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Rivista del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone

ISSN 1592-7822

Vol. 12 n. 1

January 2007 - Aut. Trib. Roma n. 124/96 del 22-03-96 - Sped. Abb. Post. 70% Filiale di Roma - C.N.R. p.le A. Moro 7, 00185 Roma

NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone

Rivista del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche


Cover photo: CAD drawing of BEAR experimental room

EDITORIAL NEWS Well Deserved Prize for Jack Carpenter ............................ 2 I. Anderson

SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS Using Neutrons to Track Ancient Pottery Firing Technology ...................................................................... 3 A. Botti, A. Sodo, M.A. Ricci

NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone published by CNR in collaboration with the Faculty of Sciences and the Physics Department of the University of Rome “Tor Vergata”. Vol. 12 n. 1 Gennaio 2007 Autorizzazione del Tribunale di Roma n. 124/96 del 22-03-96


BEAR: a Bending Magnet for Emission Absorption and Reflectivity .......................................................................... 8 S. Nannarone, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, A. De Luisa, B. Doyle, F. Borgatti, M. Pedio, L. Pasquali, G. Naletto, M.G. Pelizzo, G. Tondello



News from ESRF ..................................................................... 20

M. Apice, P. Bosi, D. Catena, P. Giugni

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L. Avaldi, F. Bruni, S. Imberti, G. Paolucci, R. Triolo, M. Zoppi EDITORIAL SERVICE AND ADVERTISING FOR EUROPE AND USA:

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News from LCLS ..................................................................... 24 News from NCXT ................................................................... 25 News from NMI3 .................................................................... 25


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M. Capellas Espuny G. Cicognani GRAPHIC AND PRINTING:

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Well Deserved Prize for Jack Carpenter tion and time-of-flight measurements to study structure and dynamics of materials. His patented design for the moderator-reflector combination is at the heart of modern pulsed neutron sources. Since the IPNS was completed in 1981, Jack’s competence and skills have been called on by facilities all over the world for advice on the development of spallation sources including the KEK in Japan, ISIS in the United Kingdom, the Lujan Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Austron in Austria, J-PARC in Japan, and ESS in Europe. He was heavily involved in the world’s brightest pulsed neutron source, the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Carla Andreani and John Carpenter, during the Progress in Electron Volt Neutron Spectroscopy Workshop, held at the SNS, ORNL, October 2006.

Ridge National Laboratory which produced first neutrons in April of this year. He is already working on the design of the next target station for SNS! Jack’s contribu-

John Carpenter, better known as Jack to his friends and

tions to developing pulsed-source instrumentation and

colleagues, received the 2006 Clifford G. Shull Prize from

coupling neutron source performance and instrument

the Neutron Scattering Society of America for his

design have expanded the use of pulsed neutron sources

groundbreaking work developing neutron sources and

to a broad range of scientific endeavors.

instrumentation. The award was presented during the

Despite his formidable reputation, Jack is known to his

American Conference on Neutron Scattering, June 18-

friends and colleagues as a gentleman and a modest,

22, held in St. Charles, Illinois.

unassuming man.

Jack, technical director at Argonne National Laboratory’s

Congratulations Jack!

Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, is receiving the award

Ian Anderson

«for seminal contributions to the development of neu-

Spallation Neutron Source Oak Ridge National Laboratory

tron sources and instrumentation that have had worldwide impact on neutron scattering across a broad range of scientific disciplines, culminating in the optimized design of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge». The Clifford G. Shull Prize in Neutron Science is named in honor of Clifford G. Schull, who shared the

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Nobel Prize in physics in 1994 with Bertram Brockhouse for pioneering developments in neutron science.

Jack, fondly known as the father of the modern Spallation Neutron Source, played a pivotal role in developing pulsed neutron sources across the globe, including the founding of IPNS. He pioneered exploitation of the inherent efficiency of the spallation process for producing neutrons, together with the advantages of pulsed opera-



Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007

Pina Casella Tel. +39 06 72594117 E-mail:


Using Neutrons to Track Ancient Pottery Firing Technology A. Botti, A. Sodo, M.A. Ricci Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Amaldi”, Università degli Studi di Roma TRE, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma, Italy

Pottery finds are challenging systems; because they combine the physical complexity which originates from the coexistence of an amorphous phase and a crystalline phase in the same sample, with the charming richness of the historical information delivered if properly interrogated. Recent [1] [2] [3] and less recent [4] probing methods have enriched the classical approach of the archaeologists. The archaeometric investigation of the finds can give access to a quite diverse number of physical-chemical information, including the composition in terms of elements [5] and minerals [1] [6], the structural properties on the mesoscopic scale [2] up to the macroscopic inhomogeneities [7] [8] [9]. The mesoscopic structure investigated through small angle neutron scattering (SANS) gives information about the size and surface characteristics of the aggregates of minerals. These parameters are sensitive to the firing technology used in the production process. In the following we will show the correlation of these parameters with the archaeological age of the finds from the excavation sites of Miseno an Cuma, and suggest inferences on the technological choices made over the centuries. The interpretation of the SANS data is also based the simultaneous knowledge of the mineral phase content of the sherds, as probed by Time of Flight Neutron Diffraction (TOF-ND) measurements. During the Roman Age, the harbour of Miseno was the biggest military harbour s.n.

of the Mediterranean. After its conversion into a commercial harbour, it kept its activity until it was ceded to the Aghlabids Arabs from Sicily by the Duchy of Naples. It was finally abandoned in the second half of the 9th century AD. The early production of ceramics in Miseno is characterized by a careful manufacture and a selective choice of the shape of the pottery mainly designed for carriage of foodstuffs [10,11]. This typology tends to disappear during the 8th century AD, while other typologies of products made in Miseno continue to exist with continuity until the 9th century AD and are known as “broad band ceramic”, after their decoration made by rags or paint brush. The stylistic evaluation suggests a new employment and ownership of the facilities, possibly associated to a technological evolution: this is one of the issues that we want to tackle. It has to be stressed that the samples examined here have been found in the same site, called ‘‘Località Cudemo’’, where two kilns have been discovered. The two kilns were never operative at the same time, nevertheless, the finds belong to the same typology. The second kiln was indeed constructed on top of the first one after its voluntary burial. In the area, there is no evidence of other facilities after the 9th century AD. Together with Miseno there were other important centres in the Phlegrean area: Cuma, Pozzuoli and Ischia. In these places production indicators have been found, such as

Century Type

Technique d








8th-11th 7th-8th 7th-8th 8th-11th 7th-8th

comm. comm. comm. comm. comm.




3.53 3.34 3.54

441 551 404

C8 C11 C12 C15 C17

7th-8th 7th-8th 6th-8th 6th-8th 6th-8th

comm. comm. amph. amph. amph.


3.46 3.70 3.43 3.55 3.45

435 418 418 370 422

6th-8th 6th-8th 6th-8th 7th-8th

amph. amph. amph. comm


3.75 3.67 3.77 3.45

405 350 376 378

M10 M11 M12 M8

7th-8th 11th-13th 11th-13th 7th-8th

comm. comm. comm. comm


3.34 3.25 3.52 3.58

515 289 523 481

Cuma C1 C2 C3 C4 C5

Miseno M3 M4 M6 M7

Table 1: List of the samples from Cuma and Miseno. In the table are reported the dating given by the archaeologists, the typology of use and the diffraction technique used. Rg [Å] and d are radius of gyration and the fractal dimension of aggregates/voids, respectively. Error bars on d and Rg values are of the order of 1% and 10%, respectively.

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




kiln rejects, although no kiln itself has ever been localized. We have focused our attention on the finds from Cuma which present similar artistic features to those from Miseno. The underlying question is whether they also present comparable microscopic characteristics. The archaeological samples are listed in Table 1. They belong to the ceramic production developed in the

Analysis of the SANS data The radius of gyration Rg and the fractal dimension d, as obtained from the fitting procedure, are reported in Table 1. The experimental determination of Rg suffers the bias introduced by possible multiple scattering effects. On the contrary, the most reliable parameter is the fractal di-

Figure 1. Measured (black line) and fitted (red line) SANS and TOF-ND intensity (enlarged in the inset) for M6 sample.

Figure 2: History of the fractal exponent d for samples coming from Miseno (blue symbols) and Cuma (red symbols). The data relative to the 12th century have been reported with a different symbol (triangles), since they have been produced at a different kiln.

south of Italy during the 6th-12th centuries discovered in Miseno (Mn samples) and Cuma (Cn samples). Three different typologies may be distinguished: transport amphorae, common ‘‘broad band ceramic’’ and two fragments of common ceramic from the 12th century AD from the area of Miseno; the latter samples have indeed been dated by the archaeologists after local production had ceased [10,11]. In the Miseno area there are no clay deposit. In the same table are reported the diffraction techniques that have been used and the dating ranges given by the archaeologists. Small angle neutron scattering measurements have been carried out on KWS1 diffractometer, which was operative till May 2006 at DIDO reactor of Forschungszentrum Jülich. Time of flight neutron diffraction experiment were performed on ROTAX diffractometer, installed at pulsed neutron source ISIS of Rutherford Appleton Laboratories. The experimental procedure is absolutely non destructive and the samples have been exposed to the beam without any specific preparation. A diffraction pattern in the complete Q range explored by both instruments is shown in fig. 1 as an example. Its best fit according to the Beaucage model [12], concerning the SANS part, and by Rietveld analysis [13], for the TOF-ND range, is represented with a red line.

mension of the voids/clusters, or equivalently the slope d of the high Q tail. The behaviour of this parameter with respect to the age of the samples is depicted in fig.2. The abscissas have been calculated as the average value of the archaeological dating. The samples of Cuma and Miseno share a similar behaviour: d decreases from higher values for the older samples to lower values for the more recent ones. This can be considered as the history of d: In principle, this history could have no regularity, in the present case on the contrary it tells us that the more recent ceramic productions have mesoscopic structures with a rougher surface with respect to the older ones. Using the information coming from the study of reference samples, prepared with different maximum firing temperature, heating rate and composition, it is possible to state that higher maximum firing temperatures corresponds to higher values of d [3]: that the smoothness of the aggregates surface increases with the firing temperature. Moreover the dependence of d from the temperature is linear, with a slope that is composition independent. [3] This implies that the maximum firing temperature of the pottery find of Cuma and Miseno has been lowered in time. SANS analysis cannot, however, quantify the change in maximum firing temperature, when the mi-



Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007


croscopic composition is unknown. The latter information can be obtained complementing SANS results with mineralogical analysis. [3] In order to justify the differences between the data for samples M11 and M12, we remind that Miseno kiln ceased to produce pottery in the 9th century. This means the 12th century pottery sherds from Miseno area were likely fired in a different kiln (or kilns) than the earlier Miseno samples.

Analysis of the ROTAX data The Rietveld analysis included in the model the following phases: quartz [14], calcite [15], dolomite [16], orthoclase [17], bytownite [18], muscovite [19], haematite [20] and spinel [21]. The fitted parameters are: phase fractions; d-spacing zero shift; one common DebyeWaller factor for all the minerals except for muscovite which was kept constant (u=0.8 Å2) and the lattice parameters for quartz. Once the phase fraction of muscovite has been removed from the composition, the remaining phases, compiled in Table 2, have been normalized to one. A better comprehension of the clustering and grouping of the samples can be achieved calculating their distance with respect to a ‘‘mean sample’’, where the weight fraction of a phase in the ‘‘mean sample’’ is equal to the average of all the measured weight fractions of that phase in all the sample selected for comparison. In Appendix A the analytical definitions of distance and “mean sample” are described.



Orthoclase Bytownite

In fig. 3 we show the distance plot for Cuma and Miseno samples. They gather in two groups with a consistent overlapping and different spread. The samples of Miseno have been found close to the kiln where they were produced and this could explain why they group together around -2. As already mentioned, in Miseno there is no clay deposit, so that raw materials must

Figure 3: Distance plot for samples from Miseno (blue bars) and Cuma (red bars).






Cuma C2 C3 C5 C8 C12 C15 C17

0.46 0.38 0.38 0.60 0.29 0.39 0.44

0.17 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.21 0.16 0.19

0.31 0.39 0.33 0.00 0.39 0.34 0.22

0.80 0.74 1.16 1.16 0.76 0.85 1.85

0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.03

0.06 0.05 0.10 ,0.18 0.10 0.09 0.03

0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07

0.38 0.39 0.53 0.61 0.43 0.51 0.39

0.21 0.21 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.20 0.23

0.39 0.39 0.21 0.24 0.35 0.20 0.35

1.00 0.72 1.05 1.01 0.50 1.21 1.13

0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02

0.00 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.01

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Miseno M3 M4 M6 M7 M8 M10 M12

Table 2: Phase fractions relative abundance for the Cuma and Miseno samples, once the muscovite phase fraction has been removed. The q/m column represents the ratio of the phase fraction of quartz over that one of muscovite.

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




have been transported from somewhere else. The data indicate that the source of the raw clay was kept throughout the years. The homogeneity of the material in Miseno is confirmed also by mineralogical and petrographic analysis. On the contrary, the finds from Cuma have a broader distribution in terms of the distance parameter, i.e. the mineralogical composition. This suggests that they were produced elsewhere and brought to Cuma (where no kiln has been found so far), or on the contrary, that the raw materials have been imported from more than one place. Following the same procedure of Appendix A, a similar comparison can be done including samples with known composition and firing conditions. If ancient and reference sherds have close composition, then it is possible to use the d vs T plot of the reference samples as calibration curve for the medieval sherds. [3] When this procedure is applied to the finds of Miseno and Cuma, the results of fig. 1 suggests that the maximum firing temperature has been reduced on average from about 900-1000 °C to about 700-800 °C over the period ranging from the 7th century to the 12th century AD. This inference is confirmed by the small amount of calcite in the composition of almost all the investigated samples [22]. The proximity of the two communities of Cuma and Miseno could be the reason for a similar d history, either due to an exchange of goods or due to a technological osmosis. Samples from the 12th century deserve a cautious consideration, since they cannot belong to the same kiln of Miseno as the others, and because of the small number of experimental determinations; nevertheless, the results on these samples suggest that they have been produced in the same region, with similar technology.

Appendix A The result of the Rietveld analysis is an array of values Aj=[ph1,j;ph2,j;.;phm,j], where j=1...N labels the sample and m=1...kj the mineral phases, which describes both qualitatively and quantitatively the mineral phase content of each sample. It is then assumed that samples manufactured from the same clay, with the same firing history have the same content in terms of mineral phases, while different firing histories may determine the loss of a particular phase and/or the appearance of a new component. At this stage it may be useful to gather the samples in groups according to their distance with respect to a ‘‘mean sample’’. The latter is defined starting from the arrays of all the N measured samples and is defined to contain n phases: the mean sample exhibits all the (n≥k) phases which appear at least in one of the real samples. The weight fraction of a phase in the ‘‘mean sample’’ is



equal to the average of all the measured weight fractions of that phase:

Obviously, some of the n phases which are present in the fictitious ‘‘mean sample’’ may be absent in a real sample. In this case, the weight fraction for the absent n-k phases in the real sample are set to zero:

The distance of the j-th sample from the ‘‘average’’ is then defined as:

δ j assumes both positive and negative values, depending on the balance between the concentrations of the different phases. Possible compensation effects arising from positive and negative terms can be monitored looking at both the total distance and the distance of the individual phases (these comparisons have been done but the corresponding plots are not shown in the paper). In the last equation each phase has almost the same weight, so that a minority phase also contributes to the unambiguous cataloguing of the samples.

Acknowledgment The authors would like to acknowledge the ‘‘Sopraintendenza Archeologica di Napoli e Caserta’’, for kindly providing the archaeological samples. These experiments on ROTAX have been performed within the Agreement No. 01/901 between CCLRC and CNR, concerning collaboration in scientific research at the spallation neutron source ISIS and with partial financial support of CNR. References 1. W. Kockelmann A. Kirfel E. Hähnel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 28 213 (2001). 2. T. J. Wess, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, J. Wouters, O. Paris, P. Fratzl, M. Collins, J. Hiller, K. Nilsen. Archaeometry, 43 117 (2001).

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3. A. Botti, M. A. Ricci, G. De Rossi, W. Kockelmann, A. Sodo. Journal of Archaeological Science 33 307 (2006). 4. A. Castellano, M. Martini, E. Sibilia, Elementi di archeometria, Egea, Milano 2002. 5. J. W. Cogswell, H. Neff, M. D. Glacock. Journal of Archaeological Science, 23 283 (1996); O. S. Rye et al. Archaeometry, 24 59 (1982); P. M. Day, E. Kiriatzi, A. Tsolakidou, V. Kilikoglou. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26 1025 (1999). 6. S. R Simms, J. R. Bright, A. Ugan. Journal of Archaeological Science, 24 779 (1997); I. Sondi, D. Slovenec. Archaeometry, 45 251 (2003). 7. S. C. Jordan, C. Schrire, D. Miller. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26 1327 (1999). 8. M. F. Ownby, C. L. Ownby, E. J. Miksa. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31 31 (2004); R. B. Mason, L. Golombek. Journal of Archaeological Science, 30 251 (2004). 9. J. Buxeda I Garrigós, R. E. Jones, V. Kilikoglou, S. T. Levi, Y. Maniatis, J. Mitchell, L. Vagnetti, K. A. Wardle, S. Andreou. Archaeometry, 45 263 (2003); J. Buxeda I Garrigós, M. A. Cau Ontiveros, V. Kilikoglou. Archaeometry 45 1 (2003); M. Bertelle, S. Calogero, G. Leotta, L. Stievano, R. Salerno, R. Segnan. Journal of Archaeological Science 28 197 (2001); A. Pierret, C. J. Moran, L.-M. Bresson. Journal of Archaeological Science 23 419 (1996).

10. G. De Rossi, L’Africa romana XIV, Sassari 2000, Carocci Ed., Roma, 2002, pp. 835-846. 11. G. De Rossi, Proceedings of: La ceramica altomedievale in Italia. V Congresso di Archeologia Medievale (CNR, Roma 26-27 November 2001), All‘Insegna del Giglio, Firenze, 2004. 12. G. Beaucage, Journal of Applied Crystallography 28 717 (1995). 13. H.M. Rietveld, Journal of Applied Crystallography 2 65 (1969). 14. J.D. Jorgensen, Journal of Applied Physiology 49 5473 (1978). 15. H. Chessin, W.C. Hamilton, B. Post, Acta Crystallographica 18 689 (1965). 16. P.L. Althoff, American Mineralogist 62 772 (1977). 17. E. Prince, G. Donnay, R.F. Martin, American Mineralogist 58 500 (1973). 18. G. Chiari, P. Benna, E. Bruno, Zeitschrift fuer Kristallographie 169 35(1984). 19. M. Catti, G. Ferraris, S. Hull, A. Pavese, European Journal of Mineralogy 6 171 (1994). 20. R.L. Blake, R.E. Hessevick, T. Zoltai, L.W. Finger, American Mineralogist 51 123 (1966). 21. N.G. Zorina, S.S. Kvitka, Kristallografiya 13 703 (1968). 22. J. Buxeda, I. Garrigós, H. Mommsen, A. Tsolakidou, Archaeometry 44 187 (2002).

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BEAR: a Bending Magnet for Emission Absorption and Reflectivity S. Nannarone1, A. Giglia2, N. Mahne2, A. De Luisa2, B. Doyle2, F. Borgatti2, M. Pedio2, L. Pasquali3, G. Naletto4, M.G. Pelizzo4, G. Tondello4 1

TASC INFM-CNR SS 14 km 163,5 Trieste - Italy and Dip.

Abstract The BEAR (Bending Magnet for Absorption Emission and Reflectivity) apparatus is presented. The main parts of the apparatus including the transport optics and the experimental end stations are essentially described. A number of scientific results are presented dealing with on going activity at BEAR. They include optical properties of materials, studies of buried interfaces, diffuse interface scattering of light and the determination of electronic structure and local geometry of a chemisorbed molecule on a metal surface. Introduction The BEAR (Bending magnet for emission, absorption and reflectivity) apparatus [1] is operative at the Elettra storage ring [2] located in the Science park area of Trieste, Italy. BEAR is positioned at the 8.1 bending magnet exit of Elettra. The apparatus is conceived to exploit the experimental possibilities provided by a photon beam of tunable energy with variable ellipticity and selectable helicity (right circular polarization - RCP, left circular polarization - LCP) in the study of the interplay of electronic (magnetic included) and local structural properties of solid materials, surfaces and interfaces in the visible-soft X ray range. In fact a number of relevant aspects are offered by this photon energy range including a complete insight into the electronic structure giving access both to full and empty states of bulk [3], surfaces and interfaces [4], collective effects [5] and magnetic properties [6], joint density of states, local- atom selected

di Ingegneria dei materiali ed amb., Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia; 2TASC INFM-CNR; 3Dip. di Ingegneria dei materiali ed amb., Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia; 4 LUXOR INFM-CNR

– atomic geometry, morphology [7] on a scale ranging from Å [8] to tens of nm and surface or interface roughness [9]. The BEAR apparatus delivers photons in the 3 eV–1600 eV photon energy range. The experimental end station is based on an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber which makes possible linear and circular dichroic reflectivity and absorption measurements, diffuse light scattering, energy resolved visible luminescence, energy integrated fluorescence and angle resolved photoemission for valence band, core level and local structure studies. A preparation chamber is connected in UHV to the experimental chamber featuring surface and thin films deposition and preparation equipment. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the functioning principles and features of BEAR and of its performances as illustrated through a number of scientific cases selected from the theme currently under study by this apparatus. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec.1 the transport and beam handling optics is presented. In Sec.2 the experimental end station including preparation chamber and measurement chamber are presented. Sec.3 is divided into a number of subsections dealing with, in order, the determination of the optical constants of materials, the study of buried interfaces by

Fig. 1. Optical source of BEAR: about 4 mρ of the 5500 mm circular radius of the 8.1 bending magnet of Elettra are collected (3.3 mρ × 3.6 mρ – vertical × horizontal) by the first optics. The intensity distribution as a function of the angle Ψ with respect to the orbit plane is shown for three photon energies. Light emitted with Ψ > 0 ( Ψ < 0) is right (left) circularly polarized. The axes of the laboratory frame of reference are shown.



Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007


Fig. 2. Transport, monochromatisation and beam conditioning optics of BEAR. Downstream along X axis of the laboratory frame: beam position monitor (BPM), helicity/ellipticity selector, first parabolic mirror (P1), plane mirror (M1), monochromatizing section (normal incidence and grazing incidence monochromator), second parabolic mirror (P2), exit slits, filter section, gas absorption cell, refocusing elliptical mirror (E), ivergence/helicity/ellipticity selector and beam intensity monitor. The red arrows indicate the degrees of freedom of the optics.

combining standing field created in periodic stratified structures (multilayers) and photoemission, the study of interfaces by diffuse scattering and the determination of electronic structure and local geometry of chemisorbed molecules on metals. 1. Transport and handling optics The optics of BEAR accepts, as shown in Fig. 1, 3.6 mrad in horizontal and 3.3 mrad in vertical of the light emitted by the arc of electron trajectory of the 8.1 bending magnet (radius 5.5 m) of Elettra. Assuming the laboratory frame of reference as indicated in Fig.1 (x axis along the beam direction, y axis horizontal and z vertical axis) the electromagnetic field emitted by the arc of trajectory at frequency w and along a direction forming an angle Ψ with the orbit plane can be written as


Optical Element

P1 M1 M2 GNIM G1 G2 P2 Refocussing mirror

According with the expressions for the radiation emitted by an accelerated charged particle [10] the y and z components of the field are given by


where + → Ψ>0 and – → Ψ<0. Ai is an Airy function and the other symbols have the usual meaning. Consequently, at the source, the two components are out of phase by a quantity δ = ± π/2 with the sign +(-) for the radiation emitted above the orbit plane with Ψ>0 (Ψ<0). This results in right circularly (RC) polarized emission for Ψ>0 and left circular polarized emission for Ψ<0, a fact exploited at BEAR – see below – to

Lines per mm

Focal distance [m]


— — — 1200 1200 1800 — —

12 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 2.3 1.5

Platinum Platinum Platinum Platinum Platinum Platinum Platinum Platinum

Slope errors RMS [arcsec] Tang. x Sagitt. 2.5’’ × 0.2’’ × 0.2’’ × 0.2’’ × 0.2’’ × 0.2’’ × 2.5’’ × 2.5’’ ×

2.5’’ 0.2’’ 0.2’’ 0.2’’ 0.2’’ 0.2’’ 2.5’’ 5.0’’

RMS roughness [Å]

≤5 ≤5 ≤5 ≤5 3 2.5 ≤5 3.0 - 4.2

Table 1. Main characteristics of the optical components of the BEAR beamline

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




produce a beam of positive or negative helicity; indeed a variable ellipticity is obtained – see below – by changing the angular acceptance in Ψ, which affects the E0y component as shown by the first of eq.’s (2). The corresponding dependence of the total intensity is shown in Fig.1 for three photon energies [11]. A schematic drawing of the beamline[12] is shown in Fig. 2. The optics do not have an entrance slit. The beam position is continuously monitored by a four quadrant diode device (BPM), the output reading can be used to correct the eventual drifts in energy of delivered photons [13]. Downstream from the source the ellipticity/helicity selector follows, its functioning is based on a slit of variable aperture (∆Ψ) and of variable vertical position. The first optical element is a parabolic mirror (P1) working at 2.5° of grazing incidence defocusing the source into a parallel beam (source in the focal point at 12000 mm). The optics works in sagittal focusing to reduce the effects of slope errors in the dispersing plane (by a factor equal to sin(2.5°) = 4.4x10-2 in this specific case). The dispersing/mochromatising section works in parallel light. It features two plane gratings (1200 l/mm and 1800 l/mm) working in the plane-mirror-plane-grating configuration (Naletto-Tondello) [14] and a third grating (1200 l/mm) working in a normal incidence configuration. A second parabolic mirror (P2) working at 2.5° of grazing angle focuses the dispersed light onto the exit slit (placed in the focal point at 2300 mm). The couple of parabolic mirrors feature a 5.2 demagnification. The monochromatic beam is eventually refocused at the target position by an elliptical mirror working at 2.5° of grazing incidence. The refocusing optics feature 1:1 magnification. The main characteristics of all the optical elements are listed in Table 1. A chamber containing selectable filters for high order rejection and a gas cell for energy calibration and resolution measurement are placed in sequence between the exit slit and the refocusing mirror. The vertical and horizontal divergence selector (alternatively used as ellipticity/helicity selector when working in the vertical plane) and the beam intensity monitor are located between the refocusing optics and the experimental chamber. The latter features W and Au meshes of 90% and 65% transmission, respectively, working in drain current and LiF beam splitter working at 60° combined with a EUV photodiode.→ The electric field at the target ET, in the laboratory frame can be written as

where ηT = ETz/ ETy (related to ellipticity, see for instance ref.[15]) and δT is the relative phase shift at the target. Both quantities depend on the setting of the ellipticity/helicity selector as described above; small influence on both ellipticity and phase shift can arise from reflection on the optical elements, mainly in the region of the edges of major contaminants (e.g. C and O). Moreover the ellipticity results from an average of the z component of the field on Ψ, depending on the settings

Fig. 3. Photon flux at the sample position with: stored current 200 mA, beam energy 2.4 GeV, vertical slit aperture (dispersive plane) 50 µm, normal incidence grating (3-40 eV) and grazing incidence grating (40 – 1600 eV).

(slit opening and vertical position) of polarization selector; the light dependence on Ψ of the incidence angle on the optical elements, can introduce a weak Ψ dependence of δT which is averaged on the slit aperture. The photon flux at the target position is shown in Fig.3 in the 3 eV – 1600 eV photon energy range with a spot whose cross section is vertical slit (typically 30 µm) × 400 µm (variable) and whose maximum divergence is 20 mρ vertical × horizontal. The energy bandwidth as a function of photon energy is shown in Fig.4 at different vertical exit slit apertures for the 1200 l/mm grating (slightly smaller bandwidths are obtained with the 1800 l/mm grating). Single element multilayer polarimetry [16] is used to determine and monitor the linear, PL, and circular, PC , polarization ratios of the beam through the measurement of Stokes parameters (S0, S1, S2 and ⏐S3⏐) [17] according to the relations ;


(3) Typical values range in the 30 – 100 eV photon energy ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 (0.8 to 0.5) for PL (C). A PC ≈ 0.7



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was obtained from circular magnetic dichroism at the Co L23 edge (780 eV).

2. End station The experimental chamber [18] is shown in fig.5 and fig.6. The chamber is an UHV chamber (base pressure 1 x 10-10 mbar). The apparatus features a high flexibility (together with high precision, repeatability and resolution in positioning of sample and detectors) in the choice of the scattering geometries both from the point of view of incidence and detection geometries. The frames of reference of laboratory, ΩL, chamber, ΩC, manipulator, ΩM are indicated in fig.5 (b) (the sample frame of reference, ΩS – not indicated - coincides with ΩM when the sample is aligned). The sample manipulator features six degrees of freedom resulting from the XYZ translation stage, and the combination of the rotation ΘM, the azimuthal rotation ΦM and the sample normal precession correction. Once the sample is aligned (precession corrected and ΘM axis intersecting the surface in the centre of rotation of the chamber) the ΘM rotation actuates the rotation matrix

EUV-XUV photodiodes (typically IRD SXUV-100 silicon photodiodes), emitted electrons by electron energy analyzer [19] (hemispherical, mean radius 66 mm, angular acceptance ± 2°, energy resolution ~ 1% pass energy in the range 1-50 eV, equipped with 16 anodes for parallel acquisition) and sample drain current (femto-ammeter, Keithley). Helmholtz coils for magnetic field compensation are provided.


Fig. 4. Energy bandwidth (experimental – dots; calculated full lines) as a function of photon energy of BEAR in the 40 – 1400 eV energy range at different vertical aperture of the exit slit.

while the ΨC rotation actuates the rotation matrix


The combination of the ΘM and ΨC settings permits the positioning of the sample normal in any position in the laboratory frame of reference; ΨC scans at fixed ΘM result in sample normal to precess in the laboratory frame. → Combining the two rotations the electric field ET of eq. (3) appears in the sample frame of reference in the form

The electron analyzer and four diodes are installed, as shown in Fig.s 5 (a) and (b), on the joint arm of the experimental chamber featuring two mutually orthogonal and independent rotations actuated by an in-air goniometer, ΘA, and by an in-vacuo ball bearing, ΦA. The two rotations are represented by



This expression shows that by a suitable choice of the couple of angles ΘM and ΨC a given component of the impinging electric field can be positioned in any direction with respect to the sample normal. Signal detection includes, basically, light detection by

Their combination allows to positioning a detector in any position in the frame of reference of the sample independently from the values of ΘM and ΨC. In Table 2 the angular accuracy range of different rotations are reported. The diameter of the confusion sphere of the axes at the chamber center does not exceed 50 µm . Angular detector scans make possible, among others, angle resolved photoemission and θ-2 θ reflectivity scans. Optical absorption experiments can be performed both

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in transmission or by measuring sample drain current or Auger or fluorescence yield. Diffuse light scattering experiments are feasible as well; possible modes include rocking scans and offset detector scans with typical angular resolutions in the scattered wave vector of the order of 10-3 nm-1. Additional detectors include diodes in fixed position and energy resolved visible luminescence. Test spectra are shown in Fig.7 where the X-ray excited luminescence from a BaF2 sample; Fig.7 (a) shows an excitation spectrum through the Ba M4,5 edges; and Fig.7 (b) the spectral response with a fixed incident photon energy of 130 eV. For the possibilities offered by luminescence see, for

example, [29] and [30] and referenes therein. Sample temperature in the measurement position can range from ≈100 K to ≈ 500 K. The preparation chamber is shown in Fig.6. The sample manipulator is shown and the ports where different items are installed are indicated. They include a cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA), evaporation section (evaporation flange and thickness monitor), ion gun (IG), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), load lock and transfer arm. The experimental chamber is shown rotated by an angle ΨC = 45° around the beam axis. Sample temperature in preparation chamber can range between 100 K and 1500 K.

Fig. 5. Experimental chamber: (a) CAD image: manipulator shaft, ΘM axis, alignment XYZ stage and goniometer with differentially pumped joints; ΘA goniometer with differentially pumped joints and in-vacuo ΦA rotation; detector arm with electron analyzer and photo diodes; ΨC axis for chamber rotation around beam axis and differentially pumped joints and goniometers. (b) Conceptual of the experimental station, (mainly from the point of view of rotations and translations of sample and detectors). Different frames of reference, associated to the different moving parts, are indicated. The shaft supporting the hemispherical electron analyser is also supporting photodiodes for reflectivity measurements. Light beam is directed along the xL axis.

Frame or Axis Analyser arm goniometer, primary rotation ΘA Analyser arm goniometer, secondary rotation ΦA Chamber rotation ΨC Manipulator arm goniometer ΘM Manipulator xM translation Manipulator yM translation Manipulator zM translation Manipulator azimuth rotation ΦM Manipulator precession correction ΨP Table 2. Linear and angular movements.



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360° 220° (± 110°) 100° 360° ± 5 mm ± 5 mm 20 mm 200° 3°

0.001° 0.01° 0.1° 0.001° 1 µm 1 µm 10 µm 0.1° 0.01°


3. Experiments 3.1 Optical constants The wide optical range, the continuous spectrum due to the bending magnet source and the end station in UHV with surface science facilities make BEAR a powerful apparatus for the determination of optical constants of materials. Results related with the determination of the optical constants of Ce and Sc films are shown in Fig.8. Both materials are of particular interest in the design and construction of multilayer mirrors. Ce and Sc films were prepared by evaporation on a substrate consisting of C

films of ~ 10 nm thickness deposited onto an electroformed hexagonal micro-grid of Nickel. The experimental transmittances of Ce films of different thicknesses evaporated in UHV onto an electron microscope nickel grid in the 5 eV – 1000 eV are reported in Fig.8 (a) [20]. Experimental values of the real and imaginary part of the index of refraction of Sc films are shown in Fig.8 (b) and (c) [21] corresponding to the region of Sc M23 and Sc L23, respectively. The extinction coefficient k(ω) was obtained by the Lambert law from transmission data at different thicknesses; δ(ω) was obtained from k(ω) through

Fig. 6. BEAR preparation chamber: sample manipulator, cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA), evaporation section (evaporation flange and thickness monitor), ion gun (IG), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), load lock, transfer arm. Experimental chamber is shown when rotated of an angle of 45° around the beam axis.

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a Kramers-Kronig transformation. The δ(ω) and k(ω) values obtained from data base of atomic scattering factors [22] are shown for comparison. 3.2 Multilayers and buried interfaces Multilayers are periodic stacks of layered materials widely used as band pass filters in optical technology [23]. The mirror reflectivity (Fig. 9 (a) and (b)) shows a peaked dependence through a mechanism totally analogous to the Bragg diffraction from a crystal. At Bragg peak a significant standing field is established inside the material with the periodicity of multilayer whose peaks and valleys move through the interfaces while scanning in angle or in wavelength through the Bragg condition. This fact results in a modulation of the localization of maxima and minima of the exciting field, in particular at the interfaces inside the multilayer an aspect which can be exploited in interface spectroscopy [24]. In Fig.9 the result of a photoemission study of the Ru-Si interface, at fixed photon energy while scanning through the Bragg peak of a [Si 41.2Å /Mo 39.6Å ]x40 multilayer capped with 15 Å of Ru, is summarized [25]. A typical photoemission spectrum in the region of Ru 3d excitation is shown together with the deconvolution into the interface and bulk Ru components with the addition of a small feature due to the emission from C 1s. The behavior in angle of the two Ru components is shown. 3.3 Interface diffuse scattering Beside specular reflection, there is a contribution of diffuse scattering related to the roughness and the morphology of the interfaces [9]. These processes are of particular relevance in the performance of optical devices including mirrors and multilayers. The process is an elastic process whose kinematics is giv→ → → → → en by KS = Ki + q z + q // where Ki is the wave-vector of → the incidence field, K S the wave-vector of the diffused → → one and q z and q // are the normal and parallel component of the exchanged vector respectively. In this kind of processes the interface roughness is commonly described by an autocorrelation function of the form → 2 ⏐) = 2σ [1-e-(R/ξ)] H(⏐x - x’⏐,⏐y y’⏐) = H(⏐R → where R ≡ (x,y), σ the average roughness and ζ the autocorrelation length. In this framework the elastic scattering crossection is given by

Fig. 7. X-ray excited luminescence from a test BaF2 sample: (a) excitation spectrum around the Ba M4,5 edges; (b) Spectral response at incident photon energy of 130 eV.

and appears as the Fourier transform in q // of a potential built in term of the autocorrelation function and of its parameters σ and ζ.



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Fig. 8. Optical constants of materials: (a) transmittance of Ce samples at different thicknesses as a function of photon energy in the 5 eV-1000 eV ~ range [20]; refraction index n (ω) = 1-δ(ω)+ik(ω) of Sc, experimental δ(ω) and k(ω) in: (b) 20-60 eV range and (c) 200-600 eV range [21]. The values obtained from the data base of atomic scattering factors [22] are shown for comparison.

Fig. 9. Reflectivity study of [Si41.2Å/Mo39.6Å ]x 40 multilayer capped with 15 Å of Ru. Specular reflectivity in normal incidence (10°) (a) as a function of the photon energy and (b) as a function of the grazing incidence angle at photon energy =838 eV; (c): Standing field analysis of Ru/Si buried on top of the Si-Mo multilayer with a photon energy of 838 eV. A typical photoemission signal from Ru 3d is shown (see also text). The behavior of the areas of the Ru 3d components in Ru and in ruthenium silicides as a function of grazing angle are shown [25].

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specular peak indicating an improvement of planarity of the interfaces.

Fig. 10. Diffuse scattering as a function of q// wave vector for [Mo28Å/Si12Å]x40 and [Mo/ B4C /Si/B4C/Mo] x40. Full dots ion assisted growth. Results were obtained in an ω−scan around the specular direction (q// = 0) at 30° with a photon energy 94.7 eV (13.1 nm). After ref. [26].

The optical performance (peak reflectivity) of Mo-Si multilayers was contrasted with the construction procedures including ion assistance during growth and the interposition of a B4C buffer layer between Si and Mo layers [26]. Ion assistance produces in both cases an increase of peak reflectivity ~ 5%. Diffuse scattering results are summarized in Fig.10. The inspection to the figure shows that ion assistance results in a narrower scattering distribution around the



3.4 Molecular thin films In Fig. 11 the experimental results of a combined optical absorption study in the near UV region in the HOMOLUMO interband transitions range and at the C K edge, for local structural studies, are reported for polystyrene thin films [27]. The films were prepared by spin coating on fused quartz plates, with thickness from 50 nm (~2Rg) to 180 nm (~9Rg), where Rg is the unperturbed gyration ratio of the polymer. The UV spectra show clear differences with thicknesses attributed to different reciprocal orientation of benzene ring dimers. Pentacene (Pn, brute formula C22H14) is a π-conjugated acene molecule formed by five π-conjugated C rings. When deposited on solid substrates Pn can form a “standing up” layer or a “lying down” configuration. This latter geometry can hinder the formation of ordered layers, a fact that can have technological relevance in the field of organic electronics. Photoemission valence band measurements and XAS spectra at C K-edge were collected for Pn thickness ranging from submonolayer to multilayer [28]. The evolution of the XAS and VB photoemission spectra as a function of the Pn coverage are shown in Fig. 12. The dominant features were assigned to π resonances related to the various molecular occupied (3b2g, 2au and 3b3g) and unoccupied (labeled LUMO and LUMO+1) states. The XAS spectra were measured as a function of the electric field at the surface. For all the coverages the intensity of the π resonances show a strong dichroism. The evolution of the XAS for 1 ML when the sample normal is made to precess (scan in ΨC at fixed incidence angle) is shown in Fig. 12. A quantitative analysis (see Fig. 13), based on the assumption → → that the optical absorption is proportional to ⏐p .E ⏐2 and by using the parameters of the impinging elliptical electromagnetic field, provides the average tilt angle of the molecule with respect to surface of 10°± 5°.

Conclusions The BEAR (Bending Magnet for Absorption Emission and Reflectivity) was presented. The main parts of the apparatus including the transport optics and the experimental end stations were essentially described. A number of scientific results were presented dealing with at present on going activity at BEAR. They included optical properties of materials, studies of buried interfaces, diffuse interface scattering of light and the determination of electronic structure and local geometry of polymers films and chemisorbed molecule on a metal surface.

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Fig. 11. Optical absorption of Polystyrine films: (A) optical absorption in the 4-9 eV photon energy range, upper panel film thickness of 180 nm ( ~9Rg), lower panel 50nm (~2Rg) (B) optical absorption at C K-edge of 2Rg thick polystyrene at grazing incidence 20° at different direction of the incident electric field along a precession scan. From ref. [27].

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Fig. 12 Pentacene on Ag(111) as a function of coverage (for details see also text): (a) X-ray absorption at the CK edge; (b) valence band photoemission with a photon energy of 60 eV [28]

Fig.13 X-ray absorption spectrum at the CK edge of 1 monolayer of pentacene on Ag(111): (a) absorption spectra versus sample normal precession, for details see inset and text; (b) area of the first feature of resonance as a function of the molecule tilt angle (see also text) [28].




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Acknowledgments Project funded by INFM and operated by TASC INFMCNR ( ) At the apparatus is operative as public facility at Elettra ( Public access started in January 2003, S. D’Addato, S. Valeri, M. Sacchi for their contribution in the early conception of the project. P. Finetti, G. Selvaggi, G. Gazzadi for their help in different stages of construction and commissioning of the apparatus. The collaboration with Sincrotrone Trieste spa is acknowledged. The technical and administrative services of TASC are acknowledged recalling the invaluable assistance of mechanical service (P. Bertoch, A. Gruden, P.F. Salvador). G. Paolicelli and G. Stefani are acknowledged for their assistance in design, construction and commissioning of the electron analyzer.

References 1.; 2. http://; 3. See for example “Photoemission in Solids” Vol II Eds. L. Ley and M. Cardona Springer Verlag Berlin (1979). 4. N.V.Smith, F. J. Himpsel “Photoelectron Spectroscopy” in “Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation” Vol. 1b eds. E.-E. Koch, North Holland, NewYork (1983); 5. M. Sunjic and D. Sokcevic, Solid State Commun. 15(1974)165; 6. J. Stöhr Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 75 (1995) 253;W. L. O’Brien and B. P. Tonner, Phys. Rev. B 50, 12672-12681 (1994); M. Altarelli Phys. Rev. B 47, 597-598 (1993) C. W. M. Castleton and M. Altarelli, Phys. Rev. B 62, 1033-1038 (2000) 7. B.L. Henke and J. W. DuMond, J.Appl.Physics 26 (1955) 903; 8. For absorption see J. Stoehr “NEXAFS spectroscopy” Springer Verlag Berlin (1992); for Photoelectron diffraction see D.P. Woodruff et al., Rep. Prog. Phys. 57 1029-1080(1994); C.S. Fadley, The Study of Surface Structures by Photoelectron Diffraction and Auger Electron Diffraction Synchrotron Radiation Research: Advances in Surface and Interface Science, Vol. 1: Techniques, editor R. Z. Bachrach (Plenum, New York, 1992) 9. S. K. Sinha, E. B. Sirota, S. Garoff, H. B. Stanley, Phys. Rev. B, 22972312 (1988); D. G. Stearns, J. Appl. Phys. 65 (1989) 491;

10. J. Schwinger , Phys Rev 175 (1949) 1912; see for example A. Hofmann “Synchrotron Radiation” ed. By G. R. Greaves and I. H. Munro, Proceedings of the thirtieth Scottish University Summer School in Physics Aberdeen 1985; 11. The site provides numerical values of distribution curves; 12. S. Nannarone et al. AIP Conference Proceedings 705 (2004) 450; 13. A. Giglia et al. Rev. Sci Instr. 76 (2005) 063111; 14. G. Naletto, G. Tondello Pure Applied Optics 1, (1992) 357; 15. R. D. Guenther “Modern Optics” J. Wiley and Sons 1990, p. 38; 16. W. B. Westerveld, K. Becker, P. W. Zetner, J. J. Corr, J. W. McConkey, Appl Optics 24 (1985) 2256; M.-G. Pelizzo, F. Frassetto, P. Nicolosi, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, Applied Optics 45, (2006) 1985; 17. Stokes parameters are given by

18. L. Pasquali, A. De Luisa, S. Nannarone AIP Conference Proceedings 705 (2004) 1142; 19. G.Paolicelli et al. to be published; 20. M. Fernández-Perea, J. A. Aznárez, J. I. Larruquert, J.A. Méndez, L. Poletto, D. Garoli, A. M. Malvezzi, A. Giglia and S. Nannarone, Proc. SPIE Vol. 6317, 63170V (2006) 21. M.Fernandez-Perea, J.Larruquert, J.A.Arnarez, J.A.Mendez, L.Poletto, A.M.Malvezzi, A.Giglia, S.Nannarone, J.Opt.Soc.Am. A 23(2006)2880; 22. B.L.Henke et al. available at 23. E. Spiller, Soft X-Ray Optics, Ed. SPIE, Bellingham, WA (1994); 24. S.-H. Yang, B. S. Mun, N. Mannella, S.-K. Kim, J. B. Kortright, J. Underwood, F. Salmassi, E. Arenholz, A. Young, Z. Hussain, M. A Van Hove and C. S Fadley, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 (2002); 25. Mahne et al to be published. 26. A. Patelli, V. Rigato, G. Salmaso, F. Borgatto, S. Nannarone, LNL Annual Report 2004; 27. S.Chattopadhyay, A.Datta, A.Das, A.Giglia, N.Mahne, S.Nannarone, to be published; 28. M. Pedio et al., submitted to Applied Surface Science; 29. T.K. Sham et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 0405313 (2004); 30. I. Salish et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 245401 (2004).

[Note of the Authors] - The scientific community of the Italian Surface Physics lost during the year 2006 Massimo Sancrotti a friend of many of us, an excellent physicist and an enthusiastic teacher and organiser. This paper is devoted to his memory.

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News from ESRF The ESRF’s Upgrade Programme The ESRF Long-Term Strategy upgrade is an ambitious renewal programme that aims to ensure the leading scientific position of the facility over the next two decades. «The upgrade is a very real challenge for us, but is essential if the ESRF is to continue to provide the European scientific community with the very best experimental tools», says Professor Bill Stirling, Director General of the ESRF. New and refurbished beamlines are proposed to answer new scientific needs, underpinned by a programme to maintain and refurbish the accelerator complex which is at the heart of the ESRF’s activities. The project includes highly specialised nano-focus beamlines, with even brighter hard X-ray beams, and the renewal of beamline components such as detectors, optics, sample environment and sample positioning. The upgrade will involve the reconstruction of about one third of the beamlines for significantly improved performance. Some will be extended to about 120 meters to provide nanometer focus capabilities.

In addition, the accelerator complex will be upgraded, and science-driven partnerships with both industry and academia will be developed, all underpinned by an ambitious instrument development programme. This project is the result of three years of consultation and work between the ESRF and the scientific user community. This renewal programme will be submitted to the Council in 2007 and, if approved, would start in 2008. The down time for the facility would be as short as possible in order to minimise disruption of the users’ scientific programmes. The ESRF´s

upgrade is present in the first European Roadmap for Research infrastructures. The document presents 35 large scale research infrastructure projects, identified as being of key importance for the development of European science and innovation. The ESFRI roadmap will allow a common European approach to the development of such facilities, support the definition of priorities and aid the pooling of the significant financial resources required for their realisation. M. Capellas Espuny ESRF Press Officer

Figure 1. Artist’s impression of a section of the future extended and upgraded ESRF Experimental Hall. This upgrade will enable longer beamlines to take advantage of the ESRF’s fine X-ray source properties and allow specialised centres to be built around beamline clusters sharing scientific and/or technological expertise. Credits: ASSA.

News from ILL A direct Test of E = mc2 One of the most striking predictions of Einstein’s theory of special relativity is probably the best known formula in science: E = mc2. This report describes the most precise direct test of this mass/energy relationship to date.Combining ultra-precise atomic mass and gamma-ray wavelength measurements involving isotopes of silicon and sulphur, we obtain two tests that separate-



ly confirm Einstein’s relationship and yield a combined result of 1–∆mc2/ E = (–1.4 ± 4.4) × 10–7. A straightforward verification of Einstein’s mass/energy equivalence principle E = mc2 would be possible by measuring the energy of annihilation radiation of two particles. However, measurement of the 511 keV

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annihilation radiation of the electron and positron is complicated by initial kinetic energy, while accurate measurement of annihilation radiation of heavier particles is even more difficult. An elegant way out is to consider the mass and energy balance in a nuclear reaction, which is initiated by particles with a minimum of kinetic energy. Such a reac-


tion is realised when a nucleus with mass number A captures a neutron. In this case the mass of the resulting isotope, with mass number A+1, ought to differ from that of the original nucleus (plus unbound neutron) by the neutron binding energy En(A+1). In most reactions all of the Energy is emitted as gamma rays, the wavelength λι of which can be precisely measured via Bragg diffraction. In this case Einstein’s equation can be rewritten as (MR(A)+MR(n)–MR(A+1))c2 = 1 = 1/u En(A+1) = 103NA hc Σ ë ι ,


where the Avogadro constant NA relates a relative atomic mass MR (in unified atomic mass units u) to its mass in kilograms m, h is the Planck constant and c the speed of light. The summation in the right part of equation (1) runs over all gamma rays of a cascade connecting capture and ground state. The mass of the neutron can be eliminated from equation (1) by introducing the masses of Hydrogen 1H and Deuterium 2 D combined with the wavelength λD corresponding to the deuterium binding energy.

determined. The diffraction angles are measured with angle interferometers. These interferometers can be calibrated with respect to an absolute angle of 2π using a precision optical polygon. As the calibration angle is much larger than the measured Bragg angles, a very good non-linearity of the angle interferometer is required. The energies of gamma rays to be measured ranged from 0.8 to 5.5 MeV. Because the diffraction angle of a 5 MeV gamma ray by a low order reflection is less than 0.1 degrees, our binding energy determinations were limited by our ability to measure the diffraction angles of the high-energy gamma rays better than 10-8 degrees. From the experiments we report values of

En(29Si)=hc/(0.146 318 275 (86)·10-12 m), En(33S)=hc/(0.143 472 991 (54)·10-12 m) and E n( 2D)=hc/(0.557 341 007 (98)· 10-12 m) [3]. These numbers combine to yield relative uncertainties of 5.1 10 -7 ( 33S) and 8.0 · 10-7 (29Si) for the right-hand side of equation (2). The mass difference was determined at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology using a new technique to directly compare the cyclotron frequencies of two different ions simultaneously confined in a Penning trap [4]. This greatly reduces many systematic and statistical errors, particularly those due to magnetic field fluctuations. Two independent experiments with 28,29 Si and 32,33S were carried out. During the measurements, the two ions

(MR(A)+MR(2D)–MR(1H)–MR(A+1)) = (2) 1 1 = 103 NAh/c (Σ ë ι – ë D)

The molar Planck constant is N A h = 3.990 312 716(27)·10 -10 J s (u/Kg), and has been independently confirmed at the 5·10-8 level by diverse experiments through its relationship with the fine structure constant [1]. The gamma-ray wavelengths have been measured in a collaboration of scientists from the ILL and the National Institute of Standards and Technology using the GAMS4 crystal spectrometer, which is positioned at the H6/H7 tangential beam tube [2] of the ILL. Gamma rays from an inpile target are diffracted by two nearly perfect flat Si crystals whose lattice spacing d has been carefully

Figure 1. Illustration of the experimental concept to compare the mass and energy balance in a thermal neutron capture reaction. The atomic masses are measured using precision Penning Trap measurements at MIT (USA), while the energy is extracted by means of a diffraction measurement at the GAMS spectrometers of the ILL.

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are placed on a common circular orbit (magnetron mode), on opposite sides of the centre of the trap and separated by a distance of about 1 mm. Correcting for the polarisation induced shifts of the cyclotron frequencies we obtain ion mass ratios. Correcting further for the masses of the missing electron and the chemical binding energies of the atom we obtain neutral mass ratios of MR(32S)+MR(H)–MR(33S) = = 0.00843729682(30) u and MR(28Si)+MR(1H)–MR(29Si) = = 0.00825690198(24) u. By adding MR(2D)-2MR(1H) = – 0.001 548 286 29 (40) u to each one, we obtain the mass differences of equation (2) with a relative uncertainty of about 7 · 10-8 for both.

The comparison of the measured energies and masses leads to two independent tests of (1- E /mc 2 ) of 2.1(5.2)·10 -7 and -9.7(8.0)·10 -7 with sulphur and silicon isotopes respectively, and a combined value of -1.4(4.4)·10-7. This test is 55 times more accurate than the previous best direct test of E = mc2, performed by comparing the electron and positron masses to the annihilation energy. The error on this comparison is currently dominated by the uncertainty on the gamma-ray measurements. The major problems within these measurements are the insufficient non-linearity and time stability of the angle interferometers. However, there are already projects

to improve these parameters further, which would eventually allow the results to be improved by one order of magnitude. References 1. P.J. Mohr and B.N. Taylor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, (2005) 1-107 2. E.G. Kessler et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 457, (2001) 187-202 3. M.S. Dewey et al.,, submitted to Phys. Rev. C. 4. S. Rainville, J.K. Thompson, and D.E. Pritchard, Science 303, (2004) 334-338

S. Rainville* Harvard University and MIT Cambridge, USA

J.K. Thompson*, D.E. Pritchard MIT Cambridge, USA

E.G. Myers Florida State University, Tallahassee

J.M. Brown Oxford University

M.S. Dewey, E.G. Kessler Jr., R.D. Deslattes NIST Gaithersburg

H.G. Börner, M. Jentschel, P. Mutti ILL

* These

authors contributed equally to this


Figure 2. View of the GAMS4 double flat crystal spectrometer. The orientation of two perfect Si crystals is controlled by optical angle interferometers. The absolute calibration of the interferometers is carried out using an optical polygon.

Hydrogen Storage in a Metal-Organic Framework A variable-temperature single-crystal Laue diffraction study on VIVALDI has located the gas absorption sites within a hydrogen-loaded metal-organic framework. Neutron Laue diffraction offers unique advantages in the characterisation of such materials, which are possible candidates for fuel storage in the automotive industry.



In the first experiment of its kind, a variable-temperature (5-300K) single-crystal Laue diffraction study on VIVALDI has been used to locate the gas absorption sites within a hydrogen-loaded metal-organic framework. Low-temperature neutron Laue diffraction offers unique advantages in

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the characterisation of these materials, providing information essential to the development of this novel class of framework compounds. One use of these compounds as gas storage media, in conjunction with fuel cells, would be in the automotive industry. The technology already exists in the


loaded crystal of Zn 4 O(CO 2 ) 6 [Zn4O(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate)] (figure 1). The greater adsorption volume associated with a single crystal compared to a powder was an essential reason for this study. Two sites were unambiguously identified, and these both display the characteristics of physiabsorbed hydrogen molecules [5]. The space-filling diagram of one of the framework cavities at 5K (figure 2) shows that the hydrogen gas congregates in the vicinity of the framework nodes. The gas enters and leaves the framework reversibly on cooling and heating, even in a sealed capillary, with eight H 2 molecules absorbed per framework formula unit at 5K, four H2 molecules at 50K, and none at 120 K. At 120K, the evacuated framework retains its integrity even though it contains ~77% of void space that is accessible to the hydrogen gas. At 5K the physisorbed hydrogen gas occupies approximately just 12% of this volume at a loading pressure of 1 atm. Higher pressures may result in further absorption near the organic linker molecules, as predicted by grand canonical Monte-Carlo simulations [6], and we will pursue this aspect in future neutron studies.

form of fuel cells to convert stored chemical energy, in the form of hydrogen gas, directly into electrical energy with high efficiency [1]. However, the crucial factor that is hindering progress towards the commercial exploitation of these devices is the safe and efficient storage of the hydrogen fuel gas. The design and technological development of storage media to overcome this difficulty is at the forefront of current research [2]. Of the various materials under investigation, ordered porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks, are favourably considered to be capable of fulfilling this role [3]. The ability to adapt the surface chemistry of the framework cavities makes metal-organic frameworks particularly attractive contenders for hydrogen-storage applications. By optimising the chemical and electronic nature of the framework architecture, the gas uptake, at a given pressure and temperature, can be maximised. In a systematic approach to the modification of a particular framework, with the aim to improve its gas absorption properties, it is imperative to understand which sections of the structure interact strongly with the

physisorbed hydrogen gas. Once they are identified, these elements of the structure can be enhanced to increase the absorption characteristics of the framework material. Although there have been examples reported of the use of single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction for determining the location of absorption sites for a variety of gases (CO2, Ar, and O2) within porous coordination polymer complexes [4], this information is of limited use in terms of the advancement of these materials for hydrogen storage. It is of greater benefit to determine the location of hydrogen gas molecules themselves included within a framework structure, as this knowledge is of direct relevance. However, here x-ray diffraction is less suitable than neutron diffraction, since the accuracy of the results obtained is greatly limited by the low x-ray scattering ability of hydrogen, particularly when the hydrogen undergoes large thermal vibration. In a pioneering experiment of its kind, a variable temperature (5300K) single-crystal Laue neutrondiffraction study was conducted on VIVALDI, to locate the gas absorption sites in a 0.1 mm 3 hydrogen-

Figure 1. One unit cell of the Zn4O(CO2)6 structure. After accounting for the van der Waals radii of the framework atoms, a sphere with a diameter of ~8 Ă&#x2026; could diffuse freely through the framework.

Figure 2. A) The location of the two hydrogen absorption sites at 5K relative to the Zn4O(CO2)6 framework. The H1-H2 site is 100% occupied at 50K, 30K and 5K; H4 is 98% occupied only at 5K. B) Space-filling diagram of one of the framework cavities at 5K. Purple: zinc; red: oxygen; black: carbon; grey: framework hydrogen atoms; gold: absorbed hydrogen gas.

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The success of the experiment demonstrated the ability of Laue neutron diffraction to study very small single crystals by neutron standards, often in compromised environments such as gas-exchange capillaries. This means that this technique can be expected to play a key role in the structural study of framework materials in the immediate future.

References 1. B.C.H. Steele and A. Heinzel, Nature 414 (2001) 345 2. L. Schlapbach and A. Züttel, Nature 414 (2001) 353 3. M.J. Rosseinsky, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater., 73 (2004) 15 4. Y. Kubota, M. Takata, R. Matsuda, R. Kitaura, S. Kitagawa, K. Kato, M. Sakata and T.C. Kobayashi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2005, 44, 920 5. E.C. Spencer, J.A.K. Howard, G.J. McIntyre, J.L.C. Rowsell and O.M. Yaghi, Chem. Comm. 2005, accepted 6. T. Sagara, J. Klassen and E. Ganz, J. Chem. Phys. 121 (2004) 12543

Elinor C. Spencer Durham University and ILL

Judith A.K. Howard Durham University

Garry J. McIntyre ILL

Jesse L.C. Rowsell and Omar M. Yaghi University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

News from LCLS Ground Breaking for Linac Coherent Light Source On October 23, 2006, the ground breaking ceremony was held for Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world’s first X-ray freeelectron laser. Scheduled for completion in 2009 at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the LCLS will produce ultra-fast, ultra-short pulses of X-rays a billion times brighter than any other source on earth. The LCLS represents the 4th generation of machines designed

to produce synchrotron radiation for scientific studies, an idea originally pioneered at SLAC in the 1970s. Unlike a circular storage ring, the LCLS will produce x-rays using the final 1/3 of SLAC’s existing linear accelerator, in conjunction with long arrays of undulator magnets. Nearly 1,000 attendees listened to the keynote address of DOE Under Secretary of Science Raymond L. Orbach. The LCLS project is a collaboration

among Department of Energy laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the University of California Los Angeles. Allen E. Ekkebus Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

A map of LCIS site



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News from NCXT National Center for X-ray Tomography The National Center for X-ray Tomography (NCXT) was dedicated on October 23, 2006.

The new soft x-ray microscope at the National Center for X-ray Tomography captured its first x-rays on August 23, 2006

It is located at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This new center features a first-ofits-kind x-ray microscope. According to cell biologist and microscopy expert Carolyn Larabell, who is the principal investigator for the new center, «X-ray microscopy is an emerging new technology that expands the imaging toolbox for cell and molecular biologists, and we are going to make this technology available to the greater biological community». The NCXT is being funded with grants from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and from the National

Institutes of Health (NIH). As an NIH technology resource center, the NCXT will be available to qualified biomedical researchers throughout the nation. The centerpiece of the NCXT is the first soft x-ray transmission microscope to be designed specifically for biological and biomedical applications. It is capable of imaging whole, hydrated cells at resolutions of about 35 nanometers, and specific structural elements within the cell at a resolution of at least 25 nanometers. Allen E. Ekkebus Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

News from NMI3 Development of Neutron Detectors for Very High Resolutions and Counting Rates In the JRA DETNI (DETectors for Neutron Instrumentation) three novel modular thermal neutron area detector types, based on thin solid neutron converter layers, are being developed for time- and wavelengthresolved neutron detection in singleneutron counting mode, with twodimensional spatial resolutions of up to 50-100 µm FWHM, sub-microsecond time-of-flight resolution and counting rates of up to 108 neutrons/s per detector module, i.e. for coping with the highest resolution and rate requirements at next generation pulsed spallation sources like ESS. Recording only signals above noise in single-event counting, the

image contrast is greatly improved in comparison to integrating detectors, like CCD cameras or image plates. In addition, by scanning in a single measurement a full wavelength train, in time-of-flight radiography-tomography the contrast of individual elements in the sample is enhanced specifically in elementspecific resonances of the total neutron scattering cross section. In addition to imaging, applications e.g. in time-of-flight Laue diffraction, veryhigh resolution single crystal diffraction and reflectometry are envisaged, among others. The detector types are: • Four-fold segmented modules of

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Silicon micro-strip detectors (SiMSD), with each segment comprising a 157Gd converter layer between two double-sided Si sensors of 51 · 51 mm2 sensitive size and with 80 µm pitch in the X and Y micro-strip readout planes. • Hybrid low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber (MSGC) detectors of 254 · 254 mm2 sensitive size with three-stage gas amplification gaps and novel two-dimensional position-sensitive multilayer MSGC plates either side of a composite 157 Gd/CsI converter which is coated with columnar CsI secondary electron emitter layers. • CASCADE detectors with stacks




of cascaded GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) foils on either side of a double-sided, two-dimensional position-sensitive readout electrode. The GEM foils are coated on both sides with 10B converter layers and drift the secondary electrons, released in the gas by the secondary ions emitted form 10B after neutron capture, to a last GEM foil where they are amplified for two-dimensional detection. For readout, in DETNI two novel self-triggered high-rate ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) chips [1], subsequent ADC-FPGA boards with Gigabit glass fiber readout links and the required data acquisition firmware and software are being developed. The ASICs, a low-noise 128-channel chip optimized for the Si-MSD and strip rates of 160 khits/s, and a 32-channel chip optimized for the MSGC with variable amplification and strip rates of 900 khits/s, deliver spatial, analogue amplitude and fast time stamp information with 4 and 2

ns resolution, respectively, the latter being necessary for X-Y strip correlation with low chance coincidence rate. The amplitude readout is used for improving the spatial resolution by center-of-gravity interpolation between the strips and for gating for background suppression. Prototypes of all three detector types are being prepared presently together with the readout electronics for testing in 2007.

Ch. Schulz1, C.Thielmann3, U. Trunk8, P. Wiacek6, Th. Wilpert1 1

Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109 Berlin, Germany 2

Physikalisches Institut der Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany 3


INFM & Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milano I-20133, Italy

References 1. A.S. Brogna et al., N-XYTER, a CMOS readout ASIC for high resolution time and amplitude measurements on high rate multichannel counting mode neutron detectors, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 568 (2006) 301-308

S.S. Alimov1,2, A. Borga3, A. Brogna1,2, S. Buzzetti2,4, F. Casinini5, W. Dabrowski6, T. Fiutowski6, B. Gebauer1, G. Kemmerling3, M. Klein2, B. Mindur1,6, C. Petrillo5, F. Sacchetti5, C.J. Schmidt7, H.K. Soltveit2, R. Szczygiel6,

Zentralinstitut für Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany


INFN & Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, Perugia I-06123, Italy


Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al0. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland 7 Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany 8

Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg,69117 Heidelberg, Germany

Neutron Optics and Phase Space Transformers The most efficient means for increasing the flux at beam lines for neutrons is the use of advanced focusing techniques based either on diffractive optics or the reflection of neutrons from surfaces that are coated with artificial multilayer structures termed “supermirror”. In addition, the flux can be increased by actively changing the phase space of the radiation, for example by cooling the spectrum of the neutrons and/or by moving monochromators. Of course, the flux can also be increased by increasing the source strength as it is for example done in the US and Japan, where new high-power spallation sources are being built and commissioned. The goal of the JRA3-collaboration



is the development and exploration of new focusing techniques and phase space transformations that allow for the investigation of small samples as they occur often in the fields of soft condensed matter and in materials research as well as materials exposed to extreme conditions, for example high magnetic fields and/or high pressure. In order to increase the neutron flux for small angle neutron scattering (SANS), a multi-beam collimator has been developed, featuring 7 masks with 51 pinholes each. First test experiments using a suspension of Latex spheres with a diameter of 225 nm prove that the principle is working leading to the expected flux gains while maintaining the resolu-

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tion. For inelastic neutron scattering experiments, the Q-resolution can often be significantly relaxed. Therefore, a concept of focusing devices concentrating the neutron beams by reflection from supermirror-coated glass tubes that are elliptically curved has been developed. A flux gain of approximately 25 has been measured using neutrons with a wavelength in the range 3 Å < λ <6 Å. In order to increase the efficiency further, improved coating techniques using magnetron sputtering have been developed thus increasing the number of diffracting layers from 500 to several thousand. The systematic studies have led to an improvement of the coatings with respect to the critical angle (m ≅ 4.2)


and to reflectivity (R ≅ 0.70). It became clear that the morphology of the substrate is of utmost importance to obtain an excellent performance. Elliptic guides have been developed for the transport of the neu-

trons from the moderator to the spectrometer. First prototypes show that the expected flux gains of more than a factor of five compared to regular neutron guides can be realised. It is gratifying to see that the new

techniques are already being incorporated at the new Target Station 2 at ISIS that is presently in the construction phase. Peter Böni TUM, for the JRA3 – NO-PST Team

MUONS – Instrumentation for Spin-Polarized Muon Spectroscopy Muons provide a unique probe of atomic level structure and dynamics and the experimental technique is known as Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance (µSR). A wide variety of properties can be investigated across a broad range of systems, including magnetic materials, superconductors, semiconductors and molecular/polymeric systems. A muon can be thought of as a microscopic magnetometer, with spin1/2 and a magnetic moment three times that of the proton, and can be used to inform on local magnetic structure and dynamics. The muon mass is approximately one-ninth that of a proton, and in many experiments muons are used as a mimic to determine proton or hydrogen sites and dynamics, for example in semiconductors, metal hydrides and proton conductors. Muons provide a complementary probe of condensed matter to other techniques such as neutron scattering and magnetic resonance, and are used by many research groups across Europe. This JRA is aimed at advancing technologies in a number of areas relevant to the performance of muon experiments. These advances will benefit the whole European muon community, and are aimed at enhancing the capabilities of the European muon facilities to extend their potential for condensed matter investigations. Specifically, this JRA is aimed at de-

velopments in three areas: 1. Detectors for muon spectroscopy; in particular, development of fasttiming detectors and those capable of providing position information. 2. Instrument simulation; in particular, the development of code to enable full simulation of muon spectrometers. 3. Advanced experimental methods, in particular development of novel pulsed techniques. State-of-the-art Detectors Position sensitive detectors: our recent studies have shown that, in addition to silicon-based detectors, scintillating fibres too are very promising as position-sensitive detectors for µSR. A detailed work including both simulation and testing, has shown the equivalence of signals generated by muon-decay-positron with those arising from common beta emitters: this will make future test procedures simple. Fast and magnetic field insensitive detectors: the performance AvalangePhoto-Diods/SiPMs detectors at low temperatures is at present known in a cryogenic environment. Mechanical difficulties concerning the assembly of the AMPD array on printed circuit boards, will be overcome by using light guides for signal transmission. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations for an improved light output and an increased efficiency are being carried out. The results will be used

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in the design of a revised version of the detector layout. Beside being very fast (some tenths of ns), the response of the blue-sensitive AMPDs, is expected to be also magnetic field independent, as already shown for their green sensitive counterparts, making them an ideal choice for the detector system of a high-field spectrometer. Simulations of detectors and spectrometers Efforts were devoted to the inclusion of positron track simulations into the existing simulation code, and in particular in the test against real data. The magnetic field-dependent effects were investigated by using a purposely built positron detector, which includes two mobile detecting elements mounted inside a superconducting solenoid. The observed effects seem to depend not only on the cyclotron motion of the positrons, but also on the field induced motion of the muons in the incoming beam. Advanced µSR techniques The development of µSR in pulsed environments, e.g. microwave and RF-µSR, has been the main focus. The technology associated with crossed-coil RF excitation has now developed to the point where techniques dependent on this technology (e.g. g-value determination and RF nuclear decoupling) make a regular contribution to the ISIS user programme. RF decoupling, in par-




ticular, requires large RF fields for efficient decoupling, and this technique has greatly benefited from work carried out to improve the efficiency of power delivery to the sample. Significant effort has also been devoted to the development and demonstration of a microwave spectrometer at ISIS. A signal gen-

erator, power amplifier and other microwave components were purchased, and these, together with an in-house designed and built cavity, formed the basis of the instrument. With the cavity optimised at a frequency ~3GHz test experiments were carried out, observing clear resonances from the 3-4 transition

of muonium formed by muons stopped in fused quartz sample. Finally, efforts continued to measure an acoustic muon spin resonance signal.

Cesare Bucci JRA8 – MUONS Coordinator

Development of Methods for Biological Deuteration The DLAB JRA within NMI3 is focused on the development of methods for the efficient and cost-effective deuteration of biological macromolecules. The project is fully dedicated to biological neutron scattering , but has an important link to solution and solid state NMR. The methods that are being developed as part of the project are now starting to have an impact on biological neutron scattering experiments on solutions, fibres, crystallography and dynamics. Real results in these areas that have benefited from these methodological developments are now coming into the scientific press. In very broad terms, DLAB work cover the following general areas: 1. Methods aimed at driving down the cost of deuterated biomolecules, thereby enhancing access. This is being done through the development of new methods to optimise bacterial growth. Two approaches are being deployed here (I) the development of bacterial strains that are more tolerant of D 2 O and deuterated carbon sources, (II) fundamental proteomic approaches in which the molecular networks involved in adaptation are investigated. 2. Methods aimed at developing the use of new organisms for deuterium labelling, thereby extending the range of systems that can be deuterated. Here techniques are being de-



veloped to label organisms such as Ralstonia eutropha and the eucaryotic organism Pichia pastoris. to provide vehicles for the expression of hetrologous proteins that can not be expressed in E. coli. 3. Optimisation of methods for the selective deuteration of biological macromolecules so that the visibility of particular regions of these structures is enhanced in modelling. A variety of approaches are being developed, ranging from methods whereby particular residues are deuterated to those that facilitate macro-scale labelling of large multicomponent systems. 4. Methods aimed at optimising selective hydrogenation of complex biological systems to enable hydrogen incoherent scattering studies of specific components. Techniques for the hydrogen labelling of specific amino acids in deutrated membrane proteins are being extended to various prockaryotic and eukaryotic systems of major biological interest. Over and above the specific technical goals, the DLAB project aims to extend its activities and expertise as widely as possible throughout the European neutron scattering community. Within the current framework this is gradually happening via the network of neutron scattering partners and NMR observers within the DLAB project. It is also happening through the dissemination of results from successful

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deuteration/labelling projects that have exploited the expertise developed. Many of these have used neutron scattering facilities at the ILL, but experiments on labelled systems have also been carried out at ISIS (where reflectometry results have complemented ILL SANS measurements and ssNMR studies, both also exploiting the labelling) and at Juelich (where measurements from the BSS spectrometer have complemented data from other spectrometers with different energy resolutions). Clearly the involvement of all European neutron scattering facilities involved in biological work is essential and this is a primary concern for this JRA in the context of FP7. One intriguing aspect emerging from current activities is the fact that neutron/NMR complementarity is not restricted to mutual benefit simply through labelling requirements. New neutron proposals are indeed emerging as a result of the NMR deuteration & labelling work because NMR users are discovering first hand the value added to their work through the use of neutrons. There is little doubt that the same could be said of many other techniques. Trevor Forsyth JRA7 – D-LAB Coordinator Institute Laue Langevin Keele University, UK


Millimetre Resolution Large Area Neutron Detector As a result of progress in the field of Multiwire Proportional Chambers (MWPC), Microstrip Gas Counters (MSGC) and associated electronics, the performance of neutron gas detectors have constantly improved over the last three decades. Nevertheless, it is obvious that the experimental conditions imposed by future spallation sources will not be fulfilled by present gas detectors. This situation, together with a strong demand to improve existing instruments, explains why detector development has been given high priority within the NMI3 project (Neutrons & Muons Integrated Infrastructure Initiative). The MILAND (MIllimetre resolution Large Area Neutron Detector) Joint Research Activity aims to deliver, by the end of 2007, a fully operational detector of 32 cm x 32 cm sensitive area having a spatial resolution of 1 mm FWHM. Considering other parameters like gamma sensitivity, counting rate, uniformity, and robustness, we expect the performances of the MILAND detector to exceed those of existing neutron detectors. During the first two years of the project, several techniques have been studied and one of them has been selected: 1. the principle of a GSPC (Gas Scintillating Proportional Chamber) is based on the detection of light emitted during the charge avalanche process around thin anodes, producing about hundred times more light than in a solid scintillator. The spatial resolution measured with several prototypes was bellow the specification, but promising ideas emerged from this study: in particular we proposed to exploit the electron drift information to measure the third coordinate of the neutron capture, providing a new method for correcting parallax error of gas detectors;

2. MSGC are made of metallic strips engraved on a substrate by photolithography, and polarised at a high voltage to create gas amplification; they have been also considered for the MILAND detector due to their unique detection performances in counting rate and spatial resolution. Since the size of one single MSGC can’t cover the full area of the MILAND detector, it is necessary to mount several of them side by side, at least 4; it was not been possible to demonstrate in time the feasibility of a continuous sensitive area without dead zone; 3. the MILAND detector will be finally made of a MWPC using a 15 bars pressure vessel, filled with 2 plans of 320 cathodes wires at a pitch of 1 mm, mounted on each side of the anode plan, and connected individually to a fast amplifier and discriminator circuit. The main difficulty encountered was to find the conditions to maintain long anode wires polarised at a high voltage with a distance of only 1 mm between them. As a result of experiments performed with different prototypes, the following parameters have been optimised to reduce the high voltage value, and its effect on the wire stability: gas mixture, detector geometry, wire diameter and mechanical tension, amplifier specifications, and signal processing. The construction of the pressure vessel has started at KFKI (Budapest-Hungaria); the acquisition system is under study at FRM-II (Munich-Germany), the wire electrodes are in fabrication at GKSS (Hamburg-Germany); the analog electronics and digital processing are studied at the ILL (Grenoble-France). In parallel to the construction of the final detector, we continue to study

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more speculative detection techniques like those based on the avalanche light. New prototypes are under study at LIP (Coimbra-Portugal), at ISIS (Didcot-UK) and at the LLB (Saclay-France). Diffractometers in operation on the neutron sources of today will benefit from the MILAND detector, but for future spallation sources like the SNS (US) scheduled in 2006, the JSNS (Japan) in 2007, and the ESS (European Spallation Source), which is expected to start its operation within the next decade, the need for detectors with larger angular coverage will still be unsatisfied, particularly in the field of NMC (Neutron Macromolecule Crystallography). Several of the techniques discussed, or studied during the course of the MILAND project could be used to develop a solid neutron converter cylindrical detector with a sub-millimetre resolution. Bruno Guerard JRA 2 – MILAND Coordinator




Polarised Neutron Techniques Polarized neutron scattering provides exceptional possibilities for detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in phenomena at the forefront of condensed matter research. Co-operative efforts of partners representing 11 European research facilities allows not only for significant improvements of parameters of polarized neutron instruments, but also for the break through long existing limits. The following are just few examples of current progress. Measurement of the vector properties of the neutron polarization provides a unique way of recovering the significant directional and phase information lost when only neutron intensities are measured. Practically, three components of the polarization vector can be determined by neutron polarimeters. JRA

partners have significantly contributed in the construction of a new affordable non-cryogenic 3-d neutron polarimeter MUPAD. The Larmor precession of neutron spin in magnetic field allows for attaching a specific label to each of the neutron in the beam. Such Larmor labeling is the basis of a new neutron scattering instrumentation with an extremely high energy and momentum resolution that is not achievable in conventional neutron spectroscopy (diffraction) because of intolerable intensity losses. Further development of neutron spin-echo spectrometers – new correction elements – is pushing the energy resolution limit beyond 1 neV, thus opening a new horizon for studies of extremely slow dynamics in condensed matter. As to the angular measurements, intensive efforts of partners are resulting in the fur-

ther development of Larmor precession based instrumentation for reflectometry, SANS and diffraction. Particularly, in neutron reflectometry angular resolved measurements perpendicular to the scattering plane become possible allowing for studies of complicate planar nanostructures. To further propagate these powerful and fruitful methods in the neutron scattering community the School on polarized neutron scattering has been held in Berlin (HMI) in September this year, where beside listening to lectures given by experienced polarized neutron scientists, more than 30 participants carried out their own first experiments at polarized neutron instruments.

Alexander Ioffe JRA5 – PNT Coordinator

Virtual Neutrons: MCNSI MCNSI is an acronym for: ”Monte Carlo simulations of Neutron Scattering Instruments”. This activity deals with the fast ray-tracing of neutrons for scattering purpose – in contrast to the much more detailed neutron transport simulations used in nuclear physics (e.g. MCNP). The speed of the ray-tracing simulations is usually sufficient to perform simulated experimental results of good quality within minutes to hours. The basis of the MCNSI activities is the development of three general-purpose Monte Carlo packages: McStas, VITESS, and RESTRAX. The utilization of the packages takes place among more than 100 instrument responsibles and neutron simulators worldwide. Important in this respect is the intercomparison between packages,



which can be done at a very accurate level, as well as the comparison between simulations and experiments (with slightly less accuracy due to unavoidable uncertainties in the experimental set-up). The value of the intercomparison is very significant, since it adds confidence to all packages. This is one important argument for maintaining more than one simulation package. Another argument is that fruitful developments within one package will spread to the others through the MCNSI collaboration. As an example neutron polarization has recently been added to McStas, inspired by VITESS. The most pronounced results from MCNSI is covered by the concept of ”virtual experiments”. This is a vision of completely describing a neu-

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tron scattering experiment from the source, over all optical elements, to the sample, including sample environment and detectors. Virtual experiments can be used to design instruments, perform feasibility studies, prepare experimental set-up, design sample environment, and understand non-idealities in data (as misalignments, multiple scattering, non-Gaussian resolution functions, etc). A number of virtual experiments have been performed within MCNSI, but there is still some development needed before this is a useful tool for the general instrument scientist. The first web-based virtual experiments for feasibility and preparation purposes are expected to be on-line early 2007 at the PSI diffractometer DMC. The virtual experiment con-


cept has led to a strong development in sample descriptions, and in simulation of multiple scattering and sample environment scattering. As an unexpected side-effect, virtual experiments have been discovered to be of large benefit in teaching and training of students, since it gives students a valuable ”virtual handson” experience. Recently, virtual experiments have also been shown to be beneficial for detailed debugging of data reduction/analysis pro-

grams, since it is possible to compare the reduced data with the pre-determined sample cross section. In the future, Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations are likely to deal with more detailed descriptions of virtual instruments, like multiple scattering, sample environment, and new concepts within e.g. polarization and focusing. A very promising idea is the combination of simulation and data analysis programs. This could be used both for detailed

data analysis and in the instrument construction phase. Presently, instruments are optimized on basis of ”maximal flux” and ”best resolution”, whereas the a much more accurate optimization criteria would be ”best quality of analyzed virtual data”. The first attempts along this route has just been initiated. Kim Lefmann Material Research Department Risoe National Laboratory

Neutron Spin Filters. To Revolutionize the Polarized Neutron Applications The 3He neutron spin filter (NSF) has started to revolutionise polarised neutron experiments. The 3He nucleus, which is extremely absorbing to neutrons to the point that it is an excellent gas for neutron detectors, can be spin polarised by very efficient methods. It becomes a filter for the neutron spin having very promising properties. Since January 2004, a consortium of 6 European facilities, namely CEAMDN, FRM-II, FZJ, HMI, ILL and

ISIS, actively develop advanced modular devices with the aim of improving and widening the exploitation of spin filters. This work focusses on the production of polarised 3 He gas using both the spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping techniques and the exploitation of the polarised gas on instruments with improved containers and diverse magnetic chambers necessary for maintaining the 3He polarisation.

The ILL filling station delivered 200 bar.l of polarised 3He gas to a suite of world leading instruments in 2006.

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For the past two years, ILL has modified its polarised 3He filling station and obtained very impressive results: the maximum polarisation has raised from 75 to 83% and the production rate has doubled, reaching 15 bar.l/day. In the meantime, FRM-II has acquired a filling station showing almost identical performance. HMI is finishing the construction of its own MEOP filling station and ISIS has greatly improved its SEOP station, the maximum polarisation moving from 32 to 70%. The relaxation of the 3He polarisation scales with the surface-to-volume ratio and depends strongly on the quality of the inner surfaces of the 3He containers. After many investigations at all facilities and some fruitful discussions with colleagues from the USA, we have finally adopted a reliable recipe leading to the production of containers with long relaxation times (200 to 450 hours). Some work has also been done to build large containers that could be efficiently used in front of large neutron detectors. With the help of companies producing special equipment in clean rooms, we have constructed and




tested very successfully a bananashaped 3He spin filter covering a wide-angle (120°) and featuring a low decay of the 3He polarisation. This success opens the door to the application of 3He spin analyser new neutron sources. We have also designed, constructed and tested a chamber made of µ-metal and permanent magnets for host-

ing NSF cells maintaining the 3He polarisation on neutron beams. It can screen low environmental magnetic fields, protects the users from accidental explosion of the container, does not require the use of a battery during transport and maintains the polarisation efficiently. By adding a solenoid producing an oscillating radiofrequency magnetic field, the

chamber can also flip the polarisation of the 3He nuclei and therefore selects the polarisation state of the neutron beam. With such a device, the NSF is becoming a very practical device that is going to be widely used at many neutron facilities. Eddy Lelièvre-Berna JRA4 – NSF Coordinator

News from SNS Recent Progress in ORNL’s Neutron Sciences Directorate Summary The Neutron Scattering Science Advisory Committee met November 30 - December 1, 2006. The triennial Basic Energy Sciences Review of the SNS will occur December 6-8, 2006. On November 19, a four-hour run of the Spallation Neutron Source was completed at a power level of 60kW at 15Hz. Instruments The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) began installation of the shutters and collimators for the new guide system. Following this, the installation of the final sections of guide is planned for February 2007. The two new SANS instruments at HFIR are complete and ready for commissioning with neutrons. The operating software (based on the popular SPICE program) is being tested. The Scientific Computing Group has enabled HFIR data to flow to the data management system at SNS, and began archiving and backing up existing HFIR data. The three operating instruments at SNS (Backscattering Spectrometer, and the Magnetism and Liquids Reflectometers) continued commissioning. Data collected at 30 kW and 60 kW during the last run cycle demon-



strate that the instrument performance will meet expectations. Operations The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) continues preparations for reactor restart in spring 2007. SNS operations are scheduled for all of November. The typical week is 3 days of neutron production, 3 days of acceleration physics, and one day of maintenance. The next scheduled maintenance period is December 1 January 15. For the October run period, the 514 hours of beam time corresponded to almost 75% of the total planned beam time. Integrated beam power to Target was 1.095 MW-hours in October. On November 19, a four-hour run at a power level of 60kW at 15Hz was completed. Two notable achievements: • SNS now delivers the highest proton intensity per pulse in routine operation of any pulsed spallation neutron source. Recent operation delivered 6.8 microcoulombs/ pulse, or 4.3x1013 protons/pulse; • In dedicated accelerator physics studies, the SNS set a new world record for the most intense bunched proton beam, with 0.96x1014 protons accumulated, bunched, and extracted from the ring.

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007

Employment Opportunities Employment opportunities are periodically available in the Neutron Sciences Directorate or are related to neutron scattering at ORNL. Click on “View Open Positions” at Future meetings and deadlines of interest to SNS and HFIR users For current information, please visit the website x.shtml. • Educational workshop on neutrons in materials science, Oak Ridge Chapter of ASM, April 18, 2007; • Industrial applications of neutrons, April 19, 2007, Oak Ridge, TN; • Use of neutrons for diffraction/materials characterization/engineering, Denver X-ray Conference, July 30-August 3, 2007, Colorado Springs, CO; • SKIN2007 - Studying Kinetics with Neutrons (joint with NMI3), September 27-28, 2007, University of Göttingen, Germany. n_nmi3/n_networking_activities /SKIN2007 • Residual Stress Summit, October 24, 2007, Oak Ridge, TN • SNS-HFIR User Group Meeting, October 8-10, 2007, Oak Ridge, TN


• Center for Nanoscale Materials Sciences User Meeting, October 10-12, 2007, Oak Ridge, TN • 4 th Workshop on Inelastic Neutron Spectrometers (WINS), Oak Ridge, TN fall 2007

• Sessions on biointerphases and magnetism during the American Vacuum Society fall meeting October 13 – 18, 2007, Seattle, WA • American Crystallographic Association, Annual Meeting, May 31-

June 5, 2008, Knoxville, TN

Allen E. Ekkebus Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center featured in Report The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is the subject of the recently released Issue 30 of Los Alamos Science, a publication highlighting the science activities of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Today the LANSCE state-of-the-art facilities operate simultaneously for national security and fundamental science research. The facilities, including the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, the WNR Center, Isotope Production Facility, and Protron Radiography Facility, contribute to nuclear research, nuclear medicine, materials science, nanotechnology, bio-

medical research, electronics testing, and fundamental nuclear physics, in addition to other areas. Some specific future plans include: • Delivering very intense fast neutrons at the Materials Test Station to explore radiation-tolerant materials for advanced nuclear energy options; • Commissioning of an Ultra-cold Neutron Source facility to make high precision tests of the standard model of elementary particle physics; • Upgrading the Proton Radiography Facility to enable high-resolu-

tion of physics of importance to national security; • Enhancing the existing Lujan Neutron Scattering Center to ensure its competitiveness in neutron scattering; • Developing a long-pulse neutron source prototype to explore techniques for achieving a hundredfold increase in neutron flux. The entire issue is available electronically at Allen E. Ekkebus Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

The Lujan Netron Scattering Center at LANSCE.

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




Cultural Heritage Science in the Fast Lane Report from the one-day AHRC/CCLRC meeting at the Tate Modern, London, 28th November 2006 There has been a spate of Heritage Science meetings in the last three months: September 12-13th - Satellite meeting, Synchrotrons, Archaeology and Art, at UK SR Users meeting at Diamond, Didcot, UK. User06/Satellites/Satellite6.htm September 27-28th - Synchrotron Radiation in Art and Archaeology, SR2A06, Berlin, Germany. SR2A06/SR in Art and Archaeology. htm October 23-28th - ICTP, Trieste, International Workshop on “Science and Cultural Heritage”. _display.php?ida=a05230 November 28th - Looking Forward to the Past: Science and Heritage, Tate Modern, London, UK. December 5-7th - Cultural Heritage and Science, An Interdisciplinary Approach for the Conservation of Museum Objects, Ghent University, Belgium. 2006/

deed». It is now well known that Large Scale Facilities in Europe, Neutron, Synchrotron or Laser, are very active in encouraging and promoting cultural heritage research and spearheading innovation. A cursory glance at the publications emerging from synchrotron-related work alone shows a steady increase. A similar trend is seen in the use of neutrons in the same area. In the authors’ humble opinion, we are witnessing a paradigm shift. The Tate Modern event, Looking Forward to the Past: Science and Heritage ( and-

Cultural Heritage scientists visiting the micro-imaging beamline at DIAMOND during the SR UK Users Meeting, 12-13 September 2006

What’s up? Why all this activity? While talking to a senior colleague at SR2A06 in Berlin, he asked me «What’s the future leading to?». Right on cue, the future walked towards us, smiling, why we were both looking at her. «Here comes the future, Julian», was the answer. «The future of heritage science is in the hands of the young scientists from museum conservation departments, national libraries, University and other research laboratories and their friends and collaborators in Europe and elsewhere where, by Jove, heritage science is taken seriously in-



heritage/) was the brainchild of the Chief Executive Officers of AHRC (Arts and Humanities Research Council), Prof. Philip Esler, and CCLRC (Council for the Central Laboratories of the Research Councils), Prof. John Wood, who took the initiative following an inquiry at the House of Lords by the Science and Technology Select Committee’s subcommittee on Science and Heritage chaired by Baroness Sharp of Guildford. This produced a pivotal report (393 pages, including evidence given) with a number of recommendations

ESRF Newsletter, December 2006.

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Report on Science and Heritage on 16 November. Published by the Authority of the House of Lords (


calling on the UK government and government-funded bodies, AHRC and other Research Councils and the cultural heritage institutions and professional bodies, such as the Institute of Conservation (ICON) to take appropriate action. For details see the

The well attended meeting (the Tate Starr Auditorium and foyer where the poster session was held were full to capacity with nearly 200 participants) started with Baroness Sharp’s opening speech summarising the background to the inquiry and the

Diamond poster prizes presented by the CEO of CCLRC. From left: G. Festa (Univ. di Roma Tor Vergata), K. Thomas (Cardiff Univ.), Prof. J. Wood, O. Barbu (Nat. Univ. of Arts, Bucharest)

Some of the COST/EH/ICON sponsored young scientists at the reception.

Baroness Sharp of Guildford opening the Looking Forward to the Past meeting at the Tate Modern

Prof. Annemie Adriaens with Baroness Sharp discussing the COST-G8 poster.

SR in CH publications per year graph. From

report in the House of Lords’ website, pa/ld200506/ldselect/ldsctech/ 256/256.pdf.

recommendations. This was followed by ten splendid talks covering key areas of concern in the UK and including two talks on the European dimension of cultural heritage research with which UK conservation research is intimately connected. A vibrant poster session (some 70 posters, abstracts and web presentations linked to the meeting website) added colour and vigour to the discussions at lunch, coffee break and reception. Thirteen young scientists were sponsored by COST, English Heritage and ICON. The meeting ended with the CCLRC CEO’s closing remarks and poster prize presentations, sponsored by Diamond,

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007

ICON and the Daresbury Archaeometry Unit. Right from the start, it was the organisation committee’s view, supported by the advisory panel, that this meeting should aim for something completely different. Not just a PR or networking event where brave words are spoken to the gathered converted, but an event with consequences and actions to be followed up. It became quite clear early on in the discussion sessions that this is precisely what the participants came for: to stimulate coordinated action from the cultural heritage sector in the UK and to enlist the support of decision makers both within government and in other key areas of policy influence, commonly known as the movers and the shakers. Bodies such English Heritage, Institute of Conservation and RCUK (Research Councils of the United Kingdom) are such bodies of substance, in a position to influence government policy. The Lords S&T sub-committee report makes clear that the current policies of the Department of Culture of Media and Sports (DCMS) require reviewing. The two CEOs present at the meeting have resolved to facilitate the process and a meeting of the (extended) advisory panel is planned early in 2007 to review the situation following the Tate Modern event and to proceed with decisions and actions that can be taken without further delay. Clearly, there’s work to be done. Manolis Pantos1, Andy Smith1 and Winfried Kockelmann2 1

CCLRC, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane,Warrington, WA4 4AD, UK.,, 2

CCLRC, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX. UK.




Imaging and Neutrons Workshop Attracts 2006 The Imaging and Neutrons 2006 (IAN2006) Workshop was held at the Spallation Neutron Source of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee on October 23-25, 2006. IAN2006 was directed to a broad-based international scientific community who wish to advance progress in the use of neutrons in a wide range of imaging applications. The goals of the Workshop were threefold. First, identify the current needs and potential contributions of imaging with neutrons in a wide range of science and areas of applications. Second, recognize new imaging techniques that may be made possible by advanced next generation sources that go beyond established techniques of radiography and tomography. Third, produce a report identifying both potentially valuable imaging techniques and directions for additional research and investment to realize this potential worldwide. The 40 speakers and session leaders participated in a program of two parts: on Monday, there was a focus on current neutron techniques and related challenges and opportunities, and Tuesday and Wednesday sessions were oriented to applications and included other techniques including x-rays and MRI. During the applications portion, the use of neutrons for imaging was described for many scientific disciplines, from biology and medicine to industrial applications in engineering, homeland security, materials science and chemistry. Neutron tomography and radiography were briefly discussed as they were the subject of the 8th World Conference on Neutron Radiography in Gaithersburg, Maryland, of which IAN2006 was a satellite. Of particular benefit to 200 attendees from institutions in 14 coun-



tries and 15 U.S. states were the wide range of other imaging techniques presented that covered many

the presentations can be found in the session on medical and biomedical applications.

Attendees of the eV Neutron Spectroscopy pose at Oak Ridge’s Spallation Neutron Source. (PHOTO CREDIT: IAN ANDERSON/ORNL)

scientific disciplines. The comment repeated many times was appreciation for organizing this interdisciplinary meeting; it promoted the understanding of the effectiveness and limitations of many imaging tools and provided an effective exchange of such awareness. Sponsors of IAN2006 are Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the European Community’s Integrated Infrastructure Initiative for Neutron Scattering and Muon Spectroscopy (NMI3), National Science Foundation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences of the University of Tennessee and ORNL, in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The report is being drafted at the time this article was prepared. It will include summaries of each session as well as recommendations for further research and development. An example of the scope of

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007

Topics and presenters included Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (A. Kapadia, Duke), Microscopic Boron Imaging in Tissue Sections Using High Resolution Quantitative Autoradiography (K. Riley, MIT), Multimodal Contrast Agents (K. Watkin, Illinois, Urbana). Imaging Biomarkers (M. Vannier, Chicago), and State of the Art and Limitations in MRI and Optical Microscopy (W. Warren, Duke). Clearly the bio-imaging community exists and it is strong! But, they are very aware of the capabilities of neutrons. Some opportunities could be in biomarkers (they could be targeted by neutrons), multi-modality (combining x-ray, MRI, and other applications and to ensure that information is truly complementary). The new science enabled by neutrons in biomedical applications might include imaging in drug development, and the synergy of combining neu-


trons with other modalities. But developments are needed to demonstrate the usefulness of neutrons for these purposes. Neutrons can also be used for small animal imaging. As far as technical improvements, discussions indicate much better gamma detectors are needed along with determination of which neutron energies are useful. Collimated high flux portable sources are also desired.

Neutrons for Mona Lisa Lecture On the opening night of IAN2006, Dr. Philippe Walter, of the CNRS Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, discussed activities at the Ion Beam

photography and x-rays, as well as x-ray and ultraviolet fluorescence, Raman spectrometry, and spectrophotometry, and infrared reflectography.

More information on all of these events, including photos, abstracts and copies of presentations and workshop summaries will be found at:

eV Neutron Spectroscopy Session Held A satellite event of IAN2006 held on October 22, 2006 was the Progress in Electron Volt Neutron Spectroscopy Workshop. The observational window provided by high-energy (many electron volt) neutrons offers unique possibilities as a local probe for the exploration of matter. The 45 attendees of this workshop reviewed the latest progress of the field and instrument developments. The workshop objectives included: developing a broad-based multidisciplinary research network for applications of eV neutron spectroscopy; identifying the needs and potential contributions of eV neutron spectrometers; and identifying new techniques that will be made possible by advanced next generation neutron sources. The presentations of this workshop are available as part of the IAN2006 website, at:

As a result of the Workshop, the attendees agreed to explore options for an instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source. George Rieter ( is coordinating this activity.

Wolfgang Treimer, Frikkie de Beer, Gabriel Frei, and Nicolay Kardjilov prepare for discussions during IAN2006. (PHOTO CREDIT: CURTIS BOLES/ORNL)

Analysis (IBA) facility of Le Louvre in Paris, including scientific imaging and analysis of Leonardo Da Vinci’s Mona Lisa and other works of art and artifacts. Entitled Neutrons for Mona Lisa, the talk described the various investigative techniques utilized in cultural heritage investigations. The study of materials from Cultural Heritage needs advanced techniques to shed new lights on ancient technologies and to help in their preservation. The current needs and potential contributions of imaging techniques were described, from the millimeter to the nanometer scales, using large scale facilities such as ion beam analysis at the Louvre, at synchrotron radiation and neutron facilities at Grenoble (France) as well as transmission electron microscopy. In his lecture, he also presented details of the recent examination of the Mona Lisa painting that are described in Mona Lisa: Inside the Painting (by Jean-Pierre Mohen, Michel Menu, Bruno Mottin, published September 2006 by Harry Abrams). The techniques included imaging by

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007

Philippe Walter, of the CNRS Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France, discussed imaging techniques utilized at Le Louvre. (PHOTO CREDIT: CURTIS BOLES/ORNL)

More information on all of these events, including photos, abstracts and copies of presentations, and workshop summaries will be found at the website:

Allen E. Ekkebus Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory




Sea Waves and Spin Waves Meet in Santa Margherita di Pula The biennial School of Neutron Scattering, named after the late Francesco Paolo Ricci, prominent neutron scatterer and one of the founding fathers of the Italian neutron scattering community, has become a fixture of the scientific calendar, and has steadily grown in prestige and international standing over the years. The eighth edition, which I had the privilege to direct together with Dante Gatteschi (University of Florence – INSTM), co-funded by the Association “School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci”, NMI3 and a number of institutional sponsors*, was held at the beautiful Hotel Flamingo in Santa Margherita di Pula (Sardinia) on Sept. 25Oct. 6 2006. This year’s theme, for the first time in the history of the School, addressed the structure and dynamics of magnetic systems, as investigated with a variety of neutron scattering tools. Equal emphasis was placed on theory and practice, with a mix of introductory lectures, specialised lectures providing the theoretical basis of each discipline, scientific seminars on topical subjects and a series of hands-on tutorials.

The latter proved extremely popular with the students, who enjoyed the sophisticated, computer-based data analysis sessions, such as “Slicing and dicing of Q-Ω space” by Toby Perring (ISIS-RAL) as well as the pen-and-paper exercises, such as “Guess the final polarisation” by Jane Brown (ILL) of “Find the spiral phase” by Mechthild Enderle (ILL). Helped in no small part by the unquestionable charm of the School venue, we had managed to lure the very best Lecturers and Tutors on each topic from around the world, and this, in turn, attracted a group of highly competent and motivated Italian, European and International students from as far away as Australia and India. The downside was that the scenic setting could have been an almost irresistible distraction for the students. Nevertheless, the quality of the teaching was so high that the Directors had no difficulty in recalling the afternoon sessions after the lunchtime break on the beach or at the pool or the after-dinner sessions after a good dose of “Mirto Rosso” (well, almost no difficulty…). The School started on Monday afternoon with introductory lectures on Small Angle Neutron Scattering by

Participants to the eight edition of the biennial School of Neutron Scattering (Sept. 25 - Oct. 6, 2006)



Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007

Fabrizio Lo Celso (University of Palermo) and on Inelastic Neutron Scattering by Marco Zoppi (CNRS – Florence), who also gave an interesting after-dinner seminar on the Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) at ISIS. The next two and a half days were largely devoted to the theory and practice of magnetic powder diffraction, taught by Juan Rodriguez-Carvajal (ILL), Laurent Chapon (ISIS) and myself. At the end of this section, most of the students were competently refining neutron powder diffraction data, performing simulated annealing to solve magnetic structures and visualising the results in 3D. But, alas, just when they thought that they were mastering the subject, Jane Brown provided a much-needed “reality check”, shown that there is far more depth to the subject, and initiating the students on the intricacies of neutron polarimetry. Polarised neutron diffraction, with particular reference to measurements of spin density on single crystals, was the subject of the lectures presented by Arsen Gukasov (LLB). A full day was devoted to magnetic neutron reflectometry, with theory lectures by Giampiero Felcher (Argonne National Laboratory), handson tutorials by Tim Charlton (ISIS) and a final topical seminar, given again by Giampiero, on the exciting opportunities provided by the new SERGIS technique. After a much-needed free morning on Sunday, the lectures restarted in the afternoon with Albrecht Wiedenmann (HMI), who provided an extremely clear introduction to magnetic SANS, later followed by a seminar on the investigation of magnetic nanostructures. Having thoroughly explored Q


space in all its facets, the students found themselves on Monday faced with a new dimension (energy transfer), and the relevant techniques of Triple Axis Spectroscopy (Mechthild Enderle – ILL) and time-of-flight chopper spectroscopy (Toby Perring – ISIS). Roberto Caciuffo introduced the formalism of Crystal Field levels and excitations, and its applications to molecular magnetism. This was followed by a Lecture/Tutorial by Roberto Senesi on the unusual but extremely interesting topic of Intermultiplets Transition in Pr probed by high-energy INS. The highly topical subject of molecular magnetism was further pursued by Hans Güdel (University of Bern), with a series of lectures on “Inelastic Neutron Scattering of Spin Clusters and Single Molecule Magnets” and Dante Gatteschi, who lectured on “Molecular Magnets”. The last few days of the School were very busy for the students, who were asked to work in groups to prepare a series of reports, which were presented during the final day. The subjects chosen ranged from an indepth treatment of some of the problems presented in the Tutorials to the application of the methods learned during the School to the Students’ own research topics. All reports demonstrated the effort and dedication perfused by the Students during what amounted to two very intense weeks of work. The reports were also humorous and at times truly hilarious, clearly indicated that, in addition to hard work, the School was also good fun. One particularly valuable contribution from the Lecturers and Tutors was a full set of lecture notes (available on the School web site /index.html), which represents a useful summary of the state of the art in the field of magnetic neutron scattering. Many have expressed the wish to put this to a good use, either in the

form of a new edition of the School, perhaps under different auspices, or of a published collection – a suggestion that we are now considering very seriously. Paolo G. Radaelli

* Sponsors The Association "School of Neutron Scattering Francesco Paolo Ricci” acknowledges the support of Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, NMI3, Università di Milano Bicocca Università di Milano, Università di Palermo (and Dip. di Chimica Fisica), Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Università di Roma Tre (and Dip. di Fisica).

ISIS-Spallation Neutron Source

ETSF European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility

Opening New Eyes to the Nanoworld

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




Feb 12-13, 2007


LNLS 17th Users' Meeting LNLS campus in Campinas

Mar 14, 2007


Photon Factory Users' Meeting

Mar 25-29, 2007 Feb 15-19, 2007


2007 AAAS Annual Meeting Hilton San Francisco & Towers

233rd American Chemical Society National Meeting ?DOC=meetings/future.html

Apr 2-6, 2007 Feb 21-23, 2007


nano tech 2007 (International Nanotechnology Exhibition & Conference) Reception Hall, 1F, Conference Tower

Feb 26 - Mar 2, 2007


28th HMI School on Neutron Scattering HMI

Feb 28 - Mar 2, 2007

VI. Research Course on New X-Ray Sciences. X-Ray Investigation of Ultrafast Processes HASYLAB conference room

Mar 5-7, 2007


NOP 07: European Workshop on Neutron Optics PSI

Mar 5-9, 2007


American Physical Society Meeting Adam’sMark

Apr 9-13, 2007


Second European training school on the synchrotron analysis of ancient artefacts "Ageing, alteration and conservation" Synchrotron SOLEIL newlights-2007/




2007 MRS Spring Meeting Moscone West, San Francisco Marriott


Latin American Workshop on Applications of Powder Diffraction asp?idEvento=57&idioma=2

Apr 23-28, 2007


4th Central European Training School on Neutron Scattering Budapest Netron Centre n_calendar_of_events/n-events-2007/1231

Apr 25, 2007


CAMD Users' Meeting

Apr 25-27, 2007 Mar 12-17, 2007


Science on Stage Festival Europole Congress Centre

Apr 18-20, 2007




2007 SRI Meeting

Apr 26-27, 2007


D7 Millennium Project Meeting Hilton Capitol Center

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007


May 7-11, 2007


IXS2007 – 6th International Conference on Inelastic X-ray Scattering

June 15, 2007


CLS Users' Meeting

June 25-29, 2007 May 7 – 11, 2007


APS Users' Meeting

May 9-11, 2007


GISAXS - an advanced scattering method

May 21, 2007


NSLS Users' Meeting Brookhaven National Laboratory

May 23-25, 2007

14TH BENSC Users' Meeting BENSC – Hahn-Meitner-Institute

June 6-8, 2007

4th European Conference on Neutron Scattering - ECNS Universitetsplatsen

July 23-31, 2007


International Conference on Neutron and X-Ray Scattering alldetails.cfm?ID=18490

July 25-31, 2007




XXV ICPEAC – International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions The Concert House (Konzerthaus)


Proteins in action. Neutron scattering as a tool to study biomolecules in working conditions. n_calendar_of_events/n-events-2007/1233

June 11-17, 2007


1st School and Workshop on X-Ray Micro and Nanoprobes: Instruments, Methodologies and Applications

June 15–17, 2007


Canadian Light Source 10th Annual Users' Meeting (in conjunction with the 62nd Annual Congress of the Canadian Association of Physicists) University of Saskatchewan

June 12, 2007


CHESS Users' Meeting

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




Call for proposals for

CHESS – Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source

Neutron Sources

Deadlines for proposal submission: 30th April and 31st October 2007

CLS - Canadian Light Source BNC Deadlines for proposal submission: 15th May and 15th October 2006

Deadlines for proposal submission: 2nd April and 1st October 2007


FRM-II Deadlines for proposal submission: 23rd February, 17th August, 14th September 2007

Deadlines for proposal submission: 28th Febryary and 31st August 2007


ESRF – European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

Deadlines for proposal submission: Anytime during 2007

Deadlines for proposal submission: 1st March and 1st September 2007 Deadline/

ILL Deadlines for proposal submission: 6th March 2007

FELIX - Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments Deadlines for proposal submission: 1st June and 1st December 2007 f1234.htm

ISIS Deadlines for proposal submission: 16th April 2007

HASYLAB - Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at DESY

LLB-ORPHEE-SACLAY Deadlines for proposal submission: 1st April and 1st October 2007

Deadlines for proposal submission: 1st March and 1st September 2007

NIST - Center for Neutron Research

NSLS - National Synchrotron Light Source

Deadlines for proposal submission: 7th February 2007

Deadlines for proposal submission: 31st May 2007

SINQ Deadlines for proposal submission: 15th May 2007

SLS – Swiss Light Source

Call for proposals for


Deadlines for proposal submission: 15th February, 15th March and 15th June 2007 /opencalls/index.html

Synchrotron Radiation Sources

Deadlines for proposal submission: 15th February and 15th September 2008

SRC - Synchrotron Radiation Center APS – Advanced Photon Source Deadlines for proposal submission: 9th March and 13th July 2007 GUP_Calendar.htm Deadlines for proposal submission: 15th February and 15th August 2007

SSRL - Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

BSRF - Beijing Synchrotron radiation Facility Deadlines for proposal submission: Proposals are evaluated twice a year


SRS - Synchrotron Radiation Source Deadlines for proposal submission: 1st May and 1st Novembre 2007



Deadlines for proposal submission: 1st February and August 2007

Deadlines for proposal submission: 5th May, 1st April, 20th April, 1st May, 1st July, 1st Novembre and 1st December 2007

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007


NEUTRON SOURCES NEUTRON SCATTERING WWW SERVERS IN THE WORLD ( BENSC Berlin Neutron Scattering Center Hahn-Meitner-Institut Glienicker Strasse 100 D-14109 Berlin, Germany Tel: +49/30/8062-2778; Fax: +49/30/8062-2523 E-mail:

Budapest Neutron Centre

HIFAR ANSTO Australia New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights NSW, Australia Phone: 61 2 9717 3111 E-mail: HMI Berlin BER-II (D)

Budapest Research Reactor Type: Reactor. Flux: 2.0 x 1014 n/cm2/s Address for application forms: Dr. Borbely Sándor KFKI Building 10, 1525 Budapest - Pf 49, Hungary E-mail:

Facility: BER II, BENSC Type: Swimming Pool Reactor. Flux: 2 x 1014 n/cm2/s Address for application forms: Dr. Rainer Michaelsen, BENSC, Scientific Secretary, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Str 100, 14109 Berlin, Germany Tel: +49 30 8062 2304/3043; Fax: +49 30 8062 2523/2181 E-mail:


IBR2 Fast Pulsed Reactor Dubna (RU)

Canadian Neutron Beam Centre National Research Council of Canada Building 459, Station 18 Chalk River Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario CANADA K0J 1J0 Tel: 1- (888) 243-2634 (toll free) / 1- (613) 584-8811 ext. 3973 Fax: 1- (613) 584-4040

Type: Pulsed Reactor. Flux: 3 x 1016 (thermal n in core) Address for application forms: Dr. Vadim Sikolenko, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics Joint Institute for Nuclear Research 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region, Russia. Tel: +7 09621 65096; Fax: +7 09621 65882 E-mail:

FRG-1 Geesthacht (D)

ILL Grenoble (F)

Type: Swimming Pool Cold Neutron Source Flux: 8.7 x 1013 n/cm2/s Address for application forms and informations: Reinhard Kampmann, Institute for Materials Science, Div. Wfn-Neutronscattering, GKSS, Research Centre, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany Tel: +49 (0)4152 87 1316/2503; Fax: +49 (0)4152 87 1338 E-mail:


Type: 58MW High Flux Reactor. Flux: 1.5 x 1015 n/cm2/s Scientific Coordinator Dr. G. Cicognani, ILL, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France Tel: +33 4 7620 7179; Fax: +33 4 76483906 E-mail: and

IPNS Intense Pulsed Neutron at Argonne (USA) for proposal submission by e-mail

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH Jülich Type: DIDO (heavy water), 23 MW Research Centre Jülich, D-52425, Jülich E-mail:

send to or mail/fax to: IPNS Scientific Secretary, Building 360 Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4814, USA Phone: 630/252-7820; Fax: 630/252-7722


ISIS Didcot (UK)

Oak Ridge National Lab. Oak Ridge, USA Tel: (865)574-5231; Fax: (865)576-7747 E-mail:

Type: Pulsed Spallation Source. Flux: 2.5 x 1016 n fast/s Address for application forms: ISIS Users Liaison Office, Building R3, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton,

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX Tel: +44 (0) 1235 445592; Fax: +44 (0) 1235 445103 E-mail:

JAERI (J) Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-11, Japan. Jun-ichi Suzuki (JAERI); Yuji Ito (ISSP, Univ. of Tokyo); Fax: +81 292 82 59227; Telex: JAERIJ24596

NRI Rez (CZ) Type: 10 MW research reactor. Address for informations: Zdenek Kriz, Scientif Secretary Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, 250 68 Rez - Czech Republic Tel: +420 2 20941177 / 66173428; Fax: +420 2 20941155 E-mail: and

NRU Chalk River Laboratories The peak thermal flux 3x1014 cm-2 sec-1 Neutron Program for Materials Research National Research Council Canada Building 459, Station 18 Chalk River Laboratories Chalk River, Ontario - Canada K0J 1J0 Phone: 1 - (888) 243-2634 (toll free) Phone: 1 - (613) 584-8811 ext. 3973 Fax: 1- (613) 584-4040

JEEP-II Kjeller (N) Type: D2O moderated 3.5% enriched UO2 fuel. Flux: 2 x 1013 n/cm2/s Address for application forms: Institutt for Energiteknikk K.H. Bendiksen, Managing Director Box 40, 2007 Kjeller, Norway Tel: +47 63 806000, 806275; Fax: +47 63 816356 E-mail:

PSI-SINQ Villigen (CH)

KENS Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator research Organisation 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken,?305-0801, JAPAN E-mail:

KUR Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori-cho Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494,Japan Tel::+81-72-451-2300 Fax:+81-72-451-2600

LANSCE Los Alamos Neutron Science Center TA-53, Building 1, MS H831 Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, USA 505-665-8122 E-mail:

Type: Steady spallation source. Flux: 2.0 x 1014 n/cm2/s Contact address: Paul Scherrer Institut User Office, CH-5232 Villigen PSI - Switzerland Tel: +41 56 310 4666; Fax: +41 56 310 3294 E-mail:

RID Reactor Institute Delft (NL) Type: 2MW light water swimming pool. Flux: 1.5 x 1013 n/cm2/s Address for application forms: Dr. M. Blaauw, Head of Facilities and Services Dept. Reactor Institute Delft, Faculty of Applied Sciences Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15 2629 JB Delft, The Netherlands Tel: +31-15-2783528 Fax: +31-15-2788303 E-mail:


Type: Reactor. Flux: 3.0 x 1014 n/cm2/s Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS) E-mail:

Address for information: A. E. Ekkebus, Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory One Bethel Valley Road, Bldg 8600 P. O. Box 2008, MS 6460 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 - 6460 Tel: 089 289 14701; Fax: 089 289 14666

NIST Center for Neutron Research (USA)

TU Munich FRM, FRM-2 (D)

National Institute of Standards and Technology 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8560 Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8560 Patrick Gallagher, Director tel: (301) 975-6210 fax: (301) 869-4770 E-email:

Type: Compact 20 MW reactor. Flux: 8 x 1014 n/cm2/s Address for information: Prof. Winfried Petry, FRM-II Lichtenbergstrasse 1 - 85747 Garching Tel: 089 289 14701; Fax: 089 289 14666 E-mail:

LLB Orphée Saclay (F)



Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007


SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES WWW SERVERS IN THE WORLD ( ALBA - Synchrotron Light Facility CELLS - ALBA, Edifici Ciències. C-3 central. Campus UAB Campus Universitari de Bellaterra. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain tel: +34 93 592 43 00 - fax: +34 93 592 43 01

CAMD Center Advanced Microstructures & Devices CAMD/LSU 6980 Jefferson Hwy., Baton Rouge, LA 70806, USA tel: +1 (225) 578-8887 - fax : +1 (225) 578-6954 E-mail: CANDLE Center for the Advancement of Natural Discoveries using Light Emission Acharyan 31 ?375040, Yerevan, Armenia tel/fax: +374-1-629806 E-mail:

ALS Advanced Light Source Berkeley Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS6R2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 tel: +1 510.486.7745 - fax: +1 510.486.4773 E-mail:

CHESS Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source 200L Wilson Lab, Rt. 366 & Pine Tree Road, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Tel: +1 (607) 255-7163, +1 (607) 255-9001 E-mail:

ANKA Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Institut für Synchrotronstrahlung Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany tel: +49 (0)7247 / 82-6071 - fax: +49-(0)7247 / 82-6172 E-mail:

CLS Canadian Light Source Canadian Light Source Inc., University of Saskatchewan 101, Perimeter Road Saskatoon, SK., Canada. S7N 0X4 tel: (306) 657-3500 - fax: (306) 657-3535 E-mail:

APS Advanced Photon Source Argonne Nat. Lab. 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Il 60439, USA tel: (630) 252-2000 - fax: +1 708 252 3222 AS Australian Synchrotron Level 17, 80 Collins St., Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia tel: +61 3 9655 3315 - fax: +61 3 9655 8666 E-mail: BESSY Berliner Elektronenspeicherring Gessellschaft.für Synchrotronstrahlung BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin, Germany tel +49 (0)30 6392-2999 - fax: +49 (0)30 6392-2990 E-mail: BSRF Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility BEPC National Laboratory, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences P.O.Box 918, Beijing 100039, P.R. China tel: +86-10-68235125 - fax: +86-10-68222013 E-mail:

CTST - UCSB Center for Terahertz Science and Technology University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), USA DAFNE Light INFN – LNF Via Enrico Fermi, 40, I – 00044 Frascati (Rome), Italy fax: +39 6 94032597 DELSY Dubna ELectron SYnchrotron JINR Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region, Russia tel: + 7 09621 65 059 - fax: + 7 09621 65 891 E-mail: DELTA Dortmund Electron Test Accelerator - FELICITA I (FEL) Institut für Beschleunigerphysik und Synchrotronstrahlung, Universität Dortmund Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Str. 2 44221 Dortmund, Germany fax: +49-(0)231-755-5383

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




HSRC Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center - HiSOR Hiroshima University 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8526, Japan tel: +81 82 424 6293 fax: +81 82 424 6294

DFELL Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory PO Box 90319, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708-0319, USA tel: +1 (919) 660-2666 fax: +1 (919) 660-2671 E-mail: Diamond Light Source Diamond Light Source Ltd Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, OXON OX11 0DE, UK tel: +44 (0)1235 778000 fax: +44 (0)1235 778499 E-mail: ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Lab. Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A Strada Statale 14 - Km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy tel: +39 40 37581 fax: +39 (040) 938-0902 E-mail: ELSA Electron Stretcher Accelerator Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn Beschleunigeranlage ELSA, Nußallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany tel: +49-228-735926 - fax +49-228-733620 E-Mail: ESRF European Synchrotron Radiation Lab. ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9, FRANCE tel: +33 (0)4 7688 2000 fax: +33 (0)4 7688 2020 E mail: FELBE Free-Electron Lasers at the ELBE radiation source at the FZR/Dresden Bautzner Landstrasse 128, 01328 Dresden, Germany FELIX Free Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments FOM Institute for Plasma Physics ‘Rijnhuizen’ Edisonbaan, 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein, The Netherlands P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein, The Netherlands tel: +31-30-6096999 fax: +31-30-6031204 E-mail: HASYLAB Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor - DORIS III, PETRA II / III, FLASH DESY - HASYLAB Notkestrasse 85 22607 Hamburg, Germany tel: +49 40 / 8998-2304 - fax: +49 40 / 8998-2020 E-mail:



iFEL Institute of Free Electron Laser, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University 2-9-5 Tsuda-Yamate, Hirakata, Osaka 573-0128, Japan tel: +81-(0)72-897-6410 INDUS -1 / INDUS -2 Centre for Advanced Technology Department of Atomic Energy Government of India P.O : CAT Indore, M.P - 452 013, India tel: +91-731-248-8003 fax: 91-731-248-8000 E-mail: IR FEL Research Center - FEL-SUT IR FEL Research Center, Research Institutes for Science and Technology The Tokyo University of Sciente, Yamazaki 2641, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan tel: +81 4-7121-4290 fax: +81 4-7121-4298 E-mail: ISA Institute for Storage Ring Facilities - ASTRID-1 ISA, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, bygn. 520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark tel: +45 8942 3778 fax: +45 8612 0740 E-mail: ISI-800 Institute of Metal Physics National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine tel: +(380) 44 424-1005 fax: +(380) 44 424-2561 E-mail: Jlab - Jefferson Lab FEL 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606, USA tel: (757) 269-7767 Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology - Pulse Stretcher/Synchrotron Radiation National Science Center, KIPT, 1, Akademicheskaya St., Kharkov, 61108, Ukraine tel: 38 (057) 335-35-30 fax: 38 (057) 335-16-88 KSR Nuclear Science Research Facility Accelerator Laboratory Gokasho,Uji, Kyoto 611 fax: +81-774-38-3289

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007


KSRS Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Source KSRS Siberia-1 / Siberia-2 Kurtchatov Institute 1, Kurtchatov Sq., Moscow 123182, Russia

NSSR Nagoya University Small Synchrotron Radiation Facility Nagoya University 4-9-1,Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555 Japan tel: +81-(0)43-251-2111

LCLS Linac Coherent Light Source Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 18, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA tel: +1 (650) 926-3191 - fax: +1 (650) 926-3600 E-mail:

PAL Pohang Accelerator Lab. San-31 Hyoja-dong Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, Korea tel: +82 562 792696 - fax: +82 562 794499

LNLS Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas, SP, Brazil tel: +55 (0) 19 3512-1010 - fax: +55 (0)19 3512-1004 E-mail: LURE Laboratoire pour l’utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnétique Bât 209D Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, B.P. 34 - 91898 Orsay Cedex, France tel: +33 (0)1 6446 8000 E-mail: MAX-Lab Box 118, University of Lund, S-22100 Lund, Sweden tel: +46-222 9872 - fax: +46-222 4710 Medical Synchrotron Radiation Facility National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, 263-8555, Japan tel: +81-(0)43-251-2111 NSLS National Synchrotron Light Source NSLS User Administration Office Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Bldg. 725B, Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA tel: +1 (631) 344-7976 - fax: +1 (631) 344-7206 E-mail: NSRL National Synchrotron Radiation Lab. University od Science and Technology China (USTC) Hefei, Anhui 230029, PR China tel +86-551-5132231,3602034 - fax: +86-551-5141078 E-mail: NSRRC National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan, R.O.C. tel: +886-3-578-0281 E-mail:

PF Photon Factory KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan tel: +81 (0)-29-879-6009 - fax: +81 (0)-29-864-4402 E-mail: RitS Ritsumeikan University SR Center MIRRORCLE 6X/MIRRORCLE 20 Ritsumeikan University (RitS) SR Center, Biwako-Kusatsu Campus Noji Higashi 1-chome, 1-1 Kusatsu, 525-8577 Shiga-ken, Japan tel: +81 (0)77 561-2806 - fax: +81 (0)77 561-2859 SESAME Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East E-mail: SLS Swiss Light Source Paul Scherrer Institut reception building, PSI West, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland tel: +41 56 310 4666 - fax: +41 56 310 3294 E-mail SPL - Siam Photon Laboratory The Siam Photon Laboratory of the National Synchrotron Research Center 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand Postal Address: PO. BOX 93, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand Phone: +66-44-21-7040 Fax: +66-44-21-7047, +66-44-21-7040 ext 211 SOLEIL Synchrotron SOLEIL L’Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin - BP 48 91192 GIF-sur-YVETTE CEDEX, FRANCE tel: +33 1 6935 9652 _- fax: +33 1 6935 9456 E-mail:

Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007




SPring-8 Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan Phone: +81-(0) 791-58-0961 ?- fax: +81-(0) 791-58-0965 E-mail:

TSRF Tohoku Synchrotron Radiation Facilità - Laboratory of Nuclear Science Tohoku University Tel: +81 (022)-743-3400 - fax: +81 (022)-743-3401 E-mail:

SRC Synchrotron Radiation Center Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589-3097 USA tel: +1 (608) 877-2000 - fax: +1 (608) 877-2001

UVSOR Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan

SSLS Singapore Synchrotron Light Source –Helios II National University of Singapore (NUS) 5 Research Link, Singapore 117603, Singapore tel: (65) 6874-6568 - fax: (65) 6773-6734

VU FEL W. M. Keck Vanderbilt Free-electron Laser Center 410 24th Avenue Nashville, TN 37212 Box 1816, Stn B Nashville, TN 37235, USA

SSRC Siberian Synchrotron Research Centre – VEPP3/VEPP4 Lavrentyev av. 11, Budker INP, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia tel: +7(3832)39-44-98 - fax: +7(3832)34-21-63 E-mail: SSRL Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA tel: +1 650-926-4000 - fax: +1 650-926-3600 E-mail: SRS Synchrotron Radiation Source CCLRC Daresbury Lab. Warrington, Cheshire, WA4 4AD, U.K. tel: +44 (0)1925 603223 - fax: +44 (0)1925 603174 E-mail: Stanford Picosecond FEL Center USA Super SOR Light Source Kashiwa Campus, Univ. of Tokyo SRL Experimental Hall (Super SOR Project Office) 5-1-5 KashiwanoHa, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8581, Japan tel: +81 (0471) 36-3405 - fax: +81(0471) 34-6083 Kashiwa Campus, Univ. of Tokyo SURF-II / SURF-III Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility NIST, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 3460, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-3460, USA tel: +1 301 975 6478 TNK - F.V. Lukin Institute State Research Center of Russian Federation 103460, Moscow, Zelenograd tel. +7(095) 531-1306/1603 - fax: +7(095) 531-4656



Vol. 12 n. 1 January 2007

NOTIZIARIO Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - Issue 12 n.1, 2007  

Notiziario Neutroni e Luce di Sincrotrone - published by CNR (Publishing and Promotion of Scientific Information) in collaboration with the...