Map Legend Fall/Winter 2014

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Volume 24 Dec 2014

photo by Rick Kohler

Web Mapping Using the ESRI REST API and Leaflet.js

Paul Crickard

The ESRI REST API has simplified the processes of accessing and modifying your geography data through the web. The architecture is language independent - you can code in any language that provides a method for accessing URLs. It is also very easy to learn. If you can open a URL in your browser, you can access and modify your data. In this article, I am going to show you how to create web maps for desktop and mobile using the REST API, JavaScript and the Leaflet.js library.

The Map Legend

JOIN NMGIC!

The REST API When you publish a service from ArcServer, it will create a REST endpoint at http://Your Server Address/ ArcGIS/rest/services. This URL will show you a list of all the services you have published. If you click a specific service, you will see the details for the service, including all the layers available. Select a layer and at the bottom of the page and you will see the available operations. On a feature service you should be able to query, add, update, delete and apply edits. Select the query operation and you will be presented with a web form. If you use the expression 1=1 for the where field and a * for the outfields and press the Query (GET) button, you will see all the data in the feature.

In the image (right), you can see I have 25 records in a point feature class with two attributes: OBJECTID and name. To access this data in our applications, we

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Inside this issue: Election Results

5

Geography Bee

12

Spring Meeting & Workshop Photos

16

NSGIC Report

23

Agricultural Water Conservation

24

Weblinks

33

Mystery Photo

34


The Map Legend The Map Legend is published by the New Mexico Geographic Information Council, Inc. (NMGIC) and is a benefit of membership in NMGIC. The opinions expressed are those of the contributors and do not necessarily represent the views of NMGIC, except where specifically noted. Use of trade names or products does not constitute an endorsement by NMGIC. Members are invited to send articles and announcements of interest to the Editor. Please direct all correspondence to:

NMGIC, Inc. Board of Directors Lisa Arnold, President

Natural Heritage New Mexico Museum of Southwestern Biology MSC03 2020, 1 University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 Voice: 505-277-3822 x230 Email: lisaarn@gmail.com

David Jordan, Vice President INTERA Incorporated 60oo Uptown Blvd NE, Suite 100 Albuquerque, NM 87110 Voice: 505.246-1600 Facsimile: 505.246-2600 Email: djordan@intera.com

Kerri Mich, Treasurer

NM NRCS 6200 Jefferson NE 87109 Albuquerque, NM Voice: 505-761-4437 Email: kerri.mich@nm.usda.gov

NMGIC Web Site located at: http://nmgic.com

Geographic Names Robert Julyan, Chair Voice: 505-298-8420 Email: rjulyan@comcast.net

GNSS Kurt Wurm, Chair Voice: 505-646-6748 Email: Kwurm@nmsu.edu

Laura Gleasner, Secretary Earth Data Analysis Center MSC01 1110 1 University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 Voice: 505-277-3622, ext 230 Facsimile: 505-277-3614 Email: lgleasner@edac.unm.edu

Leland Pierce, Meeting Coordinator Jason Fink NMGIC, Inc. PO Box 9445 Albuquerque, NM 87119-9445 Email: mandoFink@gmail.com

NMGIC Standing Committees

NM Dept and Game and Fish Box 25112 Santa Fe, NM 87505 Voice: 505-476-8094 Facsimile: 505-476-8128 Email: leland.pierce@state.nm.us

State Mapping Advisory Mike Inglis, Chair Voice: 505-277-3622 ext. 252 Fax: 505-277-3614 Email: minglis@edac.unm.edu

Geospatial Education Amy Ballard, Elections Coordinator Amy Ballard Center for Education Policy Research University of New Mexico Manzanita Hall 100 Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 Voice: 505-277-1932 Email: aballard@unm.edu

Joseph Zebrowski, Speakers Coord Director of Geospatial Technology Natural Resources Management Department New Mexico Highlands University Box 9000 Las Vegas, NM 87701 Voice: 505-426-2146 Email: jpzebrowski@nmhu.edu

Denise Chavez, Co-Chair Voice: 505-507-4360 Email: dgisqueen@yahoo.com David Jordan, Co-Chair Voice: 505-246-1600 Email: djordan@intera.com

Kurt Wurm, Workshop Coordinator NM State University Dept of Engineering Tech PO Box 30001, MSC 3566 Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 Voice: 505-575-646-6748 Email: Kwurm@nmsu.edu

Jason Fink, Public Relations Voice: 505-238-8111 Email: mandoFink@gmail.com

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2015 GIS Calendar of Events ESRI

JOIN NMGIC! Membership fee $30 Student Membership fee $15

International User Conference, July 20-24, in San Diego, California

Corporate Membership fee $250 Corporate Member Exhibit fee $100 Non-member Corp Exhibit fee $200

http://www.nmgic.com/

VOLUME 24

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Message From The NMGIC President—Lisa Arnold

Hello fellow NMGIC members! I wanted to first say a big thank you to all those who helped with and attended the fall meeting. For those that missed it, our topic was “The Landscape of Geospatial Education in New Mexico.” We had a very diverse set of speakers and had the opportunity to hear from folks we may not have normally. For example, Gayle Wilson who showed samples of GIS work completed by 6th-12th graders at the Albuquerque Academy. The example projects shown were impressive. We also heard about several ways for professionals in our community to further their own skill set, such as through the NM Edge offerings, or free online training via the FOSS4G Academy. The education topic of the meeting goes hand in hand with the Pathway’s project several board members have been working on. The Pathway’s project is focused on the idea of bringing geospatial education at all levels and workforce together to insure the best possible alignment of curriculum with workforce needs. In the new year, the Pathway’s committee will continue to pursue this idea with the hope of putting on a Pathway’s event bringing students, educators and employers together. Look for more to come on this idea, and of course feel free to volunteer for the committee! Happy Holidays! Lisa

NMGIC offers a scholarship worth up to $1000 to students working on GIT programs!!! See http://nmgic.com Page 4

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NMGIC Election Results

A slate of seven candidates ran for a total of 5 available Board seats in the fall election. Election results include returning Board Members: Jason Fink Laura Gleasner Kerri Mich New Board Members include: Debra Matthews Brian Keller Approximately 80 NMGIC members participated in the election.

Do you have information about a project, new techniques, GIS and related issues, announcements, news, etc. that you would like published in the Map Legend?

VOLUME 24

Don’t Forget to pay your 2015 membership dues!!! The membership form can be found on our website http://nmgic.com/ membform.html

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Web Mapping Using the ESRI REST API

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will use the same URLs but will automate the submission of the form using AJAX. JavaScript Performing operations through a web form is nice, but for a web application, we want to be able automate this process. We will accomplish this by using AJAX. AJAX stands for asynchronous JavaScript and XML, however, the XML has been replaced by JSON. AJAX allows a web page to retrieve data from a server without requesting a new page. An AJAX request in standard JavaScript works as shown in the code below. http=new XMLHttpRequest(); http.open("POST", URL, true); http.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); http.onreadystatechange = function() {//Call a function when the state changes. if(http.readyState == 4 && http.status == 200) { alert(http.responseText); } } http.send(PARAMETERS);

In the above code, you make a POST request to a specified URL with some parameters. The code in your program will continue until the server responds. This is the asynchronous, or the non-blocking, part of the AJAX. When the server responds, the code above checks to see if the readyState is 4 (finished and response ready) and that the http status code is 200 (“OK”). If those conditions are true, you will receive responseText which will be a JSON object. To perform a query using the REST API and AJAX, we add two lines of code above the AJAX request. var URL = http://Your Server Address/ArcGIS/rest/services/attachimage/FeatureServer/0/query; var PARAMETERS=”where=1=1&f=json”; Now you know where the REST endpoint is for an ArcServer Service and how to make an AJAX call. I will show you how to make a simple map in Leaflet.js

Leaflet.js Leaflet.js is a lightweight JavaScript mapping library that runs on desktop and mobile devices. With Leaflet.js you can create a map in two lines of JavaScript. The code below is the HTML required to make a map. <html> <head><title>Leaflet.js Essentials</title> <script src="http://cdn.leafletjs.com/leaflet-0.7.2/leaflet.js"></script> </head> <body> <div style="height:400px; width:400px" id="map"></div> <script> var map = L.map('map', {center: [35.10418, -106.62987],zoom:15}); L.tileLayer('http://{s}.tile.osm.org/{z}/{x}/{y}.png').addTo(map); L.marker([35.10418, -106.62987]).addTo(map); </script> </body> </html> The code above creates a <div> element where the map will be placed, a map object that is centered on the Big-I and zoomed in to level 15. Lastly, it adds a basemap from OpenStreetMap and puts a marker at the center of the map. Next, I am going to show you how to combine the three pieces to create a mobile tracking application.

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Web Mapping Using the ESRI REST API

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Putting it Together – A Mobile Tracker HTML 5 has a geolocation API. In Leaflet.js, it has been wrapped in to a few simple functions. Using the REST API, AJAX and Leaflet.js, I will show you how to upload your locations to a feature class. 1. Create a map with some style information and a <meta> tag to make the map display better on mobile. In your script, you will create a map with no options and tell it to locate. <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0, maximum-scale=1.0, user-scalable=no" /> <style>html, body, #map { padding: 0; margin: 0; height: 100%; } </style> var map = L.map('map'); map.locate({watch:true, setView: true ,maxZoom: 16,enableHighAccuracy:true}); 2. Next, you need to add an event listener for when the map finds you or doesn’t find you. Then, write the functions that each listener will call. map.on('locationfound', onLocationFound); map.on('locationerror', onLocationError); function onLocationError(e) { alert("Unable to use location."); map.setView([35.10418, -106.62987],12); } 3. The above code left out the onLocationFound function because this is where all your code will go. When the map finds your location, you will make an AJAX call to the ESRI REST API and insert the point. When you are found, the event sends your location to the function. It sends it as a Leaflet LatLong object so you need to strip the unnecessary text and just get the coordinates. Then you create a JSON representationn of the point and send it as a parameter to the REST endpoint.

function onLocationFound(e) { coordinateString=String(e.latlng); splitInHalf=coordinateString.split(","); theLat=splitInHalf[0].split("("); latitude=theLat[1]; theLong=splitInHalf[1].split(")"); longitude=theLong[0]; var p1 = '[{"geometry":{"x":'; var p2=longitude; var p3= ',"y":'; var p4= latitude; var p5= '}, "attributes":{}}]'; addFeature=p1.concat(p2,p3,p4,p5); var addParams = "features="+addFeature+"&f=json"; var url="http://ServerName/ArcGIS/rest/services/PaulTrackLogin/FeatureServer/0/addFeatures"; http=new XMLHttpRequest(); http.open("POST", updateurl, true); http.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); http.onreadystatechange = function() {//Call a function when the state changes. if(http.readyState == 4 && http.status == 200) { //alert(http.responseText);

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Web Mapping Using the ESRI REST API

...continued

} } http.send(updateparams); } I have commented out the response, but ArcServer will return whether or not the operation was successful. Because high accuracy was enabled, the map will check your location frequently. Losing a few points will not affect the application. The above code can be modified to perform other actions in the REST API such as delete and update. You can also connect to other services such as a geometry service or a geocoder service. The next example will show you how to use your phone camera to upload images to your feature class. Add Photos to a Feature With Your Phone ArcMap recently introduced the ability to add attachments as a blob and relate them to a feature. In this example, I will show you how to use your phone camera to upload a photo to a feature class – you can either select and image or take one. When you enable attachments on a feature, you will not see it is an available supported operation for your feature class (in ArcServer 10.0). To see attachments on your feature class you will go to http://ServerName/ArcGIS/rest/services/ServiceName/FeatureServer/0/3/ attachments. Where 0 is the layer number and 3 is the objectid of the specific feature. To add an attachment you will change attachments to addAttachment. Let’s add an attachment. Adding an attachment requires sending a file to the server. You don’t have to worry about encoding the data in a binary format because HTML can handle that for us. The key piece of code for uploading an image is the form code below.

var form='<form target="_blank" action="http://ServerName/ArcGIS/rest/services/ServiceName/FeatureServer/0/3/addAttachment" enctype="multipart/form-data" method="post" accept="image/*;caputre=camera"> <input type="file" name="upload" multiple="multiple"><br><input type="submit" value="Upload"></form>

By changing the objectid (3) in the url above, you can change which feature the image is attached to. This code does not require a map. You can put it in a webpage with text fields for the user to select the object they want to upload the image to. Or, you can load the feature class in a map and attach the form to a popup on each feature allowing the user to select the feature visually and then upload the image. When the user clicks the Choose Files button in the form, the user will be taken to their phones camera application. Rolling Your Code in to Widgets As you start using the REST API, you will notice that you are writing the same code over and over and only changing the (x,y) and URL of Page 8

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Web Mapping Using the ESRI REST API

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a feature. This is a sign that you should create a class or widget so you can simplify your code. I have created a geocoder widget that uses my geocoding service and creates the html box in the image below. When you search for an address, it will place the result on the map and zoom.

To add geocoding to any of my maps no longer requires any code. All that is needed are two lines of HTML: <link rel="stylesheet" href="geocoder.css" /> <script src="geocoderMap.js"></script> The .css file handles the styling of the textbox and the .js file does all the work. In the JavaScript code below, the first several lines handle the HTML elements and styling. The work is done in the GeocodeAddress function. You will notice the code is an AJAX call to the REST endpoint with the parameter street set to whatever the user types. When the results are returned, the function parses the coordinates from the result, adds a marker on the map with a popup that contains the address and then zooms to the marker. (function() { var b = document.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]; var first = document.createElement('div'); var second = document.createElement('div'); var addressSearchBox = document.createElement('div'); first.id = "first"; second.id = "second"; addressSearchBox.id = "AddressSearchBox"; b.appendChild(first); first.appendChild(second); second.appendChild(addressSearchBox); var text = "<center><b>Address:</b><input type='text' id='addr' name='to'><button id='search' >Search</button><center>" addressSearchBox.innerHTML=text; var textbox = document.getElementById("addr"); var button = document.getElementById("search"); function GeocodeAddress(){ addressFromAddressSearchBox=document.getElementById("addr").value;

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Web Mapping Using the ESRI REST API

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var params = "Street="+addressFromAddressSearchBox+"&f=json&outSR=4326"; var url = "http://ServerName/ArcGIS/rest/services/AddressLocator/GeocodeServer/findAddressCandidates"; if (window.XMLHttpRequest) { http=new XMLHttpRequest(); }else { http=new ActiveXObject("Msxml2.XMLHTTP"); } http.open("POST", url, true); http.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"); http.onreadystatechange = function() {//Call a function when the state changes. if(http.readyState == 4 && http.status == 200) { var thexy= JSON.parse(http.responseText); var yousearchedfor = L.marker([thexy.candidates[0].location.y,thexy.candidates[0].location.x]).addTo (map).bindPopup('<h3>'+addressFromAddressSearchBox+'</h3>').openPopup(); map.setView([thexy.candidates[0].location.y,thexy.candidates[0].location.x],18); }} http.send(params); } button.onclick=function geocode(){GeocodeAddress(); } textbox.onkeypress=function handleKeyPress(e){ var key=e.keyCode || e.which; if (key==13){GeocodeAddress();}} } ()); Final Thoughts While the examples here focused on mapping, the REST API should be seen as database access to your GIS data. You can create web forms that query or edit your data without the need for a map. For example, I have an HTML table that displays all the current construction projects we are working on and their status. Yes, I can put this on a map, but some users just want to know how many projects there are or who is the project manager for project X.

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Retiring!

Sandi Spencer

San Juan County wants to wish a happy farewell to Sandi Spencer after 29 years of great service! Sandi began her time in the Surveying department at San Juan County as a Rodman (she thinks). Going through a myriad of positions, including work in the Assessor’s Office and also as Addressing Coordinator, Sandi spent the last 11 years as the GIS Coordinator/Supervisor for the GIS department. Sandi has taken the department through numerous changes which have earned the department the distinguished Special Achievement in GIS award from ESRI in 2007. Sandi assisted in the development of the GISS certificate through New Mexico Edge County College, and completed the degree herself in 2013. She also aided in the development of a GIS program through San Juan College. Sandi has been a member of the New Mexico Geographic Information Council for several years. Her knowledge will be greatly missed! Sandi is looking forward to sleeping in, spending more time with her granddaughter, and travelling. We wish her the best in her retirement!

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Middle Rio Grande Endangered Species Collaborative Program Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc. (DBS&A) is currently under a multi-year contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Middle Rio Grande Endangered Species Collaborative Program (MRGESCP) to develop and maintain an on-line GIS based database management system (DBMS). The MRGESCP is a partnership involving 16 current federal, state, local, and tribal signatories organized to protect and improve the status of endangered species along the Middle Rio Grande of New Mexico, while simultaneously protecting existing and future water uses. The existing data used to support Rio Grande Basin management have been collected by many different agencies, stakeholders, and consultants and have been stored in different formats and systems. In their current form, these datasets are not easily accessible for use and analysis by the Program’s various stakeholders. The purpose of the DBMS is to integrate these data into a comprehensive database that enables stakeholders and Program staff to readily access and use these data, through custom queries and analysis tools providing visual and graphic outputs in addition to traditional tables and reports, thereby facilitating data analysis and management decisions. The DBMS is intended to be a web-accessible, multi-disciplinary, spatially referenced, relational system used to consolidate, organize, store, analyze, and distribute both scientific and program management information related to the Program. The system is for projects associated with habitat restoration, water management, and scientific investigations within the Middle Rio Grande basin. The current development team consists of DBS&A and Real Time Solutions (RTS). The primary system functionality includes:

           

Web accessibility GIS / map searching capabilities Integration of spatial GIS and tabular data Interactive query capabilities Download capabilities Security and tiered access Templates for data input Conversion of historical data Links to other external databases Library of Program publications Project tracking interface, including financial/project cost tracking Full-text search of documents in the Document Library, including OCR-processed documents.

http://mrgescp.dbstephens.com

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NGS Geography Bee

Suzan Arfman

The National Geographic Society’s Geographic Bee will be celebrated on March 27 th, 2015, at the National Dance Institute, the old Hiland Theatre, 4800 Central Ave SE, Albuquerque. The Geographic Bee is a much-anticipated school event held annually. Students throughout New Mexico from fourth through eighth grades participate in this renowned competition. The top 100 Bee winners are selected to attend the New Mexico Geographic Bee. The winner of the state Bee is awarded $100.00 and a trip with one parent to the National Geographic Bee held in Washington, D.C. in May. The second and third place contestants also receive monetary awards of $75.00 and $50.00. The National Winner is awarded a substantial scholarship and a trip to the Galapagos Islands. An adventure of a lifetime! This event provides the youth of New Mexico with an excellent opportunity for personal growth through competition with their peers while demonstrating their knowledge of geography. This is a very challenging competition that requires dedication and hard work from all the children that participate. In addition, many dedicated volunteers work hard to ensure the quality of the competition. Knowledge of geography feeds a curiosity that leads the children to solid citizenship by nurturing their deep care for our planet. This event allows us to encourage extraordinary young people who have put forth a great deal of effort to prepare for this competition.

I will be in need of volunteers from parking attendants, information inside, help with set up and break down, judges, and more as I come to know what I will need. The Bee starts at 8:00 and usually finishes up by noon. It is a lot of hard work and it is so worth it. The experience of the tension, excitement, and relief of each participant is something that will stay with you for years to come. And you get a Geographic Bee tee-shirt! I hope that you will answer the calling and volunteer for the Bee.

Please contact me if you are interested: Suzan Arfman suzan.arfman@state.nm.us (505)222-9527 office (505453-2852 cell

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GIS Jobs and Careers Ebook As a GIS educator, I'd like to make you and your students aware of a free eBook we are offering entitled "GIS Jobs, GISP Certification and Geospatial Careers." The eBook was compiled from past articles published by Directions Magazine. So far, the eBook has generated nearly 1500 downloads and is available at no charge. The contents of the book include: Prepare to Get That Job: 20 Challenging GIS Interview Questions Ten Things to Know about the Geospatial Technology Competency Model New Resources for GIS Job Seekers Geospatial Occupations Q&A – Part One Geospatial Occupations Q&A – Part Two Should You Get "GIS Certified" Revisiting the Path to GISP: Is it Time to Add an Examination? The Great Debate: To Certify or not to Certify, That Is an Absurd Question The Top 10 Things You Should Know about GIS Certification Do You Qualify for a GISP? Ethical Insights Q&A: Directions Magazine’s Special Session on GIS Certification with: David DiBiase, former GISCI President, and Sheila Wilson, GISCI Executive Director

http://www.directionsmag.com/images/ebooks/2013/07/GIS-jobs.pdf

Please also visit our Directions on Education Channel with more resources on GIS education.

RGIS (Resource Geographic Information System) The Earth Data Analysis Center (EDAC) has been administrating the Resource Geographic Information System (RGIS), New Mexico’s Geospatial Data Clearinghouse, for over 20 years. Last year, RGIS provided over 40 Terabytes of data to State, County, Municipal, Town, Commercial, Federal, and Public interests that support hundreds of projects. So, if you need New Mexico Geospatial Data, contact RGIS. 2014 NAIP mosaics in compressed .sid format (RGB/Natural Color) are now available for download. The four band quarter-quads have been ordered and will be available in 2015. Please note that coverage for the White Sands area is not available at this time. Contact: Laura Gleasner Email: lgleasner@edac.unm.edu Voice: 505.277-3622 Ext 230

RGIS Website: http://rgis.unm.edu/

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Jessie Rossbach Memorial Scholarship Visit the NMGIC website, see the “Education” Category http://www.nmgic.com/ Attention Students in GIT... Application deadline: March 31, 2015. NMGIC offers a scholarship worth up to $1000 to students working on GIT programs!!! See http://nmgic.com ASPRS Rio Grande Chapter is offering an undergraduate and graduate scholarship ($250 each). Applications are due March 13, 2015. http://rmr.asprs.org/local_chapters/riogrande/

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Fall 2014 Meeting Photos

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Fall 2014 Meeting Photos

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Fall 2014 Meeting Photos

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NMGIC Workshop at Blue Skies

Thank you Blue Skies for a great tour!

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New Mexico Statewide LiDAR Acquisition Plan In January 2014, the New Mexico Geospatial Advisory Committee formed the NM Elevation Data Planning and Acquisition Subcommittee to respond to the USGS 3D Elevation Program opportunity and plan for New Mexico’s need for enhanced elevation data. The committee was tasked with creating an inventory of existing elevation data, developing partner and stakeholder relationships, identifying LiDAR data needs and priorities, and developing a statewide LiDAR acquisition plan.

Current 10 Meter DEM Hillshade

LiDAR 2 foot DEM Hillshade

Interactive Image slider at http://edac.unm.edu/projects/lacueva/ In June of 2014 the subcommittee presented to the USGS 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) National Program and as a result of that presentation the entire state was considered a priority acquisition area.

Since that time the subcommittee has been working to fine tune the plan and develop a funding and legislative strategy. The subcommittee has proposed a 5 year plan to collect and process statewide USGS Quality Level 2 data that is suitable for a wide range of elevation mapping applications such as pipeline development, solar siting, floodplain delineation, and forestry management.

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New Mexico Statewide LiDAR Acquisition Plan Quality Levels

Data Source

Horizontal Resolution

Vertical Accuracy

Point Density

RMSEz in Open Terrain

Equivalent Contour

QL 1

LiDAR

8 points/m2

9.25 cm

1 foot

QL 2

LiDAR

2 points/m2

9.25 cm

1 foot

QL 3

LiDAR

1 – 0.25 points/m2

≤18.5 cm

2 feet

QL 4

Imagery/ LiDAR 1 – 0.04 points/m2

46.3 – 139 cm

5 – 15 feet

92.7 – 185 cm

10 – 20

QL 5

Imagery/ IFSAR

0.04 points/m

2

At this time the subcommittee has presented to one legislative committee and received constructive feedback and support for the program. However, assistance will be needed in the future. For more information, see the New Mexico 3DEP Fact Sheet at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2014/3041/pdf/fs2014-3041.pdf

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NSGIC Update by Leland J. S. Pierce, NSGIC Board Member The National States Geographic Information Council (NSGIC) held its annual meeting in Charleston, SC on September 14 – 18, 2014. One of the bigger themes of the conference, which is geared more toward states’ perspectives, was the growing open data movement. As an example, the state of Maryland will no longer charge for Parcel data (http://smartgrowthmd.wordpress.com/2014/11/25/mdps-open-parcelinitiative-results-in-increased-data-usage/). Collaboration and geoportals were also hot topics. The liveliest session was centered on climate change and community resiliency, with NSGIC intending to explore ways to help communities better prepare for the future. All this and more can be found at the conference archives: http://www.nsgic.org/index.php?page_id=1061. Leland Pierce attended. NSGIC continues be involved in the development of a report on the use of geospatial technology and information in the federal government by the U.S. General Accounting Office, as well as advocacy for better address point management. The mid-year conference, held once again in Annapolis Maryland, will be February 22 – 26, 2015. For more information on NSGIC, visit: http://www.nsgic.org

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Agricultural Water Conservation: Not always what it seems David Jordan, PE

Dr. Richard Allen, PE

Dr. Guillermo Martinez

Amber Whittaker, GIT

INTRODUCTION INTERA Incorporated (INTERA) was retained by the New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission (NM ISC) to evaluate the water-saving effectiveness of converting from traditional flood irrigation to drip irrigation in agricultural fields in the Deming, New Mexico, area (Figure 1). This evaluation was made by comparing the relative crop consumptive use of water in flood- and drip-irrigated fields using a remote-sensing-based technique using Landsat data combined with data collected in the field. The remote-sensing-based technique used relative temperature differences as a proxy for relative water use to show relative differences in crop consumptive use between flood- and drip-irrigated fields. Water is lost from irrigated fields via the combined processes of evaporation (either from open water during a floodirrigation event or from damp soil subsequent to irrigation) and plant transpiration (the process of vaporization of liquid water contained in plant tissues and the vapor removal to the atmosphere). During this process, known as evapotranspiration (ET), energy is consumed, causing a decrease in ground-surface temperature in the vicinity of the crop. While these ground-surface temperature differences are subtle (on the order of a few degrees Fahrenheit [°F]), they can be reliably measured and assessed. Using information about crop and irrigation type collected during field surveys performed during this study, we can then evaluate relative crop consumptive use by evaluating temperature differences. In addition to relative temperature differences, we evaluated relative biomass, a proxy for crop yield, using a remote-sensingbased vegetation index. Using this methodology, we were able to evaluate relative crop yield by crop and irrigation type. To confirm the temperature-based results, we also applied the Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC™) model, a remote-sensing-based energy-balance method for calculating ET. The METRIC™ method was applied for two dates during the peak of the growing season to support and confirm the results of the temperature-based analyses.

Figure 1.

Project Location and Area of Interest (Continued on page 26)

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Agricultural Water Conservation continued (Continued from page 25)

Surface temperature was used to evaluate consumptive-use differences for cotton, milo, and corn fields. Figures 2 through 4 compare average values between drip- and flood-irrigation methods. For all three crop types, the flood-irrigated fields were generally warmer throughout the growing season except for mid-May for cotton and late October for cotton and milo. These differences in temperature indicate dripirrigated fields are consuming more water than flood-irrigated fields, based on energy-balance theory.

Figure 2. Average Surface Temperature for Cotton Fields in 2012

120

Drip Irrigation (11 fields) Flood Irrigation (10 fields)

115

110

Temperature (F)

105

100 95

90 85

80 75

70

Date

Figure 3. Average Surface Temperature for Milo Fields in 2012 (Continued on page 27)

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Agricultural Water Conservation continued

Figure 4. Average Surface Temperature for Corn Fields in 2012 Results of analysis of relative temperature differences, relative differences in NDVI (a vegetation index which is a measure of greenness and a proxy for biomass), and differences in estimates of consumptive use (ET) all indicate that drip-irrigated fields are consuming more water than flood-irrigated fields. Relative temperatures showed that, on average, drip-irrigated fields were cooler during the 2012 growing season than flood-irrigated fields, indicating more water consumption. Likewise, analysis of relative NDVI showed that drip-irrigated fields were characterized by more biomass, and hence higher yields. So while more water was being consumed by drip-irrigated fields, yields were higher. An application of the METRICTM model further confirmed the results based on analysis of temperature and NDVI. Using a regression method to relate relative ET fraction (ETrF) to NDVI, an estimate was calculated for ET over a portion of the growing season to get a quantitative sense of differences in water consumption between drip- and flood-irrigated fields. Results indicated 8–16% more water usage by drip-irrigated fields for the period June 15–August 15, 2012. When one considers these results versus known irrigation efficiencies, it becomes clear why this is the case. Flood irrigation is generally considered to be approximately 60% efficient. That is, 60% of the water that is applied is expected to be consumed, while 40% of the water is expected to return to the subsurface via return flows. Drip irrigation is generally considered to be approximately 90% efficient, with 90% of applied water expected to be consumed by the crop, while only 10% goes back to the subsurface via return flows. While drip irrigation may decrease the total amount of water applied to a field, it likely increases overall consumption. Simply put, drip irrigation is a very efficient means of applying water directly to plant roots, and results in more robust crop growth, higher yields, and hence more water consumption for situations where the water supply is limited. While this study did not directly measure crop yield, an evaluation of relative crop yield via a vegetation index (NDVI) was performed, which clearly showed more biomass (and generally higher yield) associated with dripirrigated fields. This relationship is more relevant for crops such as alfalfa, where the total biomass is being harvested, but may not always reflect yield for crops where only a portion of the plant is being harvested (e.g. cotton). It follows logically that higher crop yields are the result of higher water consumption; more water is needed to produce more yield. (Continued on page 28)

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Agricultural Water Conservation continued A significant question relative to the groundwater basin and overall water usage is, what is the fate of the return flows? The answer to that question has bearing on evaluating the impact of conversion to drip irrigation on the overall water balance in the basin. If the return flows from flood irrigation are indeed returning to the groundwater table at depths of 100 feet or more below ground surface, then for a given field, conversion to drip irrigation and using the same or similar diversion will result in less return flow and hence less water back to the underlying aquifer. However the nature and timing of how return flows migrate back to the aquifer in this basin is not known with certainty and may deserve further study to better understand some of the nuances of interpreting the results from this study.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The study was funded by the NM ISC. The authors would like to thank Mr. Craig Roepke from NM ISC for motivating and agreeing to fund this study. We would also like to thank NM OSE Mimbres River Water Masters Mr. Bryan Stevenson and Mr. Adam Polley for their support and guidance.

David Jordan, PE INTERA Incorporated, 6000 Uptown Boulevard, Suite 220, Albuquerque, NM 87110; djordan@intera.com.

Dr. Richard Allen, PE Kimberly Research and Extension Center, University of Idaho, 3793 N. 3600 E. Kimberly, ID 83341; office@allen-engineering.com.

Dr. Guillermo Martinez INTERA Incorporated, 1812 Centre Creek Dr., Suite 300, Austin, TX 78754; gmartinez@intera.com.

Amber Whittaker, GIT INTERA Incorporated, 6000 Uptown Boulevard, Suite 220, Albuquerque, NM 87110; awhittaker@intera.com.

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Impacts of September 2013 Flooding in New Mexico (Story Map)

Michael Camponovo

In coordination with the USACE, NWS, NMFMA, and NMDHSEM, EDAC created an interactive story map about the impacts of flooding from the September 2013 rain event. The story map contains pictures, videos, static maps, interactive maps, and image sliders related to the event. We would like to extend a special thank you to the Albuquerque offices of the National Weather Service and the US Army Corp of Engineers for providing material and feedback on the story map. To learn how to create your own story map, visit http://storymaps.arcgis.com/en/. There are also two open source alternatives available from CartoDB (http://cartodb.github.io/odyssey.js/) and Northwestern University’s Knight Lab (http://storymap.knightlab.com/).

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ESRI SWUC December 2-4 2014

Michael Camponovo

The City of Santa Fe hosted the ESRI Southwest User Conference December 2-4. The conference was well attended by many members of the geospatial community. Jack Dangermond of ESRI opened the plenary session and was followed by several New Mexico organizations including the City of Albuquerque and the Trust for Public Land demonstrating GIS products and services. The New Mexico Office of the BLM won the Maps and Apps gallery. ESRI demonstrated many new and updated features from their ArcGIS Platform including ArcGIS Online, the JavaScript based App Builder, and their new Open Data Portal. Presentations were made by private companies and public agencies highlighting technologies like drones and UAV’s and automating tasks through model builder. In addition, numerous people took advantage of the ESRI hands-on learning lab. Several people attended the ConnectEd session to learn more about how to be a Geo Mentor and how to better coordinate with local schools. The closing session by Dr. Eric Bernard, UNM School of Landscape Design, highlighted the use of geospatial techniques and modeling for large scale landscape and climate change applications. The next SWUC will be held in Phoenix, January 2016.

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GIS Day 2014窶年M Highlands University

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NMGIC Member submitted Websites NMGIC Twitter Feed : http://twitter.com/NMGIC_Inc NMGIC Facebook :: http://facebook.com/NMGIC_Inc

Radical Cartography! www.radicalcartography.net What does your favorite projection say about you? http://xkcd.com/977/ Park or Bird? http://parkorbird.flickr.com/ Napoleon's March on Moscow: http://storymaps.esri.com/templates/development/stable/geoblog/?appid=42459c24 c8a44f328e55c9043bf26208

INTERA projects: http://www.spokanecounty.org/utilities/westplainswells/ http://www.spokanecounty.org/utilities/westplainsgeology/ http://higrv.hanford.gov/Hanford_Reports/Hanford_PT_Report/index.html# http://higrv.hanford.gov/Hanford_Reports/Hanford_GW_Report/index.html#

Los Alamos Technical Associates http://www.lata.com/

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2014 Winter Mystery Photo

This Mystery Photo was taken somewhere here in New Mexico. Can you identify the location?

Contact Rick Koehler with your answer—win a prize!

From Editor’s Desk

Greetings Map Legend Readers, The Fall issue turned into the Winter issue, but it is out before 2015! Thanks to all NMGIC sponsors and contributors who helped me with content. Lets all look forward to the spring issue, and start thinking about your contribution.

Jason Fink mandoFink@gmail.com

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2015 Membership Form New Mexico Geographic Information Council, Inc. Name: __________________________________________________________________ Organization/School _____________________________________________________ Address Line 1 __________________________________________________________ Address Line 2 __________________________________________________________ City ________________________________________ State _______ Zip ______-____ Phone (____)-_______-______

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Your Ad Could Be Here ! Join NMGIC as a Corporate Member, advertise in the MapLegend and on the NMGIC website.. Reach out to the New Mexico geospatial community !

VOLUME 24

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