32164-rcm_2-2 Sheet No. 55 Side A
1) Attempting to cause or causing physical harm to another family or household member; 2) Placing a family or household member in fear of physical harm; or 3) Causing a family or household member to engage involuntarily in sexual activity by force, threat of force or duress.87 In a recent paper, Joan B. Kelly and Michael P. Johnson, assert that differentiation among types of domestic violence is necessary to fair discussion: On the one hand, gender-neutral laws have been enacted that identify any act of violence by one partner against another as domestic violence. â€Ś On the other hand, for many LQWKHÂżHOGGRPHVWLFYLROHQFHGHVFULEHVDFRHUFLYHSDWWHUQRIPHQÂśVSK\VLFDOYLROHQFH intimidation, and control of their female partners (i.e. battering). The terms domestic violence and battering have been used interchangeably by womenâ€™s advocates, domestic violence educators, and service providers for three decades, based on their belief that all incidents of domestic violence involve male battering. â€Ś Among some social scientists, it LVQRORQJHUFRQVLGHUHGVFLHQWLÂżFDOO\RUHWKLFDOO\DFFHSWDEOHWRVSHDNRIGRPHVWLFYLROHQFH without specifying the type of violence to which one refers.88
A reporter should anticipate that public discussion of domestic violence might involve participants who apply different meanings to the term. Traditional domestic violence groups, which are the best funded and organized of participants, tend to speak only about course-of-conduct domestic violence. There is strong evidence that most such violence is perpetrated by men against women.89 Fathersâ€™ rights groups, which frequently react publicly to the assertions of traditional domestic violence groups, cite studies that claim there is equivalence between men and women both as perpetrators and as victims of domestic violence.90 Such studies count primarily incidents of single instance domestic violence that are more common than incidents of course-of-conduct domestic violence.91
32164-rcm_2-2 Sheet No. 55 Side A
7KHWUXWKLVWKDWERWKRIWKHVHWZRVXSHUÂżFLDOO\FRQWUDGLFWRU\SRVLWLRQVDUH correct. They are, however, referring to different types of violence that occur ZLWKLQDGRPHVWLFVHWWLQJ7KHGLIIHUHQWGHÂżQLWLRQVRIWKHWHUPÂłGRPHVWLFYLRlenceâ€? have been a cause of misunderstanding and acrimony between womenâ€™s groups and menâ€™s groups, and have also caused confusion between womenâ€™s JURXSVDQGIDPLO\FRXUWSURIHVVLRQDOVÂł7KHVHKLVWRULFDOO\FRPSHWLQJGHÂżQLtions have had professionals talking past one another for years.â€?92 Media coverage should acknowledge this difference in meaning and attempt to DYRLGWKHGLIÂżFXOWLHVLWFUHDWHVLQSXEOLFGLVFXVVLRQ6WDWLVWLFVWKDWVKRZHLWKHUD predominance of female victimization or a gender equivalence of victimization should be presented with explanation.
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87. NATIONAL C OUNCIL OF JU VENILE A ND FA MILY C OURT JUDGES , FA MILY VIOLENCE: A MODEL S TATE C ODE (1994). 88. Joan B. Kelly & Michael P. Johnson 'LIIHUHQWLDWLRQ$PRQJ7\SHV2I,QWLPDWH3DUWQHU9LROHQFH5HVHDUFK8SGDWHDQG,PSOLFDWLRQV)RU,QWHUYHQWLRQV. 46 FA M . C T. R EV. 476 (2008). 89. 86'HSDUWPHQWRI-XVWLFH2IÂżFHRI-XVWLFH3URJUDPV%XUHDXRI-XVWLFH6WDWLVWLFV)DPLO\YLROHQFH statistics (June 2005). 90. See, e.g., John Archer, 6H['LIIHUHQFHV,Q$JJUHVVLRQ%HWZHHQ+HWHURVH[XDO3DUWQHUV$0HWDDQDlytic Review, 126 PSYCH. BULL . 651 (2000). 91. Peter Salem & Billie Lee Dunford-Jackson. supra note 84. 92. ,G
7/3/12 7:57 AM
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