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Volume 3 Issue 2 2019 Adrian Nixon


Nixene Publishing Limited have made every effort to ensure that the information in this publication was correct at the time of going to press. Nixene Publishing Limited does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from negligence, accident or any other cause.

Š 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Table of Contents

Summary........................................................................................................................ 5 Technology Developments ............................................................................................ 7 ‘GO dough’ makes graphene easy to shape and mould........................................... 7 Multitasking graphene ink printed into tiny flexible supercapacitors ........................ 8 Using 3D Printing, Researchers Combine Graphene Oxide, Seaweed- Derived Material to Create Smart Hydrogel ............................................................................ 9 Sailing in space with graphene ................................................................................ 10 Graphene materials for cancer treatment (in vitro and in vivo studies) .................. 11 Pure Graphene Generates Photocurrent Over Great Distances for Ultra-Efficient Energy Flow ............................................................................................................. 12 Silkworms fed with graphene make super-strong silk threads that conduct electricity................................................................................................................... 13 Bio-Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Nanoscale Antimicrobial Coating for Medical Devices ..................................................................................................................... 14 2D systems and materials beyond graphene: The rise of indium selenide............ 15 High-resolution mapping of infraslow cortical brain activity enabled by graphene microtransistors ........................................................................................................ 16 Inhibition of Biofilm formation by graphene and hBN coatings ............................... 17 Corrosion Protection of Graphene-Modified Zinc-Rich Epoxy Coatings in Dilute NaCl Solution ........................................................................................................... 18

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Company / Market Developments............................................................................... 19 Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre announces new Tier-One partnership . 19 First Graphene Announces REACH Consortium Joined for Commercialisation of Graphene in Europe ................................................................................................. 20 Dotz Nano announced $100,000 sale from Swiss-based anti-counterfeiting company ................................................................................................................... 21 Arcadia Announces The World's First Graphene Coated Field Watch .................. 22 Europe’s Investment in Graphene ........................................................................... 23 Zenyatta Ventures Ltd. Announces Name Change to ZEN Graphene Solutions Ltd. .................................................................................................................................. 24 Gratomic to launch new ultra-efficient tires ............................................................. 26 Haydale Graphene jumps on deal to supply 76kg of its proprietary piezo resistive ink to HP1 Technologies .......................................................................................... 27 Circa Group’s bio-based solvent aids UK researchers to produce ‘high quality’ graphene ink............................................................................................................. 28 Talga has signed a collab to test its graphene for use in German car parts .......... 29 NanoXplore secures $10 mln in debentures from BDC .......................................... 30 Graphite tailings may become a cement replacement, says Zenyatta................... 31 Haydale announces an additional £250,000 fund-raise.......................................... 32 Soundcore by Anker Introduces Newest Wireless ‘Liberty Lite Earphones’ with Graphene-Enhanced Drivers ................................................................................... 33 Garmor creates extra strong polymeric coatings and innovative conductive fibers34 The navigator headings ........................................................................................... 35

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Summary The pace of activity keeps up in this fast-moving world. This month a team at Northwest University in the USA have made a very high solids graphene oxide ‘dough’ (think of plasticine and you’ll get the idea) This dough allows graphene oxide to be transported efficiently and also thinned with water. This development will eliminate the dust problems associated with handling the material. They also reduced this oxide back to graphene and have made a new material that they are calling a ‘grapheneic glass’. They have barely begun to explore the properties of this material but it already seems to be much harder than normal graphite. Printing and conductive inks feature strongly this month. 3D printing with graphene has become closer thanks to a discover that alginate from seaweed can create a nanocomposite hydrogel with graphene oxide. Conductive inks are also being used to make supercapacitors that can now be screen printed in series. This paves the way for more flexible / wearable electronic devices of the future. In the field of biomedicine graphene in all its forms is being used in a variety of cancer treatments. The table on page 10 provides the summary with a link to the original study. Lots of activity in the companies and markets section. The GEIC has just announced a new Tier 1 member. A Chinese company called Tunghsu Optoelectronics. There are another two T1 memberships in the pipeline. The GEIC is filling up quickly and James Baker has a demonstrable success on his hands already. Graphene info produced its league table of graphene companies for 2018. We have produced our own for comparison. Our list ranks the companies in terms of actual sales. Graphene info lists them in order of the number of articles in their site. The two are quite different. Our list is completely independent. Dotz nano has announced a $100,000 deal with a Swiss company to use its graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as an anti-counterfeiting technology. First Graphene has joined the REACH consortium and its graphene products are now REACH registered. This means it is seriously targeting the large company supply chains of the future. First graphene will probably top our list of graphene companies at some point in the near future. Haydale has raised an additional £250,000 investment for their pressure sensitive graphene inks. There is too much activity to fit on to one page, these are just the headlines, you can explore this issue to find out much more…

The standard format for the report The report is in date order for the month, the most recent work first.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Date: dd/mm/yy Headline: Technology and Research are in Yellow The source material is hyperlinked

Content summary: A description of the source material translating technical jargon in to plain English as far as possible 1.

Relevance: Highlighting work that may be of interest and why

Date: dd/mm/yy Headline: Company / Market information in pink The source material is hyperlinked

Content summary: Relevance:

Š 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Technology Developments Date: 30/01/19 Headline: ‘GO dough’ makes graphene easy to shape and mould https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-08389-6.pdf

Content summary • • • •

A team at Northwestern University in the USA has made a high solids content Graphene oxide ‘dough’ The team used a combination of freeze drying and re-hydration to make the solids content between 40-60% Any higher than 60% and the graphene oxide solidified so much it could not be handled Further hydration made a graphene oxide gel that could be directly extruded with a syringe

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Privacy window

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene oxide nanoplate Graphene oxide dough Graphenic glass

• • •

The team also looked at what happened when the graphene oxide dough was reduced back to graphene with Hydrogen Iodide They found the reduced graphene oxide dough formed a very hard materials they called ‘graphenic glass’ This graphenic glass was much harder than comparable graphite.

Relevance: • • •

Fascinating work. Transporting graphene dispersions is limited by their low solids content. If this dough can be made cost effectively it could improve the handling in the supply chain. Also, the graphenic glass is an interesting discovery – this could have applications in the aerospace field.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Date: 18/01/19 Headline: Multitasking graphene ink printed into tiny flexible supercapacitors https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/multitasking-graphene-ink-printed-into-tiny-flexiblesupercapacitors/3010004.article

Content summary • • • •

This is work done by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences They have developed a graphene ink that can be screen printed to make supercapacitors They have made the ink thixotropic so it flows easily when moved and thickens when still The ink dries for 12 hours, and then an electrolyte gel is applied and allowed to solidify for a further 12 hours, at which point the device is ready to use.

MARKET Mobile / wearable devices

APPLICATION Supercapacitors

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Source: https://player.vimeo.com/video/311615309

Although a single micro supercapacitor supplies less than one volt, the researchers were able to integrate 130 of them in series, giving an output of over 100 volts

Relevance: • •

These devices are also flexible, if they’re printed on a flexible substrate, like PET which should make them compatible with wearable electronics. This work does not make complete devices right now, but this is a technology to watch.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Date: 17/01/19 Headline: Using 3D Printing, Researchers Combine Graphene Oxide, SeaweedDerived Material to Create Smart Hydrogel https://www.rdmag.com/article/2019/01/using-3d-printing-researchers-combine-graphene-oxide-seaweedderived-material-create-smart-hydrogel

Content summary: • • • •

This is work done by researchers in the USA at Brown University and the national university of Singapore They made a nanocomposite hydrogel with alginate from seaweed and graphene oxide This nanocomposite could be crosslinked (or set) by the action of light on a photocatalyst that released metal ion crosslinking agents So for 3D printing the graphene oxide/alginate mixture will flow as a liquid then can be set by the action of light to create the rigid hydrogel structures

MARKET Research & development

Marine

APPLICATION Sensors

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene oxide nanoplate

• •

The 3D printed hydrogel structures were oleophobic meaning they repel oils The alginate-GO hydrogels exhibit improved mechanical performance in shear, compression, and tension, relative to alginate-only hydrogels: o a two-fold increase in shear modulus, o a three-fold decrease in inelastic deformation, o and a nine-fold increase in fracture energy

Relevance: • •

The team thought this technique could enable “smart” multi responsive and multifunctional devices for aqueous and marine environments. Although it is not quite clear exactly what these devices could be at present.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019

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Date: 14/01/19 Headline: Sailing in space with graphene https://www.ecnmag.com/news/2019/01/sailing-space-graphene

Content summary: • • • •

This is work done by graduate students from the Delft Technical University in Netherlands They dropped their experiment down a 150m tower to simulate 4.5s of microgravity They shone a high intensity laser at a graphene sail The team detected a displacement in the position of the sail during the drop

MARKET Aerospace

APPLICATION Polymer composites

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate CVD graphene

By Kevin Gill from Nashua, NH, United States - Solar Sail, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=42599221

Relevance: • • •

This experiment shows that the principle of a solar sail can be used as a propulsion system. The sail needs to be made form something strong and light. Graphene is the ideal material to form the sails and this experiment shows that if graphene can be made in large enough sheets then it could turn this idea from a possibility to a probability.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 10


Date: 13/01/19 Headline: Graphene materials for cancer treatment (in vitro and in vivo studies) https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40820-019-0237-5

Content summary: • •

This is work done in India at Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology in Thiruvananthapuram This is part of the work in the review paper “Comprehensive Application of Graphene: Emphasis on Biomedical Concerns”

MARKET Biomedical

APPLICATION Anti-cancer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate Reduced graphene oxide nanoplate Graphene oxide nanoplate Graphene Quantum Dots

Relevance: • •

This paper summarises the work done so far using graphene for cancer treatment. It shows the range of activity and provides a good overview of the way graphene compounds can be modified for these applications.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 11


Date: 08/01/19 Headline: Pure Graphene Generates Photocurrent Over Great Distances for Ultra-Efficient Energy Flow https://www.photonics.com/Articles/Pure_Graphene_Generates_Photocurrent_Over_Great/a64294

Content summary: • • •

Researchers at the University of California, Riverside, USA have done this work They shone an 600nm (Orange visible light), 850nm and 10.6 µm laser (Infra-red light) at samples of pristine graphene They found that the graphene converted the light into an electric current

MARKET Research and Development Energy management

APPLICATION Health & Safety Sensors Solar cells

PRODUCT TYPE CVD Graphene

• •

Also, the current generated can travel remarkably long distances although the source paper does not define the distance or the current in a way that us useful at the bulk scale. The current seemed to concentrate at the edges and corners of the graphene

Relevance: • •

• • •

This work has been done on very small pieces of pristine graphene, single crystal graphene. When light hits single crystal graphene it generates an electric current. This current emerges near the corners and edges of the material. We don’t know if this applies to the bulk material yet, but it seems reasonable to assume this will be the case. This could be a safety issue when handling sheets of single crystal graphene in strong light, it could generate sparks of photoelectric current far from the source.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 12


Date: 08/01/19 Headline: Silkworms fed with graphene make super-strong silk threads that conduct electricity https://www.firstpost.com/tech/science/silkworms-fed-with-graphene-make-super-strong-silkthreads-that-conduct-electricity-5854381.html

Content summary: • • •

This work was done by Researchers at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China They sprayed mulberry leaves with water dispersion of graphene and carbon nanotubes and allowed silkworms to eat them They found the silk protein produced by the silkworms was electrically conductive and stronger than normal silk

MARKET Textiles

APPLICATION Electronics Sensor

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Image butterflyarc pixabay

Relevance: • • •

This should lead to advances in wearable electronic devices. The well-being of the Silkworms could be an issue. This was not considered in this work. While this article was reported in January 2019 it seems to be based on work published in 2016.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 13


Date: 07/01/19 Headline:

Bio-Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Nanoscale Antimicrobial Coating for Medical Devices https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.8b02787

Content summary: • • • •

This is work done at the Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad India The researchers coated aluminium plates with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide Then they grew E. Coli bacteria and found the coated plates killed most Similar plates did not harm mouse 3T6 fibroblast cells

MARKET Biomedical

APPLICATION Anti-bacterial Sensors

PRODUCT TYPE Reduced Graphene oxide nanoplate Graphene oxide nanoplate

They concluded that the GO and rGO coatings have an antibacterial effect but are unlikely to be toxic to human cells

Relevance: • •

These coatings could be used to cover medical devices such as sensors and other invasive instruments. They would have a certain degree of self-sterilisation without toxic effects.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 14


Date: 04/01/19 Headline: 2D systems and materials beyond graphene: The rise of indium selenide https://www.scitecheuropa.eu/2d-systems/91875/

Content summary: • • •

A summary of the properties of InSe by Nottingham University This is a member of the new class of 2D materials It can form layered structures called Van der Waals structures

MARKET Research & development

APPLICATION Electronics

PRODUCT TYPE Indium Selenide

• • •

The researchers discovered that InSe is a semiconductor It can also act as a catalyst splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen in sunlight There is some evidence showing that atomically thin films of InSe suffer degradation, however the exact nature of this is not clear http://www.spinograph.org/blog/2d-indium-selenide-novel-semiconductinganalogue-graphene

Relevance: • • •

Indium Selenide is a relatively new member of the class of 2D materials. It is a research material at the moment. Probably of interest to the electronics industry where it can be encapsulated in heterostructures with hBN and graphene.

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Date: 03/01/19 Headline: High-resolution mapping of infraslow cortical brain activity enabled by graphene microtransistors https://www.icfo.eu/newsroom/news/article/4223

Content summary: • • •

This is work done by a team at the institute of microelectronics at Barcelona, Spain They made new electrodes for electro encephalopathy and studied the responsiveness in rats These electrodes were field effect transistors made from CVD graphene

MARKET Biomedical

APPLICATION Sensors

PRODUCT TYPE CVD Graphene

• •

They found that the electrodes were capable to detecting very slow brainwave activity called infraslow signals These signals have a very low frequency at 0.1Hz

Relevance: • • •

Infraslow signals are of interest because they are linked to conditions such as strokes and migraines. Detecting these low frequency signals has previously only been possible with invasive techniques that require surgery. These graphene electrodes mean that these signals can be detected without surgery.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 16


Date: 03/01/19 Headline: Inhibition of Biofilm formation by graphene and hBN coatings https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/9/1/49/htm#B42-nanomaterials-09-00049

Content summary: • • •

This work was done by a team at the Federico Santa María Technical University in Chile They covered glass surfaces with one atom thick layers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) They found that E. Cloacae bacteria could not form a biofilm on the surfaces coated with graphene and hBN

MARKET Biomedical

APPLICATION Anti-biofilm Anti-fouling Sensors

PRODUCT TYPE CVD Graphene CVD hBN

• •

The team put this down to the electrostatic repulsion of the surfaces Graphene was slightly better than hBN

Relevance: • • • • •

This is more important work than it looks at first sight. Biofilms are a real problem because once they form, they are hard to remove. This work shows that surface treatment with CVD graphene can prevent fouling. It also means that graphene sensors might be less susceptible to fouling when in either medical or industrial environments. It is not clear whether this effect applies to graphene nanoplate coatings. Might be worth investigating.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 17


Date: 02/01/19 Headline: Corrosion Protection of Graphene-Modified Zinc-Rich Epoxy Coatings in Dilute NaCl Solution https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsanm.8b01821

Content summary: • •

This is work done by the Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo, China Zinc/epoxy anticorrosion paint has been enhanced with graphene Graphene nanoplates added at 0.3% by weight

MARKET Aerospace Automotive Construction

APPLICATION Composites polymer

Anti corrosion

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplates • •

Image from olafpictures: Pixabay

The team found that the graphene did improve the anticorrosion performance Two mechanisms at play here: Physical barrier and cathodic protection Worth noting that they said the cathodic protection improvement was temporary

Relevance: • • • • • •

Zinc improves the anticorrosion performance of epoxy by blocking pores and also adding cathodic protection. The more zinc you add the more the cathodic protection. However, adding more zinc reduces the adhesion of the coating to the surface. So, adding small amounts of graphene allows less zinc to be used and increases the strength and cathodic protective effects. The researchers have not identified the perfect balance yet, more work needed. This shows the optimisation of these coatings formulations requires a lot of work.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 18


Company / Market Developments Date: 31/01/19 Headline: Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre announces new Tier-One partnership https://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/news/graphene-engineering-innovation-centre-announces-newtier-one-partnership/

Content summary: • •

The Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre (GEIC) has welcomed Tunghsu Optoelectronic as its fourth Tier-One partner The new collaboration will see cooperation of high-quality graphene materials, the development of new energy materials, improved graphene coatings and inks and composite materials.

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Optoelectronics

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate CVD Graphene

• • •

The company was formerly known as Shijiazhuang Baoshi Electronic Glass Co., Ltd It engages in the development and sale of liquid crystal glass substrates and equipment in China. It also offers energy buses, and single-layer graphene and graphene-based lithium-ion battery related products The company currently has 7,931 Employees

Relevance: •

Quite a coup for the GEIC, this gives it a global reach. Tunghsu also has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Versarien in November 2018 which may have laid the foundations for this announcement.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 19


Date: 29/01/19 Headline: First Graphene Announces REACH Consortium Joined for Commercialisation of Graphene in Europe Content summary: • • • •

First Graphene has joined the existing REACH registration for Graphene materials. Registration enables sales of PureGRAPHTM at up to 10 tonne/year in the UK and Europe. A full registration dossier is now in place to facilitate product registration in other geographical regions. The Consortium is actively working towards registration at higher volume bands in 2019.

MARKET Manufacturing

Graphene Standards

APPLICATION Regulations

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Relevance: • •

First Graphene is the first of the Tier one members at the GEIC to join the REACH consortium. This shows two things: o The company is producing graphene rather than graphite. o The company is serious about organising for large company supply chains.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 20


Date: 22/01/19 Headline: Dotz Nano announced $100,000 sale from Swiss-based anticounterfeiting company https://www.graphene-info.com/dotz-nano-announced-100000-sale-swiss-based-anti-counterfeiting-company

Content summary: • •

Dotz Nano has received a US$100,000 commercial sale of its ValiDotz securitymarkers and InSpec detectors The sale is to an unnamed Swiss anti-counterfeiting company offering integrated packaging solutions aimed at governing organizations.

MARKET Security

APPLICATION Anti-counterfeiting

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene quantum dot (GQD)

Dotz nano UV fluorescent GQD Image from You Tube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tP-NpzB_zwE

• •

The Dotz’s polymer-markers are to be integrated into the manufacturing of the customer’s safety-plastic solutions, and will use the company’s detectors

Relevance: • • • • • •

This is very good news for Dotz nano. This appears to be an unequivocal sale. Interesting that this could overlap with Haydale’s anti counterfeiting inks. Both companies have proprietary detection technologies. For the moment there is room for both. We will watch this market space.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 21


Date: 22/01/19 Headline: Arcadia Announces The World's First Graphene Coated Field Watch https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/19/01/r13011970/arcadia-announces-the-worlds-first-graphene-coatedfield-watch

Content summary: • • •

Arcadia has found a way of coating the stainless steel of the watch body with graphene. The graphene is probably nanoplate Arcadia has an entrepreneurial approach to the launch of this product

MARKET Luxury Goods

APPLICATION PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

• •

They are testing the market demand via the social funding platform Kickstarter We will find out what the demand is once the Kickstarter campaign concludes

Relevance: • •

This is an entrepreneurial approach to the application of graphene. A new application of graphene to a luxury market.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 22


Date: 18/01/19 Headline: Europe’s Investment in Graphene https://www.scienceandtechnologyresearchnews.com/europes-investment-in-graphene/

Content summary: • • •

The graphene Flagship is the European Union’s €1bn project supporting graphene The investment has so far been in research and development activities The emphasis is switching to support more downstream activities

MARKET Manufacturing

Automotive

APPLICATION Conductive inks

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

• • •

There are six spearhead projects formed from partner companies These partner organisations launched six spin-off companies based on their work, securing more than EUR 20 million in risk capital funds. Details of the spearhed projects have not been published yet http://grapheneflagship.eu/project/spearhead/Pages/default.aspx

Relevance: •

This shows the emphasis of funding is to increase the technology readiness levels. UK companies are unlikely to be included in this funding because of Brexit .

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 23


Date: 17/01/2019 Headline: Zenyatta Ventures Ltd. Announces Name Change to ZEN Graphene Solutions Ltd. https://www.zenyatta.ca/zenyatta-ventures-ltd-announces-name-change-to-zen-graphene-solutions-ltd/

Content summary: • •

Zenyatta Ventures Ltd announced that it has obtained Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX) Venture Exchange approval and has changed its name from “Zenyatta Ventures Ltd.” to “ZEN Graphene Solutions Ltd The company said the name change reflects its decision to focus its development plans for the Albany Graphite Project on the graphene nano-material product opportunity.

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Composites – concrete and cement

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

The logo has yet to change

Relevance: • •

Streamlined approach to branding and marketing. Good to see clarity of branding from the company.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 24


Date: 17/01/19 Headline: Content summary: • • • •

Graphenest is a Portuguese company that has two products A graphene paint for electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI) A graphene containing epoxy resin for carbon fibre composites The graphene is a few layer nanoplate derived from graphite

MARKET Manufacturing

Aerospace

APPLICATION Composites polymer Electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI)

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

• •

The HexaShield EMI product sells for €200 for 1 litre The epoxy resin and hardener sells for €200 for 3 litres (2.5l epoxy + 0.5l hardener

Relevance: • •

It is not clear exactly what is the performance of the EMI shielding product. The graphene containing epoxy resin benefits are not clearly articulated.

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Date: 16/01/19 Headline: Gratomic to launch new ultra-efficient tires Content summary: • •

Gratomic is a Canadian based graphite to graphene company They announced the development of their new Graphene Ultra Fuel Efficient Tires (GUET) with certification and terrain testing targeted for completion in Q3, 2019.

MARKET Manufacturing Automotive

APPLICATION Composites polymer Tyres / Tires

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

• • • •

Gratomic is deriving their graphene technology from Perpetuus, the UK company based in Wales Perpetuus have developed a plasma reactor that can turn the Gratomic graphite in to graphene Gratomic have access to high quality graphite with a graphite mine in Namibia This vertical integration may give the company a cost advantage accessing the raw materials

Relevance: • •

This is a direct result of the Perpetuus tests we reported in the August issue. For this development to work Gratomic must make the graphene at a price that can be justified by the extra lifetime of the tyres.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 26


Date: 15/01/19 Headline: Haydale Graphene jumps on deal to supply 76kg of its proprietary piezo resistive ink to HP1 Technologies https://www.proactiveinvestors.co.uk/companies/news/212561/haydale-graphene-signs-deal-to-supply-76kgof-its-propriety-piezoresistive-ink-to-hp1-technologies-212561.html

Content summary: • • •

Haydale has signed a supply agreement to provide 76kg of its proprietary piezo resistive ink to HP1 Technologies Ltd. (HP1T) over an 18-month period. Haydale didn’t disclose the value of this deal they say because it is confidential It is likely to be a low value deal to help HP1T develop their market for impact sensors

MARKET Automotive Defence Mobile / wearable devices

APPLICATION Conductive ink

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Relevance: • •

Piezo resistive materials change their resistance to an electric current. It is likely the Haydale graphene ink has nanoplates that can move under pressure and the closer the contact the easier it is for an electric current to pass, hence lower resistance under pressure.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 27


Date: 15/01/19 Headline: Circa Group’s bio-based solvent aids UK researchers to produce ‘high quality’ graphene ink. https://www.biobasedworldnews.com/circa-groups-bio-based-solvent-aids-uk-researchers-toproduce-high-quality-graphene-ink

Content summary: • • • •

Circa group makes a solvent called Dihydrolevoglucosenone or Cyrene Chemical structure below The solvent is attractive because it is environmentally friendly, made from crop waste It can also disperse graphene this is why it is mentioned as a component of graphene inks

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Conductive inks

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Chemical structure of Cyrene

• • •

We checked this out with the GEIC to see if they have been using Cyrene They tried the material, it did disperse graphene. They found that Cyrene has a low vapour pressure and is not suitable as an ink solvent

Relevance: • •

The low vapour pressure of Cyrene means it won’t evaporate easily. This means the ink will be very hard to dry.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 28


Date: 15/01/19 Headline: Talga has signed a collab to test its graphene for use in German car parts https://stockhead.com.au/resources/talga-has-signed-a-collab-to-test-its-graphene-for-use-ingerman-car-parts/

Content summary: • • •

This is a non-binding agreement rather than any sales success Talga Resources has signed a letter of intent (LOI) with German based Schunk Carbon Technology. Talga and Schunk will look at using Talga graphene in “a Schunk product that has applications in the automotive sector

MARKET Automotive

APPLICATION Battery

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Relevance: • •

This agreement is probably about using graphene in batteries. Graphene in carbon fibre composites is not a big area of development in the automotive industry because the carbon fibre composites cannot be recycled.

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 29


Date: 11/01/19 Headline: NanoXplore secures $10 mln in debentures from BDC https://www.pehub.com/canada/2019/01/nanoxplore-secures-10-mln-in-debentures-from-bdc/

Content summary: • • • •

NanoXplore is a Canadian graphene manufacturer Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC) contributed $10 million in convertible unsecured subordinated debentures to the deal. A convertible debenture is a type of loan issued by a company that can be converted into shares. This loan appears to be for the company to develop metal replacement with Graphene-enhanced plastics for electric transportation market

MARKET Manufacturing Energy management

APPLICATION Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Relevance: • • • • •

NanoXplore seem to be in the cash burn phase, they are not earning enough from sales to fund their development activity. The company seems serious about their presence in the graphene market. They claim vertical integration, through shareholder Mason Graphite, back to graphite mining with the Lac Gueret Graphite Project/Mine in Quebec, Canada. They also forward integrate to the market with their acquisition of Sigma Industries, a company that manufactures composites for the heavy transport market. They claim a 25 tonne per year production capacity and 400 employees.

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Date: 10/01/19 Headline: Graphite tailings may become a cement replacement, says Zenyatta https://marketbusinessnews.com/graphene-tailings-zenyatta/193924/

Content summary: • • •

Zenyatta Ventures Ltd has been performing studies to determine whether graphite tailings could become a cement replacement. Zenyatta have access to the Albany graphite deposit in Canada Dr. Ahmad Rteil at the University of British Columbia, has carried out an initial review of Albany tailings chemistry.

MARKET Manufacturing Construction

APPLICATION Composites – concrete and cement

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Dr. Rteil said the graphite tailings would meet both CSA (Canada Standards Association) and ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) standards as a potential partial replacement for cement in concrete.

Relevance: •

If Zenyatta can use the graphite tailings as an additive in concrete they will have made a saleable by-product from their graphite processing.

This will also show if the improvements in concrete with graphene addition is really necessary or whether graphite will make the same improvement.

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Date: 08/01/19 Headline: Haydale announces an additional £250,000 fund-raise https://www.graphene-info.com/haydale-announces-additional-£250000-fund-raise

Content summary: • • •

Haydale has announced a direct subscription for £250,000. The cash injection has come from its partner/investor wheel sure The money is to develop graphene pressure sensors

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Sensors

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Relevance: • • •

The company is doing a good job of raising finance. Having a customer invest in them means they must have proved the technology and the money is for scale-up. As Haydale have good technology with graphene inks they may be printing the sensors. The trick will be to integrate the graphene with other sensor electronics.

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Date: 08/01/19 Headline: Soundcore by Anker Introduces Newest Wireless ‘Liberty Lite Earphones’ with Graphene-Enhanced Drivers https://www.pcquest.com/soundcore-anker-introduces-newest-wireless-liberty-lite-earphonesgraphene-enhanced-drivers/

Content summary: • •

Soundcore by Anker has launched True-Wireless Earphones ‘, Liberty Lite’ The earphones claim to produce high quality sound with graphene membranes

MARKET Electronics

APPLICATION Composites polymer Sound

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

It is likely the membranes are made from a graphene polymer composite

Relevance: • •

It is likely the graphene in the earphones makes for improved sound. We have seen similar products at the GEIC opening and the sound quality with graphene containing polymer composite membranes certainly did work.

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Date: 03/01/19 Headline: Garmor creates extra strong polymeric coatings and innovative conductive fibers https://www.graphene-info.com/garmor-creates-extra-strong-polymeric-coatings-and-innovativeconductive-fibers

Content summary: •

Graphene info reports that Garmor http://garmortech.com/wordpress1/ has developed a graphene polymer composite that is far stronger than the original polymer.

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hy89vNW7WG8

The image shows a tensile strength test of two polymer samples. The light-coloured sample is the original polymer, the black one id the graphene enhanced polymer

Relevance: •

This demonstration clearly shows the effect of adding graphene to a polymer to make a stronger composite material.

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Appendix1: The navigator headings The content for the headings will be updated on a regular basis in response to reader feedback and the emerging content in the market.

Market

Product Type

Aerospace

Borocarbonitrides

Automotive

Borophene

Biomedical

Chemically synthesised graphene

Caution

CVD Graphene

Communications

CVD hBN

Construction Defence

Grain boundary diffusion graphene

Energy management

Graphene fibre

Graphene Standards

Graphene nanoplate

Legal

Graphene oxide dough

Luxury Goods

Graphene oxide nanoplate

Manufacturing

Graphene quantum dot (GQD)

Marine

Graphenic glass

Mining

Graphite

Mobile / wearable devices

Graphyne

Oil & Gas

Hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN)

Packaging

Homostructure

Research & development

Indium Selenide

Regulations Security Separation Membranes Sports Textiles Water Treatment

Heterostructure

Laser Induced Graphene (LIG) Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) Not Valid Other 2 D materials Phosphorene Reduced graphene oxide nanoplate Single crystal graphene Transition metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs) Tungsten diselenide

Š 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 35


Application 3D Printing

Supercapacitors

Anti-bacterial

Tether

Anti-biofilm

Tissue Engineering

Anti-cancer

Touchscreen

Anti-corrosion

Tyres / Tires

Anti-counterfeiting

Wound Management

Anti-static Armour Barrier – vapour / gas Batteries Catalysis Clothing Coatings Composites - polymer Composites – concrete and cement Conductive inks Conductive membrane Desalination Desiccant Electronics Electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI) Fire retardant Flexible displays Health & Safety Heat management Lubricants Membrane – gas separation Noise reduction Patents Optoelectronics Personal protection Photonics Pollution control Printing Privacy window Propellant Regulations Sensors Solar cells Sound

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 36


The Nixene Journal is brought about through the research and analysis of Adrian Nixon, Editor in Chief. Adrian is an experienced, qualified scientist (Chartered Chemist and Member of the Royal Society of Chemistry) and has published regular content in industry journals and website blogs since 1999. Adrian is an advisory board member of the National Graphene Association in the USA. The Journal began as a private research project that was needed to create information and understanding about the emerging world of graphene and other 2D materials. This quickly became a significant regular undertaking as the amount of development activity grew. At the time of writing there are some twenty-five thousand academic papers published each year and as much again reported business and market activity. He now summarises this vast array of content through the Nixene Journal, published monthly and distributed to some of the world’s leading organisations who wish to be kept informed of the progress Graphene is making in becoming a practical reality for use in and around the world. We cover a wide range of topics from energy management, composites, separation membranes, nano medicine coatings and other emerging markets and applications. The journal has two basic sections, one focussing on identifying and explaining the emerging technology and the other analysing the business and markets activity. An option exists to tailor the content to the specific requirement of each client. In effect, we take the content and determine the ‘so what?’ for each client type, irrespective of industry segment or location. If you would like to know more about a suitable package for you, bringing the world’s intelligence to your inbox once per month, then we’d be delighted to hear from you. info@nixenepublishing.com

www.nixenepublishing.com

© 2019 Nixene Publishing Limited www.nixenepublishing.com Volume 3 issue 2 2019 37

Profile for nixenepublishing

Nixene Journal - Vol. 3, Issue 2 - January 2019  

The Nixene Journal is for anyone who wants to understand the world of graphene and other 2D materials. Editor-in-Chief Adrian Nixon creates...

Nixene Journal - Vol. 3, Issue 2 - January 2019  

The Nixene Journal is for anyone who wants to understand the world of graphene and other 2D materials. Editor-in-Chief Adrian Nixon creates...

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