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PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


Narrative For my final year project, I aim to explore the relationship between modern Democracy and Architecture and in particular, within the context of the apparent decline of public’s perception of British Democracy, whether Architecture can improve that perception and also whether a building can promote closer involvement in Democratic affairs

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study

“……Architecture has its political use; public buildings being the ornament of a country; it establishes a nation, draws people and commerce; makes the people love their native country.” (Sir Christopher Wren)


PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


1. Democracy & Architecture – A Historical Relationship “…..For at least 2500 years people have assembled to participate in and observe democracy in action. The environments in which democratic debate take place can be seen as mankind’s relationship with the ideals of democracy. The democratic imperative – defined as the citizens possessing the right to be involved with the political decisions which affect their daily lives – has created some of the world’s most highly charged, resonant and accomplished works of architecture. Parliament Buildings act as a continuing reminder of the aspirations of nations and their values.”1

Democratic institutions of a sort date back to Ancient Greece where Athenian males congregated on the semi-circular hillside of the Pnyx to the west side of the Acropolis. Capable of seating several thousand people, it was arranged around a cube of rock


Sudjic, Deyan with Jones, Helen (1999) Architecture and Democracy Laurence King Publishing

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


which acted as the platform for the speaker, five feet high and approached by a flight of steps leading to the top. This was intended to allow every participant in the congregation to see both the speaker and everybody else present. Although the absence of females shows that Ancient Greek Democracy was discriminatory, they believed that the main principle was that all men were equal citizens with rights – they didn’t rely on elected representatives but got to air their views themselves. This resulted in the best orators establishing themselves as the best citizens. The forum on the Pnyx seems to be the starting point for the evolution of Democracy and shows a primitive relationship between Democracy and Architecture. The hilltop site where the raised speaker’s platform allowed everybody to see and hear the speeches being made. Indeed, the formative political institutions of Ancient Greece and also Ancient Rome have had a lasting impact on particularly Western Democracy. The apparent establishment of Democracy coincided with the era of Classical Architecture, a style that has dominated political buildings ever since,

“….The Classical language of architecture has been used more than any other to create monumental parliamentary buildings that both inspire and can also intimidate in their representation of the democratic ideal.”

The symbol of democracy in Britain, the Palace of Westminster, although Gothic in its outward architectural style, uses Grecian symmetry in its internal planning. However, its main debating chamber seems to be the antithesis of the Ancient Greek ideal of inclusive debate. The chamber adopts a confrontational style with the two sets of green

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


leather benches set symbolically two and a half sword lengths apart – a historical nod to the preceding Houses of Parliament meetings which took place in the Medieval Chapel of St. Stephen and the Gothic Royal Chapel which were designed to prevent argumentative MPs from drawing their swords and fighting. In 1941, the House of Commons was hit by a bomb which virtually burnt out the interior. There were some deliberations as to whether the building shell could incorporate a semi-circular debating chamber. Sir Winston Churchill was against it,

“…The whole character of the British parliamentary institution depends on the fact that the House of Commons is an oblong and not a semi-circular structure.”

And thus the confrontational style of mainstream British politics remains following the amendments by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott which re-opened in 1950. The power and the scale of Barry and Pugin’s Parliament building is designed to be a national show of strength. The ornate Gothic detail reflects the democratic aspiration of the nation. Indeed, Deyan Sudjic in his book ‘Architecture and Democracy’ discusses the relevance of architectural detail to the perception of a Country,

“…Parliament Buildings reflect the way Countries see themselves or more accurately, they are the three dimensional representations of how countries would like themselves to be seen.”2

In this way, the national government buildings act as a form of propaganda, a physical


Sudjic, Deyan with Jones, Helen (1999) Architecture and Democracy Laurence King Publishing

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


manifestation of a nation’s capabilities and in turn these buildings become an image of national identity.

The Capitol Building in Washington DC uses Classical language as a show of Democratic strength

This notion of symbolising national identity through Architecture has, more recently, become apparent in the Regional Assembly buildings in both Cardiff and Edinburgh. The former Prime Minister, Lord Callaghan, led the panel established to choose the winning design for the proposed Welsh Assembly building and, in announcing the brief in March 1998, stated,

â€œâ€ŚThis competition offers the Architectural profession the opportunity to express a concept of what form should be assumed by a Democratic Assembly listening to and leading a small Democratic nation into the next Millennium. It will not be overly adversarial in shape or in argument, although there will be strong regional interests and

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


differing priorities. The panel will welcome innovation but not unproven experiment and environmental factors will be taken fully into account. The Chamber must be an effective place of debate, and the building should create a welcoming impression to those who work in it and to the many who will visit it. In due course we would dare to hope that it will become a visible symbol recognised throughout the world, whenever the name of Wales is used.”

The competition was eventually won by the Richard Rogers’ Partnership and commending the winner, Callaghan stated that the design represented the “open, modern Democracy” that the Welsh Assembly ought to be. In winning the competition, Rogers stated aim was to provide a building that symbolises

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study

Democracy by encouraging public participation. The inclusion of a plaza to the front of the building promotes accessibility to the public and the apparent transparency of the building promotes accessibility. As part of his competition entry, Rogers included a manifesto for the National Assembly of Wales – he proposed “a building that:

Symbolises Democracy by encouraging public participation in the Democratic process

Is accessible because of its legibility

Makes visible the workings of the Assembly

Creates space with the minimum of walls and corridors

Provides a protective environmental envelope

Reduces energy consumption by maximising use of daylight

Engages and is open to its surroundings

Is a flexible concept that can accommodate change

Is made secure by good planning

Is a concise expression of the new institution

If the people occupy the building then it will assume symbolic significance

A people place = a successful assembly building.”

Within this building, Rogers has attempted to provide a building that belongs to the people of Wales. The building is transparent at public level with the administrative accommodation located in quieter locations overlooking quiet courtyard spaces. The main Assembly Chamber is designed to accommodate sixty elected members and


PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


allows for the increased importance of televisual broadcasts of debates to the Welsh people and those further afield.

2. The Downfall in Reputation of British Politics

The recent expenses scandal in British politics seems to have exacerbated the lack of trust in politicians as well as the disconnection that the general public seems to have with the political process in this country. This combined with the economical downturn, has led to many people looking for scapegoats. Many MPs were caught claiming for second homes that allowed them to spend time in both their constituencies and close to the Houses of Parliament in London. This led some to suggest that the provision of

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


communal accommodation closer to the Palace of Westminster would be the ideal solution. The suspicions that many voters seem to have revolve around the theory that the political world has become something of an insular ‘members’ club based around Westminster with little or no connection to the daily lives of their constituents. With the details exposed in the expenses scandal, MPs were accused of using their privileges for personal gain. At the 2009 Political conferences, Politicians’ speeches were filled with details of how they intended to curb their spending along with details of a collective attempt to reduce the overall public debt. In a bid to re-establish a rapport with their constituents and the voting public, MPs were seen to be using such political ‘buzz words’ as “transparency” and “clarity” – words that could easily be used as adjectives associated with a successful modern building.

Portcullis House – Michael Hopkins (2000) Portcullis house, designed by Michael Hopkins and opened in 2000 is situated next to the Palace of Westminster. It provides office accommodation for 210 Members of Parliament within a six-storey rectangular block designed around a central courtyard

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


covered by a glazed roof supported by oak members. On Hopkins Architects’ website, the building is described as being “..conceived in the tradition of a Thames-side palace facing the river.” The intention of the building was to provide much-needed office accommodation for MPs in an environmentally friendly building that overcame such design issues as the proximity of the Westminster Tube line below. Again, Hopkins Architects on their website describe the building,

“….Surrounded by restaurants and the Library, with shady trees and tranquil pools, it has become a meeting place and focus for parliamentary life.”

However, could the building possible also be regarded as a metaphor for the current perception of British politicians following the expenses scandal? The imposing public face of the external façade seems to contrast greatly with the bright central courtyard area that provides office accommodation for the Members of Parliament.

3. Do you regionalise? If MPs claiming for a second home in London whilst undertaking parliamentary business is still something of a controversy, then what are the possible alternatives? In the late 1990s, John Prescott championed the Regional Assembly, regional government that was intended to bring Democracy closer to the people. The intention was to separate England into nine regions including London and in 1999, the North West Regional Assembly was established. Based in Wigan in Greater Manchester, it encompassed 48 members, both elected and unelected. Eventually the

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


plan was to replace this with a fully elected, devolved assembly similar to the model set by the Greater London Authority. In 2004 the people of the North East of England were the first region to be asked to vote in a referendum on whether a fully elected regional assembly was to be established. The No vote won by 78% to 22% - a clear indication of intense public opposition. The suspicion was that although Wales and Scotland and to some extent London had been devolved and given real local powers, the remaining 8 proposed regional assemblies in England would have no powers over Education, Health, Transport or Law and Order. The Euro sceptic view also prevailed in that the suspicion was that these regional assemblies were answerable to Brussels and not the UK Parliament. In an article in the Guardian newspaper published in 2009, Grant Shapps, the MP for Welwyn Hatfield and Shadow Housing Minister, argues that the current malaise in political reputation is causing a chasm between elected MPs and local issues for local people,

“…There is a dangerous chasm between what those seeking election claim they could do in office and the stark reality that once in power the real decision-making has long since been sub-contracted elsewhere. As my furious constituent put it, it wasn't just the outrageous abuse of the expenses system that infuriated him – it was that politicians have become impotent to deliver change too. This particular rotten parliament has lost its way. And our broken politics cannot recover without power being returned to voters through progressive localism.”

In the same article, Shapps argues against Regional Assemblies and the quangos that were set up following the collapse of the policy. In the North West, these include 4NW

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


which has responsibility for housing, planning, transport and economic development in the North West region and is still based in Wigan. It combines council leaders from each of the five sub regions of Cumbria, Cheshire, Lancashire, Merseyside and Greater Manchester along with seven representatives from the private, non-governmental sector such as Manchester Airport Group, North West Universities Association and the North West Trades Union Congress. This organisation is responsible for “delivering the strategy proposals at local level in the North West.�

4NW also works in close conjunction with the NorthWest Regional Development Agency based in Warrington and together they are preparing the proposed ‘Regional Strategy for the NorthWest,

"...The strategy will promote the sustainable economic development and regeneration of the region, and 4NW will ensure it is democratically accountable and wholly relevant to the needs of this region...." Are agencies such as 4NW and NWDA models for the future development of local democracies or as Grant Shapps argues, the diluted organisations that have little power to influence everyday lives?

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


4. Preston – a brief history

Preston is a city on the North Banks of the River Ribble in Lancashire. It is England’s fiftieth and newest city after being given city status by Queen Elizabeth II in 2002. The History of Preston dates back to Roman times when forts were established in the areas of Ribchester and Warton. However, it seems to be after 1179 when the then town began to grow. In that year, Preston was granted a Guild Merchant Charter which gave it the status of a Market Town. The associated Preston Guild is a civic celebration held every 20 years, with the next one due in 2012. The town became known for its production of textiles since the middle of the thirteenth century with Sir Richard Arkwright, the inventor of the spinning frame, born in the area. The town became something of a boom town of the Industrial revolution with the overall population increasing rapidly because of the employment levels in the area. However more recently Preston has faced similar challenges to most other postindustrial northern towns – de-industrialisation, economic deprivation and housing issues.

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study



Transport Network

The Preston by-pass was the first motorway to be opened in the country in December 1958 and now forms part of the M6 Motorway that runs form Junction 19 of the M1 motorway near Birmingham up to the Scottish border near Gretna. There are three park and ride schemes that are supposed to link these motorway junctions to the city centre. The most recent park and ride scheme car park based just off Junction 31A of the Motorway has become something of a white elephant with little or no cars currently using it.

The Centre of Preston with the Railway Station (red) situated to the West side of the main central hopping street – Fishergate and the current Bust Station (green) Preston has a Railway station based in the heart of the City Centre. It is a major stop on the West Coast Main line linking London to Glasgow and is roughly half way between the two geographically.

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


The station also acts a connecting hub to trains in the North West of England as well as beyond. There are direct trains to Blackpool, Lancaster, Blackburn, Wigan, Bolton, Manchester, Liverpool, Bradford and Leeds.

Preston also currently has a central bus station to the North East of Fishergate which also provides central car parking above the bus aprons at ground floor level. The Bus station, designed by Keith Ingham and Charles Wilson of British Design Partnership in 1968, is in the Brutalist style of architecture and allows access to over 80 double decker buses that link the various districts of Preston as well as beyond. The Docks, although previously a transport hub during the heights of Preston’s industrial past, is currently an expanding commercial and residential area with small private boats moored there.

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


6. A Political City

Preston is the administrative centre of both Preston City Council and Lancashire County Council with both having their headquarters in the City Centre

County Hall (Red) – the main administrative building of Lancashire County Council is opposite the train station whilst the existing Town Hall – HQ of Preston City Council (Blue) is next to the County Sessions House on Birley Street Preston City Council is divided into 22 district council wards represented by 57 councillors in total and is currently led by the Labour Party with 24 elected members compared to 22 for the Conservative Party and 8 for the Liberal Democrats. Lancashire County Council currently has 84 Councillors with the majority control currently taken by the Conservative party with 51 members, followed by Labour with 16,

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


the Liberal democrats with 10, 3 Independents and 1 each from the British national Party and the Idle Toad Party. Preston has three MPs that cover different areas of the city with Mark Hendrick of the Labour Party covering the main Preston City borough constituency. Nigel Evans of the Conservative Party is MP for Ribble Valley and Michael Jack also of the Conservative Party the Member of Parliament for the Fylde.

7. Preston Market Square – a History

Most Prestonians would agree that the main area of Architectural interest in Preston City Centre is the majority of the area surrounding the Flag market and its immediate environs, currently dominated by the Grade 1 Listed Harris Museum and Art Gallery.

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


Designed by local architect James Hibbert, it overlooks a vast open space that is flanked on one side by the PAD Art Gallery (previously the Post Office building,) Cenotaph and the current Preston Town Hall. The Harris Library (formerly the Harris Public Library and Museum) was opened in 1893 after Edmund Robert Harris, the elder son of Reverend R Harris who had been the Vicar at St. George’s Church in Preston for over sixty years had left £300,000 in his will. This was left with the strict instruction that the money be used ‘to perpetuate the remembrance of his father and his family. The resulting building had its foundation stone laid in 1882 and was Classical in style and adorned with the phrases ‘The Mental Riches you may here acquire abide with you always,’ ‘On Earth, there is nothing greater than Man. In Man There is Nothing Great but Mind’ and ‘Reverence in Man. That which is Supreme.’

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


The original Town Hall designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott has been replaced by Crystal House (now known as CUBIC) On the opposite side of the Flag market however is Crystal House – now known as CUBIC. Widely regarded as an Architectural blight by the Preston public, Crystal House sits on the site of the former Town Hall building designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 1862. The building itself, as with many of Preston’s best architecture, was built by a firm of Stone Masons - Cooper and Tullis. In the second half of the nineteenth century they also built the Harris Library, Preston Train Station as well as St Mark’s and St. Walburge’s Church. The former building was destroyed by fire in 1947 and after much deliberation about whether to attempt to reconstruct the building, was fully demolished in 1962 and in 1964 Crystal House was built in its place. Crystal House was originally designed to provide both office and retail accommodation but after a recent re-cladding, the building has been converted to apartments with retail at ground floor level. The building is taller than the highest point of the adjacent Harris

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


Library building and doesn’t seem to complement the Grade II listed Miller Arcade on Birley Street. Before the fire of 1947, the Market Square was surrounded on three sides with Civic buildings. The then Post Office building (now PAD art gallery) was opened in 1898 and

The view from Fishergate showing CUBIC, Birley Street and Miller Arcade Before the fire of 1947, the Market Square was surrounded on three sides with Civic buildings. The then Post Office building (now PAD art gallery) was opened in 1898 and is face with stone from the Storeton quarry in The Wirral. The building overlooks the Great War Memorial designed by the Grandson of Sir George Gilbert Scott, Sir Giles. To the North of this building is the County Sessions House which was designed by the County Architect H. Litter in 1890. It uses the English Renaissance style with the main tower climbing to 179 feet high. The Main Market Square was historically the location for Cattle, Grain and Linen markets and, to this day, still houses the annual Pot Market. It is an urban space that is also currently used for a wide variety of purposes such as temporary ice rinks at Christmas and mobile fun fares.

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


The map on the left shows the former Town Hall building facing Fishergate which has since been replaced by CUBIC It is my view that the importance of this public space in the centre of Preston has gradually been diminished since the unfortunate fire and demolition of the Old Town Hall. The vast open public square of the image below has been replaced by a somewhat messy approach with mobile catering vans and travelling fun fares temporarily locating themselves in the square.

The Market Square is at the summit of Friargate with the Harris Library visible from the Ring Road. It provides a link between Friargate and Fishergate, the two main shopping streets in Preston

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


Views from the top of Friargate showing the Market Square as it was with the Old Town Hall and how it is currently with CUBIC

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


8. Preston’s future?

The proposals for the Tithebarn regeneration scheme The Market Square/Flagmarket is an integral part of the proposed Tithebarn regeneration scheme which aims to revitalise the run down areas between Fishergate and Church Street whilst maximising the existing areas such as the Market Square and the retail areas of Fishergate and Friargate. The proposals include new retail accommodation with a John Lewis Department Store on the site of the existing Bus Station with a new Bus Terminus located to the East side of St John’s

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study



The scheme has suffered a variety of setbacks with the economic downturn resulting in one of the joint developers Grosvenor pulling out and the proposals going to a Public enquiry so it is still unclear whether the £700million scheme will get the go ahead. In addition to this a competition to revive the Flagmarket area was recently won by Landscape Projects in Manchester as part of the Preston Vision initiative which aims to improve Preston’s parks and urban spaces such as the Flag Market and Green spaces in the centre of Winckley Square. Again, many of these schemes have met with some public disapproval and are at risk following the economic downturn.

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


As with most high streets, Preston’s retail sector has suffered with the economic downturn. Many shops on Fishergate are now vacant with the Grade II listed Miller Arcade virtually empty.

The interior of Miller Arcade with many of the existing retail units lying empty The building itself is currently in administration and looking for a buyer but there is believed to be interest from a developer who sees that Arcade as being ideal for highend restaurants and small boutique shops

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


9. Precedents

Sir Norman Foster’s involvement in political buildings has encompassed, among others, the Reichstag in Berlin completed in 1999 and City Hall in London completed in 2002. The alterations to the Reichstag allow the public and the politicians to enter through the same re-opened formal entrance in a show of architectural strength that embraces the general public within the political process. The addition of the symbolic ‘Cupola’ on the roof allows the public to observe the debating chamber below, rising above the elected representatives. On his web-site he describes the thought processes behind the design:

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


“…The transformation of the Reichstag is rooted in four issues: the significance of the Bundestag as a democratic forum; a commitment to public accessibility; a sensitivity to history; and a rigorous environmental agenda. Emphasising values of clarity and transparency, the glazed cupola is a new landmark for Berlin, and a symbol of the vigour of the German democratic process.”

Located on the south bank of the Thames, City Hall accommodates the assembly chamber for the twenty-five elected members of the London Assembly and the offices of the mayor and staff of the Greater London Authority. It explores the same themes as The Reichstag in that the aim was to provide a building that was transparent and accessible but also a sustainable and non-polluting public building. The Carre D’Art is located in Nimes in the South of France which is twinned with Preston. It was completed in 1993 and flanks a perfectly preserved Roman Temple – The Maison Carre. On his web-site, Foster talks about the challenge of how to relate the old to the new but create a building that represents its own age with integrity. It is interesting with this project how Foster discusses the potential to revitalise the existing surrounding urban space as a ‘pedestrianised realm…reinvigorating the social and cultural life of Nimes.’ In Ulm, Germany, Richard Meier completed an assembly building in 1993 which sits next to the Gothic Ulm Cathedral in the Munsterplatz. On his website he states his intention was to establish ‘a modern, secular civic presence within the main pedestrianised square of the city. The interior spaces are naturally lit which promotes access into the building and cut outs in the main external structure frame views of both the Cathedral and the square

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


beyond. It is a striking ‘iconic’ building and yet by contextualising the internal spaces it doesn’t seem to distract from the existing Gothic Cathedral. “…Richard Meier’s white geometric spacecraft of an assembly building has landed in the Ulm Munsterplatz in front of the largest Gothic cathedral spire in the world, at last colonizing a pedestrian square that has deified planners and failed to inspire competition winners for over a century. But far from being an alien invader, this masterful, modern structure – based on Meier’s familiar interplay of circle and square – is a worthy complement to Ulm cathedral and a generator of a renewed sense of place in the city centre.” 3


Myerson, Jeremy 1996 New Public Architecture Laurence King Publishing

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


10. A Civic Proposal For my final year project I propose to use the site currently home to the CUBIC development of residential accommodation and retail. I aim to explore whether a building can be incorporated within the Central area of a City with the intention of bringing the seemingly disparate parts of the existing local democracy into a central hub that is deemed accessible to the local public. In my view, the site is suitable because of its central location. The recent refurbishment of the old Crystal House involved a change from office accommodation to residential. It was argued that the lack of parking made the provision of renewed office accommodation not feasible. I would argue that the existing transport links make it a prime location for the provision of Office accommodation. The under-used park and ride scheme close to Junction 31 A of the M6 Motorway could be a location where drivers could leave their cars and utilise public transport to enter the City Centre. Next to this Park and Ride scheme is hotel accommodation two new additional hotels planned for the City Centre, one of which is currently under construction. The proposed site is also situated within walking distance of both the existing and the proposed Bus Station locations as well as being on the same street as the Train Station. The view expressed by Richard Rogers that it is essential that a building of this sort attracts visitors and is used in order to ‘assume symbolic significance’ is another reason why I consider this site suitable. The proposed site is centrally located with potential facades on to Fishergate, the main shopping street in Preston and the Flagmarket. Its proximity to the proposed Tithebarn regeneration area suggests that an increased number of visitors should have access to it. Also if the proposals to reinvigorate the

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


Miller Arcade to include restaurants and boutique shops progresses then increased footfall would allow more people to gain access to such a building. The historical significance of the site is an integral factor. Most Prestonians believe that the replacement of the previous Town Hall in the 1960s with Crystal house (now CUBIC) was a mistake. With a new democratic hub replacing the mixed use retail and residential accommodation there is a possibility to re-establish the perimeter of the Market square as a Civic quarter which in my view would augment Market Square as an important part of Preston’s urban realm.

Photomontages showing surrounding buildings from the Cenotaph, (top) Fishergate(middle) and PAD Art Gallery (bottom)

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study


Such a sensitive site obviously brings its own challenges with close proximity to the Grade I listed Harris Library and Grade II listed buildings such as the County Sessions House, PAD Art Gallery and the Miller Arcade which provide the existing square with various architectural styles. The existing CUBIC building is higher than the Harris Library building which seems to diminish its status – the challenge with a replacement building would be to nod to the existing urban fabric but also provide a clear expression of modern democracy that attempts to. In addition, modern, democratic architecture needs to be highly sustainable and environmentally conscious in much the same way that political figures need to be “whiter than white.” The potential is there with this site to create a sustainable building. The opportunity to use the South facing façade on to Fishergate would allow passive solar gain to heat the building. In addition the vast open space of the Flagmarket could facilitate the use of such technologies as Ground Source Heat Pumps and also enhances the opportunities to utilise passive ventilation. The challenge of any modern democratic building is to combine the accessibility, clarity and permeability required to attract visitors with the obvious security aspects essential to protect potential powerful visitors and members of the public.

It seems that there has been a change of emphasis with regards to the contribution that architecture can make to Democracy. In his book ‘The Edifice Complex – How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World,’ Deyan Sudjic discusses architecture as being “…not merely an art form but a form of communication – or more pointedly, a kind of propaganda.” In the past, Architects have been commissioned to design political

PGDipArch Year Two Background Study

buildings as a show of strength, to emphasise a region’s capabilities. However, it seems that modern, democratic buildings are designed to show how efficient and accessible they can be - mirrored by the intentions of MPs and political figures to be seen also as clear and transparent.


PGDipArch Year Two Background Study

Bibliography Hayes, Cliff (2002) Around Preston Frith Book Company Ltd Myerson, Jeremy (1996) New Public Architecture Laurence King Publishing Sudjic, Deyan & Jones, Helen (1999) Architecture and Democracy Laurence King Publishing Sudjic, Deyan (2006) The Edifice Complex – How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World Penguin Books Ltd Towers, Graham (1995) Building Democracy UCL Press Limited



PGDipArch Year Two Background Study



An investigation in to the relationship between Architecture and Democracy

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