Marini et al., High Pressure Research 33 108 (2013) [18] I. Kantor et al., 50th EHPRG Meeting Abstracts, p. 74 (2012) [19] G. Shen et al., Rev. Sci. Instr. 72, 1273 (2001)

[20] J. Headspith et al., Proc.of NSSMIC2007 1, 2421 (2007) [21] A. Dewaele and P. Loubeyre, unpublished data (coll.with CEA Bruyeres Les Chatel) [22] T. Irifune et al. Nature 421, 599 (2003) [23] I. Kantor, unpublished data [24] M. MuĂąoz et al., High Pres. Res. 28, 4 (2008) [25] G. Aquilanti, et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 376 (2009) [26] P. van der Linden et al. Rev. Sci. Inst. 79, 075104 (2008) [27] C. Strohm, unpublished data. [28] C. Strohm et al, Physical Review B 86, 214421 (2012)

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ENHANCING INTERACTION BETWEEN INDUSTRY AND LARGE-SCALE RESEARCH FACILITIES NMI3 industry events M. Förster, NMI3 Project Manager

Participants at the first IAB meeting There are two aspects to the relationship between large-scale research facilities and industry. On the one hand, large-scale facilities rely on industrial suppliers to provide components for their scientific instruments. On the other hand, industry can use research facilities to conduct experiments and develop

new materials. In the first case, interaction could be improved by getting strategic supplier firms involved at an early stage or even by co-innovating. Early involvement and continuous exchange on future requirements and developments would allow the suppliers to respond better to demand. In the second case,

industrial users largely under-exploit public research facilities. There are essentially two reasons for this: their lack of awareness of the services available, and the issue of intellectual property rights. NMI31 is a European-funded project which has launched an initiative to explore the potential for interaction between neutron and muon centres and industry. Its first workshop was organised in July 2013, on ‘Industry as a supplier’. Another event is planned for 2014 and will focus on ‘Industry as a user’. The purpose of these meetings is to define how this interaction between facilities and industry can be improved and developed under the forthcoming Horizon 2020 programme. 1 Neutron scattering and Muon spectroscopy Integrated Infrastructure Initiative (www.nmi3.eu) is funded under the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission

Industry as a supplier The ‘Industry as a supplier’ workshop was held as a satellite of the ICNS conference (www.icns2013.org) in Edinburgh, in order to take advantage of the presence of the large number of exhibiting suppliers. The meeting brought around 50 participants together: suppliers of key components for scientific instruments, procurement officers of the facilities, and facility engineers and scientists. For the suppliers, the meeting focused on collective requirements in Europe

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for specialised equipment in the context of a broader and better coordinated European market, as well as the potential difficulties, such as national regulations on procurement that differ between countries. Speakers presented success stories and the obstacles they face in the provision of components ranging from cryogenics to neutron delivery systems or detectors. Robert McKeag from Centronics presented a successful cooperation project with the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) on

detector development, citing the example of an engineer from Centronics seconded to ILL for a year. The experience highlighted the need for cooperation based on mutual trust and commitment between the facility and the supplier. In the same vein John Burgoyne from Oxford Instruments described the firm’s involvement in sample environment development at the ISIS pulsed neutron and muon source. The sample environment community is a busy open network and regularly organises international


Research Infrastructures

workshops which supplier firms are welcome to attend, to improve their understanding of the facilities’ requirements. The next sample environment workshop is to take place in October 2014 in the UK. From the facilities’ point of view, a collaborative approach to development and procurement would provide longterm stability and enhance the development process for both industry and research, capitalising on the potential of shared innovation and technology transfer. During the meeting, scientists and engineers from the different facilities discussed the current levels of interaction with industry and the requirements for the future; the purchasing officers, at the interface between the client facilities and the suppliers, highlighted how procurement processes vary within Europe.

Munich’s FRM II facility is currently being extended with a new neutron guide hall requiring some 180m of neutron guides. Peter Link from FRM II shared the experience of the Munich Neutron Optics group, which serves as a technical node for five different projects involving three different guide suppliers. According to Peter, co-innovation will provide the key to the success of the projects. Solid partnerships ensure collaboration from the very start and naturally introduce a concern for standardisation among the different projects. These presentations were followed by two views from the procurement side, on the difficulties experienced in achieving innovative procurement, and on the management of strategic suppliers. Xavier Philippe outlined the methodology used at ILL for identifying strategic suppliers and Juan Tomás

Hernani presented the innovative procurement approach being taken by the European Spallation Source. The European Commission was also represented at the workshop. Bernhard Fabianek from the DG Research & Innovation gave valuable advice on funding possibilities for pre-competitive procurement under the forthcoming EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020. Overall, the conclusions drawn in the discussion round underline the request for technology road mapping and, possibly, a central procurement & tendering platform. But it was also highlighted that collaboration always starts with individuals and that success depends on the recognition of mutual commitment.

It is in this context that NMI3 launched in 2013 its two-stage event for ‘Industry as a user’ together with the synchrotron consortium CALIPSO2. An Industry Advisory Board (IAB) has been set-up composed of 7 experts (mostly from industry) selected by each project. This Board has met on December 3rd and 4th with the business development officers of the photon, neutron & muon facilities to help define future optimal uses for the probes. The aim of the board’s first meeting was to prepare an EU-wide industry-facility event in the autumn of 2014 at the EPN campus in Grenoble. The IAB will help define future optimal uses for neutron, muon and x-ray facilities by industry. The focus will be on a) opportunities for industry to engage in research at European facilities; b) promoting new opportunities and provision of appropriate training; c)

industry-specific issues related to proprietary and pre-competitive R&D; d) operational industry-oriented strategies for European facilities in areas such as instrumentation, access arrangements, and property rights. Both the CALIPSO and NMI3 consortia hope to expand their relations with industry. As their research techniques offer industry a range of complementary services it seemed natural to join forces. The members of the IAB are actually industrial users of one or both probes – this should trigger valuable inside views on our current practice and the efforts to be made. If you are interested in participating in the Grenoble meeting, do not hesitate to contact us info@nmi3.eu. Further information related to industry involvement can be found on: http://nmi3.eu/aboutnmi3/industry-.html.

Industry as a user Innovation is nowadays a key driver in the European Research Area, imposing closer interaction between large-scale infrastructures and industry. Neutron scattering and muon spectroscopy have been developed over decades by the academic community and are becoming key techniques in the innovation cycle. However, the possibility of industry access to the different facilities is largely underexploited. The facilities’ adaptation to the needs of the academic community has resulted in infrastructure not necessarily well-suited to innovation-driven research. For example, facilities select experiments based on scientific excellence whereas high-throughput screening of samples may be required by industry. Academic users require data that they will later transform into results; industry requires immediately exploitable results and efficient characterisation of materials.

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Neutron & Muon & Synchrotron Radiation News

RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE ITALIAN SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOCIETY (SILS)

F. Boscherini, President of SILS In the second half of 2013 the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Society (SILS) organized two important events: the 21st annual conference and the 12th edition of the school “Synchrotron Radiation: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications”. Both events were very successful and are here briefly described. 21st annual conference 3 edition of the annual conference was organized as a parallel session of the very well attended National Conference on Condensed Matter Physics (FisMat2013) held at Politecnico di Milano from the 9th to the 13th of September. This original format guaranteed an excellent visibility for SILS and allowed

participants to benefit from the very rich scientific program of the host event; at the same time, attendees to the FisMat conference were able to listen talks in the field of synchrotron radiation scheduled in the SILS session. The SILS conference included four very interesting invited talks:

• P. Coan, Department of Clinical Radiology and Department of Physics, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Munich (D), “Exploiting X-ray phase contrast imaging in medical diagnostics: towards clinical applications”; • M. Bauer, TU Kaiserslautern (D), “High energy resolution XAS and XES - applications in catalysis and materials science”; • F. Capotondi, Elettra, “Coherent Imaging at FERMI@Elettra: present status and research opportunities”; • N. Hilairet, UMET - Université Lille 1 (F), “Rheology at high pressure and high temperature using large volume press and synchrotron radiation, implications for subduction zones dynamics”. Many plenary talks of the FisMat conference were of interest for SILS, among which: • F. Sette, Next-Generation X-Ray Analyses and the ESRF Upgrade Programme; • C. Joshi, U. of California LA, “Charged Particle Acceleration Using Intense Laser and Particle beams”; • J. Hajdu, Biocrystallography with Free Electron Lasers. A key event of the SILS conference is a review of the status of experimental facilities of interest for the Italian community. This year there were presentations by G. Paolucci on the future of ELETTRA and FERMI, P. Raimondi on the Status of ESRF and the Upgrade program, M. Altarelli on the European X-ray Freeelectron Laser Facility, L. Patthey on the SwissFEL project and A. Balerna on the DAFNE Light synchrotron radiation facility. This “facilities session” was followed by the General Assembly of SILS members with an open discussion of some of the critical issues for the user community, among which the need for a refurbishment of scientifically successful beamlines and the requirement of continuing support for user experiments based on merit were strongly underlined by many speakers.

The final session of the SILS conference was co-organized with the Italian Crystallographic Association and included invited talks in the field of protein crystallography by K. Wilson (University of York) and B. Dijkstra (ESRF). Overall, the SILS conference included 17 stimulating oral contributions and a very lively poster session. The conference was supported by PANalytical with bursaries for the attendance of 10 Ph. D. students. It was also the occasion for the presentation of two awards for Ph. D. research in the field of synchrotron radiation. This year the prizes were made possible by sponsorship provided by two instrumentation companies: SPECS and BRUKER.

• The SILS – SPECS prize was awarded to Letizia Monico, CNR Perugia, for work her dissertation entitled “The Degradation Process of Lead Chromate Yellows in Paintings by Vincent Van Gogh”. • The SILS – BRUKER prize for biomedical applications was awarded to Federica Cossu, University of Milan, for her dissertation on “Structural insights on the inhibition of apoptosis protein recognition by non – apoptotic compounds”.

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Neutron & Muon & Synchrotron Radiation News

Happy participants on the Grado seafront. 12th School on Synchrotron Radiation: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications The 2013 edition of the biannual school was held in Grado (Italy) from the 16th to the 27th of September; as with the previous three editions it was organized in collaboration with Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste. This edition was partially supported by COST Action MP1103 – Nanostructured materials for solid state hydrogen storage. The school was directed by Settimio Mobilio and Gilberto Vlaic, with excellent support from Elena Cantori. The SILS school has become one of the most important educational events in the field of synchrotron radiation in Europe. Its important role is testified by the high number of

applications (over 100 for 45 places) and the strongly international character: over one third of the students were foreigners with participants coming from as far away as Canada, China and Iran. The new location in Grado, a very pleasant seaside resort town, was highly appreciated by students and teachers. In the course of the two weeks duration, the lectures covered the fundamentals of synchrotron radiation and free electron laser emission, the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter, the main experimental methods used in our field and the most important and recent

applications. A full day was devoted to a practical session at Elettra, including hands on experience at selected beamlines and a data analysis session. There was also a lively poster session in which students illustrated their research projects. Last but not least, the social highlight was a delightful dinner in the Grado lagoon. A copy of the presentations used in the lessons is available on the SILS1 web site while a new book containing the lecture notes, edited by F. Boscherini, C. Meneghini and S. Mobilio will be published by Springer and is due to appear in 2014. 1 www.synchrotron-radiation.it

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School & Meeting Reports

THE FOURTH MEETING OF THE UNION FOR COMPACT ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN NEUTRON SOURCES (UCANS)

Y. Kiyanagi Hokkaido University, Japan C. K. Loong The NAST Center, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy.

Michihiro Furusaka of Hokkaido University and Jose Rolando Granada of the CNEA, Bariloche (at central front) are seen to engage in ruminative discussion during the poster session. About 70 scientists, engineers, and research students from 9 countries attended the UCANS-IV Meeting in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, September 23-27, 2013. This year’s meeting was preceded by the 40th Anniversary Meeting of the Hokkaido University LINAC Facility (on the morning of Sept. 24). The School of Engineering of Hokkaido University served as the local host of both meetings. As an international collaborative, UCANS is like a toddler, barely able to stand on wobbly feet if it were not shouldered by gigantic members within the union (e.g., the Bariloche Linac, with a 44-year running history; Hokkaido Linac, 40-year; and Indiana LENS, 9-year). Perhaps for this reason the audience at the UCANS-IV Meeting was not stupefied by the fantastic news that several new sources that were conceived of only four years ago1,2,, such as the CHPS (Tsinghua U., China), PKUNIFY (Peking U., China), and RANS (RIKEN, Japan), have succeeded at producing their first neutrons in 2013. Moreover, participants from Italy and Japan reported yet newer CANS projects currently under study, and two small companies presented plans for development of commercial products based on neutron generators. 1 2

C.-K. Loong, Neutron News, 22, 7 (2011) D. V. Baxter, Ed. Proceedings of the first two meetings of the UCANS, Physics Procedia, 26 (2012).

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Neutronics and neutron instrumentation continued to be a major component of the meeting’s program. This included the role of CANS in validating novel neutron moderator designs a critical aspect that affects the desired performance of the next-generation large neutron sources. Additionally, CANS has found new applications within a broadened scope, such as irradiation effects on computer chips by fast neutrons and cultural heritage studies and boron neutron capture therapy using epithermal neutrons, which call for strong collaboration across different disciplines. With all things considered, this meeting advocated an expanded networking among accelerator physicists, neutron instrument scientists, and practitioners so as to fully explore future opportunities of CANS and to add new blood in this arena through educational and exchange programs. Utilization of media such as edited monographs, technical reviews, and online IT tools is currently under consideration. The Proceedings of UCANS-III and IV will be jointly published in the Physics Procedia series by Elsevier. UCANS-V will be held near Venice, Italy, in 2014, to be hosted by the University of Padova.


GÜNTER BAUER

Our former colleague at the Paul Scherrer Institut, passed away on December 10, 2013, after a severe disease, at the age of 72. Günter was one of the worldwide most recognized experts in neutron sources and spallation technology. In this field he initiated or pioneered in a leading role several of the most advanced accelerator driven neutron sources. Already in the early 1980’s, he acted as chief technical officer in the SNQ project, at that time the most challenging endeavor of a 5 MW accelerator driven spallation neutron source. Arising from these duties, Günter developed a world-leading expertise in spallation target and neutron moderator-reflector and extraction technology. Even though the SNQ project finally was abandoned, Günter always fostered lively exchange of experiences with advanced neutron sources worldwide. He was one of the pioneers that established ICANS, the International Collaboration of Advanced Neutron Sources, a still very active and over the years expanded collaboration with its 21st meeting this fall in Japan at the J-PARC center. A distinctive milestone in Günter’s career was his move to the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, where in the late 1980’s the plans for the MW-power spallation source SINQ maturated. SINQ was built under the technical leadership of Günter. SINQ has to date operated reliably for 15 years and is not only a well established home base for Swiss

science with neutrons, but also heavily demanded and exploited by international users from Europe and abroad. The initial plan of a PbBi liquid metal target for SINQ was abandoned in favor of a solid target, the so-called lead-cannelloni type target. For this target Günter fostered the STIP program, the irradia-

tion of numerous samples of relevance for nuclear materials technology. The program is still lively ongoing. Over the years, STIP results have made indispensable contributions to the data base of nuclear materials. Günter played a key role in the early stages of the ESS project – his idea to use liquid mercury as target material was later successfully realized in the US (SNS) and Japanese (J-PARC) spallation

sources. The idea of a liquid metal target for SINQ never got out of Günters mind. His unweary initiative crested in the MEGAPIE project, a liquid LeadBismuth target which was operated for four months at the MW range power of the SINQ facility. This outstanding endeavor gained broad recognition in the community of accelerator driven systems; it had proven very successfully the feasibility of such liquid metal target for accelerator driven neutron sources. Günter’s expertise on neutron source technology was widely recognized; he was invited to numerous advisory committees worldwide, in the US, in Japan, in China and elsewhere. We always remember his enthusiasm for challenging projects in science and neutron source development, his active engagement in the neutron user community, his support and advice for new facility projects, and his distinctive visions for new developments in neutron sources and applications. All of us, his former colleagues and collaborators, we are deeply saddened by his passing away. We will remember him for his great enthusiasms, his modesty and great kindness. W. Wagner and K. Clausen Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland

21


DIETER MIDDENDORF 1933-2013

U. Wanderlingh Born in Jever, Germany, Dieter was educated in theoretical physics at Kiel University. He travelled to the US on a Fulbright scholarship to study at Purdue University and Caltech, followed by a few years working in the field of aerospace. In a joint US-German project, he led a theoretical study on plasma interactions, the Helios Project, for the design of a solar probe. But he decided to apply his knowledge to something closer to human experience and turned to biophysics. In the early 1970s he joined the group of Maurice Wilkins at Kings College London to develop the

22

application of neutron scattering to biomolecular dynamics. He performed many of the first experiments in this field. He was subsequently based at the university of Oxford, and his collaborators included groups at universities of Edinburgh, Parma and Messina. He performed experiments at neutron research centres including ISIS, ILL, LLB and PSI, and served on committees concerned with developing applications of neutron scattering to interdisciplinary work. Dieter is survived by his partner Helen Saibil and is greatly missed by his many friends and colleagues.


Call for Proposal

CALL FOR PROPOSAL

(deadline for proposal submission)

Any time

May 15, 2014 (for August - December cycle)

ANSTO http://www.ansto.gov.au/ResearchHub/UserAccess/index.htm BNC – AEKI Budapest Neutron Centre http://www.bnc.hu/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=39

October 15, 2014 (for January – June cycle)

March 1 and September 1, annually Any time

May 2, 2014

January 15, 2014

October 15, 2014 (for beamtime cycle in 2015)

May 2, 2014

April 1 and October 1, annually

May 2, 2014

BER II – Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/user/beamtime/index_en.html CINS - Canadian Institute for Neutron Scattering http://www.cins.ca/beam.html#apply FRM-II – Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier Leibnitz http://www.mlz-garching.de/user-office ILL - Institut Laue-Langevin http://www.ill.eu/users/call-for-proposals/ ISIS – Rutherford Appleton Laboratory http://www.isis.stfc.ac.uk/user-office/useroffice.html JCNS - Jülich Centre for Neutron Science http://www.jcns.de/ LLB - Laboratoire Léon Brillouin http://www-llb.cea.fr/en/Web/avr2000_e.php MLZ – Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum http://www.mlz-garching.de/user-office

Any time

NPI – Nuclear Physics Institute http://neutron.ujf.cas.cz/en/instruments/user-access/nmi3

Any time

RID - Reactor Institute Delft http://tnw.tudelft.nl/index.php?id=33195&L=1

May 15 and November 15, annually

SINQ - Swiss Spallation Neutron Source http://www.psi.ch/useroffice/proposal-deadlines

23


Call for Proposal

June 10 and December 9, annually

February 26, 2014 (for July – December cycle)

24

SµS – Paul Scherrer Institute http://www.psi.ch/useroffice/sinqss-nmi3 SNS – Oak Ridge National Laboratory http://neutrons.ornl.gov/


Call for Proposal

CALL FOR PROPOSAL

(deadline for proposal submission)

March 5, 2014 (General User Proposals for August–December cycle)

Any time

ALS - Advanced Light Source http://www-als.lbl.gov/index.php/component/content/article/58.html

(for Rapid Access Proposals)

June 30 and January 15, annually (for the scheduling periods October -March

ANKA - Institute for Synchrotron Radiation http://www.anka.kit.edu/english/554.php

and April - September, respectively)

March 7, 2014 (2014-2: for the period between May and October 2014)

APS - Advanced Photon Source http://www.aps.anl.gov/Users/Calendars/GUP_Calendar.htm

July 11, 2014 (2014-3: for the period between October and December 2014)

April 28, 2014 (for the period between September and December 2014)

March 1 and September 1, annually

To be announced

January 31, 2014 (for the period between May and August 2014)

Any time

February 26, 2014 (for the period between July and September 2014)

AS - Australian Synchrotron http://www.synchrotron.org.au/index.php/features/ applying-for-beamtime/proposal-deadlines BESSY II – Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/user/ beamtime/proposals/index_en.html BSRF - Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility http://english.bsrf.ihep.cas.cn/facilityinformation/ CFN - Center for Functional Nanomaterials http://www.bnl.gov/cfn CHESS - Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source http://www.chess.cornell.edu/prposals/index.htm CLS - Canadian Light Source http://www.lightsource.ca/uso/call_proposals.php

September 4, 2014 (for the period between January and June 2014)

March 7, 2014 July 11, 2014

CNM - Center for Nanoscale Materials http://nano.anl.gov/users/call_for_proposals.html

25


Call for Proposal

Any time (for Commissioning Calls)

April 1 and October 1, annually

Diamond - Diamond Light Source http://duo.diamond.ac.uk/propman/duo/ main/home?execution=e1s1

(for Direct Access)

April 1 and October 1, annually (for Programme Access)

March 17, 2014 (for the period between July and December 2014)

March 1, 2014 (for the period between August 2014 and February 2015)

ELETTRA https://vuo.elettra.trieste.it/pls/vuo/guest.startup ESRF - European Synchrotron Radiation Facility http://www.esrf.eu/UsersAndScience/UserGuide/Applying

January 15, 2014 (for Long-Term Project (LTP) applications)

January 20, 2014 (for the period between April and September 2014)

April 1, 2014

FELIX - Free Electron Laser for Infrared experiments http://www.ru.nl/felix/ FOUNDRY - The Molecular Foundry https://isswprod.lbl.gov/TMF/login.aspx

To be announced

HASYLAB – Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at DESY http://photon-science.desy.de/users_area/index_eng.html

To be announced

ISA - Institute for Storage Ring Facilities http://www.isa.au.dk/user/access.asp

January 14, 2014

LCLS - Linac Coherent Light Source http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/lcls/users/

(for MEC - Optical Laser only)

February 11, 2014 (for AMO, SXR, XPP, CXI, XCS, MEC)

To be announced

LNLS - Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron http://lnls.cnpem.br

To be announced

MAX-lab https://www.maxlab.lu.se/calls

January 31, 2014 (for the period between May and August 2014)

January 31, 2014

To be announced

26

NSLS - National Synchrotron Light Source https://pass.nsls.bnl.gov/deadlines.asp NSRRC - National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center http://portal.nsrrc.org.tw/index.php PAL http://paleng.postech.ac.kr/


Call for Proposal

To be announced

PF - Photon Factory http://pfwww.kek.jp/users_info/users_guide_e/

To be announced

SACLA – Spring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron laser http://sacla.xfel.jp/?lang=en

February 15, 2014 June 15, 2014 October 15, 2014

SLS - Swiss Light Source http://www.psi.ch/sls/calls

(for PX Beamlines)

March 15, 2014 September 15, 2014 (for non-PX Beamlines)

February 15, 2014 (for standard proposal for the period between

SOLEIL http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/Recherche/SUN

September 2014 and February 2015)

September 15, 2014 (for BAG proposal for the period between January 2015 and December 2015)

To be announced

April 20, 2014 (Crystallography Proposals for June – July scheduling)

SRC - Synchrotron Radiation Center http://www.src.wisc.edu/users/apply_for_beamtime_IR.htm SSRL - Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource http://ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/content/user-resources/ssrl-deadlines

February 20, 2014 (X-ray/VUV proposals for beam time May - July scheduling)

June 1, 2014 (X-ray/VUV proposals for beam time beginning in November)

27


Calendar

CALENDAR

January 22, 2014 Bonn, Germany

February 3 – 5, 2014 Grenoble, France

February 19 – 21, 2014 Grenoble, France

February 23 – March 26, 2014 Grenoble, France

ESRF Users’ Meeting 2014 & Associated Workshops http://www.esrf.eu/home/events/conferences/um2014.html

NIBB 2014 - “Neutrons in Biology and Biotechnology” http://www.ill.eu/html/news-events/events/nibb-2014/

HERCULES School 2014 http://hercules-school.eu/

February 24 – March 6, 2014 Didcot, UK

ISIS Neutron training course 2014 http://www.isis.stfc.ac.uk/learning/neutron-training-course/ isis-neutron-training-course-20149135.html

February 25 – March 6, 2014 Didcot, UK

ISIS Practical Neutron Training Course http://www.isis.stfc.ac.uk/learning/neutron-training-course/

March 4 – 6, 2014 Kharkiv, Ukraine

28

The European Spallation Source ESS: An Opportunity for German Organisations and Companies http://indico.esss.lu.se/indico/internalPage.py?pageId=2&confID=135

PDCS’14: Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems http://hpc-ua.org/pdcs-14/

March 10 – 21, 2014 Jülich, Germany

45th IFF Spring School http://www.iff-springschool.de/

March 13 – 21, 2014 Berlin, Germany

34th Berlin School on Neutron Scattering http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/neutronschool


Calendar

March 17 – 20, 2014 Berlin, Germany

March 23 – 26, 2014 Bad Honnef, Germany

Annual Conference of the German Crystallographic Society (DGK) http://www.dgk-conference.de/

Analytical Tools for Fuel Cells and Batteries http://www.hiu.kit.edu/272.php

March 24 – 27, 2014 Grenoble, France

SKIN2014 (Studying Kinetics with Neutrons) http://www.ill.eu/fr/infos-evenements/events/skin-2014/

March 30 – April 4, 2014 Dresden, Germany

DPG Spring Meeting http://dresden14.dpg-tagungen.de/index.html?lang=en&

April 14 – 16, 2014 Cambridge, UK

April 21 – 25, 2014 San Francisco, California, USA

April 30 – May 9, 2014 Erice, Italy

May 4 – 8, 2014 Tartu, Estland

May 9 – 10, 2014 Grenoble, France

May 11 – 16, 2014 L’Escandille (Grenoble), France

The Physics of Soft and Biological Matter http://softbio.iopconfs.org/

Materials Research Society Spring Meeting http://www.mrs.org/spring2014/

XII School of Neutron Scattering (SoNS) “Francesco Paolo Ricci” http://www.sonsfpricci.org/sons-school-2014

Second Baltic Neutron School (BNS 2014) http://www.bns.ut.ee/

MDANSE school 2014 – Molecular Dynamics (and Lattice Dynamics) to Analyse Neutron Scattering Experiments http://www.ill.eu/mdanse2014/

QENS 2014/WINS 2014 http://www.ill.eu/html/news-events/ events/qens-2014-wins-2014

29


Calendar

May 12 – 17, 2014 Didcot, UK

May 16 - 23, 2014 Carcans-Maubuisson, Gironde, France

May 24 – 28, 2014 Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA

May 30 – June 8, 2014 Erice, Italy

June 1 – 5, 2014 Knoxville, Tennessee, USA

June 1 – 6, 2014 Grindelwald, Switzerland

July 7 – 11, 2014 Hamburg, Germany

July 21 – 25, 2014 Lisbon, Portugal

September 21 – 23, 2014 Bonn, Germany

September 29 – October 3, 2014 Mito, Ibaraki, Japan

30

Muon Spectroscopy Training School http://www.isis.stfc.ac.uk/groups/muons/muon-training-school/

Bombannes 2014 - 12th European Summer School on “Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter” http://www.ill.eu/bombannes

2014 Annual Meeting of the ACA http://www.amercrystalassn.org/2014-homepage

Structural Basis of Pharmacology: Deeper Understanding of Drug Discovery through Crystallography http://www.crystalerice.org/Erice2014/2014.html

2014 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) http://www.mrs.org/acns-2014/

13th International Conference on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (µSR2014) http://www.psi.ch/musr2014

International Conference on Surface X-Ray and Neutron Scattering http://www.sxns13.de/

9th Liquid Matter Conference http://www.fc.ul.pt/en/conferencia/liquids-2014/

SNI 2014 http://sni-portal.uni-kiel.de/sni2014/index-engl.php

International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources http://j-parc.jp/researcher/MatLife/en/meetings/ICANS_XXI/index.html


Facilities

FACILITIES: NEUTRON SOURCES WWW SERVERS IN THE WORLD http://nmi3.eu/neutron-research/where.html ANSTO

ESS AB

Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Phone: + 61 2 9717 3111 Fax: + 61 2 9543 5097 Email: info@synchrotron.org.au Http://www.ansto.gov.au

European Spallation Source Phone: +46 46 888 30 94 Mobile: +46 72 179 20 94 Email: sindra.petersson@esss.se Http://www.esss.se/

BER II

FLNP

Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Phone: +49-30 / 80 62 - 42778 Fax: +49-30 / 80 62 – 42523 Email: neutrons@helmholtz-berlin.de Http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/user/neutrons/

Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics Phone: (7-49621) 65-657 Fax: (7-49621) 65-085 Email: belushk@nf.jinr.ru Http://flnp.jinr.ru/25/

BNC - Budapest Research reactor

FRM II

Phone: +36 1 392 2222 Fax: +36 1 395 9162 Email: tozser@sunserv.kfki.hu Http://www.bnc.hu

Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Phone: +49 (0) 89 289 10794 Fax: +49 (0) 89 289 10799 Email: useroffice@mlz-garching.de Http://www.mlz-garching.de/user-office

CAB Centro Atómico Bariloche Phone: +54 2944 44 5100, Fax: +54 2944 44 5299 Email: info@cab.cnea.gov.ar Http://www.cab.cnea.gov.ar/ Centre for Energy Research Hungarian Academy of Sciences Phone: +36-1-392-2539 Fax: +36-1-392-2533 Email: tamas.BELGYA@energia.mta.hu Http://www.energia.mta.hu. CSNS Phone: 86 10 68597289 Fax: 86 10 68512458 Email: cas_en@stimes.cn Http://english.cas.ac.cn/

GEMS German Engineering Materials Science Centre Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht Phone: +49 4152 871254 Fax: +49 4152 871338 Email: klaus.pranzas@hzg.de Http://www.hzg.de/central_departments/gems/index.html.de HANARO Center for Applications of Radioisotopes and Radiation Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Phone: +82 42 868-8120 Fax: +82 42 868-8448 Http://hanaro.kaeri.re.kr/english/index.html

31


Facilities

HFIR

JCNS

ORNL, Oak Ridge, USA Phone: 865-576-0214 Fax: 865-574-096 Email: burnettese@ornl.gov Http://neutrons. ornl.gov/facilities/HFIR/experiment.shtml

Juelich Centre for Neutron Science Forschungszentrum J端lich Phone: +49 (0)2461 614750 Fax: +49 (0)2461 612610 Email: neutron@fz-juelich.de d.richter@fz-juelich.de (for JCNS-1) t.brueckel@fz-juelich.de (for JCNS-2) Http://www.jcns.de/

IBR-2 Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics Phone: (7-49621) 65-657 Fax: (7-49621) 65-085 Email: belushk@nf.jinr.ru Http:// flnp.jinr.ru/474/ ILL Institute Laue-Langevin Phone: + 33 (0)4 76 20 71 11 Fax: + 33 (0)4 76 48 39 06 Phone: +33 4 7620 7179 Fax: +33 4 76483906 Email: cico@ill.fr and sco@ill.fr Http://www.ill.eu

J-PARC Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex Phone: +81-29-284-3398 Fax: +81-29-284-3286 Email: j-uo@ml.j-parc.jp Http://j-parc.jp/index-e.html JRR-3M Fax: +81 292 82 59227 Phoneex: JAERIJ24596E Email: www-admin@www.jaea.go.jp Http:// www.jaea.go.jp/jaeri/english/index.html

IPEN

JEEP-II Reactor

Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Research Phone: 226-0030, 226-0033226 Email: ceid@ipen.gob.pe Http://www.ipen.gob.pe/site/index/index.htm

Phone: +47 63 806000, 806275 Fax: +47 63 816356 Email: kjell.bendiksen@ife.no Http://www.ife.no/en/Frontpage-en

IPNS

KENS

Intense Pulsed Neutron at Argonne Phone: 630/252-7820 Fax: 630/252-7722 Email: cpeters@anl.govor mail Http:// www.neutron.anl.gov/ipns/

Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Email: kens-pac@nml.kek.jp Http://neutron-www.kek.jp/index_e.html

ISIS Science and Technology Facilities Council Type: Pulsed Spallation Source. Phone: +44 (0) 1235 445592 Fax: +44 (0) 1235 445103 Email: uls@isis.rl.ac.uk http://www.isis.stfc.ac.uk

32

KUR Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute Phone: +81-72-451-2300 Fax: +81-72-451-2600 Http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/


Facilities

LANSCE

NPL – NRI

Phone: 505-665-1010 Fax: 505-667-8830 Email: lansce_users@lanl.gov tichavez@lanl.gov Http://lansce.lanl.gov/

Phone: +420 2 20941177 / 66173428 Fax: +420 2 20941155 Email: krz@ujv.cz and brv@nri.cz Http://neutron.ujf.cas.cz/

LENS

NPRE

Low Energy Neutron Source Phone: +1 (812) 8561458 Email: pesokol@indiana.edu Http://www.indiana.edu/~lens/index.html

Department of Nuclear, Plasma & Radiological Engineering Phone: +1 217 333-2295 Fax: +1 217 333-2906 Email: nuclear@illinois.edu Http://npre.illinois.edu/

LLB

NRU

Laboratoire Léon Brillouin Phone: 0169085417 Fax: 0169088261 Email: llb-sec@cea.fr Http://www-llb.cea.fr

Chalk River Laboratories Phone: 613-584-8293 Fax: 613-584-4040 Email: info@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca Http://nuclearsafety.gc.ca/eng/mycommunity/ facilities/chalkriver/chalkriver_facilities.cfm

McMASTER NUCLEAR REACTOR Phone: 905-525-9140 Email: reactor@mcmaster.ca Http://mnr.mcmaster.ca/ MIT Nuclear reactor Laboratory Email: nrl-rrs@mit.edu Http://web.mit.edu/nrl/www/ MURR Phone: 1.573.882.4211 Email: MURRCustomerService@missouri.edu Http://www.murr.missouri.edu/ NIST Center for Neutron Research Phone: (301) 975-6210 Fax: (301) 869-4770 Email: Robert.dimeo@nist.gov Http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/

PIK Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute Phone: +7(813-71) 46025, +7(813-71) 46047 Fax: +7(813-71) 36025, +7(813-71) 31347 Email: dir@pnpi.spb.ru Http://www.pnpi.spb.ru/ RIC Reactor Infrasctructure Centre Phone: +386 1 588 5450 Fax: +386 1 588 5377 Http://www.rcp.ijs.si/ric/index-a.htm RID Reactor Institute Delft (NL) Phone: +31 (0)15 278 5052 Fax: +31 (0)15 278 6422 Email: secretary-rid@tudelft.nl Http://www.rid.tudelft.nl

33


Facilities

RISĂ˜ DTU Phone: +45 4677 4677 Fax: +45 4677 5688 Email: risoe@risoe.dtu.dk Http://www.risoe.dtu.dk/ SINQ Phone: +41 56 310 4666 Fax: +41 56 3103294 Email: useroffice@psi.ch Http://www.psi.ch/sinq SNS Spallation Neutron Source Phone: 865.241.5644 Fax: (865) 241-5177 Email: ekkebusae@ornl.gov Http://neutrons.ornl.gov

34


Facilities

FACILITIES: SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES WWW SERVERS IN THE WORLD www.lightsources.org ALBA

BESSY II

Synchrotron Light Facility Phone: +34 93 592 44 19 Fax: +34 93 592 43 01 Email: asanchez@cells.es Http://www.cells.es/

Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin Phone: +49 (0)30 - 80620 Fax: +49 (0)30 8062 - 42181 Email: info@helmholtz-berlin.de Http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/

ALS

BSRF

Advanced Light Source Phone: 510.486.7745 Fax: 510.486.4773 Email: alsuser@lbl.gov Http://www-als.lbl.gov/als

Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility Phone: +86-10-68235125 Fax: 86-10-68186229 Email: houbz@mail.ihep.ac.cn Http://bsrf.ihep.cas.cn/

ANKA

CAMD

Phone: +49 (0)7247 / 82-6188 Fax: +49-(0)7247 / 82-8677 Email: info@fzk.de Http://ankaweb.fzk.de/

Center Advanced Microstructures & Devices Phone: +1 (225) 578-8887 Fax: +1 (225) 578-6954 Email: leeann@lsu.edu Http://www.camd.lsu.edu/

APS Advanced Photon Source Phone: (630) 252-2000 Fax: +1 708 252 3222 Email: fenner@aps.anl.gov Http://www.aps.anl.gov/ AS Australian Synchrotron Phone: +61 3 8540 4100 Fax: +61 3 8540 4200 Email: info@synchrotron.org.au Http://www.synchrotron.org.au/

CANDLE Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission Phone/Fax : +(37 4-10) 629806 Email: baghiryan@asls.candle.am Http://www.candle.am/index.html CESLAB Central European Synchrotron Laboratory Phone: +420-541517500 Email: kozubek@ibp.cz Http://www.xray.cz/ CFN Center for Functional Nanomaterials Phone: +1 (631) 344-6266 Fax: +1 (631) 344-3093 Email: cfnuser@bnl.gov Http://www.bnl.gov/cfn/

35


Facilities

CHESS

DELSY

Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source Phone: 607-255-7163 Fax: 607-255-9001 Http://www.chess.cornell.edu/

Dubna ELectron Synchrotron Phone: + 7 09621 65 059 Fax: + 7 09621 65 891 Email: post@jinr.ru Http://wwwinfo.jinr.ru/delsy/variant-21june.htm

CLIO Centre Laser Infrarouge d’Orsay Phone: +33 01 69 15 32 94 Fax: +33 01 69 15 32 28 Email: accueil-clio@lcp.u-psud.fr Http://clio.lcp.u-psud.fr/clio_eng/clio_eng.htm CLS Canadian Light Source Phone: (306) 657-3500 Fax: (306) 657-3535 Email: clsuo@lightsource.ca Http://www.lightsource.ca/ CNM Center for Nanoscale Materials Phone: 630.252.6952 Fax: 630.252.5739 Email: carrieclark@anl.gov Http://nano.anl.gov/facilities/index.html CTST Institute for Terahertz Science and Technology (ITST) Phone: +1 805 893 8576 Fax: +1 805 893 8170 Email: manager@itst.ucsb.edu http://www.itst.ucsb.edu/

DELTA Dortmund Electron Test Accelerator FELICITA I (FEL) Phone: +49-(0)231-755-5376 Fax: +49-(0)231-755-5383 Email: shaukat.khan@tu-dortmund.de Http://www.delta.tu-dortmund.de/ DFELL Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory Phone: 919-660-2681 Fax: 919-660-2671 Email: beamtime@fel.duke.edu Http://www.fel.duke.edu/ Diamond Light Source Phone: +44 (0)1235 778000 Fax: +44 (0)1235 778499 Email: useroffice@diamond.ac.uk Http://www.diamond.ac.uk/default.htm ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory Phone: +39 40 37581 Fax: +39 (040) 938-0902 Http://www.elettra.trieste.it/

DAFNE Light

ELSA

INFN-LNF Phone: +39 06 94031 Fax: +39 06 9403 2582 Http://web.infn.it/Dafne_Light/

Electron Stretcher Accelerator Phone: +49-(0)228-735926 Fax: +49-(0)228-733620 Email: roy@physik.uni-bonn.de Http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html

36


Facilities

ESRF

Ifel

European Synchrotron Radiation Lab. Phone: +33 (0)4 7688 2000 Fax: +33 (0)4 7688 2020 Email: useroff@esrf.fr Http://www.esrf.eu/

Phone: +81-(0)72-897-6410 Email: web_masters@eng.osaka-u.ac.jp Http://www.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/en/index.html

FELBE

Phone: +91-731-248-8003 Fax: 91-731-248-8000 Email: rvn@cat.ernet.in Http://www.cat.ernet.in

Free-Electron Lasers at the ELBE Radiation Source at the HZDR Dresden-Rossendorf Phone: +49 (0)351 260 - 0 Fax: +49 (0)351 269 - 0461 Email: m.helm@hzdr.de Http://www.hzdr.de/db/Cms?pNid=471 FELIX Free Electron Laser for Infrared experiments Phone: +31-30-6096999 Fax: +31-30-6031204 Email: B.Redlich@rijnh.nl felix@science.ru.nl Http://www.lightsources.org/facility/felix FOUNDRY The Molecular Foundry Phone: +1 - 510.486.4088 Email: rjkelly@lbl.gov Http://foundry.lbl.gov/index.html HASYLAB Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor DORIS III, PETRA II / III, FLASH Phone: +49 40 / 8998-2304 Fax: +49 40 / 8998-2020 Email: HASYLAB@DESY.de Http://hasylab.desy.de/ HSRC Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center HiSOR Phone: +81 82 424 6293 Fax: +81 82 424 6294 Http://www.hsrc.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/index.html

INDUS -1 / INDUS -2

IR FEL Research Center FEL-SUT Phone: +81 4-7121-4290 Fax: +81 4-7121-4298 Email: felsut@rs.noda.sut.ac.jp http://www.rs.noda.tus.ac.jp/fel-tus/ ISA Institute for Storage Ring Facilities - ASTRID-1 Phone: +45 8942 3778 Fax: +45 8612 0740 Email: fyssp@phys.au.dk Http://www.isa.au.dk/ ISI-800 Institute of Metal Physics - Ukraine Phone: +(380) 44 424-1005 Fax: +(380) 44 424-2561 Email: metall@imp.kiev.ua Http://www.imp.kiev.ua/ (Russian) Jlab Jefferson Lab FEL Phone: (757) 269-7100 Fax: (757) 269-7848 Http://www.jlab.org/FEL Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology Pulse Stretcher/Synchrotron Radiation Phone: +38 (057) 335-35-30 Fax: +38 (057) 335-16-88 Http://www.kipt.kharkov.ua/.indexe.html

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Facilities

KSR - Nuclear Science Research Facility

MLS - Metrology Light Source

Accelerator Laboratory Phone: +81 774 38 3290 Fax: +81 774 38 3289 Email: noda@kyticr.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp Http://sun.scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~sakabe/ARCBS-Home.html

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Phone: +49 30 3481 7312 Fax: +49 30 3481 7550 Email: Gerhard.Ulm@ptb.de Http://www.ptb.de/mls/

KSRS

NSLS

Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Source Siberia-1 / Siberia-2 Phone: 8-499-196-96-45 Email: presscentr@kiae.ru Http://www.lightsources.org/facility/ksrs Http://www.nrcki.ru/e/engl.html

National Synchrotron Light Source Phone: +1 (631) 344-7976 Fax: +1 (631) 344-7206 Email: nslsuser@bnl.gov Http://www.nsls.bnl.gov/

LCLS Linac Coherent Light Source Phone: +1 (650) 926-3191 Fax: +1 (650) 926-3600 Email: knotts@ssrl.slac.stanford.edu Http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/lcls/ LNLS Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron Phone: +55 (0) 19 3512-1010 Fax: +55 (0)19 3512-1004 Email: lnlscomunica@abtlus.org.br http://lnls.cnpem.br MAX-Lab Phone: +46-222 9872 Fax: +46-222 4710 Email: maxlab@maxlab.lu.se Http://www.maxlab.lu.se/ Medical Synchrotron Radiation Facility Phone: +81-(0)43-251-2111 Email: kokusai@nirs.go.jp Http://www.nirs.go.jp/ENG/index.html

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NSRL National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Phone: +86-551-3601989 Fax: +86-551-5141078 Email: zdh@ustc.edu.cn Http://www.nsrl.ustc.edu.cn/en/ NSRRC National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center Phone: +886-3-578-0281 Fax: +886-3-578-9816 Email: user@nsrrc.org.tw Http://www.nsrrc.org.tw/ NSSR Nagoya University Small Synchrotron Radiation Facility Phone: +81-(0)43-251-2111 Email: nuinfo@post.jimu.nagoya-u.ac.jp Http://en.nagoya-u.ac.jp PAL Pohang Accelerator Laboratory Phone: +82 10 2520 3078 Email: huang@postech.ac.kr Http://paleng.postech.ac.kr/


Facilities

PF Photon Factory Phone: +81 (0)-29-879-6009 Fax: +81 (0)-29-864-4402 Email: users.office2@post.kek.jp Http://pfwww.kek.jp/ PSLS Polish Synchrotron Light Source Phone: +48 (12) 663 58 20 Email: mail@synchrotron.pl Http://www.synchrotron.uj.edu.pl// RitS Ritsumeikan University SR Center Phone: +81 (0)77 561-2806 Fax: +81 (0)77 561-2859 Email: d11-www-adm@se.ritsumei.ac.jp Http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/re/src/index.htm SAGA-LS Saga Light Source Phone: +81-942-83-5017 Fax: +81-942-83-5196 Email: info@saga-ls.jp Http://www.lightsources.org/facility/sagals

SOLEIL Phone: +33 1 6935 9652 Fax: +33 1 6935 9456 Email: frederique.fraissard@synchrotron-soleil.fr Http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/ portal/page/portal/Accueil SPL Siam Photon Laboratory Phone: +66 44 21 7040 Fax: +66 44 21 7047 Email: siampl@slri.or.th Http://www.slri.or.th/ SPring-8 Phone: +81-(0) 791-58-0961 Fax: +81-(0) 791-58-0965 Email: sp8jasri@spring8.or.jp Http://www.spring8.or.jp/en/ SRC Synchrotron Radiation Center Phone: +1 (608) 877-2000 Fax: +1 (608) 877-2001 Http://www.src.wisc.edu/

SESAME

SSLS

Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East Phone: +962-5 3511348, ext.203 Fax: +962-5 3511423 Http://www.sesame.org.jo/sesame/

Singapore Synchrotron Light Source - Helios II Phone: (65) 6874-6568 Fax: (65) 6773-6734 Http://ssls.nus.edu.sg/index.html

SLS Swiss Light Source Phone: +41 56 310 4666 Fax: +41 56 310 3294 Email: useroffice@psi.ch Http://www.psi.ch/sls

SSRC Siberian Synchrotron Research Centre VEPP3/VEPP4 Phone: +7(3832)39-44-98 Fax: +7(3832)34-21-63 Email: G.N.Kulipanov@inp.nsk.su Http://ssrc.inp.nsk.su/

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Facilities

SSRF

TNK

Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility Email: ssrf@sinap.ac.cn Http://ssrf.sinap.ac.cn/english/

F.V. Lukin Institute Phone: +7(095) 531-1306 / +7(095) 531-1603 Fax: +7(095) 531-4656 Email: info@ckp.su Http://www.niifp.ru/page/sinhrotron

SSRL Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Phone: +1 650-926-3191 Fax: +1 650-926-3600 Email: knotts@ssrl.slac.stanford.edu Http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/index.html SuperSOR Synchrotron Radiation Facility Phone: +81 (0471) 36-3405 Fax: +81(0471) 34-6041 Email: kakizaki@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp Http://www.issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp/labs/sor/project/MENU.html SURF Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility Phone: +1 (301) 975-4200 Email: inquiries@nist.gov Http://physics.nist.gov/MajResFac/SURF/SURF/index.html

TSRF Tohoku Synchrotron Radiation Facility Laboratory of Nuclear Science Phone: +81 (022)-743-3400 Fax: +81 (022)-743-3401 Email: koho@LNS.tohoku.ac.jp Http://www.lns.tohoku.ac.jp/index.php UVSOR Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility Phone: +81 564 55 7402 Fax: +81 564 54 7079 Email: mkatoh@ims.ac.jp Http://www.uvsor.ims.ac.jp/defaultE.html

Information on Conference Announcements and Advertising for Europe and US, rates and inserts can be found at: • http://neutronielucedisincrotrone.cnr.it/ • nnls.secretary@cnr.it Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone, the semestral magazine for users, is available on our web site. To register a free subscription, please visit: • http://neutronielucedisincrotrone.cnr.it/

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Associazione School of Neutron Scattering “Francesco Paolo Ricci” School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci

THEORY AND TECHNIQUES OF NEUTRON SCATTERING AND APPLICATIONS TO CULTURAL HERITAGE XII EDITION | ERICE | APRIL 30th – MAY 9th 2014

XII SCHOOL EDITION Director:

IAN S ANDERSON (ORNL, US)

Vice-Directors: GABRIELE SALVATO (CNR, I) ANTONELLA SCHERILLO (CNR, I and ISIS, UK)

http://www.sonsfpricci.org/sons-school-2014

The School Francesco Paolo Ricci is an international school, established in 1994, providing a comprehensive training in the fundamental concepts of neutron scattering. The school provides an excellent introduction to neutron scattering which is developed through to its application in contemporary research. It consists mainly of lectures and tutorials covering both the theory and technical aspects of neutron scattering with a particular emphasis on applications to Cultural Heritage. In addition to lectures on theory, sources and neutron instrumentation, students will be tutored by world leading experts in the various scattering techniques including diffraction, quasi-elastic and inelastic scattering, imaging, small-angle scattering, reflectometry, and neutron-spin-echo. Introduction to the theory and techniques of neutron scattering and applications to Cultural Heritage. The school will be held at the ETTORE MAJORANA FOUNDATION AND CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC CULTURE, Erice (Sicily, I) as a specialized course within the International School of Solid State Physics (Director: Prof. Giorgio Benedek), between the 30th of April and the 9th of May 2014. The course is normally highly oversubscribed, so we encourage applicants to apply early, as late applications will not be accepted. Students are selected for the course based on their need to utilize neutron scattering techniques as part of their present and/or future research activities.

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EDITORIAL NEWS •   Editorial •   A new website for the neutron community: M. Förster, I. Crespo,

SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS •   Short time proton dynamics in bulk ice and in porous anode solid oxide fuel cell materials F. Basoli U, R. Senesi, A. I. Kolesnikov

RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURES •   Time resolved and Extreme conditions X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy: TEXAS S. Pascarelli, O. Mathon, I. Kantor, C. Marini, C. Strohm, T. Mairs, S. Pasternak, F. Perrin

•   Enhancing interaction between industry and large-scale research facilities M. Förster

NEUTRON & MUON & SYNCHROTRON RADIATION NEWS •   Recent activities of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Society (SILS) F. Boscherini

SCHOOL & MEETING REPORTS •   The Fourth Meeting of the Union for Compact Accelerator-driven Neutron Sources (UCANS) Y. Kiyanagi, C. K. Loong