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Volume 4 Issue 2 2020


Copyright Š 2020 Nixene Publishing Limited

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the express permission of Nixene Publishing Limited. Disclaimer Nixene Publishing Limited, the author and publisher, have made every effort to ensure that the information in this publication was correct at the time of going to press. Nixene Publishing Limited, the author and publisher, do not assume and hereby disclaim any liability to any party for any loss, damage or disruption caused by errors or omissions, whether such errors or omissions result from negligence, accident or any other cause.

Š Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Table of Contents Summary .................................................................................................................... 5 Special Feature: User Experience of High-Tech Footwear ........................................ 7 Technology Developments ......................................................................................... 9 Gram-scale bottom-up flash graphene synthesis .................................................... 9 Researchers use chicken poo to dope graphene to make a point ........................ 10 QV Bioelectronics Developing Innovative Electrotherapies for Cancer ................. 11 Graphene fatigue testing show it to be strongest material tested so far ................ 12 Large-area single-crystal AB-bilayer and ABA-trilayer graphene grown on a Cu/Ni(111) foil ....................................................................................................... 13 New value for the melting (Sublimation) point of graphene ................................... 14 Machine learning could reveal graphene oxide’s real structure ............................ 15 Company / Market Developments ............................................................................ 16 Nathan Feddy of the GEIC on graphene for composites applications ................... 16 Goodyear Eagle F1 road tyres launched with graphene technology ..................... 17 Directa Plus gets EU grant to develop G+ graphene printing technology ............. 18 Skeleton Technologies Signs a Large-Scale Deal with Medcom to Supply Ultracapacitor Energy Storage to Warsaw Tram ................................................... 19 Thomas Swan awarded funding from Innovate UK, the UK’s innovation agency.. 20 Graphene 3D Lab Inc. Announces Name Change to G6 Materials Corp. ............. 21 Britain's Third Rocket Company Names Its First U.S. Customer .......................... 22 First Graphene executes supply agreement with Steel Blue ................................. 23 Grays’ Field Hockey Sticks Amplified with XG Sciences Graphene ...................... 24 Directa plus trials graphene asphalt at Rome airport ............................................ 25 Graphene-Info's top 10 graphene applications of 2019......................................... 26 Graphene Gaining Strength in Composites Markets ............................................. 27 PureGRAPH® extends the life of mining industry wear liners ............................... 28 Graphene CR ProCene® a new bottom-up graphene powder .............................. 29

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Graphene Companies Share Price Watch ............................................................... 30 Applied Graphene Materials.................................................................................. 30 Directa Plus PLC................................................................................................... 30 Dotz Nano Ltd ....................................................................................................... 30 First Graphene Ltd ................................................................................................ 31 G6 Materials (was Graphene 3D Lab Inc) ............................................................. 31 G6 Materials (was Graphene 3D Lab Inc) ............................................................. 31 Graphene Nanochem PLC .................................................................................... 31 Gratomic Inc.......................................................................................................... 32 Haydale Graphene Industries PLC ....................................................................... 32 Leading Edge Materials Corp................................................................................ 32 Nanoxplore Inc ...................................................................................................... 33 Talga Resources Ltd ............................................................................................. 33 Versarien PLC....................................................................................................... 34 Zen Graphene Solutions Ltd ................................................................................. 34 FTSE top 250 companies ..................................................................................... 34 Graphene Companies Share Price Watch: Commentary ...................................... 35 Appendix1: ............................................................................................................... 36 The navigator headings ........................................................................................ 36 About ........................................................................................................................ 39

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Summary This month we begin and end with turbostratic graphene. This is graphene powder made by the bottom up method (assembly of graphene atom by atom). Two different methods producing similar material, a graphene where the layers are randomly rotated slightly as they stack. At the start of the month we describe the turbostratic graphene made by Graphene CR. Then at the end Professor James Tour’s team at Rice University has made this material in the lab from waste carbon material and called it flash graphene. Turbostratic graphene is interesting because its layers are more weakly held together and it holds a promise for better blending and therefore improving the performance of composite materials. A new start up company QV Bioelectronics has developed a graphene implant that can help treat brain cancer and give patients longer and better quality of life than they would otherwise. The company is seeking seed funding. A new superlative has been added to graphene. It is now the most fatigue resistant material ever tested, taking more than a billion stress cycles before the material fails. A giant multinational, Goodyear, has turned its attention to graphene and is making a re-entry to the cycle tyre market after an absence of 44 years with its graphene enhanced Eagle F1 tyres. Directa Plus has announced a new trial with its graphene asphalt additive Gipave, this time at Rome’s Fiumicino international airport. Estonian graphene company Skeleton has another success to add to its performance. It will be supplying the graphene enhanced supercapacitors to the new trams for the city of Warsaw, Poland. Skeleton is rapidly becoming the most successful graphene supercapacitor company in the world by specialising in the kinetic energy recovery systems (KERS) for public transport. And finally, chicken faeces may not sound the most auspicious material to quote in the high-tech field of graphene and 2D materials. Researchers showed that the electrocatalytic effect of graphene can be significantly enhanced with guano. In doing so they demonstrated the futility of exploring combinations of dopants for graphene for the purpose of generating research papers for their own sake and boosting the academic rankings of the authors. In effect adding to the noise rather than contributing to the body of understanding of graphene and 2D materials. We spend as much time filtering out unnecessary articles for you, dear reader, as we do on the content you see. Please read on to find out more about the quality rather than the quantity we have curated for you this month… Adrian Nixon, 1st February 2020

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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The standard format for the report The report is in date order for the month, the most recent work first.

Date: dd/mm/yy Headline: Technology and Research are in Yellow The source material is hyperlinked

Content summary: A description of the source material translating technical jargon in to plain English as far as possible 1.

Relevance: Highlighting work that may be of interest and why

Date: dd/mm/yy Headline: Company / Market information in pink The source material is hyperlinked

Content summary: Relevance: Highlighting work that may be of interest and why

Š Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Special Feature: User Experience of High-Tech Footwear Photos and article by Debbie Nelson, Contributing Editor, North America, Nixene Publishing, Ltd. (This is not an advertisement; the shoes were purchased through the Innov-8 online store)

As graphene makes its presence known in the marketplace, enhancing everything from golf balls to concrete, the footwear industry has seen just two companies feature grapheneenhanced footwear: Steel Blue work boots and Inov8 sports shoes. According to their respective websites, Australian-based Steel Blue is releasing a work boot “built for comfort, made for work.” Inov8 features “the world’s toughest training shoe.” Today’s review focuses on the Inov8 shoe for running. With no competition in the graphene-enhanced sector for sports shoes, UK-based Inov8 can only be compared to its non-graphene competition, which is hardly fair. After all, graphene’s superlatives are precisely what place Inov8 shoes above the rest. Graphene is 200 times stronger than steel, the lightest material known and when added to rubber, dual features exist that were never before possible. To give a proper review, just imagine shopping online to select from three categories: Run, Gym, Hike. Although there are styles featuring a subdued color palette, the bright accent or entire shoe are real stand-outs. Then wait as patiently as possible for these high-tech shoes to arrive. Let’s face it, this is a cool product and honestly, a real conversation piece. So brush up on your graphene tech while watching some of the most engaging videos filmed, featuring profiles of real people who are tough competitors needing tough shoes. You will find them at inov-8.com as well as tips and inspiration. The day arrives! Inov-8 packaging is as impressive as its footwear, much lighter than expected for a pair of sneakers - or trainers as they are called in the UK. The message inside the box lid cannot be missed, shouting in all caps, “THE WORLD’S TOUGHEST GRIP,” with slightly smaller font beneath, touting the merits of graphene. The energy of seeing for yourself is palpable. Somehow the design and shape minimizes the appearance of this footwear’s size. Readily noticeable is the color, a pleasant shade - not gaudy in any way despite its brightness - in this case, red with grey and black accents. The vivid green hexagon-shaped G GRIP text, stamped on the outside edge of the sole of each shoe, denotes the high-tech presence of graphene. Easy to imagine sitting casually with friends, while wearing these shoes, others will notice and ask about this unique footwear. Lifting a shoe from the box, its light weight is remarkable in combination with a sole featuring deep grooves and design meant to provide that world’s toughest grip. It is as though the two features do not belong on the same footwear! Anticipation builds as it takes a minute or two to loosen the flexible shoelaces, in order to remove the firm, shoe-shaped packing material. The shoe seems to deflate a bit, making the flex fabric obvious. © Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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At last, the foot slips inside footwear, feeling as though it fits like a glove. The flexibility of the shoe is not limited to the laces and upper portion - the sole moves easily when flexing the foot. Snugging up the laces, it is time to put some weight on the shoes and see what this is all about. Comfort and support are the first words that come to mind. A little arch cushion would be the only suggestion, as the entire shoe has the room and cut to fit the foot very nicely. The first few steps on a ceramic tile floor emphasize the world’s toughest grip once again - the soles squeaked with each step, without the slightest slip or slide. Now head out to the proper venue for a good trial of this footwear. For this review, a simple power walk at a local park, on a paved trail, provided the comparison needed to previously used footwear. Due to the presence of graphene, breathability is significantly increased over other footwear. When comfort increases, it takes a moment to realize why - imagine moving at a brisk pace not feeling too hot nor too cold inside those new shoes. Inov-8 is just right.

Time will tell how the soles wear but knowing the qualities of graphene, there is no doubt longevity will be a major factor. Typically rubber for the soles of shoes is just like tires - you can either choose a hard rubber for longer wear but find it to be more slippery especially in wet conditions - or you can choose a softer rubber which will get a much better grip but wear out faster. Inov-8 offers the best of both worlds - “no compromise” the website states. Graphene causes rubber to have both extended durability plus extraordinary grip. Graphene-enhanced products are considered high-tech, but with these shoes it seems like magic. Exercise is a great way to clear the head, get the endorphins popping and renew creativity. So put your mind on the fitness goal - have no worries about slipping or sliding. Inov-8 makes it nearly effortless to Get a Grip!

We’ll return to Debbie later in the year to find out how the shoes fare in use in North America

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Technology Developments Date: 27/01/20 Headline: Gram-scale bottom-up flash graphene synthesis https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-1938-0

Content summary: 

    

This is work done at Rice University, Texas, USA by Prof James Tour’s lab They start with any carbon containing material One of the samples they used was ground up car tyres Then they flash heat it to 3000°C with an electric current in a quartz tube This ionises all the atoms in the sample They recombine forming graphene nanoplates

MARKET Aerospace Automotive Construction Marine

APPLICATION Composites polymer Composites Cement Composites - Asphalt

PRODUCT TYPE Turbostratic graphene

  

The team at Rice say that any carbon containing source will work with this method This could be anything from food waste, plastic waste through to coal The graphene is turbostratic which means the graphene layers are misaligned slightly rather than in the regular AB stacking pattern

Relevance:     

This is a bottom-up way of making graphene Turbostratic graphene forms because the layers form so quickly, they haven’t time to align and stack properly before the Van der Waals forces lock the layers in place This means turbostratic graphene powders separate into graphene layers more easily blending / mixing with composites more intimately The general assumption for graphene composites is the more intimately mixed the graphene the better the end result So turbostratic graphene should make better performing composites

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 27/01/20 Headline: Researchers use chicken poo to dope graphene to make a point https://phys.org/news/2020-01-chicken-poop-dope-graphene.html https://massivesci.com/notes/graphene-catalyst-electrocatalysis-chemistry-modify-bird-poop/ https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.9b00184

Content summary:  

This is work done by researchers at the University of Chemistry and Technology, Praha 6, and the University of Toronto, They demonstrated that chicken faeces can be used to make graphene a better catalyst particularly for two industrially important reactions: Oxygen reduction used in fuel cells and Hydrogen evolution used in electrolysers

MARKET Energy management Research & development

APPLICATION Catalysis Fuel cells

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene oxide nanoplate Image by Jason Leung, Unsplash

Their paper was titled “Will Any Crap We Put into Graphene Increase Its Electrocatalytic Effect?”

Relevance:       

This may sound frivolous and unnecessary but the researchers have a point. Much work has been done enhancing the electrocatalytic effect of graphene by adding various chemical dopants This work has blossomed almost to a field of research in its own right. They calculated that there are over two million potential research papers to be written with combinations of four elements However, there is no value to science by doing this because nearly all of these combinations have a similar effect This is the dysfunctional side of the rewards system for university researchers – the more papers they produce the higher their academic ranking Their point is that time and resource is better spent generating new science rather than gaming the system and generating papers for their own sake.

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 23/01/20 Headline: QV Bioelectronics Developing Innovative Electrotherapies for Cancer https://www.qvbio.co.uk

Content summary:     

 

A terminal form of brain cancer called Glioblastoma multiforme currently has no effective treatments. Surgery provides some respite but residual cancer cells are inevitably left behind. These residual cancer cells then regrow to form new tumours. Patients rarely survive more than one year as this cancer is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy Electrotherapy is a technique where electric fields interfere with cancer cell reproduction. When used in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, clinical trials have shown that it can extend the life expectancy of the patient by almost 50% Patients being treated with the existing device have to wear a cumbersome external electric field generator all day, having an enormous impact on patient quality of life. QV Bioelectronics has developed a better way using graphene technology.

MARKET Biomedical

APPLICATION Anti-cancer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene Nanoplate Graphene Oxide nanoplate

    

They have developed an implanted graphene electrode that can be personalised to fit each individual patient. The implant sits in close proximity to the remaining cancer cells This means much less electrical power is needed to halt the cancer cell growth Which then means that the whole electrotherapy device and battery can be implanted into the patient’s body, improving the quality of life. QV Bioelectronics is a start-up company seeking investor funding.

Relevance: 

This is a clever use of graphene technology, getting the electrodes in close contact with the cancer reduces the power consumption, allowing for implantation of the device and therefore improved treatment efficacy and patient quality of life.

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 20/01/20 Headline: Graphene fatigue testing show it to be strongest material tested so far https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-019-0586-y

Content summary:     

This is work done by the University of Toronto, Canada and Rice University, USA The researchers suspended samples of graphene over holes 2500nm diameter and 600nm in depth They placed the tip of an atomic force microscope in contact with the graphene The AFM was modified to make the tip oscillate so that the fatigue could measured They placed a load on the sample at 70 percent of the maximum stress, and subjected it to 100,000 cycles per second

MARKET Research & development

APPLICATION Strain measurement

PRODUCT TYPE CVD Graphene CVD Graphene oxide

  

The experiment ran until the graphene membrane failed after three hours which equates to over a billion cycles Tests were repeated with graphene oxide and found that the functionalisation weakened the material (as expected) Unlike metals, there is no progressive damage during fatigue loading of graphene, its failure is global and catastrophic, confirming simulation results.

Relevance:  

This graphene fatigue measurement in the sense of mechanical failure Yet another finding that graphene is the strongest material ever tested, this time for fatigue resistance

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Date: 19/01/20 Headline: Large-area single-crystal AB-bilayer and ABA-trilayer graphene grown on a Cu/Ni (111) foil https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-019-0622-8

Content summary: 

This is work done by Rodney Ruoff’s team at the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Ulsan, Republic of Korea. and the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) Their paper appears to claim that they have made single crystal graphene at square centimetre scales and as mono, bi and tri layer

MARKET Electronics Research & development

APPLICATION Sensors

PRODUCT TYPE CVD Graphene

They are using a CVD process at 1075 °C, 40 torr Methane for 10-20 mins to grow the CVD graphene on copper / nickel alloy foil Sample size 3cm x 5cm

Test results: o Thermal conductivity of grown bilayer graphene 2,300 W/mK  (Bilayer from graphite is 2,800 W/mK) o Tensile strength 3.31GPa (camphor method)  (single crystal graphene should be at least 100 GPa) o Young’s Modulus 3.48 GPa  (single crystal graphene should be at least 1TPa)

Relevance:   

The claims of large area single crystal graphene are not quite what they seem The title of the paper implies a single crystal at a scale of 3x5cm The test results indicate it is still weak polycrystalline (with larger single crystal domains)

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Date: 06/01/20 Headline: New value for the melting (Sublimation) point of graphene https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0008622319310838?via=ihub

Content summary:    

This is computer modelling work done by researchers at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology They used a model of graphene in an argon atmosphere They modelled a graphene sheet consisting of 5400 carbon atoms surrounded by an atmosphere 7000 argon atoms. Ran the simulation using supercomputers at the Joint Supercomputer Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (JSCC RAS)

MARKET Research & development

APPLICATION Heat management

PRODUCT TYPE CVD Graphene Image: Pixabay

  

The researchers did this work because no reliable data for the melting points of graphene (and graphite) Different experiments gave different values across a range from 4000 to 5000K They thought that using computer modelling would give a more precise answer. They found that the sublimation point of graphene was 4510K to 4900K

Relevance:    

A frustrating source paper to read. They take a very long time to try to get a definitive answer And in the end say more work is needed Having said that, this is thorough work and we have three things confirmed i. Graphene does not melt, it sublimes (this means it transitions directly from a solid to a gaseous state ii. The sublimation point range is between 4510 and 4900K iii. This confirms graphene as the highest melting point material known

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 02/01/20 Headline: Machine learning could reveal graphene oxide’s real structure https://physicsworld.com/a/machine-learning-could-reveal-graphene-oxides-real-structure/

Content summary:    

This is work ongoing by researchers at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in Australia They are trying to develop better models of graphene oxide Graphene oxide is a complex structure chemically and structurally They are using machine learning to develop thousands of candidate structures

MARKET Research & development

APPLICATION Composites polymer Composites concrete and cement

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene oxide nanoplate

 

These candidate structures of graphene oxide will be compared with what is found by experiment Better understanding of the structure and chemistry should lead to more targeted experiments for graphene oxide applications

Relevance:     

This work is ongoing at the moment and proving to be highly complex If the researchers can develop accurate models of graphene oxide nanoplates then they will be able to model and understand its behaviour The hope is that this will allow predictive behaviours to be developed This could mean better performing applications of graphene oxide. For now, the trial and error method is effectively the state of the art of experimental applications of graphene oxide.

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Company / Market Developments Date: 30/01/20 Headline: Nathan Feddy of the GEIC on graphene for composites applications https://graphene-flagship.eu/news/Pages/Graphene-for-Composites-Applications2.aspx

Content summary:  

Nathan is the business developer for composites applications for the Graphene Flagship. He is also a research and development engineer at the Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre (GEIC), Manchester, UK Hi view is graphene and 2D materials are still in their infancy, some nanocomposite systems are already commercially available and others are not developed enough to launch to the market.

MARKET Automotive Construction Sports

APPLICATION Composites - polymer Composites - asphalt Composites – concrete and cement

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

 

Nathan Feddy at the GEIC, Image courtesy of the University of Manchester

Nathan reminded us about the validation service launched by members of the Graphene Flagship which could provide some independent authentication and assessment of different graphene material supplies He implies that consistency of supply and performance in the variety of relevant material systems is as important as individual measured properties of graphene materials.

Relevance:     

He makes a good point that graphene composites is a fast-evolving area that covers ceramics, concrete as well as the more familiar polymers His view of the technology and market is very similar to ours The Graphene Flagship validation service was mentioned and while important it is by no means the last word in authentication of this material. We will revisit this topic in future issues Nathan is a respected and well-connected scientist working at the GEIC He is well placed to comment on the state of the market for graphene in composites. The source article is worth reading.

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 27/01/20 Headline: Goodyear Eagle F1 road tyres launched with graphene technology https://road.cc/content/tech-news/270603-first-look-goodyear-eagle-f1-road-tyres-launched-graphenetechnology https://www.azonano.com/news.aspx?newsID=37118 https://www.somagnews.com/goodyear-introduced-bicycle-tires-produces-graphene-technology/

Content summary:    

Goodyear has launched a new range of bicycle tyres branded eagle F1 This is the company’s re-entry into the bicycle market since 1976 They have chosen graphene enhanced rubber composite for strength The composite also contains spherical nanoparticles of silica for wear resistance

MARKET Sports

APPLICATION Composites polymer Tyres / Tires

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Image courtesy of Goodyear

   

This resulted in lightweighting and anti-puncture belt under the tyre casing The product claims an eight-fold increase in grip, 10.1% increase in rolling resistance, and 7.2% better wear rate over its previous Eagle F1 tyre. Goodyear has invested heavily in its factory in Taiwan to manufacture its new tyres. The tyres will go on sale in February 2020 priced at 45 Euros in Europe

Relevance:   

The company said that the graphene materials used in tires have an enormous impact on both weight and performance. Goodyear also have an established competitor in this market. Vittoria have a proven track record of winning races and a more sophisticated approach to using graphene in cycle tyres with 4 separate graphene-rubber compounds in each tyre providing different performance characteristics (Vol3 Iss 7 p.37)

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 27/01/20 Headline: Directa Plus gets EU grant to develop G+ graphene printing technology https://www.lse.co.uk/news/directa-plus-gets-eu-grant-to-develop-g-graphene-printing-technologykyul93g4gvwwqu9.html

Content summary:   

Directa Plus PLC announced it has received a grant of EUR100,000 for a project This is to develop an environmentally sustainable technology to digitally print its G+ graphene products on fabrics. The project called Green.Tex and Directa Pus is partnering with Italian subsidiary of global digital printing group Electronics For Imaging Inc, EFI Reggiani, and IBS Consulting Group

MARKET Mobile / wearable devices Textiles

APPLICATION Coatings

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene ink

  

The project will last for an initial period of 24 months, and has a total value of EUR1.0 million, of which the company will invest EUR240,000 and receive a grant of EUR100,000. Green.Tex is aimed at reducing the environmental impact of printing graphene on fabric through the use of an advance material. The goal is to develop an innovative digital printing process using water-based graphene ink

Relevance:   

Directa Plus have added another project to their portfolio They must be confident of success as they have invested nearly a quarter of a million Euros in this project They could learn much from the Graphene Hackathon

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 24/01/20 Headline: Skeleton Technologies Signs a Large-Scale Deal with Medcom to Supply Ultracapacitor Energy Storage to Warsaw Tram https://www.skeletontech.com/news/skeleton-technologies-signs-a-large-scale-deal-with-medcom-to-supplyultracapacitor-energy-storage-to-warsaw-tram

Content summary:   

Skeleton Technologies announced it has signed a large-scale contract with Medcom, a leading innovator in electric traction market, to provide ultracapacitors in the Warsaw tram networks. Skeleton call their supercapacitors ‘ultracapacitors’ They are used to store and release energy in the Kinetic Energy Recovery (KERS) systems to be fitted to all new trams

MARKET Transport

APPLICATION Supercapacitors

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Warsaw trams, Image by Neurolink, Pixabay

 

This is in addition to the announcement that Skeleton will supply their graphene enhanced supercapacitors to the Skoda trams that will operate in three German cities The value of the contract was not released

Relevance:  

Skeleton is rapidly becoming one of the most successful graphene companies in terms of sales It is also arguable it is the leading graphene supercapacitor company

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 21/01/20 Headline: Thomas Swan awarded funding from Innovate UK, the UK’s innovation agency. https://thomas-swan.co.uk/thomas-swan-awarded-funding-from-innovate-uk-the-uks-innovation-agency/

Content summary:    

Thomas swan announced that it has been awarded funding from Innovate UK This is funding under the Analysis for Innovators programme. The funding will support a project to develop a quality control (QC) method for determining the aspect ratio for graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), They will be working with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the UK’s National Metrology Institute and a World-renowned centre of excellence.

MARKET Marine

APPLICATION Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Aspect ratio is the ratio of length to width of a particle (ISO, 1999). High aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) are nanoparticles with a length many times that of their width.

Relevance:     

A higher aspect ratio graphene nanoplate powder has been linked with higher Young’s modulus when graphene nanoplate are added to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites High aspect ratio graphene nanoplate powder has also been linked to higher percolation threshold in epoxy composites The latter example is important for preventing moisture uptake in carbon fibre composites So, measuring the aspect ratio is an important quality control parameter. The only thing missing from the ratio measurement is the length of the longest side. That would differentiate high quality larger nanoplates from smaller ones (because large and small nanoplates could conceivably have similar aspect ratios

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 21/01/20 Headline: Graphene 3D Lab Inc. Announces Name Change to G6 Materials Corp. https://g6-materials.com/graphene-3d-lab-inc-announces-name-change-to-g6-materials-corp/

Content summary:  

Graphene 3d lab announced that from January 23, 2020, the Company will be changing its name to G6 Materials Corp The company says its name change and updated branding reflects the Company’s evolving business strategy and greater focus on new lucrative opportunities in the field of advanced materials

MARKET Marine

APPLICATION Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

 

The Company has successfully established an industry partnership with a private Singaporean company. (identity not revealed at the moment) G6 will be leading the development of new graphene-enhanced composite materials to be used for improved performance and durability for marine vessels and structures.

Relevance:     

This is a good example of a company responding to its market. Graphene 3D lab originally made graphene polymer composites for 3D printing filament, hence the name. We interviewed the company for the American Graphene Summit (Graphene Gateway edition, p48) and it was clear then that the company’s focus was shifting to marine composites. At that time for the US market. It would seem the Singaporean market is more responsive than the US. The name change reflects the emergent strategy of the company away from graphene composites for 3D printing to graphene composites for marine use.

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 19/01/20 Headline: Britain's Third Rocket Company Names Its First U.S. Customer https://www.fool.com/investing/2020/01/19/britains-third-rocket-company-names-its-first-us-c.aspx

Content summary: 

Orbex is a UK-based private, low-cost orbital launch services company, founded in 2015 It has developed what it calls an "advanced, low carbon, high performance microlaunch" rocket dubbed "Orbex Prime,"

MARKET Aerospace

APPLICATION Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Image courtesy of Orbex

Orbex Prime is built with 3-D-printed engines and a carbon fibre -and-graphene body, Orbex Prime will utilize renewable "bio-propane" as its fuel of choice. The two-stage rocket will be designed to carry up to 150 kilograms of payload, contained within a 1.3meter fairing, into Sun Synchronous Orbit.

Relevance:    

Orbex is a new space company to us. The graphene enhanced carbon fibre is used in the main structural components it is also used for the tanks which are filled with liquid propane gas We have contacted the company to find out more details.

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 19/01/20 Headline: First Graphene executes supply agreement with Steel Blue https://themarketherald.com.au/first-graphene-asxfgr-executes-supply-agreement-with-steel-blue-2020-01-21/

Content summary:   

First Graphene has a supply agreement with Steel Blue to supply its PureGRAPH graphene product Under the agreement, Steel Blue will exclusively source graphene and any other graphite products from First Graphene New safety boots incorporating a PureGRAPH sole will be launched by Steel Blue

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Composites - polymer Health & Safety Shoes

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Steel Blue safety boots enhanced with Graphene. Image: Adrian Nixon

 

The sole is made from a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) First graphene has solved the production problems when dispersing graphene in the polymer

Relevance:    

Good news for First graphene The success seems to be as much technical service, helping the customer mix the graphene with the polymer, as supply of a product They have converted product tests to an actual commercial sale This contract amounts to approximately 2 Tonnes of graphene per year

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 19/01/20 Headline: Grays’ Field Hockey Sticks Amplified with XG Sciences Graphene Content summary:  

XG Sciences announced the use of its graphene in Grays field hockey sticks. The graphene enhanced hockey sticks are branded as the GR Collection

MARKET Sports

APPLICATION Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Field hockey, Image Keith Johnston, Pixabay  

Actual test data was not mentioned in this press release Grays said that adding graphene into our durable GX composite matrix enabled them to forge their GR Collection to deliver exceptional feel, power and playability

Relevance:  

The lack of test data is notable The main evidence seems to be subjective ‘feel’ rather than objective, independent measurement

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 09/01/20 Headline: Directa plus trials graphene asphalt at Rome airport https://www.lse.co.uk/news/directa-plus-to-take-part-in-graphene-enhanced-asphalt-trial-in-italypu8eww9fryqcuxs.html

Content summary:   

Directa Plus announced a new trial of its graphene enhanced asphalt in Italy This time part of the runway of Rome’s Fiumicino airport is being resurfaced with their graphene asphalt additive, Gipave This is a six-month trial will be conducted in collaboration with partners Iterchimica, G.ECO Srl, part of Italian multi-utility Gruppo A2A, and the University of MilanBicocca

MARKET Civil engineering infrastructure Construction

APPLICATION Composites Asphalt

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

Image Brent Cox, Unsplash

 

Parameters tested include service life, resistance to the passage of vehicles, resistance to deformation. The company said asphalt with Gipave also can be recycled

Relevance:  

Another high-profile development by Directa Plus. This demonstrates the importance of partnering with companies in the supply chain to develop channels to market for new applications technologies

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 06/01/20 Headline: Graphene-Info's top 10 graphene applications of 2019 https://www.graphene-info.com/graphene-infos-top-10-graphene-applications-2019

Content summary:  

Graphene info produced a table showing the number of references for each type of application of graphene during the past year. Their count shows Sensors as the top application

MARKET All

APPLICATION All

PRODUCT TYPE CVD graphene Graphene nanoplate Graphene oxide nanoplate

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Sensors Medicine Composites Batteries Coating Electronics Textiles Automotive applications Aerospace applications Transistors

Relevance:  

Worth remembering that grapheneinfo tends to report PR articles as well as technical developments with very little analysis Our very own Rob Whieldon is compiling a more thorough analysis of our own content in this journal. The preliminary results show composites being one of the most quotes market applications.

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 03/01/20 Headline: Graphene Gaining Strength in Composites Markets http://compositesmanufacturingmagazine.com/2020/01/graphene-gaining-strength-in-composites-markets/

Content summary:    

Generally, a good overview of the current state of graphene in composites markets by composites manufacturing magazine, The article says the multilayer graphene (MLG) can sell for $50 per gramme [this seems to be an over estimate] Steve Rogers is a reliable source of information and quoted here making a good point that the consistency, quality and reliability of supply of graphene are essential for the industrial supply chain. Mark Dickie and Lisa Scullion of the GEIC are also quoted mentioning graphene oxide for polymers and graphene for fire retardant applications. This adds to the credibility of the reporting.

MARKET Manufacturing

APPLICATION Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate Graphene oxide nanoplate

Image by Adrian Nixon

Relevance:   

  

The pricing quoted seems high. We have reported in the journal prices for graphene around $200 to $5000 per kg (depending on grade) rather than the $50 per g ($50,000/kg) quoted here. On the positive side they do quote Mark Dickie and Lisa Scullion, both respected scientists at the GEIC and mention the advantages of using graphene oxide rather than graphene where hydrophilic properties make it mix better with polar materials The article completely fails to mention composites other than polymers. No mention of Asphalt, Ceramic or Cement/concrete composite This points to a blind spot for the composites manufacturing community

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 01/01/20 Headline: PureGRAPH® extends the life of mining industry wear liners Content summary:  

First Graphene reported on 12 weeks of full-scale trials of a new wear lining material, for use in the mining and quarrying industries The graphene is called PureGRAPH® and used to enhance the rubber linings used in mining shovel buckets

MARKET Mining

APPLICATION Composites polymer Wear resistance

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene nanoplate

 

Image: Two mining shovel buckets; one lined with newGEN’s PureGRAPH® enhanced rubber - known as Armour-GRAPH™ - and the other with a standard rubber wear liner. The latter shows clear signs of wear at the rear of the bucket. Image Courtesy of First Graphene

The graphene-enhanced rubber wear liners are being tested in mining shovel buckets at a major iron ore mine in Australia, where they are being used alongside standard wear lining materials. First graphene has found in the lab that adding graphene creates: o improvement of up to 500% in abrasion resistance o increase in tensile strength by 40% o increase in tear strength by around 50% From the trial the initial results at the half-way stage are: o Reduction in wear rates; an improvement of at least 100%,

Relevance:  

This is good news for First Graphene, mining operations survive on small profit margins so anything that extends the operating life of equipment is a good business case This should translate into sales in the mining industry, particularly in their home market of Australia

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Date: 01/01/20 Headline: Graphene CR ProCene® a new bottom-up graphene powder Source: Primary data from interviewing Graphene CR and PPI GCR Whitepaper Dec 2019

Content summary:     

Graphene CR and proton power in the USA are partnering to make and market a new form of graphene by a bottom-up process directly from waste biomass The process is proprietary and the exact details are not known. The process produces turbostratic graphene which is characteristic of a high temperature formation process (probably over 1000°C) There are two grades of graphene ProCNano® and ProCene® is the highest quality product The company has a production capability of 5 tonnes per day

MARKET Automotive Marine

APPLICATION Anti-fouling Composites polymer

PRODUCT TYPE Graphene

nanoplate Turbostratic graphene

   

The company has test results from the automotive and marine sectors Ford Motor company have reported that 0.025% ProCene® in polyurethane foam: o 28% increase in Compressive strength, 23% increase in Tensile strength o 21% Increase in Tensile modulus and 21% increase in Tear resistance Quantum paint have reported test results: o Paint with 5% ProCene® dries 3.3 times faster o Paint with 5% ProCene® showed to be 100% effective in anti-fouling Graphene CR has further trials in a variety of industries ongoing

Relevance:    

This is a new production process for making graphene by a bottom-up method The company has an impressive 5 tonnes per day production capacity As it is a continuous process, we would expect a high level of quality and consistency Also being a Carbon Negative process (one that consumes more carbon dioxide than it emits) is a unique selling point. Especially as once formed graphene locks up carbon forever

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Graphene Companies Share Price Watch This is trend information over the past five years. Note that the y (vertical) axes are in different amounts and currencies

Applied Graphene Materials 5 Year trend

Applied Graphene Materials 1 Month trend

Directa Plus PLC

Directa Plus PLC

5 Year trend

1 Month trend

Dotz Nano Ltd

Dotz Nano Ltd

5 Year trend

1month trend

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Graphene Companies Share Price Watch (continued) First Graphene Ltd

First Graphene Ltd

5 Year trend

1 Month trend

G6 Materials (was Graphene 3D Lab Inc)

G6 Materials (was Graphene 3D Lab Inc)

5 Year trend

1 Month trend

Graphene Nanochem PLC

Graphene Nanochem PLC

5 Year trend

1 Month trend

Š Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Graphene Companies Share Price Watch (continued) Gratomic Inc

Gratomic Inc

5 Year trend

1 Month trend

Haydale Graphene Industries PLC Haydale Graphene Industries PLC 5 Year trend

1 Month trend

Leading Edge Materials Corp

Leading Edge Materials Corp 1 Month trend

5 Year trend

Š Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Graphene Companies Share Price Watch (continued) Nanoxplore Inc

Nanoxplore Inc

5 Year trend

1 Month Trend

Talga Resources Ltd

Talga Resources Ltd

5 Year trend

1 Month trend

Š Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Graphene Companies Share Price Watch (continued) Versarien PLC 5 Year trend

Zen Graphene Solutions Ltd 5 Year trend

FTSE top 250 companies 5 Year trend

Versarien PLC 1 Month trend

Zen Graphene Solutions Ltd 1 Month trend

FTSE top 250 companies 1 Month trend

Š Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Graphene Companies Share Price Watch: Commentary Summary This is not investment advice. It is purely a commentary based on our view of these emerging markets and technology. This does not include privately owned companies. All the listed companies are recovering to a greater or lesser extent from the graphene hype. So, their share price trends over the past five years reflect the over optimism of investors. Many observers predict a tipping point, where graphene products start creating real world benefits and profitable returns for these companies. This tipping point has started in terms of the technology applications; it will take time to cascade through to profitable sales and then the share price. In the process of doing this there will be a shakeout in the market where some of these companies leave the market or are acquired by others. This shakeout has not happened yet. Brief commentary headlines: All graphene companies: Again, nothing significant happening this month. The market is impressed by revenue then profitability. Both have yet to materialise for many graphene companies in their financial returns. The markets are essentially backward looking at the moment. While we see lots of exciting developments and products in the pipeline for some of these companies, the stock market appears to be sceptical at present and focussed only on financial performance. It is probable that the market analysts are still influenced by being burned in the gold rush for these companies in the graphene hype phase. The markets are just not excited yet. We, on the other hand, can see what is coming‌

Š Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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Appendix1: The navigator headings The content for the headings will be updated on a regular basis in response to reader feedback and the emerging content in the market.

Market Aerospace Agriculture Automotive Biomedical Caution Civil engineering infrastructure Communications Construction Defence Electronics Energy management Fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) Graphene Standards Legal Luxury Goods Manufacturing Marine Measurement Standards Mining Mobile / wearable devices Oil & Gas Packaging Paper & Board Regulations Research & development Security Separation Membranes Sports Textiles Transport Water Treatment

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Product Type Artisan graphene (handmade from graphite)

Graphene oxide nanoplate

Borocarbonitrides

Graphene quantum dot (GQD)

Borophene

Graphenic glass

Carbon nanotubes

Graphite

Chemically synthesised graphene

Graphitic film

CVD Graphene

Graphyne

CVD hBN

Heterostructure

Cyclocarbon

Hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN)

Cyclodextrin functionalised Graphene Oxide (CD-GO)

Homostructure

Edge oxidised graphene (EOG)

Indium Selenide

Epitaxial graphene on SiC

Laser Induced Graphene (LIG)

F-Diamane

Lateral heterostructure

Flash Graphene

Janus graphene

Fluorographene

Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2)

Grain boundary diffusion graphene

MoS2 Quantum Dot

Graphenes

Other 2 D materials

Graphene aerogel

Nano graphene

Graphene fibre

Phosphate graphene nanoplate

Graphene foam

Phosphorene

Graphene ink

Plumbene

Graphene Monoxide

Reduced graphene oxide nanoplate

Graphene nanoplate

Single crystal graphene

Graphene nanoribbon

Tungsten diselenide (WSe2)

Graphene oxide nanoplate

Tungsten disulphide (WS2)

Graphene oxide aerogel

Transition metal Dichalcogenides (TMDCs)

Graphene oxide dough

Turbostratic graphene Graphene quantum dot (GQD)

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Application 3D Printing

Graphene metrology

Solar cells

Adhesive

Health & Safety

Sound enhancement

Anti-bacterial

Heat management

Spintronics

Anti-biofilm

Internet of Things (IOT)

Strain measurement

Anti-cancer

3D Printing

Supercapacitors

Anti-corrosion

Irrigation

Superconductivity

Anti-counterfeiting

Lubricants

Temperature measurement

Anti-mosquito

Lighting

Terahertz (THz)

Anti-fouling

Lightning protection

Tether

Anti-static

Membrane – gas separation

Tissue Engineering

Armour

Nanoelectromechanical systems NEMS

Touchscreen

Barrier – vapour / gas

Noise reduction

Twistronics

Batteries

Optoelectronics

Tyres / Tires

Catalysis

Paint

Water management

Clothing

Patents

Wear resistance

Coatings

Personal protection

Wound management

Composites - polymer

Photonics

Composites - asphalt

Pollution control

Composites – concrete and cement

Potable Water

Composites - silicon

Power generation

Conductive inks

Power transmission

Conductive membrane

Pressure measurement

Cosmetics

Printing

Cosmetic dentistry

Propellant

Cryogenic containment

Quantum Computing

De-icing

Rail

Desalination

Refractory products

Desiccant

Regulations

Down hole drilling process aid

RFID

Electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI)

Roads

Fire retardant

Sensors

Flexible displays

Sensors – graphene field effect transistors GFET

Fluorescence quenching

Sensors - magnetic

Fuel cells

Shoes

Geothermal

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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About The Nixene Journal is brought about through the research and analysis of Adrian Nixon, Editor in Chief. Adrian is an experienced, qualified scientist (Chartered Chemist and Member of the Royal Society of Chemistry). He is an advisory board member of the National Graphene Association (NGA) in the USA. He is also a board member of the International Space Elevator Consortium (ISEC) The Journal is part of Nixene Publishing Ltd which is an Affiliate Member of the Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre (GEIC) based in Manchester, UK. The Journal began as a private research project that was needed to create information and understanding about the emerging world of graphene and other 2D materials. This quickly became a significant regular undertaking as the amount of development activity grew. At the time of writing there are some twenty-five thousand academic papers published each year and as much again reported business and market activity. We now summarise this vast array of content through the Nixene Journal, published monthly and distributed to some of the world’s leading organisations who wish to be kept informed of the progress graphene is making in becoming a practical reality for use in and around the world. We cover a wide range of topics from energy management, composites, coatings, electronics and photonics, biomedical and other emerging markets and applications. The journal has two basic sections, one focussing on identifying and explaining the emerging science and technology and the other analysing the business and markets activity. In effect, we take the content and determine the ‘so what?’ irrespective of industry segment or location. We are always looking for ways in which we can improve this journal so please do contact us if there is something important you think could be added. info@nixenepublishing.com

www.nixenepublishing.com

© Nixene Publishing Ltd 2020 | www.nixenepublishing.com | Volume 4 issue 2

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