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School – Meeting

M & N & SR News

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Scientific Reviews

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

ISSN 1592-7822 - Vol. 15 n. 2 July 2010 - Aut. Trib. Roma n. 124/96 del 22-03-96 - Sped. Abb. Post. 70% Filiale di Roma - C.N.R. p.le A. Moro 7, 00185 Roma


School and Meeting Reports

M & N & SR News

Research Infrastructures

Scientific Reviews

www.cnr.it/neutronielucedisincrotrone

SUMMARY

published by CNR (Publishing and Promotion of Scientific Information) in collaboration with the Physics Department of the University of Rome Tor Vergata

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

Editorial News Spain has already a Synchrotron Light Source: Alba…………… 2 S. Ferrer

Vol. 15 n. 2 Luglio 2010 Aut. Trib. Roma n. 124/96 del 22-03-96

Scientific Reviews Microstructural characterization and residual strain mapping of two ancient Japanese swords…………… 4 F. Grazzi, L. Bartoli, F. Civita, A.M. Paradowska, A. Scherillo, M. Zoppi

Coded-apertures take x-ray phase contrast imaging out of the synchrotrons and into real world applications……………11 A. Olivo

High power terahertz radiation from high brightness electron beam at SPARC……………20 S. Lupi

Muon & Neutron & Synchrotron Radiation News 2nd General Assembly of the Neutron and Muon consortium NMI3…………… 27 A. Claver

EDITOR

C. Andreani CORRESPONDENTS

School and Meeting Reports Italy-UK workshop on imaging and life sciences applications of new light sources……………30 L. Palumbo

L. Avaldi, L.E. Bove, C. Blasetti, L. Bibi Palatini, A. Claver, A.E. Ekkebus, T. Guidi, S. Imberti, L. Palumbo ON LINE VERSION

V. Buttaro CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE

S. Ferrer, F. Grazzi, S. Lupi, A. Olivo EDITORIAL INFORMATION AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Call for Proposals……………33

A. Minella E-mail: nnls@roma2.infn.it GRAPHIC AND PRINT

Calendar……………35 Facilities……………43

omgrafica srl Via Fabrizio Luscino, 73 00174 Rome - Italy E-mail: info@exormaedizioni.com www.exormaedizioni.com

Finito di stampare nel mese di Luglio 2010

Cover photo. Picture of two ancient Japanese blades according to the traditional display arrangement and drawings of the INES and ENGIN-X diffractometers at ISIS used to analyse them.


Editorial News

Spain has already a Synchrotron Light Source: Alba

on the right: External view of the building.

The new light source is located in Cerdanyola del Valles near Barcelona. Last March the official inauguration ceremony was celebrated and it was chaired by the presidents of the Spanish and Catalonia Governments highlighting not only its scientific relevance but also the societal impact. ALBA is a third generation source of 3 GeV equipped with state of the art technology. It is similar to Soleil and Diamond although the perimeter (ca 269 m) is smaller It is foreseen to run in top up mode at relatively early stages and it has been designed for a maximum operating current of 400 mA. Seven beamlines are presently being assembled. They were chosen out of thirteen proposals presented by groups of Spanish synchrotron users. They cover the fields of Material Science, Biology and Condensed Matter Physics. In the area of Material Sciences, two hard X ray beamlines devoted to absorption and emission spectroscopy, and high resolution powder diffraction including a station for diffraction at elevated pressures will be available. The powder diffraction beamline will be fed by a 20 kW superconducting wiggler whereas a conventional wiggler will be used for absorption spectroscopy. Emphasis will be made in real-time catalytic reactions with industrial catalysts. A photoemission beamline with variable polarization soft X rays will feed a state of the art photoemission microscope (PEEM) and a near ambient pressure photoemission set up that will operate in a wide pressure range going from ultrahigh vacuum to several mbar. A second helical undulator will provide radiation to the circular magnetic dichroism beamline which will have an end station equipped with a 7 T cryomagnet. Also, at the same beamline an UHV chamber designed for soft X ray scattering experiments will be installed. Biological applications will be covered by a state of the art macromolecular crystallography beamline including an automatic sample changer and by a non crystalline diffraction beamline with a fast 2D detector for time resolved experiments. Both beamlines have been optimized for ca 1 Angstrom wavelength generated by in vacuum undulators. Also, a soft X ray cryo-microscope operating

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S. Ferrer Alba Synchrotron Light Source Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain

on the left: Mr. Zapatero during the inauguration ceremony.


Editorial News

in the water window specialized in cellular tomography will be available in a bending magnet beamline. The responsibility for the construction, equipment and exploitation of ALBA belongs to CELLS (Consorcio para la Construcción, Equipamiento y Explotación del Laboratorio de Luz Sincrotrón), an entity coowned by the Spanish and the Catalan Governments. The total cost investments of the ALBA project are 201 M€whereas the annual running cost needed for full operation is 22 M€. A maximum of about 32 beamlines could be accommodated around the storage ring lattice. The first tests of the Booster and the Linac accelerators were performed last January obtaining very promising results. The Storage Ring commissioning is coming next to pave the way to the beamline commissioning and the future users. It is planned to accept the first users in the fall of 2011. There is a huge expectation among the Spanish scientific community for using ALBA that will also be open to the scientific community of the rest of the world in order to promote the scientific exchange at international level. ALBA is expected to act as an attracting pole for the Spanish scientific community. In addition to the scientific aspects ALBA is also stimulating Spanish companies on leading technologies and instrumentation which is a beneficial additional effect. In summary ALBA will be one of the latest third generation synchrotron light sources coming into operation with an expected performance among the top ranking synchrotron radiation facilities and consequently it will have significant impact in the scientific development of Spain whilst becoming a reference worldwide.

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from the top to the bottom View of the booster synchrotron (left) and storage ring (right). Two RF cavities are visible behind the sextupole and quadrupole magnets. Photoemission beamline. The vacuum vessel at left contains the grating monochromator. The beam can be directed to the PEEM or to the near ambient pressure photoemission stations with a mirror.

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Microstructural characterization and residual strain mapping of two ancient Japanese swords F. Grazzi

ABSTRACT

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto Sistemi Complessi, Italy francesco.grazzi@isc.cnr.it

Two Japanese long swords (katanas) belonging to the Koto Age (X-XVI century A.D.) were measured through time of flight neutron diffraction to analyze the phases, and the stress and strain distribution, in selected parts of the blades. The swords are representative of two different forging schools (Aoe and Kanesada) and one of the main aims of the measurements was to evidence possible similarities and differences. Two independent experiments were carried out at the ISIS pulsed neutron source using the INES and ENGIN-X diffractometers. The former was employed to map the average phase distribution on two selected cross sections, of each blade, distinguishing among the ridge, the core, and the edge of the blades. In this way, we were able to quantify the coarse distribution of the carbon content and, moreover, we could evidence the presence of martensite. These data were then complemented measuring detailed stress and strain distribution maps on ENGIN-X. As far as the ridge and the core are concerned, the tang data were taken as a reference. These measurements significantly improve the knowledge and understanding of the technology used to produce Japanese swords belonging to the Koto Age.

L. Bartoli Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto Fisica Applicata, Italy l.bartoli@ifac.cnr.it

F. Civita Stibbert Museum, Firenze, Italy curatori@museostibbert.it

A.M. Paradowska Science and Technology Facility Council ISIS Neutron Scattering Facility, United Kingdom anna.paradowska@stfc.ac.uk

A. Scherillo Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto Sistemi Complessi, Italy antonella.scherillo@stfc.ac.uk

M. Zoppi Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Istituto Sistemi Complessi, Italy marco.zoppi@isc.cnr.it

INTRODUCTION

Historical metallurgy is one of the most interesting topics in archaeometry. In particular, a great interest is dedicated to the steel making techniques and to the forging methods by which steel weapons were produced since the most advanced skills have been always applied to this category of tools. These were usually handmade by the most skilled craftsmen and by using the best available materials. In this context, Japanese ancient and historical swords are one of the best examples and, therefore, represent one of the most interesting classes of artifacts to be studied for increasing our knowledge on the historical evolution of metallurgy. It should be pointed out that, in spite of their great cultural and historical interest, Japanese swords have not been investigated to a great extent. In fact, in order to obtain a good characterization of metal artifacts by the traditional analytical methods, a somehow destructive approach is usually

Figure 1. Timeline of thes word forging history in Japan (left) and the five forging traditions of Koto Age (right)

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necessary. This procedure, even though acceptable in a large class of circumstances, is generally banned in the case of precious historical or archaeological objects. The most ancient artifacts are scarce and, moreover, the most interesting ones are in excellent condition, therefore the traditional analytical methods (always invasive) are not applicable. In addition, Japanese swords are characterized by a peculiar inner structure resulting from the particular manufacturing process.[1,2]. Besides, we remind that the final quenching of the sword affects the phase distribution, in terms of hardened phases concentration, along the blade. This process has been refined along the years, by each sword-smiting school, in order to provide the best mechanical characteristics for every part of the blade according to its function [3,4]. The few available scientific analyses of Japanese blades, which have been performed through metallographic microscopy [3], revealed the microstructure originated by the forging and quenching processes, but no systematic study relating the cross section appearance to the forging schools or the traditions, has been performed yet. Finally, some theoretical studies have been carried out to simulate the strains induced by the quenching along the blade [5], and suggest that they are partially responsible for the curved shape of the swords. In this context, we have proposed to use neutron diffraction analysis to obtain quantitative and systematic information, thus radically changing the approach to the study of Japanese blades. To this aim, as a part of an extensive investigation plan of Japanese blade weapons, we have selected two blades of the Koto (ancient sword) age corresponding to the time interval spanning between the 10th and the 16th century of European Age. These swords have been identified, through stylistic analysis, as pertaining to two different schools, each one included among the five forging traditions, which virtually include the totality of the blade production of that historical period in Japan [1]. In Fig. 1 we report the timeline of the sword forging history in Japan and the names of the five forging traditions of Koto Age together with the bonds linking their birth and evolution. The selected blades pertain to the Yamashiro and Mino traditions, the two most different ones in terms of bonds. The forging traditions originated either in political power centres or close to iron ore rich areas or both. In order to clarify this aspect we report in Fig. 2 two maps of Japan in which the origin provinces of the five traditions and the main iron ores deposits are shown.

KEYWORDS

Archaeometry, neutron diffraction, strain mapping, quantitative multiphase analysis.

Figure 2. Maps showing the origin provinces of the five traditions and the main iron ores deposits.

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The former imperial capitals (Nara and Kyoto) are located exactly where the Yamato and Yamashiro traditions started and the shogunal capital (Edo) is located where the Soshu tradition was born. The first selected sword, although not signed, is attributed to the Kanesada School of the Koto Mino Tradition, in the Mino province, basing to its features, shape, temper line, and surface grainpattern. Accordingly, it was dated in the second half of 16th century. The present condition of this blade is less than optimal, as it has been submitted to a nontraditional polishing process, using an acid substance to evidence the ridge of the temper line. Contrary to the many correct polishing procedures, previously carried out in the past, the last one caused the loss of one of the most important characteristic of that School: the extreme sharpness known as “o-wazamono�.

Figure 3. Picture of the two measured blades: the Aoe Yamashiro tachi (top) and the Kanesada Mino katana (bottom) according to the Japanese traditional display arrangement.

On the other hand, various characteristics point out that the blade was used with assiduity. Moreover, it appears that the blade has not been shortened and maintains its original length. The second selected blade is older than the Kanesada one. It is not signed either, but from its characteristics can be safely assigned to the Sue-Aoe School of the late Yamashiro Tradition. We have reasons to believe that this blade was made in Bitchu province (the modern Okayama prefecture) during the end of the 15thcentury. This blade was deeply shortened, from its original length, due to the changed methods of warfare of that period. However, it still contains a wealth of important characteristics that make it almost a dictionary of various features used in blade manufacturing of that Period (Koto). Similarly to the other sample, this blade was extensively polished too. The two swords are shown in Fig. 3. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Two diffraction experiments have been carried out at ISIS, the pulsed neutron source in the UK, using different instruments in order to obtain a complete set of information. As for previously performed metal characterization measurements [6], the INES diffractometer [7,8] was used to quantitatively determine the phase distribution in several parts of the blades, while another diffraction instrument (ENGIN-X [9]) was employed to measure the strain map of the samples in order to obtain information on the forging methods and the thermal treatments [10]. Thanks to the large size of the INES sample tank a phase distribution analysis has been performed on a large area of the two blades. In addition a set of jaws on the incident beam allowed a precise selection of the Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

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gauge volume. Both average and local measurements along the blade cross section were therefore performed. Three cross section scans, in three different points (edge, core and ridge), have been performed with a gauge volume of 10x8x40 mm3. In this way, a reliable determination of the phase distribution was obtained. Concerning the measurements on ENGIN-X, both samples were mounted on a specifically designed aluminum frame (see Fig. 4 where the measured volumes and the three strain directions are shown). This set-up allowed the placement of the fiducial points, necessary for sample alignment through the SSCANSS software [11], on the aluminum frame. For this experiment, the selected gauge volumes were 2x2x2 mm3 for horizontal positions (axial and normal directions) and 2x2x10 mm3 for the vertical

positions (transversal and normal directions). To fully characterize the samples we chose to perform short measurements on a large number of points on the blades. The selected sections are shown in Fig. 4. The tang, where the mechanical working and thermal stresses are assumed to be minimal, was measured in two different points in order to use these measurements as a reference for strain data analysis. It is important to state that, while the Kanesada blade has not been reduced (the tang is the original one and the relative data are peculiar of this part), the Aoe blade has been strongly shortened so that it becomes important to select the part of the tang very close to the end, in order to obtain a measure representative of the tang gauge volume. Concerning the shortening of the Aoe blade, we measured the phase distribution in the boshi (the tip, red circle in the figure) to check if also the tip was shortened. Should the average carbon content turn out to be fairly similar to the one in the monouchi (upper part of the blade, usually used to take slashing hits) it would be likely that the boshi was not the original one, because the boshi is characterized, typically, by a much higher carbon content for sustaining piercing strikes.

Figure 4. Picture of the two blades the Kanesada katana (top) and the Aoe tachi (bottom) mounted on the frame for the ENGIN-X measurements. The different curvature and thickness of the two blades is clearly evident. This implies that the two blades were forged for a different use, namely foot and horsemounted combat. The presence of a large number of holes in the Aoe blade tang means that this blade has been shortened more than once. The coulored marks represent the selected areas for the measurements, whereas the lines are drawn to indicate the measurement plan along the blades.

RESULTS

The complementary results obtained from the INES and ENGIN-X measurements allow us to give a clear picture of many factors concerning the samples. a) Information on the iron production methods can be inferred from the multiphase analysis through the detection of phases that are usually present in slag inclusions. b)The carburization and quenching conditions are revealed by the quantification 7

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of the ferrite, cementite, and martensite phases, and by their spatial distribution. c) The conservation status is also inferred from to the quantitative analysis. The typical corrosion products, and the apparent anomalies in what would be expected from the ideal Fe-C phase spatial distribution, give information on the conservation status in terms of environmental factors and polishing. d)The forging methods and the thermal and mechanical treatments are very well evidenced by the stress and strain analysis mapped all over the samples. sample

position

details

Aoe

boshi

Aoe Aoe

Phase distribution (wt%)

Steel phases (wt%)

ferr

cem

mart

goeth

hem

fayal

troil

ferr

cem

mart

C

average

93.6

4.3

0.8

nil

nil

nil

1.2

94.8

4.4

0.8

0.29

monouchi

average

95.8

2.8

0.3

0.4

nil

0.5

0.2

96.9

2.8

0.3

0.19

monouchi

edge

89.5

7.3

1.2

nil

nil

nil

2.0

91.3

7.4

1.2

0.50

Aoe

monouchi

core

93.0

4.5

0.8

0.5

nil

nil

1.2

94.6

4.6

0.8

0.31

Aoe

monouchi

ridge

96.3

2.3

0.5

0.4

nil

0.5

nil

97.2

2.3

0.5

0.16

Aoe

nakago

average

95.8

1.5

0.3

0.8

0.5

0.6

0.5

98.2

1.5

0.3

0.10

Kanesada

monouchi

edge

88.6

7.1

2.2

nil

nil

nil

2.1

90.5

7.3

2.2

0.49

Kanesada

monouchi

ridge

93.2

4.4

0.8

nil

0.3

nil

1.3

94.7

4.5

0.8

0.30

Kanesada

½ blade

average

93.7

4.7

nil

nil

nil

nil

1.6

95.2

4.8

nil

0.32

Kanesada

½ blade

core

91.6

6.5

nil

nil

nil

nil

1.9

93.4

6.6

nil

0.44

Kanesada

nakago

average

91.4

5.7

0.4

0.7

0.4

0.5

0.9

93.7

5.8

0.4

0.39

Table 1. weight percentage of the phase distribution in the blades. The phases composing the metal part are also reported, scaled up to obtain their starting ratio. The average carbon content for each measured point is also calculated.

In the following, we will present the results, starting from the data obtained on INES, which allows us to describe the requested data from a to c. To perform the multiphase analysis, the following phases were included in the Rietveld refinement [12]: ferrite, cementite, martensite, goethite, wuestite, magnetite, hematite, fayalite, iron phosphate, troilite. The first three phases are the metallic and intermetallic phases characterizing the steel and the thermal treatments applied. Goethite is the first corrosion product that can evolve in magnetite and hematite. Wuestite is an intermediate phase originating from smelting using iron oxide (magnetite or, more often, hematite) as starting ore. Fayalite and iron phosphate are products coming also from smelting and their abundance is a clear index of the quality of the smelted metal (the higher they are the lower is the metal quality). Troilite is originated in reducing atmosphere, when iron and sulfur come in contact at very high temperature and, in this case, are indicative of a strong carburization. Table 1 displays the phase distribution for some measured points, and includes the weight percentage of each phase, the weight distribution for metallic and intermetallic phases only, and the carbon content of the steel. The material used for the different parts of the blades comes from different smelting procedures: this results both from the distribution of typical phases peculiar of the slag inclusions which are largely different from the edge to the ridge of the blades and from the cementite relative weight. In fact, the historical traditional Japanese smelting furnace (the tatara) produces steel with a carbon content slightly changing from bottom to top. Thus, only the high carbon smelted steel becomes liquid and can expel the slag inclusions. From the measurements, it appears that the single components of the blades are made of steel coming from different heights in the tatara. In addition, we find that at least four different types of steel were used to forge the Aoe blade, while three, at least, were used for the Kanesada. Troilite is present in all the parts made of high-carbon steel. This indicates the use of some sulfur rich charcoal to diffuse

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carbon inside the metal, above the low level observed in the other parts of the blades. The martensite distribution is changing along the height of the blades, as well as in terms of position from edge to ridge, in agreement with the traditional quenching method of Japanese blades. The different parts of the blades are found in a different conservation status, both for what concerns the cementite and martensite removal (due to overpolishing) and the formation of rust in some peculiar position. For example, the martensite layer, in the edge of

Figure 5. Strain profile along axial (left), transversal (centre) and normal (right) directions of the Aoe blade in four different cross sections taken at selected heights, labelled as in Fig. 4 and Table 1 (dimensions are in mm). The profile of the cross sections and the false colour relative scale are shown in the right bottom corner, where the scale is linear and each colour step corresponds to 100 Âľstrain.

the Kanesada blade, has almost disappeared in several parts. The boshi of the Aoe blade appears to be the original one, since the average carbon content is 50% higher than the average found in the monouchi. The high carbon content steel appears of very high quality, since the corrosion and slag inclusion contents are impressively low. On the tang the carbon content is close to the amount in the ridge and the core, so that it is meaningful to use these data, as reference points for the stress and strain measurements. As regards the stress and strain data, the following properties have been analyzed: a) the strain level for axial, transversal and normal directions, using the lattice parameter value measured in the tang as a reference; b)the full width at half maximum of the 211 Bragg peak for axial, transversal and normal directions; c) the ratio between the Lorentzian and Gaussian components of the 211 peak. A full map of all these properties has been compiled for both the blades. In Fig. 5 we report only the results for the strain measurements of the Aoe blade in the four measured cross sections (see Fig. 4). A modulation in the strain distribution related to a different forging method and quenching applied to the different sections of the blade is clearly visible. In particular, an abrupt variation in the strain profile at 3/8 of the length, i.e. in correspondence of the change of curvature in the blade, is discernible. A high strain value both in axial and normal directions close to the edge is evident in the monouchi, indicating a bending of the tip towards the rear direction. This is exactly what the final quenching is supposed to do (i.e. to increase the curvature of the blade). In Fig. 6 the comparison between the Aoe and the Kanesada strain maps at 3/8 length 9

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is displayed. The differences in forging between different traditions is here evident. Even if the monouchi is typically the most representative part, the overpolishing of the blades can not guarantee a reliable comparison in that area. The peak shape along the cross section changes dramatically from the edge to the ridge. In particular, the Lorentzian component is almost negligible on the ridge and becomes more and more visible going towards the edge. The increasing of the Lorentzian component can be due both to the presence of martensite and to the stress induced by quenching. The peculiar quenching method of Japanese blades relied on the application of clay layers of different thickness on specific parts of the blade to obtain a differentiation in the cooling rate. Since there is a correlation among the cooling rate, the induced stress and the Lorentzian component of the Bragg peaks, it would be possible, in principle, to compile a cooling rate map of the blades.

REFERENCES [1] K. Nagayama, The Connoisseurs Book of Japanese Swords, Kodansha International (1997). [2] L. Kapp, The Craft of the Japanese Sword, Kodansha International (1998). [3] M. Chkashige, Oriental Alchemy, Samuel Weiser press (1974). [4] M.R. Notis, Mat. Char. Vol. 45 (2000), p. 253. [5] T. Inoue, Mat. Sci. Res. Int. Vol. 3 (1997), p. 193. [6] F. Grazzi, L. Bartoli, F. Civita and M. Zoppi, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., in press (2009). [7] F. Grazzi, M. Celli, S. Siano and M. Zoppi, Nuovo Cimento C Vol. 30 (2006), p. 59. [8] L. Bartoli, M. Celli, F. Grazzi, S. Imberti, S. Siano and M. Zoppi, La metallurgia italiana Sept. (2008), p. 33. [9] J.A. Dann, M.R. Daymond, L. Edwards, J. James and J.R. Santisteban, Physica B Vol. 350 (2004), p. 511. [10] L. Bartoli, S. Siano, W. Kockelmann, J. Santisteban, M. Miccio and G. De Marinis, Il Nuovo Cimento C Vol.30 (2007), p. 21. [11] J.A. James, J.R. Santisteban, M.R. Daymond and L. Edwards, Proc. NOBUGS (2002), NIST, Gaithsburg. [12] A. C. Larson, R. B. Von Dreele, General Structure Analysis System (GSAS), os Alamos National Laboratory Report LAUR86-748 2004).

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Figure 6. Comparison between Aoe and Kanesada blade at 3/8 blade length (corresponding to the light blue mark in Fig. 4) along axial (left), tranversal (center) and normal (right) directions. It is evident that different forging traditions give rise to different strain maps. The false color scale is the same as in Fig.5.

CONCLUSIONS

The phase and stress and strain maps of two Koto age Japanese blades have been accomplished. A comparison of the results of the two blades appears extremely interesting as it can be correlated with the different techniques pertaining to two different schools of different forging traditions. We observe that the starting carbon content and the phase distribution appear to be substantially different from one blade to the other, as it is for the stress and strain mapping. We can therefore safely assume that the starting material and the forging and quenching methods were different in the two cases. This result represents a very important starting point in order to fully characterize the peculiarities of the various forging schools and traditions. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The Cooperation Agreement Grant No. 06/20018 between CNR and STFC concerning the collaboration in scientific research at the spallation neutron source ISIS (UK) is gratefully acknowledged. The authors wish to thank Dr. Alan Williams for the important discussions and Dr. Ubaldo Bafile for the help in the strain maps drawings. 10


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Coded-apertures take x-ray phase contrast imaging out of the synchrotrons and into real world applications

ABSTRACT

A. Olivo

X-ray phase contrast imaging has been the “Holy Grail” of research in x-ray imaging, and of diagnostic radiology in particular, over the last 15 years or so. In the mid-nineties, a series of experiments demonstrated that, by exploiting interference instead of absorption effects, the visibility of all details in an x-ray image can be dramatically enhanced, and features classically considered to be undetectable become visible. The potential of the method in a wide range of application was immediately understood, and extremely interesting and successful research ensued, primarily conducted at synchrotron radiation facilities. 15 years on, phase contrast imaging remains a powerful research method, but is still restricted to synchrotrons or other highly specialized research laboratories. The goal of translating it into real-world applications failed primarily because of the stringent limitations that the technique imposes on the radiation source, especially in terms of spatial coherence. This paper reviews a new method, based on coded apertures, recently developed at UCL. This was shown to provide high-quality, synchrotron-like phase contrast images with source focal spots of up to 100 µm, compatible for example with state-of-the-art clinical mammography. Previously, phase contrast imaging with conventional sources was only possible through intense collimation/aperturing of the source, which suppresses its output thus leading to long exposure times. The method described here does not require anything of that sort, thus leading to exposure times compatible with real-world applications.

Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK

INTRODUCTION

X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) creates image contrast by exploiting the phase variations that the x-ray wavefronts undergo when crossing an object, which translate into potentially detectable interference/refraction effects, instead of x-ray absorption. As a consequence, it increases the visibility of all details in an x-ray image, typically by means of sharp positive and negative peaks running along the edges of all features (“edge-enhancement”). In the mid-nineties, XPCi was the buzzword among the x-ray imaging community, after work by Ingal and Beliaevskaya [1], Takeda et al [2], Davis et al [3], Snigirev et al [4] was published in the same year (1995). As it can be easily imagined, fundamental research, from the development of the x-ray interferometer [5] to the early attempts by Ando et al [6], had already been ongoing for years, but 1995 can probably be identified as the year in which XPCi became a subject of wide interest. With the notable exception of the work carried out by the CSIRO-based group in Australia [3,7], which, however, required exposure times as long as a few hours, most XPCi experiments were synchrotron-based. This is due to the strong requirements that XPCi imposes on the radiation source, especially in terms of spatial coherence. Temporal coherence is a matter of lesser concern, as it can already be understood from the early work of Wilkins et al [7], which effectively employed polychromatic microfocal x-ray sources, and was later more formally discussed by Olivo and Speller [8]. Spatial coherence, on the other hand, plays a much bigger role: the 11

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use of a large source size degrades the XPCi signal to the extent of making it undetectable in most XPCi approaches. FREE SPACE PROPAGATION

Most early implementations of XPCi [4,7], as well as early attempts at medical applications [9], were based on the free space propagation (FSP) approach. In this case, phase distortions are converted into intensity differences by detecting the interference patterns that arise from the interaction between differently perturbed wavefronts (e.g. by a detail inside an object and its surrounding background). This is done simply by optimizing the sample-to-detector distance, and it does not require any optical element between sample and detector. This simplicity of implementation makes it a strong candidate for straightforward implementations into clinical practice, and in fact the only in vivo medical application of synchrotron radiation (SR) XPCi to date, i.e. the mammography program underway at ELETTRA, Trieste, is based on this concept [10]. However, the concept only holds if the source has a high degree of spatial coherence. The acquired pattern is in fact the convolution between the “ideal� pattern, that would be generated by a point source, and a re-scaled version of the source distribution, obtained by multiplying the source distribution itself times the ratio between sample-to-detector and source-tosample distance [8,11]. If the source size is too large, or not seen form a sufficiently large distance, the effect of the above convolution is that of smearing out the interference signal almost completely, leading to negligible improvement over conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging. This is what happens when source sizes compatible with clinical practice are used [12], and explains why the only attempt at commercializing this approach [13] failed at achieving any real market penetration. The only alternative to SR is therefore the use of microfocal sources, but, as mentioned before, their low emitted power results in exposure times of the order of hours [7]. INTERFEROMETRIC METHODS

Another class of XPCi methods is based on x-ray interferometers. The interferometer generates an interferogram, which is then perturbed by the introduction of a sample. Recording these perturbations allows reconstructing a phase image of the object that created them. Early attempts were based on crystalbased (Bonse-Hart) interferometers [14], while, more recently, the possible use of grating-based (Talbot or Talbot-Lau) interferometers has been investigated in detail [15,16]. In terms of real-world implementation, the common problem of interferometric methods is that, in order to create detectable interference patterns, interferometers must be illuminated with both spatially and temporally coherent radiation, e.g. parallel and monochromatic beams like those readily available at SR facilities. Temporal coherence requirements seem to be a more substantial issue for crystal-based than for grating-based interferometers, for which there are claims of more relaxed chromatic tolerances [17], although still far form the wide chromatic acceptance of FSP XPCi [8]. The requirements on spatial coherence, however, are even more stringent than those of FSP XPCi, as an excessive reduction in the peak modulation in the interferogram makes the method practically unusable. This notwithstanding, hope that this method could be Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

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transferred into real-world applications was recently raised after some XPCi images obtained with an extended source were presented [17]. However, these images were obtained only at the price of artificially increasing the source spatial coherence by strongly aperturing its output through a third grating, placed in contact with the source itself. This approach is well known in optics, and corresponds to switching form a Talbot to a Talbot-Lau configuration.The problem in x-ray imaging applications is that, by doing this, one suppresses the source output, leading to exposure times. In fact, an equivalent approach is obtained by switching back to the Talbot configuration (i.e. eliminating the source grating) and using a microfocal source, as discussed in [18].

Figure 1. Pixel edge illumination concept (see text.).

RELAXED COHERENCE CONDITIONS: REFRACTION-BASED METHODS

The common reason why the above methods cannot currently be transferred into real-world applications is that they are both based on detecting and/or generating interference patterns. This requires the source to be spatially coherent, and there does not exist at the moment a source simultaneously featuring a sufficiently small focal spot and high emitted power to allow the acquisition of XPCi images within reasonable timescales. An alternative approach relies on the small angular deviations that x-rays undergo when crossing an object as a consequence of phase distortions, i.e. on x-ray refraction. This is described by the simplified ray-optics model, in which the direction of the photon (seen as a ray) is locally orthogonal to the wavefront (e.g. a plane wavefront corresponds to parallel x-rays all travelling in the same direction). Crossing a non-homogeneous object corresponds to imprinting different shifts to different parts of the wavefront, thus distorting it. These distortions translate into local deviations from the original photon direction. It is important to note that this is not a different phenomenon from those described previously, which can only be rigorously described by wave-optics: this is a simplified description, that holds under relaxed coherence conditions. The main message here is that phenomena that can be described with this model still exist under relaxed coherence conditions. Therefore, unlike fine interference fringes, it will still be possible to detect them while using a radiation source with much less coherence. For a discussion of the conditions 13

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under which the ray-optics model can be used as a valid replacement for the wave-optics approach, see [19]. The exploitation of x-ray deviations to generate image contrast dates back practically to the origins of XPCi, and was initially performed by means of perfect crystals introduced between the sample and the detector [1,3]. The narrow reflectivity curve of the crystal is used to “analyse” the x-ray direction, by converting angular deviations into different diffracted intensities reaching the detector. This method was demonstrated to produce astonishing image quality, possibly the best among XPCi methods (e.g. the method sensitivity can be enhanced by exploiting secondary diffraction orders featuring narrower reflectivity curves, see for example [20]). However, also this method is hardly transferable to real world applications, as using a perfect crystal intrinsically requires the beam to be parallel and monochromatic. Extracting parallel and monochromatic beams from conventional sources is possible, but at the cost of reducing the flux by several orders of magnitude, and therefore again leading to long exposure times [3,21]. A REFRACTION-BASED PHASE CONTRAST IMAGING METHOD NOT REQUIRING CRYSTALS

Figure 2. Scheme of the coded-aperture phase contrast imaging method (not to scale).

All methods presented so far fail when transferred into real-world applications, but because of different reasons. Methods based on the detection (§ 1.1) or on the generation (§ 1.2) of interference patterns fail because the spatial coherence requirements they impose can currently only be achieved by using microfocal sources, the limited emitted power of which leads to excessive exposure times. Crystal-based methods fail because the use of a crystal requires a monochromatic and parallel beam, not readily available outside SR sources. It should be noted, however, that this restriction is due to the use of a crystal, and not to the method of refraction detection in itself. Hence effort was directed towards devising a method with similar characteristics, i.e. the capability of detecting fine angular deviations in the x-ray direction, but not requiring the use of a crystal. THE EDGE ILLUMINATION CONCEPT

The basic idea originated from a SR experiment carried out at the SYRMEP beamline at Elettra, Trieste [22]. A detector consisting of a single row of pixel was illuminated by a laminar beam with a cross section as wide as the detector array in the horizontal direction, but thinner in the vertical one. Fig. 1 shows a schematic side view: both the detector array and the beam cross section extend in the direction entering the plane of the drawing. The two-dimensional images are obtained by scanning the sample through the stationary beam-detector arrangement. This is frequently done in 2D acquisitions with laminar beams, but the main difference here is that the beam is made thinner than the pixel, and aligned with one of the pixel edges instead of centred on it. This combination translates into a high sensitivity to small deviations in the x-ray direction. Imagine a sample is scanned downwards through the beam, as shown in Fig. 1. When a detail inside an object grazes the upper part of the beam, this can cause Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

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some photons to deviate form their original direction (top drawing in Fig. 1). As a consequence of this, photons that would normally miss the detector active surface are now deviated inside it, therefore increasing the number of counts i.e. creating a positive peak in the image profile. In a similar manner, when the top of the detail grazes the bottom part of the beam (bottom drawing in Fig. 1), photon that would normally hit the detector pixels can be deviated outside it. This reduces the number of counts, therefore generating a negative peak in the image profile. The positive/negative peak profile obtained in this way resembles closely the differential XPCi profiles obtained using analyser crystals: the reason behind this is that a very similar effect, i.e. a fine angular selection on the photon direction, is obtained in a different way. However, no crystals or other optical elements are now present along the beam path, which opens the way to the use of polychromatic and divergent beams – as it will be discussed below. It should also be noted that the thinner the beam cross section in the vertical direction, the smaller the average refraction angle required to change the status of the individual x-ray from “detected” to “undetected” and vice-versa. This translates in a higher overall fraction of x-rays “changing status”, i.e. in more intense positive and negative peaks in the signal profile. Reducing the vertical crosssection of the beam therefore increases the system sensitivity to phase effects. CODED-APERTURE PHASE CONTRAST IMAGING

It was anticipated above that the ability to discriminate fine deviations in the photon direction without requiring crystals or other optical elements along the beam path opens the way to using divergent polychromatic beams. A possible way to implement this is shown in Fig. 2. A first set of coded-apertures (“sample mask”), placed immediately before the imaged sample, splits the beam in a plurality of beams with a narrow vertical cross-section. A second set of codedapertures (“detector mask”) is placed in contact with a 2D detector array, and it serves the purpose of creating insensitive regions between adjacent pixel rows. Also in this case beam, detector rows and coded-aperture sets shown in the side view of Fig. 2 must be imagined to extend into the plane of the drawing, in order to fully cover an area detector. The two masks are identical apart from a scaling factor accounting for the beam divergence, and are positioned in such a fashion that every individual collimated beam hits the edge of an aperture on the detector mask. In this way, the situation outlined in the previous section (see Fig. 1) is repeated for every row of a 2D detector. For example, the arrow indicated with the letter “A” indicates a photon that, in absence of the sample, would hit one of the absorbing parts of the detector mask, and therefore not be detected, while refraction caused by the sample converts it into a detected photon. Likewise, arrow “B” indicates a photon for which the opposite occurs. As all rows of a 2D detector are illuminated, sample scanning is not required and images are taken in a single exposure. It should be noted that the typical fill factor of the aperture masks is 50%, which translates into exploiting half the beam emitted by the source. It has been demonstrated that the technique does not require the masks to be fully absorbing [23], and therefore these can be made thin enough to prevent any significant beam reduction due to angular filtration (Fig. 2 is obviously not to scale). Therefore, in principle the technique requires an increase in the exposure time of a factor of ~2 over conventional 15

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methods, which has to be compared to the exposure time increase of a few orders of magnitude required by all other XPCi approaches. This will be discussed in detail in the next section. Finally, it should also be observed that, unlike in crystal or grating-based methods, the beam splitting takes place upstream of the sample, and therefore unnecessary dose delivery is avoided – a vital aspect in medical and biological imaging. PERFORMANCE OF THE CODED-APERTURE PHASE CONTRAST SYSTEM

A system designed along the lines described in the previous section was built and evaluated in the Radiation Physics Labs of UCL. The design was based on ray-optics simulations calculating x-ray refraction for a number of samples of interest, and converting this into image contrast for a series of different source/detector/coded-aperture arrangements [23].

Figure 3. Simulated (dashed line) vs. experimental (diamonds) profile extracted from an image of a 300 µm thick polyethylene fibre. This object would have an absorption contrast of approximately 1%, and therefore a 27-fold increase in the contrast is obtained with the proposed technique.

Figure 4. Effect of reduced illuminated pixel fractions on the phase contrast signal (see text).

ACHIEVED PHASE CONTRAST SIGNAL

A molybdenum anode x-ray source featuring a focal spot of approximately 100 µm, i.e. fully compatible with current mammography units, was used, without any aperturing or collimation of the source output. Despite the practically negligible spatial coherence, this resulted in XPCi signals compatible with those achieved with SR. An example is provided in Fig. 3, where a profile extracted form an image of a 300 µm thick polyethylene fibre is shown. The experimental profile (diamonds) is superimposed to the simulated one (dashed line), and as it can be seen an excellent agreement is observed. The sample was chosen because of its extremely low absorption, which makes it almost x-ray transparent. The absorption contrast that this object would generate when illuminated by a 35 kVp mammography spectrum like the one used in this case would be of approximately 1%, which would make it practically undetectable to most current x-ray imaging systems. As shown in the figure, the peak-to-peak contrast obtained with our system is of 27%: therefore, a 27-fold contrast increase, comparable to the sort of increases obtained with SR, was achieved with a fully divergent and polychromatic incoherent source available off-the shelf. Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

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SENSITIVITY VS. EXPOSURE TIME TRADEOFF

At the end of ยง 2.1 it was described how, in a SR pixel-edge illumination setup, varying the vertical thickness of the beam translates into varying the system sensitivity to phase effects. A similar effect can be obtained here simply by shifting the relative positions of sample and detector masks. For example, with reference to Fig. 2, moving the sample mask downwards would correspond to reducing the active part of each pixel exposed to the direct beam, therefore increasing the system sensitivity. A demonstration is provided in Fig. 4, where the signal generated through mask displacements resulting in illuminating 50% (solid line), 25% (dashed line) and 12.5% (dotted line) of the pixel are shown. As it can be seen, the detail contrast rapidly increases as a consequence of reduced illuminated pixel fractions (the plots in Fig. 4 are simulated, but an experimental verification can be found in [24]). Of course this comes at a price in terms of exposure time: halving the pixel fraction exposed to the direct beam means that the exposure time must be doubled in order to acquire the same xray statistics, i.e. reach the same level of image noise. The important aspect here, however, is that this provides the system with an extra degree of flexibility, which is available also after the system has been designed and built, as it is sufficient to vary the detector mask position to obtain different tradeoffs between image contrast and exposure time. In a task-dependent problem like x-ray imaging this can be of primary importance: for example, in many cases the increased contrast resulting from reduced pixel illumination could lead to achieving the desired signal-to-noise ratio with a much smaller x-ray statistics, therefore resulting in a beneficial tradeoff. In medical and biological imaging, another side effect would be the excessive illumination of non-sensitive detector regions leading to an increase in the delivered dose. This, however, can be easily avoided by realizing a pre-sample coded-aperture set consisting of two separate masks with independent movement: one would be used to reduce the illuminated pixel fraction, and the other to reduce the beam fraction hitting insensitive detector regions (i.e. absorbing parts of the detector mask). SIMULTANEOUS 2D SENSITIVITY TO PHASE EFFECTS

The system outlined up to this point is sensitive to phase effects in one direction only. As the apertures consist of long slits aligned with the detector pixel rows, photons deviated in the plane of the drawing (i.e. upwards and downwards with respect to Fig. 2) do create useful signal, while those deviated in the orthogonal plane (i.e. towards the left and right directions) do not. This is a common problem in XPCi, and practically all XPCi methods but FSP suffer from it. However, in the case of coded-aperture XPCi, this can be solved by designing individual L-shaped or square-shaped apertures, one per detector pixel, so that orthogonal edges of each detector pixel can be exploited simultaneously. An example is shown in Fig. 5. In the top left corner, a possible design for the detector mask is shown (2x2 pixels only): a squarelet having a side slightly smaller than that of the pixel is centred on each detector pixel. In this way, insensitive regions are created along all four edges of each detector pixel. Then one of the two designs below can be used as sample mask: the one immediately below the detector mask would result in the simultaneous illumination of two pixel sides, while the one further below would illuminate 17

Figure 5. Left: coded aperture designs allowing phase sensitivity in two directions simultaneously (see text). Right: example of an image obtained with a 2D-sensitive system.

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REFERENCES [1] Ingal V N and Beliaevskaya E A, X-ray plane wave topography observation of the phase contrast from a non-crystalline object. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 1995: 28, 2314-17 [2] Takeda T., Momose A., Itai Y., Wu J. and Hirano K., Phase-contrast imaging with synchrotron xrays for detecting cancer lesions. Acad. Radiol. 1995: 2, 799-803 [3] Davis T.J., Gao D., Gureyev T.E., Stevenson A.W. and Wilkins S.W., Phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing objects using hard x-rays. Nature 1995: 373, 595-8 [4] Snigirev A., Snigireva I., Kohn V., Kuznetsov A. and Schelokov I., On the possibilities of x-ray phase contrast microimaging by coherent highenergy synchrotron radiation. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1995: 66, 5486-92 [5] Bonse U. and Hart M., An x-ray interferometer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1965: 6, 155-6 [6] Ando M. and Hosoya S. An attempt at x-ray phase contrast microscopy. In: Shinoda G., Kohra K., Ichikawa T., eds. Proceedings of the sixth international conference of x-ray optics and microanalysis, University of Tokyo Press 1972, 63-8 [7] Wilkins S.W., Gureyev T.E., Gao D., Pogany A. and Stevenson A.W., Phase-contrast imaging using polychromatic hard x-rays. Nature 1996: 384, 335-8 [8] Olivo A. and Speller R., Experimental validation of a simple model capable of predicting the phase contrast imaging capabilities of any x-ray imaging system. Phys. Med. Biol. 2006: 51, 3015-30 [9] Di Michiel M., Olivo A., Tromba G. et al, Phase contrast imaging in the field of mammography. In: Ando M and Uyama C, eds. Medical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, SpringerVerlag Tokyo 1998, 78-82 [10] Castelli E., Arfelli F., Dreossi D. et al, Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 2007: 572, 237-40 [11] Arfelli F., Assante M., Bonvicini V. et al, Lowdose phase contrast x-ray medical imaging. Phys. Med. Biol. 1998: 43, 2845-52 [12] Kotre CJ and Birch I.P. Phase contrast enhancement of x-ray mammography: a design study. Phys. Med. Biol. 1999: 44, 2853-66 [13] Tanaka T., Honda C., Matsuo S. et al. The first trial of phase contrast imaging for digital fullfield mammography using a practical molybdenum x-ray tube. Invest. Radiol. 2005: 40, 385-96 [14] Momose A., Takeda T., Itai Y. and Hirano K., Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues. Nat. Med. 1996: 2, 473-5

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all four sides simultaneously. The former design results in double sensitivity, but also double exposure time, compared to the latter. This concept has been verified experimentally [25], and one example is shown on the right-hand side of Fig. 5, showing the image of two fibres like the one discussed previously (§ 3.1) arranged in a cross-shape. The use of the previous design, in which apertures were shaped like long slits, or of any other XPCi method except FSP, would result in the visualization of either the horizontal or the vertical fibre only. The use of L-shaped or square-shaped coded-apertures allows the

Figure 6. Example of hard x-ray application: security inspections. An object was simulated to represent an explosive cylinder (positioned horizontally) with two thin PVC-insulated aluminium wires crossing on top of it. a) shows the simulated absorption image, and b) and c) the simulated coded-aperture XPCi images obtained with a conventional and a microfocal source, respectively.

simultaneous visualization of both. An important application of this would be in medical imaging where in some cases being able to precisely delineate the shape of a tumour might help determining whether this is benign or malignant, i.e. increase the system’s specificity. OTHER APPLICATIONS AND EXPOSURE TIME CONSTRAINTS

It was mentioned above that the coded-aperture masks do not need to be fully absorbing in order for the method to work. This allows expanding the range of usable x-ray energy into hard x-rays, therefore targeting applications like material science, industrial inspections, homeland security. Again, this is not readily accessible to other XPCi methods (apart form FSP), as for example gratings generating a sufficiently large phase shift at these x-ray energies are hard to manufacture the moment. As an example, we have initially targeted an application in the field of homeland security, i.e. improving the performance of baggage scanners. The problem we targeted was that of identifying thin wires, which might form part of a detonator device, alongside the explosive [26]. Example (simulated) images are shown in Fig. 6, where absorption (a) and coded-aperture XPCi (b,c) images are compared. The simulated object consists of a horizontal plastic cylinder with two thin electrical wires (100 µm Al insulated by 500 µm of PVC) superimposed. Increasing the x-ray energy translates into reducing refraction angles, therefore making it more difficult to 18


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distinguish refracted x-rays from the non-deviated background, and resulting in the necessity of detecting narrower peaks in the image. This could in principle pose a threat to the method robustness against increasing focal spots, primarily because of narrow peaks being more prone to degradation due to geometric unsharpness, rather than because of increased spatial coherence requirements. In order to evaluate this, coded-aperture XPCi images that would be obtained using a conventional (Fig. 6b) and a microfocal source (Fig. 6c) were simulated. As it can be seen, clearly the use of a microfocal source would lead to better image quality, but the use of conventional sources still leads to impressive improvements over conventional absorption-based methods. A system was therefore designed [27] and built, and is currently producing images comparable to that shown in Fig. 6b. Current exposure times are of the order of 20 s, because, in order to avoid damaging the target, we are running the x-ray source at a current equal to 1 mA. This is already more than an order of magnitude faster than any other non-SR XPCi method. It should be noted, however, that there are x-ray sources currently on the market that, because of larger target diameters and more sophisticated target cooling systems, can be operated continuously at currents of up to 40-50 mA (e.g. FR-E+ SuperBright, Rigaku, Japan). The implementation of our technique with such a source would therefore result in exposure times of a fraction of a second. CONCLUSIONS

After a brief review of previous XPCi methods and their limitations, a new method was discussed, based on the use of two sets of coded-aperture masks placed either side of the imaged object, which enables the acquisition of SR-like XPCi images with uncollimated, divergent and polychromatic sources available off the shelf. This method allows for the first time exposure times compatible with the requirements of real-world applications, and could therefore enable the transfer of XPCi into the real world after years of unsuccessful research in this direction. The method allows tuning the sensitivity by changing the relative displacement between coded-aperture sets, can be made sensitive to phase effects in two directions simultaneously by means of appropriate coded-aperture designs, and works at hard x-ray energies, previously inaccessible to other methods. A system targeting security inspections has been built and successfully tested in our laboratories, and a second one specifically dedicated to mammography is currently under construction. Following the development of these two demonstrator systems, the use of the method will be expanded to other suitable x-ray imaging fields and new applications will be investigated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

A. Olivo is supported by a Career Acceleration Fellowship awarded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EP/G004250/1).

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[15] Weitkamp T., Diaz A., David C. et al. X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer. Opt. Exp. 2005: 13, 6296-304 [16] Momose A., Yashiro W., Takeda T., Suzuki Y. and Hattori T., Phase tomography by x-ray Talbot interferometry for biological imaging. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2006: 45, 5254-62 [17] Pfeiffer F., Weitkamp T., Bunk O. and David C., Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance x-ray sources. Nat. Phys. 2006: 2, 258-61 [18] Huang Z.F., Kang K.J., Zhang L. et al, Alternative method for differential phase-contrast imaging with weakly coherent hard x rays. Phys. Rev. A 2009: 79, 013815 [19] Peterzol A., Olivo A., Rigon L., Pani S. and Dreossi D., The effects of the imaging system on the validity limits of the ray-optical approach to phase contrast imaging. Med. Phys. 2005: 32, 3617-27 [20] Honnicke M.G., Rigon L., Menk R.H. and Cusatis C., Quantitative and qualitative studies on highcontrast x-ray radiography with an asymmetrical crystal set-up at Elettra, J. Synchr. Rad. 2005: 12, 701-6 [21] Vine D., Paganin D.M., Pavlov K.M. et al, Analyzer-based phase contrast imaging and phase retrieval using a rotating anode x-ray source. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007: 91, 254110 [22] Olivo A., Arfelli F., Cantatore G. et al, An innovative digital imaging set-up allowing a low-dose approach to phase contrast applications in the medical field. Med. Phys. 2001: 28, 1610-9 [23] Olivo A. and Speller R., Modelling of a novel xray phase contrast imaging technique based on coded apertures. Phys. Med. Biol. 2007: 52, 6555-73 [24] Olivo A. and Speller R., A coded-aperture approach allowing x-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007: 91, 074106 [25] Olivo A., Bohndiek S.E., Griffihs J.A., Konstantinidis A. and Speller R.D., A non-free-space propagation x-ray phase contrast imaging method sensitive to phase effects in two directions simultaneously. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009: 94, 044108 [26] Olivo A., Chana D. and Speller R., A preliminary investigation of the potential of phase contrast x-ray imaging in the field of homeland security. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2008: 41, 225503 [27] Olivo A., Ignatyev K., Munro P.R.T. and Speller R.D., Design and realization of a coded-aperture based x-ray phase contrast imaging for homeland security applications. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 2009: 610, 604-14

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High power terahertz radiation from high brightness electron beam at SPARC S. Lupi

ABSTRACT

Dipartimento di Fisica e Sez. INFN Sapienza UniversitĂ di Roma, Rome, Italy

In this paper we give an overview of the generation of coherent terahertz (THz) radiation through the SPARC accelerator at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of INFN. We present the first experimental characterization of the figures of merit of the THz source and we discuss some experiments that could be performed through this radiation. INTRODUCTION

In the last decade a large amount of experimental effort has been spent in exploring the so-called THz gap. This spectral interval, which is located between the far infrared and the microwave region (0.1-10 THz), has been scarcely investigated so far mainly because of the lack of intense and stable radiation sources. Scientific problems that can be addressed by linear THz spectroscopy and imaging include the ps and sub-ps scale dynamics of collective modes in superconductors and in exotic electronic materials, the ps rearrangement dynamics of macromolecule, the study of inter-sub-band states in semiconductor hetero-structures, security applications, explosives recognition and early cancer diagnosis. Moreover the possibility of performing non-linear THz spectroscopy is still practically unexplored. Here, the main difficulty lies in achieving electric fields from 100 kV/cm to 1 MV/cm, representing approximately the electric fields at which the THz pulse becomes useful as a pump-beam. An effective THz source, hence, should have high peak fields, the coverage of a spectral range up to a frequency ν=10 THz and a full pulse shaping. All these goals can be achieved at the free electron laser SPARC (Sorgente Pulsata Amplificata di Radiazione Coerente) by exploiting the coherent radiation emitted from relativistic electrons in a short (i.e. sub-ps) bunch. Indeed, short bunches emit Coherent Radiation up to wavelengths of the order of the bunch length, i.e. in the Terahertz region. Furthermore, the Coherent Radiation is emitted with a pulse duration of the order of hundreds of fs, a time scale where the dynamics of fundamental interactions can be explored, including lattice and carrier dynamic in solid-state materials, fast relaxation in polar liquids, and rearrangement of conformational states in proteins. THE SPARC ACCELERATOR

Accelerator based photon sources are continuously extending their range of application by exploiting techniques for the production of radiation that, taking advantage of the high intensity electron beams, allow generation of very intense and short photon pulses in a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. In the last decades, a lot of effort has been put into development of high-brightness Xray sources, e.g. free electron lasers (FELs). The progress achieved in the generation of very high-intensity electron beams, needed for X-ray SASE FEL, readily put the basis for wider uses of their unique features. Among the projects aimed to the development of the next generation of light sources, SPARC Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

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foresees the realization of a FEL operating (for the fundamental harmonic) at 500 nm, driven by a high brightness photo-injector at beam energy of 150-200 MeV (Fig.1). SPARC accelerator complex hosted at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of INFN, is managed through a collaboration among the major Italian research institutions CNR, ENEA, INFN and the University of Rome “Tor Vergata�. It is also the test and training facility for the recently approved VUV/soft X-ray SPARX-FEL [1]. The SPARC accelerator is basically constituted by a photo-injector followed by a linac. This consists of three accelerating sections whose first two are encircled by long solenoid magnets providing additional focalization for the high charge beam during the first stage of acceleration. At the end of the linac a diagnostic section allows to fully characterize the accelerated beam by measuring transverse emittance, longitudinal profile and slice emittance through a radio-frequency (RF) deflector. When SPARC does not operate in the FEL mode, its beam is bent by dipole magnets toward a bypass line where complementary experimental stations are installed. The first goal of SPARC has been the commissioning of the high-brightness photoinjector [2]. Then, the transport of electron beam through the vacuum chamber up to the FEL undulators has been optimized and the emittance compensation under velocity bunching regime demonstrated [3], an important result for generating very short electron bunches. The first SASE FEL

spectra measurement was performed at the beginning of 2009. Operation continued in the following months till mid 2009 until the extracted radiation from the FEL source was substantially increased. Recently, the research program has been extended with two additional experiments: a test of amplification and FEL harmonic generation of a seed signal and the characterization of a dedicated beamline for the THz radiation source (TERASPARC) driven by sub-ps long bunches produced through the velocity bunching technique.

Figure 1. Layout of the SPARC accelerator.

THE TERASPARC EXPERIMENT

The TERASPARC experiment aims at the development and characterization of THz radiation extracted from a Coherent Transition Radiation (CTR) source. 21

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This radiation is emitted by a relativistic electronic beam when it crosses the boundary between two media with different dielectric constants. The emission of radiation is coherent at wavelengths of the order, or longer than the bunch length. As the coherent amplification scales with N[1+N*f(ν)], with f(ν) being the Fourier Transform of the charge density in the longitudinal bunch profile and N the number of electron in the bunch [4], the brilliance gain with respect to most existing THz sources can be huge. Moreover, the spectral analysis of the THz radiation, based on Fourier transform spectroscopy, can be also used as longitudinal bunch diagnostics allowing an accurate, except for a phase factor, longitudinal characterization of the pulse shape. Indeed coherent radiation can be used as on-line beam compression monitor, providing

Figure 2. Picture and drawing of the THz source set-up.

accelerator physicist with a powerful diagnostic tool. Indeed, since ps electron bunches radiate more coherent millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation than longer bunches, the relative electron bunch length is minimized when the intensity of the coherent radiation is maximized: higher intensity of the radiation correspond to shorter bunch. In the TERASPARC experiment, the THz radiation is generated when the relativistic electronic beam crosses an aluminated Si screen placed in the vacuum pipe at 45° with respect to the beam propagation direction (Fig. 2, right). With the help of the velocity bunching compression technique short electron bunches, few hundreds of fs long, are produced and their interaction with the CTR screen generates a broadband coherent radiation emission. In the future other schemes of production will be tested (magnetic chicane compression) and monochromatic THz radiation will be also generated through the laser comb technique as well [5, 6]. The THz source experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 2. The radiation, emitted normally to the beam direction, is extracted from the vacuum pipe through a z-cut quartz window and collected by means of two 90° off-axis parabolic mirrors in order to be focused onto the THz detector (either Pyroelectric or Golay cell). The available terahertz radiation ranges from 150 GHz to 5 THz. The low frequency cut-off is due to screen finite size and optics acceptance, while the high frequency one is determined by the quartz window transmission and could be

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Scientific Reviews

extended towards higher frequency by using a CVD diamond window. Three remotely controlled linear stages can adjust the position of the detector along the x, y and z axes, thus allowing mapping of the detector area (x, y) and optimization of the position (z) with respect to the focal plane. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THZ SOURCE

In order to fully characterize the THz spectrum at SPARC several band-pass filters (0.38 – 1.5 – 2.5 – 3.4 – 4.3 – 4.8 THz) have been inserted between the THz source and the detector. Three different longitudinal beam compressions, providing RMS beam length of 2 ps, 500 fs and 260 fs respectively, have been used to investigate performance of the source. The beam energy was about 100

MeV and a charge/bunch of nearly 500 pC. Readout signals from detector (both a pyroelectric and the Golay cell) allowed us to estimate, for the three different bunch lengths, the main figures of merit for the THz source: i.e. the energy/pulse, the fluence/pulse and the peak power. These data are represented in the cartoons of Fig.3 (black dots) superimposed to shapes corresponding to values predicted by simulations. The same figures of merit for the existing THz sources are also reported [7]. The energy/pulse and the fluence/pulse figures of merit of the THz CTR emission at SPARC (and also at the planned SPARX and FERMI machines) are calculated through a modified Ginzburg-Frank formula [8] and plotted in comparison to those of many others THz sources. The present SPARC THz source shows a gain both in the energy/pulse (fluence/pulse) and peak power with respect to many other THz sources. For instance the coherent synchrotron radiation emitted at the 3rd generation light sources like Elettra and Bessy-II, as well as the THz radiation emitted at dedicated FELs and energy recovery linac. Also remarkable is the gain with respect to laser based table-top emitters. The curves plotted in Fig.4 underline the importance of the beam longitudinal compression for the average power of THz radiation generated by CTR. A gain of about a factor 25 in the average THz power measured by a Golay cell, is obtained when a beam 2 ps long is compressed down to 500 fs. In order to 23

Figure 3. Figures of merit data measured at the THz source of SPARC in comparison with the same parameters for existing sources. Simulation for standard operational modes are also reported for SPARC, SPARX and FERMI sources.

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Scientific Reviews

extend towards high frequency (ν> 5 THz) the spectral range of the THz source at SPARC, we plan to replace at the optical port of the CTR vacuum chamber the quartz window (which is transparent until 5 THz) with a CVD diamond window. It would allow extending up to 10 THz the TERASPARC achievable frequency range, paving the way to a wide panorama of applications. The previous experimental results confirm the very good performances of the TERASPARC source as compared to worldwide existing sources. In particular both the energy/pulse (fluence/pulse) and the peak power measured values suggest the possibility of performing pump-probe THz spectroscopy. Indeed, from those values, one can estimate an electric field (magnetic field) associated to each pulse to be about 100 kV/cm (0.3 T), high enough to trigger non-linear phenomena in most of inorganic and organic systems. SCIENTIFIC CASES

The THz radiation source at SPARC opens the possibility to perform experiments in different fields of Science [8]. In the following we cite some examples of applications: 1)Radiation with a spectral coverage until several THz can be useful used for linear spectroscopic investigation of new classes of superconductors. Through THz radiation, indeed, the superconducting gap can be measured [10, 11] as well as the London penetration depth can be determined. If the THz electric field is larger than the critical electric field it can break down the superconducting state. A second THz pulse with a variable delay with respect to the former can be used to probe the return to the equilibrium of the system and the restoring of the superconducting Cooper pairs. 2)In general, one can explore the possibility that the THz electric field overcomes a threshold value. For electric fields above this value the sample response is modified by the THz pulse itself (ultra-fast quasi-dc field switching). Examples are the impurity level ionization in semiconductors, insulator-to-metal transitions in correlated oxides, and induced structural phase transitions in solids. This allows one to study the effect of the electric field with a contact-less probe, on a time scale where heating or current flows cannot take place. 3)THz pulses at SPARC are intense (peak power of about 100 kW) and short enough (down to hundreds of fs) to perform THz-pump THz-prob experiments. The non-equilibrium dynamics in the THz range could then b addressed by exciting only the low energy states of interest with negligibl heating effects. On this regards one can induce unfolding an conformational changes in proteins and enzymes [12] and force the elastic response o biopolymers like DNA and lipids. 4)THz imaging is considered as a unique tool to image dry and partially humid dielectric objects composed of light elements, which are hard to probe with X-rays. Unlike X-rays, THz radiation is non-ionizing and probing intramolecular vibrations may also furnish spectroscopic information. Intense THz radiation has been already used for near-field THz imaging, obtaining spatial resolution of 200 micron at a wavelength of 3 mm [13]. Moreover an exciting issue concerns the possibility to perform time-resolved coherent imaging associated with spectroscopic information. Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

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Scientific Reviews

CONCLUSION

A high intensity THz source has been realized at the Free-Electron Laser SPARC taking advantage of its high brightness electron beams. This source, which covers the spectral range from 100 GHz to 5 THz, shows a gain both in the energy/pulse and in peak power with respect to many other world wide existing THz sources. Therefore the THz project at SPARC, which opens the possibility to perform THz-pump THz-probe experiments in different fields of Science, may play a major role in the growth of a mature Italian and European THz community.

Figure 4. CTR average power measured at SPARC for a long (2 ps RMS) and a short (500 fs RMS) electronic bunch.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The development of THz source at SPARC is a joint activity of the TERASPARC experiment, funded by the Committee for R&D and Interdisciplinary activities of INFN (CSN5), and the SPARC Collaboration. I gratefully acknowledge my colleagues of the TERASPARC and the SPARC groups for their contribution during design, implementation and characterization of the THz source and I share with them the successful start-up of the THz source at SPARC.

REFERENCES [1] L. Palumbo, “The light of SPARX FEL”, NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone – Vol. 14 n.1, Jan. 2009. [2] M. Ferrario et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 34801 (2007). [3] M. Ferrario et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 054801 (2010). [4] M. Abo-Bakr et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 094801 (2003).

[5] M. Boscolo et al., NIM A 577, 409 (2007) [6] M. Ferrario et al., “Laser comb with velocity bunching: preliminary results at SPARC", NIM A in press (2010). [7] www.elettra.trieste.it/beamlines/SISSI/ [8] S. Casalbuoni et al, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 030705 (2009) [9] Sherwin et al, Eds., “Opportunities in THz Science,” Report of DOE-NSF-NIH Workshop,

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Feb. 2004 [10] M. Ortolani et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 097002 (2006). [11] A. Perucchi et al, Phys. Rev. B 81, 092509 (2010) [12] A. G. Markelz et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2229 (1998). [13] U. Schade et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1422 (2004).

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Muon & Neutron & Synchrotron Radiation News

2nd General Assembly of the Neutron and Muon consortium NMI3 Although Spain currently holds the European presidency, this was not the only reason why the NMI3 board did choose Barcelona for the 2nd General Assembly. Actually NMI3 aims at giving large Neutron user communities without national source the opportunity to host the consortiums’ annual event. José Luis García-Munoz, from the Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, himself a neutron, muon and synchrotron user kindly took care of this years’ local organization. Thanks to him NMI3 was hosted by the University of Barcelona in the ancient hospital Building “Casa Convalescencia”. The meeting started with separate sessions of the six joint research activities on May 10th and 11th in which the progress of the previous 14 months were discussed. In the General Assembly on May 12th, two senior neutron users, Ad van Well and Roberto Triolo from The Netherlands and Italy respectively, presented their results obtained via NMI3 European funding. Ad van Well from the TU Delft presented the “Goos-Hänchen shift observation”. The scientific officer from the European Commission, Christian Kurrer, indicates that although this looks like very fundamental physics, it may find application in future industrial development. Roberto Triolo from the University of Palermo, cultural heritage expert spoke about the importance of neutron tomography in that field. Four very talented young researchers showed the relevance of Neutron Scattering and Muon Spectroscopy in the fields of Health & Life Science, Environmental and Material Science: Hemke Maeter from TU Dresden and Ahmad Moradi from the Environmental Research Center Leipzig, Martin Weik from the Institute of Structural Biology in Grenoble and Maria Klacsova from the Comenius University Bratislava together with Monica Bulacu. Other NMI3 supported activities have been discussed, in particular Schools and Foresight studies (e.g. Food & Neutrons), the set-up of the brand new Education Corner as the future e-learning tool on the Neutron Portal (http://neutron.neutron-eu.net/) were presented.

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M. Förster ILL - France manager of the NMI3 project

from left to right Roberto Triolo, from the University of Palermo. Ahmad Moradi, from the Environmental Research Center Leipzig.

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Muon & Neutron & Synchrotron Radiation News

from left to right José García-Muñoz, from the Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona and Miriam Förster, manager of the NMI3 project. Visiting the ALBA Synchrotron: Regine Willumeit, access coordinator GKSS, Maria Klacsova, from the Comenius University of Bratislava, and Miriam Förster.

The international presence among the observers and the scientific advisory committee was highly appreciated. ANSTO and SNS representatives gave valuable feedback to the management board and highly encouraged the NMI3 consortium to proceed on a common European strategy. Even though Spain does not have a Neutron Source, the Catalane Region did recently inaugurate the ALBA Synchrotron. NMI3 delegates were able to visit the ring in order to see the progress on the new instruments. The next meeting (3rd General Assembly) will be held in October/November 2011 in Italy. Details will be available next year under http://neutron.neutron-eu.net/n_nmi3fp7/meetings.

3rd Announcement ILL 2020 Vision “Future directions in neutron science” We invite you to register for the ILL 2020 Vision User Meeting, to be held in Grenoble from 15-17 September 2010, to discuss and refine plans for our future and ensure we provide the best possible support for science to 2020 and well beyond. Registration is now open until 31 May through the meeting web-site, www.ILL2020-vision.eu http://www.ILL2020-vision.eu. Numbers are limited for the parallel scientific sessions so please specify which you wish to attend. We will cover essential local expenses for all delegates though there is a modest registration fee. Central to the meeting will be a presentation of plans for new instruments and infrastructure, and an opportunity to discuss the scientific opportunities they will provide. Initial, outline proposals are already available on the Meeting website at www.ILL2020-vision.eu http://www.ILL2020-vision.eu and you are encouraged to contact the proposers to express your support and work with them to improve them. We are very keen to receive new proposals, using the guidelines provided on the website. The meeting will also highlight recent scientific achievements at ILL with an emphasis on those made possible by the Millennium Programme. You will find details of the speakers together with an outline programme on the website. We encourage students to attend the meeting and participate. To this end we will be offering a number of bursaries to support travel, as well as arranging a poster session, with a prize for the best ones. We eagerly anticipate a very stimulating meeting and look forward to seeing you in Grenoble to work with you to shape our future. Richard Wagner Director Andrew Harrison Associate Director Jose-Luis Martinez Associate Director. If you do not wish to receive this type of email from the ILL in the future: 1) if you are a member of the Visitors Club please login to the Visitors Club (http://club.ill.fr/cv/) and untick the box for the subscription to our mailing list in your personal data page; 2) if you are not a member please write to us at sco@ill.eu and we will unsubscribe you.

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School and Meeting Reports

Italy-UK workshop on imaging and life sciences applications of new light sources J. Marangos Imperial College, London, UK

L. Palumbo Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy

on the top: R. Walker, L. Palumbo and R. Amendolia on the bottom: J. Marangos

Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

The emergence of new, free electron laser, based light sources is promising major impact on imaging and biological sciences. With free electron lasers under construction in Italy and operating in Germany and the USA it was seen as timely to reflect upon opportunities in this scientific area. Therefore a bilateral meeting between Italian and UK scientists was organised in the spring of 2010 to examine the best way to use the scientific strengths in these two countries to build effective collaborative programmes. This followed from a meeting held at the British Ambassadors Residence in Rome in March of last year. The meeting took place at the Italian Cultural Institute in Belgravia, one of London’s most prestigious neighbourhoods. Around 50 scientists gathered at this very agreeable venue and took part in wide ranging discussions and an exchange of ideas on the topic of imaging and life sciences applications of new light sources. Participants were drawn from a range of academic institutions and national laboratories in Italy and the UK along with representatives from the Italian embassy and from industry. The meeting was begun in fine style by a keynote address by Gerhard Materlik (Director of the Diamond Light Source) on “Visions for future light source science” that reviewed the new capabilities that are emerging from the FEL facilities that are built, under construction and planned. This was followed by a session chaired by Luigi Palumbo (INFN, Italy) that included further reviews of two FEL facilities; the Fermi@Elettra project presented by Fulvio Parmigiani (INFN, Italy) and the future high repetition rate seeded FEL in the UK (NLS) by Richard Walker (Diamond). Having established the capabilities of the new light sources through these presentations and the accompanying discussions the focus then shifted to applications to biosciences. Silvia Morante (University of Rome Tor Vergata) highlighted the Bio-science case for the SPARX project and David Klug (Imperial College) discussed the application of far-IR from multi-colour THz beams to the 2D spectroscopic measurement of proteins. Anton Barty (CFEL/DESY) then presented a talk on recent progress in X-ray imaging with FELs that conveyed the excitement and promise in that fast emerging area. Following a pleasant and discussion filled lunch we resumed in the afternoon in a session chaired by Andrea Aparo (Finmeccanica) which focussed on medical applications. Cristina Messa (University of Milano Bicocca) explained the current state of the art in X-ray dagnostic molecular medicine and Ralf Menk (Elettra, Trieste) discussed the new R&D imaging techniques available to cancer research. Guido Cavaletti (University of Milano Bicocca) gave the final talk on nanomedicine in biomedical sciences. Having had this series of fascinating and informative talks the meeting was then completed by an extended round table discussion chaired by Dame Louise Johnson (Oxford) with panellists Andrea Aparo, Luca Federici, David Klug, Gerhard Materlik and Richard Walker. This tackled the issue of future prospective in Italian/UK collaboration with light sources. A productive 30


School and Meeting Reports

discussion took place that reaffirmed the need to continue effective engagement at the broad level as well as to encourage individual collaborative projects. Hopefully UK users will be in the fore once the Fermi@Elletra laser becomes available to users in the near future. It is clear that there is considerable scope for lasting and highly effective collaborations between scientists in these two countries. On a related note a recent meeting of the UK FEL community (Royal Society, April 26th) concluded with the setting up of the “UK Forum for FEL Science�. This Forum will be an independent body that will strive to foster the growing activities of FEL science and technology within the UK. It will also serve to facilitate scientists become users of the now operating international facilities. It will no doubt serve to continue to nurture Italy-UK links in this emerging area.

on the top: J. Marangos, C. Andreani, R. Amendolia and G. Materlik

on the left: F. Parmigiani, J. Marangos, R. Walker, G. Materlik, L. Palumbo, R. Amendolia and S. Morante

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X SCHOOL OF NEUTRON SCATTERING FRANCESCO PAOLO RICCI: ELECTRONVOLT NEUTRON SPECTROSCOPY OF MATERIALS: MICROSCOPIC DYNAMICS AND ENABLING TECHNIQUES September 25th – October 4th 2010 Villa Mondragone, Monte Porzio Catone, Rome - Italy, www.villamondragone.it The school, established in 1994, is primarily addressed to graduate students or postdoctoral with an interest in Neutron Scattering. The School will comprise lectures, tutorials and hands­on data analysis sessions, covering diverse aspects of Neutron Scattering, with an emphasis on techniques and instrumentation designed to study the electronvolt neutron spectroscopy of materials and related techniques. The School will commence on September 25th 2010, with a series of introductory lectures covering the fundamental aspects of neutron scattering and neutron instrumentation. During the next few days, a series of lectures will follow to provide the basis to understand short­scale microscopic dynamics, momentum distributions, thermal and high energy neutron imaging and diagnostics. Each of these topics will be expanded in a series of tutorials, which will also

include hands­on data analysis sessions. The combination of introductory lectures, scientific sessions and training in scattering techniques will provide participants with a unique opportunity to become familiar with neutron scattering methods and their applications to current research topics. There are 25 places available for students attending the school. Those who have pre­registered will be offered places preferentially in the event that the School is oversubscribed. Applicants will be notified if they have been accepted for the School by 10 July 2010. Bursaries, provided from the sponsors, will be available for the purpose of increasing the participation of international and national research scientists. These may be used to cover attendant's expenses such as hotel, travel, etc. Total travel and subsistence expenses are usually not provided.

LECTURERS:

CONTACTS:

M. Adams STFC­ Chilton (UK), F. Aliotta CNR­IPCF Messina (I), I. Anderson Spallation Neutron Source ­Oak Ridge (USA), C. Andreani Univ. Roma Tor Vergata (I), R. Bedogni INFN­LNF Frascati (I), R. Caciuffo Institute for Transuranium Elements­ Karlsruhe (D), D. Colognesi CNR­ISC Firenze (I), A. Orecchini Univ. Perugia (I), G. Festa Univ. Roma Tor Vergata (I), G. Gorini Univ. Milano Bicocca (I), J. Mayers STFC­ Chilton (UK), R. McGreevy STFC­Chilton (UK), F. Mezei Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA), J. Morrone Columbia University (USA), F. Natali ILL Grenoble (F), A. Paciaroni Univ. Perugia (I), E. Perelli Univ. Milano Bicocca (I), A. Pietropaolo CNISM­Roma Tor Vergata (I), R. Ponterio CNR­IPCF Messina (I), R. Pynn Univ. Indiana ­ Bloomington (USA), G. Reiter Univ. Houston (USA), G. Salvato CNR­IPCF Messina (I), M. Russina Helmoltz Centrum­ Berlin (D), E. Schooneveld STFC­Chilton (UK), M. Tardocchi CNR­IFP Milano (I), D. Tresoldi CNR­IPCF Messina (I), A. Triolo CNR­ISM Roma (I)

WEBSITE: http://web129.its.me.cnr.it/school_fpricci/index.htm SECRETARY: school_fpricci@me.cnr.it DIRECTORS DR. CIRINO VASI C.N.R.– Istituto Per I Processi Chimico Fisici Viale Ferdinando Stagno D'alcontres, N. 37 98158 Messina, Italy Tel.: +39 090 39762­240 ­ E­Mail: Vasi@Me.Cnr.It DR. ROBERTO SENESI Università Degli Studi Di Roma Tor Vergata Dip. Di Fisica Via Della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 00133 Roma, Italy Tel:+39 06 7259­4549 ­ E­Mail: Roberto.Senesi@Roma2.Infn.It


Call for Proposal

Call for Proposal [Deadlines for proposal submission]

Neutron Sources http://pathfinder.neutron-eu.net/idb/access May 15 and October 15

BNC http://www.bnc.hu/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=39

1 March and 1 September annually

BENSC http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/userservice/neutrons/user-info/call-for-proposals_en.html#c63361

At any time during 2010

GeNF - Geesthacht Neutron Facility www.gkss.de/index_e_js.html

September 1st, 2010

HFIR http://neutrons.ornl.gov/

1 March and 1 September

ILL www.ill.eu/users/experimental-programme/

16 October 2010 (for beamtime from February/March 2011)

To be announced, 2010

ISIS http://www.isis.stfc.ac.uk/index.html

JCNS FZ-Jülich www.jcns.info/jcns_proposals/

November 1st, 2010

LLB - Laboratoire Léon Brillouin http://pathfinder.neutron-eu.net/idb/access

September 15, 2010

NPL - Neutron Physics Laboratory http://pathfinder.neutron-eu.net/idb/access

To be announced, 2010

SINQ – Swiss Spallation Neutron Source http://pathfinder.neutron-eu.net/idb/access

September 1st, 2010

SNS http://neutrons.ornl.gov/users/user_news.shtml

Synchrotron Radiation Sources www.lightsources.org To be announced, 2010

AS - Australian Synchrotron http://www.lightsources.org/cms/?pid=1000128

September 1st, 2010

BESSY http://www.bessy.de/boat/www/

Proposals are evaluated twice a year

BSRF - Beijing Synchrotron radiation Facility www.ihep.ac.cn/bsrf/english/userinfo/beamtime.htm

September 30, 2010

CFN - Center for Functional Nanomaterials www.bnl.gov/cfn/user/proposal.asp

October 30, 2010

CHESS - Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source www.chess.cornell.edu/prposals/index.htm

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To be announced, 2010

CLS – Canadian Light Source http://www.lightsource.ca/uso/call_proposals.php

October 30, 2010

CNM – Center for Nanoscale Materials http://www.lightsources.org/cms/?pid=1000336

To be announced, 2010

DIAMOND - Diamond Light Source www.diamond.ac.uk/ForUsers/Welcome

September 15, 2010

ELETTRA https://vuo.elettra.trieste.it/pls/vuo/guest.startup

December 1st, 2010

FELIX - Free Electron Laser for Infrared experiments www.rijnh.nl/research/guthz/felix_felice/

January 14, 2011

FOUNDRY - The Molecular Foundry https://isswprod.lbl.gov/TMF/login.aspx

October 1st, 2010 (Flash) September 1st, 2010 (Doris III) December 31, 2010

HASYLAB - Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at DESY http://hasylab.desy.de/user_info/write_a_proposal/2_deadlines/index_eng.html

ISA http://www.isa.au.dk/

January 1st, 2011

LCLS - The Linac Coherent Light Source https://pass.nsls.bnl.gov/deadlines.asp

September 30, 2010 (D04A-SXS, D04B-XAFS1, D05A-TGM, D06A-DXAS, D08A-SGM, D09B-XRF, D10A XRD2, D10B-XPD, D11A-SAXS1, D12A-XRD1 - beamtime TBD) October 29, 2010 (D03B-MX1 - beamtime TBD) To be announced in late fall 2010

LNLS - Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron https://www.lnls.br/lnls/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?UserActiveTemplate=lnls_2007 _english&tpl=home

MAX-lab http://www2.maxlab.lu.se/members/proposal/index.jsp

September 30, 2010

NSLS - National Synchrotron Light Source https://pass.nsls.bnl.gov/deadlines.asp

September 30, 2010

NSRRC - National Synchrotron radiation Research Center www.nsrrc.org.tw/

To be announced

PF – Photon Factory www.nsrrc.org.tw/

September 15, 2010 (All other beamlines) October 15, 2010 (PX beamline) September 15, 2010

SLS - Swiss Light Source http://sls.web.psi.ch/view.php/users/experiments/proposals/opencalls/index.html

SOLEIL http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/

Twice a year

SPRING-8 http://www.spring8.or.jp/en/users/proposals/

August 1st, 2010

SRC - Synchrotron Radiation Center www.lightsources.org/cms/?pid=1000336

September 1st, 2010 (Xray/VUV proposals for beam time February 2010-February 2012)

December 1st, 2010 (Xray/VUV proposals for beam time May 2010-May 2012)

December 1st, 2010 (New Crystallography Proposals March 2010-February 2012)

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SSRL - Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory www.ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/users/user_admin/deadlines.html


Calendar

Calendar July 4-8, 2010

Karlsruhe, Germany First International Conference on Materials for Energy http://events.dechema.de/enmat2010

July 4-9, 2010

ZĂźrich, Switzerland ISMANAM 2010: 17th International Symposium on Metastable, Amorphous and Nanostructured Materials http://www.ismanam2010.ethz.ch/home

July 4-9, 2010

Kyoto, Japan International Conference on Science and Technology of Synthetic Metals 2010 http://www.icsm2010.com/

July 4-9, 2010

Sorrento, Italy IZC16 and IMMS7: 6th International Zeolite Conference and 7th International Mesostructured Materials Symposium. Engineering of New Micro- and Meso-Structured Materials http://www.izc-imms2010.org/index.php

July 5-8, 2010

Delft, The Netherlands PNCMI 2010: 8th International Workshop on Polarised Neutrons in Condensed Matter Investigations http://www.tnw.tudelft.nl/live/pagina.jsp?id=3f2f14d1-c18b-4276-aa9490d5d52fc337&lang=en

July 5-8, 2010

Montpellier, France MOLMAT2010: IVth International Conference on Molecular Materials http://www.molmat2010.fr/

July 5-10, 2010

Les Diablerets, Switzerland LEES 2010: Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids http://www.lees2010.ch/ 2

July 6-9, 2010

San Francisco, CA, USA Organic Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Workshop VI http://acswebcontent.acs.org/organicmicroelectronic/

July 7-10, 2010

Strasbourg, France AFC 2010: Colloque de l'Association Française de Cristallographie http://www.afc2010.unistra.fr/

July 9-13, 2010

Boston, MA, USA 18th Annual International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology http://www.iscb.org/ismb2010

July 10-18, 2010

Sofia, Bulgaria 8th International Conference on the Occurrence, Properties, and Utilization of Natural Zeolites http://www.zeolite2010.org/

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Calendar

July 11-13, 2010

Munich-Ismaning, Germany Modern Trends on Production and Applications of Polarized 3He http://www.jcns.info/Workshop_3He/

July 11-14, 2010

Oxford, England SRMS 2010: 7th International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science http://www.srmsmedsi2010.org/srmsmedsi/SRMS.html

July 11-14, 2010

Oxford, England MEDSI 2010: 6th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Design of Synchrotron Radiation Equipment and Instrumentation http://www.srmsmedsi2010.org/srmsmedsi/MEDSI.html

July 11-16, 2010

Suzhou, China Advances in Nonvolatile Memory Materials and Devices http://www.engconfintl.org/10ae.html

July 11-16, 2010

South Hadley, MA, USA Electron Distribution and Chemical Bonding http://www.grc.org/programs.aspx?year=2010&program=elecdist

July 11-16, 2010

Krakow, Poland ILCC2010: 23rd International Liquid Crystal Conference http://www.ilcc2010.uj.edu.pl/index.php

July 11-16, 2010

Tilton, NH, USA Gordon Research Conference on Ion Channels http://www.grc.org/programs.aspx?year=2010&program=ionchan

July 11-16, 2010

Rome, Italy Gordon Research Conference on Ion Channels http://www.grc.org/programs.aspx?year=2010&program=ionchan

July 11-16, 2010

Glasgow, UK MACRO2010: 43rd IUPAC World Polymer Congress: Polymer Science in the Service of Society http://www.rsc.org/ConferencesAndEvents/RSCConferences/Macro2010/

July 11-16, 2010

Vancouver, BC (Canada) VUVX2010 37th International conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet and X-ray Physics http://www.vuvx2010.ca/

July 12-16, 2010

Jaca (Huesca), Spain The Power of Neutron Techniques in Nano and Biosciences http://spins.unizar.es/eventos/JACA2010/index.php

July 12-16, 2010

Chicago, IL, USA Inter/Micro 2010 Microscopy Symposium http://www.mcri.org/home/section/101-523/inter-micro-2010

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Calendar

July 13-17, 2010

Nortwestern University, IL, USA Eleventh International Conference on Surface X-ray and Neutron Scattering http://www.sxns11.northwestern.edu/

July 14-17, 2010

Evanston, IL (USA) The Eleventh International Conference on Surface X-ray and Neutron Scattering http://www.sxns11.northwestern.edu/

July 17-19, 2010

SLAC LCLS, Menlo Park, CA, (USA) Ultrafast VUV and X-ray Science (Satellite Meeting to VUVX 2010) http://www.vuvx2010.ca/showcontent.aspx?MenuID=672

July 18-23, 2010

Lewiston, ME, USA Diffraction Methods In Structural Biology http://www.gordonconferences.org/programs.aspx?year=2010&program=diffrac

July 19-23 2010

Novosibirsk, Russia SR-2010: 18th International Synchrotron Radiation Conference http://ssrc.inp.nsk.su/SR2010/index.html

July 20-23, 2010

SLAC SSRL, Menlo Park, CA, (USA) 2010 SSRL SMB Xray Absorption Spectroscopy Workshop http://www.slac.stanford.edu/

July 24-29, 2010

Chicago, IL (USA) 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Crystallographic Association http://meeting2010.amercrystalassn.org/

July 25-29, 2010

Uppsala, Sweden EHPRG Conference 2010: 48th European High Pressure Research Group Conference http://ehprg2010.fysik.uu.se/

July 25-30, 2010

Seoul, Korea 30th International Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors http://www.icps2010.org/

August 1-4, 2010

Jilin, China HPSP14: 14th International Conference on High Pressure Semiconductor Physics http://hpsp14.0431cn.com/

August 1-6, 2010

Cairns, Australia PRICM - 07: 7th Pacific Rim International Conference on Advanced Materials and Processing http://www.materialsaustralia.com.au/scripts/cgiip.exe/WService=MA/ccms.r? pageid=19070

August 1-7, 2010

Dalian, China ISSCG-14: International Summer School on Crystal Growth http://www.isscg14.org.cn/

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Calendar

August 2-6, 2010

Denver, CO, USA 59th Annual Denver X-ray Conference http://www.dxcicdd.com/

August 2-6, 2010

Santa Barbara, CA, USA EX-ray Science in the 21st Century http://www.aps.org/meetings/meeting.cfm?name=XRS10

August 5-13, 2010

Los Alamos, NM, USA 2010 LANSCE Neutron School: Structural Materials http://lansce.lanl.gov/neutronschool/

August 7-15, 2010

Zuoz, Switzerland 9th PSI Summer School on Condensed Matter Physics: Magnetic Phenomena http://school.web.psi.ch/html/index.shtml

August 7-13, 2010

Zuoz, Switzerland 9th PSI Summer School on Condensed Matter Physics: Magnetic Phenomena http://school.web.psi.ch/html/index.shtml

August 8-12, 2010

Beijing, China 3rd K.H. Kuo Summer School of Electron Microscopy and Crystallography. International Workshop of 3D Molecular Imaging by Cryo- Electron Microscopy http://emworkshop2010.ibp.ac.cn/index.html

August 8-13, 2010

Beijing, China ICCG-16: International Conference on Crystal Growth http://iccg16.tipc.cn/

August 15-19, 2010

Cancun, Mexico IMRC XIX: International Materials Research Congress http://www.mrs-mexico.org.mx/imrc2010/index.html

August 15-19, 2010

Cancun, Mexico IMRC XIX: Symposium on Domain Engineering in Ferroic Systems http://www.mrs-mexico.org.mx/imrc2010/htmls/chairpersons.html?view=17

August 15-20, 2010

Sydney, Australia ANSTO Dynamics and Kinetics Neutron School 2010 http://www.ansto.gov.au/research/bragg_institute/current_research/conferences_ and_workshops/dynamics_and_kinetics_neutron_school_2010

August 15-20, 2010

Argonne, IL, USA XRM2010: 10th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy http://xrm2010.aps.anl.gov/

August 15-20, 2010

New London, NH, USA Gordon Research Conference on Solid State Studies in Ceramics. Fundamental Phenomena in Energy Applications http://www.grc.org/programs.aspx?year=2010&program=ceramics

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Calendar

August 15-20, 2010

Chicago, IL (USA) XRM2010 The 10th International Conference on X-ray Microscopy http://xrm2010.aps.anl.gov/

August 17-20, 2010

Fribourg, Switzerland XXth International Symposium on the Jahn-Teller Effect http://www.unifr.ch/jt2010/

August 21-27, 2010

Budapest, Hungary IMA2010: Advances in Neutron Techniques in Earth and Environmental Sciences http://www.ima2010.hu/

August 22-26, 2010

Boston, MA, USA ACS Fall 2010 National Meeting and Exposition http://portal.acs.org:80/portal/acs/corg/content?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=PP_MEE INGS&node_id=86&use_sec=false&__uuid=7d0aee6d-adf6-4849-94da-7f5ff27578d4

August 22-26, 2010

Villars-sur-Ollon, Switzerland, USA CUSO Villars Summer School in Materials: From Structure to Function in Nanomaterials http://www.chem.unifr.ch/kf/villars%20copy/index.html

August 22-27, 2010

Seoul, Korea International Union of Materials Research Societies - International Conference on Electronic Materials 2010 http://www.iumrs-icem2010.org/

August 23-27, 2010

Troyes, France JMC 12: Journees de la Matiere Condensee http://jmc12.utt.fr/index.php

August 23-27, 2010

Malmรถ (Sweden) 32nd International Free Electron Laser Conference http://www.maxlab.lu.se/maxlab/conference/fel2010/index.html

August 25-29, 2010

Budapest, Hungary MECC2010: 5th Mid-European Clay Conference http://mecc2010.org/

August 27-29, 2010

Darmstadt, Germany MaThCryst Satellite Conference of ECM26 http://www.crystallography.fr/mathcryst/darmstadt2010.php

August 27-30, 2010

Darmstadt, Germany EPDIC12: 12th European Powder Diffraction Conference http://www.epdic12.org/

September 5-7, 2010

Manchester, UK BACG 2010: British Association for Crystal Growth http://www.bacg2010.org/

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Calendar

September 5-9, 2010

Budapest, Hungary Diamond 2010: 21st European Conference on Diamond, Diamond-Like Materials, Carbon Nanotubes, and Nitrides http://www.diamond-conference.elsevier.com/

September 5-10, 2010

Oxford, UK BCA/CCP4 Summer School XV http://crystallography.org.uk/bca-ccp4-summer-school-2010

September 6-10, 2010

Herceg Novi, Montenegro Twelfth Annual YUCOMAT Conference http://www.mrs-serbia.org.rs/

September 6-17, 2010

J端lich/Garching - Germany 14th Laboratory Course Neutron Scattering http://www.jcns.info/wns_lab_now

September 12-14, 2010

Biarritz, France 7th International Conference on Inorganic Materials http://www.im-conference.elsevier.com/

September 12-16, 2010

Dublin, Ireland ICCBM13: 13th International Conference on the Crystallization of Biological Macromolecules http://www.iccbm13.ie/

September 12-17, 2010

Tsukuba, Japan LINAC10: XXV Linear Accelerator Conference http://linac10.j-parc.jp/

September 13-16, 2010

Karlsruhe, Germany Metamaterials 2010: Fourth International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics http://congress2010.metamorphose-vi.org/

September 13-17, 2010

Warsaw, Poland E-MRS 2010 Fall Meeting http://www.emrs-strasbourg.com/

September 15-17, 2010

Grenoble, France ILL 2020 Vision: Future directions in neutron science http://www.ill2020-vision.eu/

September 15-17, 2010

Grenoble, France 3rd ILL MILLENNIUM SYMPOSIUM AND EUROPEAN USER MEETING http://www.ill.eu/about/future-planning/ills-modernisation-programme/

September 17, 2010

Geneva, Switzerland SGK/SSCr Annual Meeting 2010 http://indico.psi.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=22

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Calendar

September 19-22, 2010

Münster, Germany 88th Annual Meeting of the German Mineralogical Society: From Dust to Dust http://www.conventus.de/dmg2010/

September 19-23, 2010

Gatlinburg, TN, USA Structure Under Extreme Conditions of Pressure and Temperature http://neutrons.ornl.gov/conf/IUCr2010/

September 19-24, 2010

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil IMC17: International Microscopy Congress http://www.imc-17.com/

September 19-24, 2010

Tampa, FL, USA IWN2010: International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors http://www.iwn2010.org/

September 20-23, 2010

Warwick, UK XTOP 2010: 10th Biennial Conference on High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction and Imaging http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/physics/research/condensedmatt/ferroelectrics/ xtop2010

September 21-24, 2010

Argonne, IL (USA) SRI2010 The Sixteenth Pan-American Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation (SRI) Conference http://www.lightsources.org/cms/?pid=1000068

September 25 - October 4

Rome, Italy X School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci: Electronvolt Neutron Spectroscopy of Materials: Microscopic Dynamics and Enabling Techniques http://web129.its.me.cnr.it/school_fpricci/index.htm

September 26-29, 2010

Bonn, Germany Neutrons for Global Energy Solutions http://sinq.web.psi.ch/sinq/links.html

September 26 - October 2, 2010

Carqueiranne, France International School on Aperiodic Crystals http://www-xray.fzu.cz/sgip/isac2010/isac2010.html

September 27- October 1st, 2010

San Sebastián - Spain Passion for Electrons/ Passion for Interfaces/Passion for Soft Matter/Passion for Photons http://www.dipc10.eu/en/workshops/introduction

September 28-29, 2010

Cambridge, UK 2010 Annual Meeting of the Mineralogical Society. Nuclear Waste Management: Research Challenges for the Future http://www.minersoc.org/pages/meetings/nuclear/nuclear.html

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Calendar

October 3-8, 2010

Kwa Maritane, South Africa 9th World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR-9) http://www.wcnr-9.co.za/

October 8-9, 2010

Madison, WI (USA) SRC Users' Meeting http://www.lightsources.org/cms/?pid=1000068

October 11-14, 2010

Grenoble, France IXS2010: 7th International Conference on Inelastic X-ray Scattering http://www.esrf.eu/events/conferences/ixs2010

October 18-21, 2010

Menlo Park, CA (USA) LCLS/SSRL Annual Users' Conference and Workshops http://www-conf.slac.stanford.edu/ssrl-lcls/2009/2010.asp

October 18-22, 2010

Nantes, France Materiaux 2010 http://www.materiaux2010.net/

October 21-23, 2010

Grenoble, France Superconductivity Explored by Neutron Scattering Experiments http://www.ill.eu/news-events/events/sense2010/

October 23-24, 2010

Rourkela, India ICSAXS - 2010: International Conference on Applications of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering in the Field of Nanoscience and Nano Technology http://www.nitrkl.ac.in/conference/conference_welcome.asp?cid=26

October 25-26, 2010

Grenoble, France Neutron Reflectometry: the next generation and beyond http://www.ill.eu/news-events/events/superadam/

October 25 - November 1, 2010

EMBL Hamburg, Germany EMBO practical course on Solution Scattering from Biological Macromolecules http://www.embl-hamburg.de/training/courses_conferences/course/2010/SAXS/

October 31- November 3rd, 2010

Sydney, Australia Neutrons and Food workshop http://www.nbi.ansto.gov.au/neutronsandfood/

November 15-20, 2010

Grenoble, France Application of Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation to Magnetism Previous events: Application of Neutron and Synchrotron Radiation to Magnetism 2009

November 29 - December 3, 2010

Boston, MA (USA) 2010 MRS Fall Meeting - Materials Research Society Fall Meeting http://www.mrs.org/s_mrs/sec.asp?CID=16777&DID=216967

November 29-December 4, 2010

Montevideo, Uruguay International Schools on Mathematical Crystallography http://www.crystallography.fr/mathcryst/montevideo2010.php

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Facilities

Facilities

Neutron Scattering WWW SERVERS IN THE WORLD http://idb.neutron-eu.net/facilities.php

BNC - Budapest Research reactor

HIFAR

Type: Swimming pool reactor, 10 MW Phone: +36/1/392-2222 Phone e fax: +36/1/395-9162 Email: tozser@sunserv.kfki.hu http://www.kfki.hu/brr/indexen.htm

Phone e phone Numbers:

BENSC - Berlin Neutron Scattering Center

ILL

Phone: +49-30 / 80 62 - 0 Fax: +49-30 / 80 62 - 21 81 Email: info@helmholtz-berlin.de http://www.helmholtz-berlin.de/

Type: 58MW High Flux Reactor Phone: + 33 (0)4 76 20 71 11 Fax: + 33 (0)4 76 48 39 06 Phone: +33 4 7620 7179 Fax: +33 4 76483906 Email: cico@ill.fr and sco@ill.fr http://www.ill.eu

FLNP - Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics Phone: (7-49621) 65-657 Fax: (7-49621) 65-085 E-mail: belushk@nf.jinr.ru http://flnp.jinr.ru/25/

FRG-1 Type: Swimming Pool Cold Neutron Source Phone: +49 (0)4152 87-0 Fax: +49 (0)41 52 87-1403 Email: reinhard.kampmann@gkss.de http://www.gkss.de/about_us/contact/research_reactor/index.htm

FRJ-2 Forschungszentrum J端lich GmbH Type: DIDO(heavy water), 23 MW http://www.fz-juelich.de/iff/wns/

ANSTO Switchboard: + 61 2 9717 3111 ANSTO Facsimile: + 61 2 9543 5097 Email: enquiries@ansto.gov.au http://www.ansto.gov.au

IPNS - Intense Pulsed Neutron at Argonne Phone: 630/252-7820 Fax: 630/252-7722

for proposal submission by e-mail send to cpeters@anl.gov or mail/fax to IPNS Scientific Secretary, Building 360 http://www.pns.anl.gov/

ISIS Didcot Type: Pulsed Spallation Source Phone: +44 (0) 1235 445592 Fax: +44 (0) 1235 445103 Email: uls@isis.rl.ac.uk http://www.isis.rl.ac.uk

JCNS FRM II Type: Compact 20 MW reactor Phone: +49 (0) 89 289 14965 Fax: +49 (0) 89 289 14995 Email: Winfried.Petry@frm2.tum.de http://www.frm2.tum.de/en/index.html

HFIR ORNL, Oak Ridge, USA Phone: (865)574-5231 Fax: (865)576-7747 Email: ns_user@ornl.gov http://neutrons.ornl.gov

Juelich Centre for Neutron Science Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich, Germany E-mail: neutron@fz-juelich.de http://www.jcns.info

JRR-3M Fax: +81 292 82 59227 Phoneex: JAERIJ24596 Email: www-admin@www.jaea.go.jp http://www.jaea.go.jp/jaeri/english/index.html

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Facilities

JEEP-II Reactor

NCNR - NIST Center for Neutron Research

Type: D2O moderated 3.5% enriched UO2 fuel Phone: +47 63 806000, 806275 Fax: +47 63 816356 Email: kjell.bendiksen@ife.no http://www.ife.no/index_html-en?set_language=en&cl=en

Phone: (301) 975-6210 Fax: (301) 869-4770 Email: Robert.dimeo@nist.gov http://rrdjazz.nist.gov

NPL - NRI KENS

Type: 10 MW research reactor Phone: +420 2 20941177 / 66173428 Fax: +420 2 20941155 Email: krz@ujv.cz and brv@nri.cz http://neutron.ujf.cas.cz/

Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator research Organisation 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken,?305-0801, JAPAN Email: kens-pac@nml.kek.jp http://neutron-www.kek.jp/index_e.html

NRU - Chalk River Laboratories KUR - Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute Kumatori-cho Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494,Japan Phone: +81-72-451-2300 Fax: +81-72-451-2600 http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/en/

Phone: 613-584-8293 Fax: 613-584-4040 http://neutron.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/home_e.html

RID - Reactor Institute Delft (NL) Type: 2MW light water swimming pool Phone: +31 15 27 87774 Fax: +31 15 27 82655 E-mail: I.Hagman@tudelft.nl http://www.rid.tudelft.nl/live/pagina.jsp?id=b15d7df9-7928-441e-b45d-

LANSCE Phoneephone: 505-665-1010 Fax: 505-667-8830 Email: lansce_users@lanl Email: tichavez@lanl.gov http://lansce.lanl.gov/

6ecce78d6b0e&lang=en

SINQ LLB

Type: Steady spallation source Phone: +41 56 310 4666 Fax: +41 56 3103294 Email: sinq@psi.ch http://sinq.web.psi.ch

Type: Reactor Flux: 3.0 x 1014 n/cm2/s

SecrĂŠtariat Europe: Phone: 0169085417 Fax: 0169088261 Email: experience@llb.cea.fr http://www-llb.cea.fr

SNS - Spallation Neutron Source

NFL - Studsvik Neutron Research Laboratory Uppsala University - Studsvik Nuclear AB, Stockholm, Sweden Type: swimming pool type reactor, 50 MW, with additional reactor 1 MW http://cordis.europa.eu/data/PROJ_FP5/ACTIONeqDndSESSIONeq 112302005919ndDOCeq4269ndTBLeqEN_PROJ.htm

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Phone: 865.574.1301 Fax: (865) 241-5177 Email: ekkebusae@ornl.gov http://neutrons.ornl.gov


Facilities

Synchrotron Radiation Sources WWW SERVERS IN THE WORLD www.lightsources.org/cms/?pid=1000098

ALBA - Synchrotron Light Facility Phone: +34 93 592 43 00 Fax: +34 93 592 43 01 http://www.cells.es/

CANDLE - Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission MODIFIC. Phone/Fax: +374-1-629806 Email: baghiryan@asls.candle.am http://www.candle.am/index.html

ALS - Advanced Light Source Phone: 510.486.7745 Fax: 510.486.4773 Email: alsuser@lbl.gov http://www-als.lbl.gov/als

CESLAB - Central European Synchrotron Laboratory Phone: +420-541517500 Email: kozubek@ibp.cz http://www.synchrotron.cz/synchrotron/Central_Europeanl_Synchrotron_L

aboratory_EN.html

ANKA Phone: +49 (0)7247 / 82-6188 Fax: +49-(0)7247 / 82-8677 Email: info@fzk.de http://ankaweb.fzk.de/

CFN - Center for Functional Nanomaterials Phone: +1 (631) 344-6266 Fax: +1 (631) 344-3093 Email: cfnuser@bnl.gov http://www.bnl.gov/cfn/

APS - Advanced Photon Source Phone: (630) 252-2000 Fax: +1 708 252 3222 Email: fenner@aps.anl.gov http://www.aps.anl.gov/

CHESS - Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

AS - Australian Synchrotron

CLIO - Centre Laser Infrarouge d’Orsay

Phone: +61 3 9655 3315 Fax: +61 3 9655 8666 Email: contact.us@synchrotron.vic.gov.au http://www.synchrotron.vic.gov.au/content.asp?Document_ID=1

Email: accueil-clio@lcp.u-psud.fr http://clio.lcp.u-psud.fr/clio_eng/clio_eng.htm

BESSY - Berliner Elektronenspeicherring Gessellschaft.für Synchrotronstrahlung Phone: +49 (0)30 6392-2999 Fax: +49 (0)30 6392-2990 Email: info@bessy.de http://www.bessy.de/

BSRF - Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility Phone: +86-10-68235125 Fax: +86-10-68222013 Email: houbz@mail.ihep.ac.cn http://www.ihep.ac.cn/bsrf/english/main/main.htm

Phone: 607-255-7163 Fax: 607-255-9001 http://www.chess.cornell.edu/

CLS - Canadian Light Source Phone: (306) 657-3500 Fax: (306) 657-3535 Email: clsuo@lightsource.ca http://www.lightsource.ca/

CNM - Center for Nanoscale Materials Phone: 630.252.6952 Fax: 630.252.5739 http://nano.anl.gov/facilities/index.html

CTST - UCSB Center for Terahertz Science and Technology University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), USA http://sbfel3.ucsb.edu/

CAMD - Center Advanced Microstructures & Devices Phone: +1 (225) 578-8887 Fax: +1 (225) 578-6954 Email: leeann@lsu.edu http://www.camd.lsu.edu/

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Facilities

DAFNE Light

FOUNDRY - The Molecular Foundry

INFN-LNF Phone: +39 06 94031 Fax: +39 06 9403 2582 http://www.lnf.infn.it/

1 Cyclotron Road Berkeley, CA 94720, USA http://foundry.lbl.gov/index.html

DELSY - Dubna ELectron SYnchrotron

Phone: +49 40 / 8998-2304 Fax: +49 40 / 8998-2020 Email: HASYLAB@DESY.de http://hasylab.desy.de/

HASYLAB - Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor DORIS III, PETRA II / III, FLASH

Phone: + 7 09621 65 059 Fax: + 7 09621 65 891 Email: post@jinr.ru http://www.jinr.ru/delsy/

HSRC - Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center HISOR DELTA - Dortmund Electron Test Accelerator FELICITA I (FEL) Fax: +49-(0)231-755-5383 http://www.delta.uni-dortmund.de/index.php?id=2&L=1

Phone: +81 82 424 6293 Fax: +81 82 424 6294 http://www.hsrc.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/english/index-e.htm

Ifel DFELL - Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory Phone: 1 (919) 660-2666 Fax: +1 (919) 660-2671 Email: beamtime@fel.duke.edu http://www.fel.duke.edu/

Phone: +81-(0)72-897-6410 http://www.fel.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/english/index_e.html http://www.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/en/index.html

INDUS -1 / INDUS -2 Phone: +91-731-248-8003 Fax: 91-731-248-8000 Email: rvn@cat.ernet.in http://www.cat.ernet.in/technology/accel/indus/index.html http://www.cat.ernet.in/technology/accel/atdhome.html

Diamond Light Source Phone: +44 (0)1235 778000 Fax: +44 (0)1235 778499 Email: useroffice@diamond.ac.uk http://www.diamond.ac.uk/default.htm

IR FEL Research Center - FEL-SUT ELETTRA - Synchrotron Light Laborator Phone: +39 40 37581 Fax: +39 (040) 938-0902 http://www.elettra.trieste.it/

Phone: +81 4-7121-4290 Fax: +81 4-7121-4298 Email: felsut@rs.noda.sut.ac.jp http://www.rs.noda.sut.ac.jp/~felsut/english/index.htm

ELSA - Electron Stretcher Accelerator

ISA - Institute for Storage Ring Facilities - ASTRID-1

Phone: +49-228-735926 Fax: +49-228-733620 Email: roy@physik.uni-bonn.de http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/elsa-facility_en.html

Phone: +45 8942 3778 Fax: +45 8612 0740 Email: fyssp@phys.au.dk http://www.isa.au.dk/

ESRF - European Synchrotron Radiation Lab.

ISI-800

Phone: +33 (0)4 7688 2000 Fax: +33 (0)4 7688 2020 Email: useroff@esrf.fr http://www.esrf.eu/

Phone: +(380) 44 424-1005 Fax: +(380) 44 424-2561 Email: metall@imp.kiev.ua

Jlab - Jefferson Lab FEL FELBE - Free-Electron Lasers at the ELBE radiation source at the FZR/Dresden Phone: +49 351 260 - 0 Fax: +49 351 269 - 0461 E-Mail: kontakt@fzd.de http://www.fzd.de

Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology – Pulse Stretcher/Synchrotron Radiation

FELIX - Free Electron Laser for Infrared experiments Phone: +31-30-6096999 Fax: +31-30-6031204 Email: B.Redlich@rijnh.nl http://www.rijnh.nl/felix/

Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

Phone: (757) 269-7100 Fax: (757) 269-7848 http://www.jlab.org/FEL

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Phone: +38 (057) 335-35-30 Fax: +38 (057) 335-16-88 http://www.kipt.kharkov.ua/.indexe.html


Facilities

KSR - Nuclear Science Research Facility - Accelerator Laboratory

NSSR - Nagoya University Small Synchrotron Radiation Facility

Fax: +81-774-38-3289 http://wwwal.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/www/index-e.htmlx

Phone: +81-(0)43-251-2111 http://www.nagoya-u.ac.jp/en/

KSRS - Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Source Siberia-1 / Siberia-2

PAL - Pohang Accelerator Laboratory

Phone: 8-499-196-96-45 http://www.lightsources.org/cms/?pid=1000152 http://www.kiae.ru/ (in Russian)

San-31 Hyoja-dong Pohang Kyungbuk 790-784, Korea Email: ilguya@postech.ac.kr http://pal.postech.ac.kr/eng/index.html

PF - Photon Factory LCLS - Linac Coherent Light Source Phone: +1 (650) 926-3191 Fax: +1 (650) 926-3600 Email: knotts@ssrl.slac.stanford.edu http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/lcls/

Phone: +81 (0)-29-879-6009 Fax: +81 (0)-29-864-4402 Email: users.office2@post.kek.jp http://pfwww.kek.jp/

PSLS - Polish Synchrotron Light Source LNLS - Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron Phone: +55 (0) 19 3512-1010 Fax: +55 (0)19 3512-1004 Email: sau@lnls.br http://www.lnls.br/lnls/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?UserActiveTemplate=l

nls%5F2007%5Fenglish&tpl=home

MAX-Lab Phone: +46-222 9872 Fax: +46-222 4710 http://www.maxlab.lu.se/

Medical Synchrotron Radiation Facility Phone: +81-(0)43-251-2111 http://www.nirs.go.jp/ENG/index.html

MLS - Metrology Light Source Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Phone: +49 30 3481 7312 Fax: +49 30 3481 7550 Email: Gerhard.Ulm@ptb.de http://www.ptb.de/mls/

NSLS - National Synchrotron Light Source Phone: +1 (631) 344-7976 Fax: +1 (631) 344-7206 Email: nslsuser@bnl.gov http://www.nsls.bnl.gov/

NSRL - National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Phone: +86-551-3601989 Fax: +86-551-5141078 Email: zdh@ustc.edu.cn http://www.nsrl.ustc.edu.cn/en/

NSRRC - National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center Phone: +886-3-578-0281 Fax: +886-3-578-9816 Email: user@nsrrc.org.tw http://www.nsrrc.org.tw/

Phone: +48 (12) 663 58 20 Email: mail@synchrotron.pl http://www.if.uj.edu.pl/Synchro/

RitS Ritsumeikan University SR Center Phone: +81 (0)77 561-2806 Fax: +81 (0)77 561-2859 Email: d11-www-adm@se.ritsumei.ac.jp http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/se/re/SLLS/newpage13.htm

SAGA-LS - Saga Light Source Phone: +81-942-83-5017 Fax: +81-942-83-5196 http://www.saga-ls.jp/?page=173

SESAME - Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East Email: hhelal@mailer.eun.eg http://www.sesame.org.jo/index.aspx

SLS - Swiss Light Source Phone: +41 56 310 4666 Fax: +41 56 310 3294 Email: slsuo@psi.ch http://sls.web.psi.ch/view.php/about/index.html

SOLEIL Phone: +33 1 6935 9652 Fax: +33 1 6935 9456 Email: frederique.fraissard@synchrotron-soleil.fr http://www.synchrotron-soleil.fr/portal/page/portal/Accueil

SPL - Siam Photon Laboratory Phone: +66-44-21-7040 Fax: +66-44-21-7047, +66-44-21-7040 ext 211 http://www.slri.or.th/new_eng/

SPring-8 Phone: +81-(0) 791-58-0961 Fax: +81-(0) 791-58-0965 Email: sp8jasri@spring8.or.jp http://www.spring8.or.jp/en/

47

Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2


Facilities

SRC - Synchrotron Radiation Center

TSRF - Tohoku Synchrotron Radiation Facility Laboratory of Nuclear Sciente

Phone: +1 (608) 877-2000 Fax: +1 (608) 877-2001 http://www.src.wisc.edu/

SSLS - Singapore Synchrotron Light Source - Helios II

Phone: +81 (022)-743-3400 Fax: +81 (022)-743-3401 Email: koho@LNS.tohoku.ac.jp http://www.lns.tohoku.ac.jp/index.php

Phone: (65) 6874-6568 Fax: (65) 6773-6734 http://ssls.nus.edu.sg/index.html

UVSOR - Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility

SSRC - Siberian Synchrotron Research Centre VEPP3/VEPP4 Phone: +7(3832)39-44-98 Fax: +7(3832)34-21-63 Email: G.N.Kulipanov@inp.nsk.su http://ssrc.inp.nsk.su/english/load.pl?right=general.html

SSRF - Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

Phone: +81-564-55-7418 (Receptionist's office) Fax: +81-564-54-2254 Email: webmaster@ims.ac.jp http://www.uvsor.ims.ac.jp/defaultE.html

VU FEL - W.M. Keck Vanderbilt Free-electron Laser Center Email: b.gabella@vanderbilt.edu http://www.vanderbilt.edu/fel/

http://ssrf.sinap.ac.cn/english/

SSRL - Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Phone: +1 650-926-3191 Fax: +1 650-926-3600 Email: knotts@ssrl.slac.stanford.edu http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/users/user_admin/ura_staff_new.html

SuperSOR - SuperSOR Synchrotron Radiation Facility Phone: +81 (0471) 36-3405 Fax: +81(0471) 34-6041 Email: kakizaki@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp http://www.issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp/labs/sor/project/MENU.html

SURF - Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility Phone: +1 (301) 975-4200 http://physics.nist.gov/MajResFac/SURF/SURF/index.html

TNK - F.V. Lukin Institute Phone: +7(095) 531-1306 / +7(095) 531-1603 Fax: +7(095) 531-4656 Email: admin@niifp.ru http://www.niifp.ru/index_e.html

INFORMATION on Conference Announcements and Advertising for Europe and US, rates and inserts can be found at: www.cnr.it/neutronielucedisincrotrone

Anna Minella E-mail: nnls@roma2.infn.it

Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Vol. 15 n. 2

48


Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

www.cnr.it/neutronielucedisincrotrone

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