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QUAIL IN NEW MEXICO: Biology, Distribution, and Habitat Management New Mexico Department of Game and Fish

www.wildlife.state.nm.us

Scaled Quail Requirements Habitat Types ‡ 6FDOHGTXDLOLQKDELWPRVWRIWKHVWDWHLQYDU\LQJGHQVLWLHVH[FHSWIRU KLJKHUHOHYDWLRQV6FDOHGTXDLODUHIRXQGLQVHPLDULGUDQJHODQGVDQGGHVHUW JUDVVODQGVZLWKPL[HGVFUXE VKUXEVJUDVVDQGEDUHJURXQG  ‡ ,QWHUVSHUVHGEDUHJURXQGDOVRDSSHDUVWREHDQLPSRUWDQWKDELWDW FRPSRQHQWVLQFHWKLVVSHFLHVSUHIHUVWRUXQUDWKHUWKDQÀ\ZKHQGLVWXUEHG Key Plant Species ‡ &RPPRQYHJHWDWLRQLQFOXGHVPHVTXLWHSULFNO\SHDUFDFWXVDQGVFDWWHUHGJUDVVHV6FDOHGTXDLODQG *DPEHO¶VTXDLORIWHQRFFXUWRJHWKHUDOWKRXJKVFDOHGTXDLOXVHDUHDVZLWKPRUHJUDVVFRYHU 

‡ 7KH\WHQGWRDYRLGSXUHJUDVVODQGVSDUWLFXODUO\VWDQGVRILQWURGXFHG/HKPDQ¶VORYHJUDVVDQGDUHDVWKDW ODFNVKUXEVJUDVVHVDQGIRUEV ‡ 4XDLOQXPEHUVRIWHQDUHJUHDWHULQDUHDVRIKLJKSODQWVSHFLHVGLYHUVLW\ Food ‡ 6HHGVIURPIRUEVPDNHXSWKHODUJHVWSRUWLRQRIWKHVFDOHGTXDLO¶VGLHW6HHGVRIZRRG\SODQWV OLNHPHVTXLWHVDFDFLDVDQGVSLQ\KDFNEHUU\DUHIUHTXHQWO\FRQVXPHG*UDVVVHHGVSDUWLFXODUO\IURP EULVWOHJUDVVHV Setaria spp. DUHLPSRUWDQWDVIRRG ‡ 7KHPRVWRIWHQHDWHQIRUEVDUHFRQVLGHUHG³XQGHVLUDEOH´UDQJHSODQWV7KHVHLQFOXGHVPDOOÀRZHUHGPLON YHWFK Astragalus nuttalianus PRUQLQJJORU\ Ipomoea eriocarpa IRRWKLOOGHHUYHWFK Lotus humistratus  OXSLQH /XSLQXVVSDUVLÀRUXV VQDNHZHHG Gutierrezia sarothrae DQG5XVVLDQWKLVWOH*UHHQYHJHWDWLRQLVDQ LPSRUWDQWVRXUFHRI9LWDPLQ$ZKLFKLVQHFHVVDU\IRUUHSURGXFWLRQ ‡ ,QVHFWVDUHHDWHQVHDVRQDOO\E\ERWKDGXOWVDQG\RXQJ Management Considerations ‡ 6FDOHGTXDLODUHPRUHWROHUDQWRIJUD]LQJWKDQRWKHUTXDLO+RZHYHUKHDY\OLYHVWRFNXVHFDQEH GHWULPHQWDO,QZHOOZDWHUHGORFDOLWLHVPRGHUDWHJUD]LQJPD\KDYHDEHQH¿FLDOHIIHFWRQTXDLOKDELWDWE\ HQFRXUDJLQJIRUEDQGZHHGJURZWKWKDWSURYLGHDODUJHSRUWLRQRIWKHVFDOHGTXDLOGLHW ‡ *UDVVODQGVZLWKRXWVKUXEFRYHUDUHPXFKOHVVVXLWDEOHIRUVFDOHGTXDLO 

‡ 0HVTXLWHDQGEURRPVQDNHZHHGUHGXFWLRQSURMHFWVPD\KDYHDQDGYHUVHHIIHFWRQZLQWHUIRRGDYDLODELOLW\ IRUVFDOHGTXDLO5HGXFWLRQRIVDOWEXVKFRYHUUHGXFHVWKHVFDOHGTXDLOFDUU\LQJFDSDFLW\RIWKHUDQJH ‡ 6FDOHGTXDLOSRSXODWLRQVÀXFWXDWHZLGHO\DQGDUHDGYHUVHO\DIIHFWHGE\GURXJKWRUE\SURORQJHGÀRRGLQJ ‡ (VWDEOLVKLQJQDWXUDOFRYHULVSUHIHUDEOHWRFRQVWUXFWLRQRIDUWL¿FLDOFRYHU+RZHYHUEUXVKDQGSRVWDQG ERDUGSLOHVDUHLQH[SHQVLYHDQGUHDGLO\XVHGE\VFDOHGTXDLO ‡ *RRGVFDOHGTXDLOKDELWDWFRQVLVWVRIVXFFHVVLRQDOVWDJHVRIDQQXDODQGSHUHQQLDOIRUEVDQGVRPHIRRG SURGXFLQJVKUXEV$SDWFKZRUNRIVKRUWJUDVVHVWDOOJUDVVHVDQGIRUEVDQGZRRG\FRYHULVLGHDO


QUAIL IN NEW MEXICO: Biology, Distribution, and Habitat Management New Mexico Department of Game and Fish

www.wildlife.state.nm.us

Gambel’s Quail Requirements Habitat Types ‡ *DPEHO¶VTXDLODUHUHVLGHQWVRIEUXVK\DQGWKRUQ\YHJHWDWLRQLQSDUWVRIWKH &KLKXDKXDQGHVHUWDVZHOODVDGMRLQLQJQDWXUDODQGFXOWLYDWHGFRPPXQLWLHV ‡ )DYRULWHKDELWDWVZLWKLQWKHVHUDQJHVDUHULYHUYDOOH\VDQGGUDLQDJHV HVSHFLDOO\WKRVHDGMDFHQWWRFXOWLYDWHG¿HOGV ‡ 7KHELUGLVSDUWLFXODUO\DEXQGDQWDORQJPHVTXLWHOLQHGULYHUVFUHHNVDQG DUUR\RVEHORZDQHOHYDWLRQRIIW ‡ 0HVTXLWHFKRNHGVSULQJVVHHSVDQGVWRFNWDQNVDUHDOVRIDYRUHGIRFDOSRLQWVIRUWKLVTXDLOVSHFLHV Key Plant Species ‡ .H\LQGLFDWRUSODQWVLQFOXGHGHVHUWKDFNEHUU\ Celtis pallida FDWFODZDFDFLD Acacia greggii VNXQNEXVK Rhus sp. SULFNO\SHDUFDFWXV Opuntia phaeacantha FKROODV Opuntia spp VFUXERDN Quercus turbinella  DQGDQ\RIVHYHUDOGHVHUWWKRUQV Lycium spp  ‡ 'RPLQDQWXQGHUVWRU\SODQWVPD\LQFOXGHEULWWOHEXVK Encelia farinosa WULDQJOHOHDIEXUVDJH Ambrosia deltoidea EHDUJUDVV Nolina microcarpa VKUXEE\EXFNZKHDW Eriogonum wrightii EXUURZHHG Haplopappus tenuisectus MLPP\ZHHG +SOXULÀRUXV WXUSHQWLQHEXVK H. laricifolius RUVQDNHZHHG Gutierrezia sarothrae  ‡ 'RPLQDQWRYHUVWRU\SODQWVLQFOXGH7H[DVKRQH\PHVTXLWH Prosopis glandulosa ZKLWHWKRUQDFDFLD Acacia constricta RQHVHHGMXQLSHU Juniperus monosperma DOOWKRUQ Koeberlinia spinosa OLWWOHOHDI VXPDF Rhus microphylla FDWFODZDFDFLDFRQGDOLD Zizyphus obtusifolia DQGYDULRXV\XFFDV Yucca spp.  GHQVHWKLFNHWVRIVDOWFHGDU Tamarix spp. DUURZZHHG Pluchea sericea VFUHZEHDQPHVTXLWH Prosopis pubescens VDOWEXVKTXDLOEXVK Atriplex lentiformis DQGIRXUZLQJVDOWEXVK A. canescens  Food ‡ *DPEHO¶VTXDLOGLHWFRQVLVWVRIVHHGVRIIRUEVJUDVVHVVKUXEVWUHHVDQGFDFWL6HHGVIURPOHJXPHVDUH DOVRLPSRUWDQWWKURXJKRXWWKHVSHFLHVUDQJH0HVTXLWHVHHGVDQGOHDYHVPXVWDUGV Brassicaceae UDJZHHGV Ambrosia sp WXPEOHZHHGDQGDKRVWRIRWKHUVHHGSURGXFLQJVKUXEVDQGIRUEVDUHHDWHQLIDYDLODEOH ‡ )UXLWVIURPVKUXEVDQGFDFWL SDUWLFXODUO\SULFNO\SHDUOpuntia spp DUHKHDYLO\XVHGVHDVRQDOO\ ‡ *UHHQYHJHWDWLRQHVSHFLDOO\GHHUYHWFKHV Lotus spp. DQG¿ODUHH Erodium cicutarium DUHYHU\ LPSRUWDQWGXULQJZLQWHUDQGHDUO\VSULQJSULRUWRUHSURGXFWLRQDQGSURYLGHPXFKRIWKHVSHFLHVPRLVWXUH UHTXLUHPHQWV ‡ ,QVHFWVDUHLPSRUWDQWVHDVRQDOO\HVSHFLDOO\IRUWKHJURZLQJ\RXQJTXDLO Management Considerations ‡ 7KHFOHDULQJRIPHVTXLWHWUHHVLQDQHIIRUWWRLQFUHDVHWKHSURGXFWLYLW\RIZHVWHUQUDQJHODQGVIRUFDWWOHFDQ DOVREHGHWULPHQWDOWR*DPEHO¶VTXDLO ‡ *UD]LQJFDQEHDXVHIXOWRROIRU*DPEHO¶VTXDLOPDQDJHPHQWZKHQFRQGXFWHGDWWKHULJKWLQWHQVLW\XQGHUWKH ULJKWFRQGLWLRQV/HDYLQJHQRXJKXQEXUQHGJUDVVFRYHUIRUUHIXJHFDQJUHDWO\LQFUHDVHWKHVXUYLYDELOLW\RITXDLO


QUAIL IN NEW MEXICO: Biology, Distribution, and Habitat Management New Mexico Department of Game and Fish

www.wildlife.state.nm.us

Montezuma Quail Requirements Habitat Types ‡ 0RQWH]XPDTXDLORFFXULQWKH*LOD1DWLRQDO)RUHVWVRXWKZHVWHUQSRUWLRQV RIWKH&LEROD1DWLRQDO)RUHVW6DQ$QGUHV0RXQWDLQV6DFUDPHQWR0RXQWDLQV DQGDVVRFLDWHGVN\LVODQGVLQWKHH[WUHPHVRXWKZHVWHUQSRUWLRQRIWKHVWDWH ‡ 0RQWH]XPDTXDLODUHIRXQGLQSLQHRDNDQGRDNVFUXEKLJKODQGKDELWDWV HVSHFLDOO\LQRSHQZRRGODQGZLWKJUDVVXQGHUVWRU\DQGGRQRWRFFXULQDUHDV ZLWKRXWDQDGHTXDWHJUDVVODQGFRPSRQHQW Key Plant Species ‡ 0RQWH]XPDTXDLODUHIRXQGLQDUHDVZLWKKLJKJUDVVGLYHUVLW\DQGJUDVVFRYHUDVVRFLDWHGZLWKDWUHH RYHUVWRU\RIRDNVXFKDV$UL]RQDZKLWHRDN Quercus arizonica RU(PRU\RDN Q. emoryi RUSLQH Pinus spp. 5DUHO\DUH0RQWH]XPDTXDLOORFDWHGPRUHWKDQDIHZGR]HQ\DUGVIURPWUHHV ‡ 0RQWH]XPDTXDLODUHRFFDVLRQDOO\DVVRFLDWHGZLWKRWKHU³RYHUVWRU\´VSHFLHVLQFOXGLQJFDWFODZDQG PHVTXLWH ‡ 3HUHQQLDOEXQFKJUDVVVSHFLHVDUHPRVWRIWHQXVHGIRUFRYHUDQGQHVWLQJ7KHVHJUDVVHVDUHZDUPVHDVRQ VSHFLHVSURGXFHGGXULQJSHULRGVRIVXPPHUPRQVRRQPRLVWXUH -XO\6HSWHPEHU  Food ‡ 0RQWH]XPDTXDLOIHHGH[WHQVLYHO\RQWKHEXOEVDQGWXEHUVRI\HOORZQXWVHGJH Cyperus esculentes DQG *UD\¶VZRRGVRUUHO Oxalis grayi LQVXPPHU ‡ 'XULQJWKHVXPPHUDQGIDOO0RQWH]XPDTXDLOIHHGXSRQLQVHFWVDFRUQVSLxRQQXWVJUDVVDQGIRUEVHHGV ‡ 7KHSULPDU\GLHWRI\RXQJ0RQWH]XPDTXDLOLVLQVHFWV Management Considerations ‡ 6SDWLDODUUDQJHPHQWRIERWKJUDVVODQGDQGZRRGODQGFRYHUW\SHVLVYHU\LPSRUWDQWIRUWKLVVSHFLHVGXHWR LWVVXUYLYDOVWUDWHJ\VPDOOKRPHUDQJHGLVSHUVDOGLVWDQFHVDQGIRRGKDELWV ‡ $GHTXDWHKRUL]RQWDODQGYHUWLFDOJUDVVFRYHUPXVWEHZHOOGLVWULEXWHGDFURVVWKHODQGVFDSH0RQWH]XPD TXDLOVHOHFWDUHDVZLWKWDOO XSWRLQFKHV JUDVVDQGIRUEFRYHU ‡ 0RGHUDWHOLYHVWRFNJUD]LQJZKHUHUHPDLQLQJJUDVVFRYHUUHTXLUHPHQWVDUHPHWLVDVVRFLDWHGZLWKJRRG 0RQWH]XPDTXDLOKDELWDWDOWKRXJKWKHVHTXDLOWHQGWRVHOHFWPRUHOLJKWO\XVHGSDWFKHVRIDSDVWXUH ‡ 5HGXFLQJRDNVWDQGVIRUWLPEHURUJUD]LQJLPSURYHPHQWVUHGXFHVKDELWDWYDOXHE\UHPRYLQJFDQRS\FRYHU DQGDFRUQV2YHUVWRU\FDQRS\FRYHUVKRXOGEHPDLQWDLQHGDWQROHVVWKDQ ‡ %XUQLQJPD\EHDQLPSRUWDWFRPSRQHQWRIKDELWDWPDQDJHPHQWIRU0RQWH]XPDTXDLO


QUAIL IN NEW MEXICO: Biology, Distribution, and Habitat Management New Mexico Department of Game and Fish

www.wildlife.state.nm.us

Bobwhite Quail Requirements Habitat Types ‡ %REZKLWHDUHIRXQGLQWKHHDVWHUQWKLUGRI1HZ0H[LFRZKHUHPL[HGEUXVK DQGJUDVVODQGKDELWDWVGRPLQDWH ‡ ,QVSULQJDQGVXPPHUWKHEREZKLWHQHHGVJUDVVODQGVGUDLQDJHGLWFKHVDQG URDGVLGHDQGSRQGHGJHVIRUQHVWLQJIHHGLQJDQGURRVWLQJFRYHU ‡ ,QVXPPHUDQGIDOOWKH\PD\XVHFURSODQGVIRUIHHGLQJORD¿QJGXVWLQJ DQGURRVWLQJ%REZKLWHVGHSHQGRQGHQVHEUXVK\DUHDVIRUIRRGGXULQJIDOO DQGZLQWHUDQGIRUHVFDSHDQGURRVWLQJFRYHU\HDUURXQG Key Plant Species ‡ %REZKLWHVUHTXLUHEUXVK\FRYHUIRUKLGLQJDQGUHVWLQJDOWKRXJKFRYHUVKRXOGEHRSHQHQRXJKWRDOORZWKH ELUGVWRPRYHDERXWDQGVHHSUHGDWRUV7KHEREZKLWHSUHIHUVDUHDVZKHUHKDOIWKHJURXQGLVH[SRVHGDQGWKH UHPDLQGHUFRQWDLQVXSULJKWJURZWKRIKHUEDFHRXVDQGZRRG\YHJHWDWLRQ ‡ $PDWXUHPHVTXLWHDQGZROIEHUU\ Lycium spp. RYHUVWRU\ZLWKJUDPDJUDVV Bouteloua spp LQWKH XQGHUVWRU\SURYLGHVDPSOHFRYHUIRUEREZKLWHTXDLO6KLQQHU\RDN Quercus havardii PL[HGZLWKSULFNO\SHDU FDFWXV Opuntia spp DQGVXPDF Rhus spp SURYLGHJRRGFRYHU ‡ %REZKLWHVQHHGODUJHH[SDQVHVRIFOXPSHGQDWLYHZDUPVHDVRQJUDVVHVPL[HGZLWKDQQXDOZHHGV OHJXPHVDQGZRRG\WKLFNHWVWKDWDUHGHQVHRQWRSEXWRSHQXQGHUQHDWK Food ‡ 1RUWKHUQEREZKLWHHDWSULPDULO\VHHGVIUXLWVDQGLQVHFWVDVZHOODVQHZSODQWJURZWKLQWKHVSULQJ ‡ )RRGSODQWVLQFOXGHDFRUQVPHVTXLWHKDFNEHUU\ Celtis spp SDQLFJUDVV Panicum spp DQGFORYHU Trifolium spp. %REZKLWHTXDLOFRQVXPHFRZSHDV Vigna spp. FRUQ Zea mays VRUJKXP Sorghum spp.  DQGRWKHUFXOWLYDWHGJUDLQV ‡ %REZKLWHHDWLQVHFWVLQFOXGLQJDSKLGVPRVTXLWRHVEHHWOHVJUDVVKRSSHUVDQGDQWV Management Considerations ‡ &KDQJLQJODQGXVHSUDFWLFHVKDYHVLPSOL¿HGWKHODQGVFDSHE\SURPRWLQJWKHDEXQGDQFHRIRQHKDELWDWW\SH JUDVVODQGDJULFXOWXUDOFURSVRUVKUXEODQGV WRWKHH[FOXVLRQRIRWKHUV&RQVHTXHQWO\PRGHUQDJULFXOWXUDO SUDFWLFHVWKDWHPSKDVL]HRSWLPDOFURSSURGXFWLRQRUHVWDEOLVKIRUPHUDJULFXOWXUDOODQGVZLWKH[RWLFJUDVV VSHFLHVHOLPLQDWHWKHPRVDLFODQGVFDSHEREZKLWHDQGRWKHUTXDLOVSHFLHVUHTXLUH ‡ 1RUWKHUQEREZKLWHKDELWDWUHTXLUHVDQLQWHUVSHUVLRQRIIRRGVSHFLHVDQGFRYHUWKDWLVQRWWRRGHQVH*RRG KDELWDWFDQVXSSRUWDERXWRQHELUGSHUDFUH ‡ +DELWDWVPDQLSXODWHGDQGSODQWHGZLWKIRUEVDQGOHJXPHVFDQHQFRXUDJHLQVHFWVDQLPSRUWDQWIRRGIRU FKLFNV ‡ )RRGSDWFKSODQWLQJVJHQHUDOO\IDLOWREHRIDQ\ORQJWHUPYDOXH+DELWDWLPSURYHPHQWSURMHFWVWKDWGR LQFOXGHSODQWLQJIRRGIRUTXDLOVKRXOGDOZD\VLQFOXGHOHJXPHVDSSURSULDWHIRUHDVWHUQ1HZ0H[LFRFOLPDWH FRQGLWLRQV

Quail Habitat Requirements  

Quail Habitat Requirements

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