Issuu on Google+

Flooding events around the world Norella Coronell - Rolando Cantú - Ezequiel Hernández - Xavi Martínez


INDEX 1. Definition 2. Cases: Colombia and Catalunya Flooding Map 3. Flooding Effects 4. Flooding Causes 5. Solutions 6. Conclusions 7. Questions 8. Bibliography

1


1 DEFINITION

Flooding.- It’s an event that occurs AFTER 6 hours following the end of the causative event (rains, ice jam, dam breaks, etc). The duration of flooding events may extend longer than 24 hours, perhaps several days.


Flash Floods rarely last more than 12 hours.

NOITINIFED

Flash Flooding.- It occurs WITHIN 6 hours following the end of the causative event.


LO

MB

IA

Magdalena and Cauca rivers cross almost from top to bottom the Colombian territory.

O C

CASE

The areas sorrounding the rivers are getting more and more populated, leading to a high risk when water increases the maximum capacity of the river channel.


A M I B OL

O

VIDEO

The ‘Risk Management Division’ (DGR in Colombia) informed that in 2011 there were 171.000 families affected in 483 cities. With 134 hurt people and dozens missing.

C

ESAC


N YA LU

A

T A C

CASE

In autumn 1962 a natural disaster caused one of the most important floods in Catalonia. These flood killed a thousand people. Rained 225 liters of water per square meter for 30-40 minutes. Rain was a brief but very intense Ripoll river increased your tail a 50%.


A Y NU

PROBLEM River without channel. Narrow bridges which were accumulating everything. MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM: Many men and women disappeared because immigrants had built their houses on the banks of the river.

LA

TA C

SOLUTION Channeling of the river. The Hydrographic Confederation of the Eastern Pyrenees built a concrete defenses of 3.5 meters high. was excavated and land filled with different parts of the river to smooth slopes. It expanded its fund that would support a flow of 1,350 cubic meters per second

ESAC


Flooding Map 2010


3


FL

OODI N G

EF

F EC T S

3

HUMAN People death and injured. In year 1998, 0.23 billion of people were affected in the flooding of Xian, including 3 thousands people dead,


S E G T CE F F

The accumulation of water lets a lot of things to get mixed. It is a susceptible way for bacteria and viruses tu expand. Most common diseases related to flooding include:

N OL I O D

Meningococcal meningitis Hepatitis A (and B, while less likely) Influenza Enterovirus (infects the gastrointestinal tract, and other parts of the body)

F

DISEASES

3


FL

OODI N G

EF

F EC T S

3 3 ENVIROMENTAL

Damages of roads, collapse of bridges or traffic congestion, which may affect the daily operation. Damaging the farmland.


F

ECONOMIC

N OL I O D

Eg: The flooding in Jiangxi, China in 1998 caused great damage. The economic loss was HK$156 billion, 400 buildings were inundated, leaving more than 1 million people homeless. Government expenses: (Police force, aid worker, food support, accommodation of affected people, etc.)

S E G T CE F F

Destruction of houses, cars, infrastructure, equipment, materials.


FL

OODI N G

EF

F EC T S

3 POSITIVE


Flash floods and floods clean out the rivers, making great farming lands because farmers do not have to manually water their crops. Floods keep the elevation of a land mass above sea level. Floods act as nature's own sewage system.

Agricultural land that requires flooding is called floodplains.

N OL I O D

Farming communities in the past and present relied on regular flooding to water their crops due to the lack of machines and man power.

S E G T CE F F

ASPECTS

F


FLOODING CAUSES

Heavy and prolongated raining Clogged drainage Land use In human constructed areas, water can’t be absorbed by the ground. Topography High tides (coasts). Ice jam Dam breaks


SESUAC GNIDOOLF

Flooding is normally caused by natural weather events such as: over a short period prolonged, extensive rainfall high tide combined with stormy conditions.


FLOODING CAUSES

It is also predicted that climate change will increase the risk of flooding in the UK and other parts of the world.


SESUAC GNIDOOLF

The following factors can also cause or contribute to flooding:


FLOODING CAUSES

POOR MAINTENANCE Faulty sewer networks. Poor or insufficient drainage networks. Inadequate maintenance of watercourses.


Building on land in a way that prevents rainfall from draining away naturally. This includes roads and car parks that are impermeable to water. They can increase the risk of flooding from rainwater runoff. Flood defence schemes that are defective or badly designed.

DEVELOPMENT/PLANNING ISSUES

SESUAC GNIDOOLF

Inappropriate development in flood plains.

5


5 SOLUTIONS

Better drainage design In cities with large population. Walls / Embankments When there is just a few area subject to flooding. Alter river channels

SOME


Facts: Some African cities are constructed far from the rivers because they know by history that river levels increase in certain time of the year. In Colombia, for example, poor people who live in the mountains have the desire to improve their incomes, so they move to the cities and establish close to the rivers, but they don’t know there is a potential flooding risk when it rains. Even we have more money, resources and technology, flooding events continue happening.

REAL

6

SNOITULOS


6 CONCLU S

Best solution is to improve our Human Adaptation BehaviorActions: Investment from the government on education (Better planned housing and drainage construction).

NS IO


SNO I

O N C C L U S

Spread prevention information on risky zones. Contribute on mitigation of climate change and global warming. Generate less garbage


QUES TIO NS

Based on all the risks that flooding cause do you think that countries from 3rd World, will benefit from the tecnologies emerging on the 1st World?

Poverty evoks people to do anything to survive, but some times they don´t imagine the risks of thier acts. Do you think that not in a far future we could transmit other ways in which they can survive, without being the most affected?


http://www.sulcom.info/summer_procedures /criteria/explain.html http://www.americanfamilysafety.com/ emergency-preparedness/floods-disease.html http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/02054/ effects.htm http://desiginspiraction.net/pictures/0034

8

L B I B OG RAPHY

http://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/view/ 36849-Los-deslizamientos-en-Colombiase-cobran-vida-de-mรกs-de-cien-personas


Flooding Events