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ARA 181

BASIC ARABIC


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

Course Code

ARA181

Course Title

Basic Arabic

Course Developer/ Writer

Dr. Barihi Adetunji National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos

Programme Leader

Dr. A. F. Ahmed National Open University of Nigeria, Lagos.

NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA ii


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National Open University of Nigeria Headquarters 14/16 Ahmadu Bello Way Victoria Island Lagos Abuja Office No. 5 Dar es Salaam Street Off Aminu Kano Crescent Wuse II, Abuja Nigeria e-mail: centralinfo@nou.edu.ng URL: www.nou.edu.ng Published by: National Open University of Nigeria 2008 First Printed 2008 ISBN: 978-058-185-5 All Rights Reserved

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CONTENTS

PAGES

Module 1

The Importance of Arabic Language, the Arabic Alphabets and its Forms………… 1

Unit 1 Unit 2

The Importance of Arabic Language………….. 1-9 Arabic Short Vowels, Sukūn, Nunation (Tanwīn), Long Vowels, Diphthongs, Double Consonants, the Moon and Sun Letters……….. 10-19

Module 2

Arabic Vocabulary Development…………… 20

Unit 1

Household Items and Word Relating to Day to Day Activities…………………………. 20-25 Numbers, Dates, the Days, the Months, the Weather and Season Divisions. ………………. 26-29 Human Body, Five Senses, Illness and Occupation…………………………………….. 30-32 Some Arabic Customs, and Gender Numbers ………………………………………. 33-38 The Nature, Trees, Insects, Reptiles, Inanimate Objects and Adjectives…………….. 39-43 Food, Vegetables and Fruits, Drinks, Bank and Post Office………………………….. 44-46

Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6 Module 3

Grammar, Common works and Selected Activities……………………………. 47

Unit 1

Prepositions, Adverbs and Further Lessons on Pronouns …………………………. 47-55 Common Words Used in Hospital, Government Service, Commerce etc………….. 56-58 Relative and Interogative Pronouns, and Introduction to Sentence Construction………… 59-63 Directions, Measurements, School Subjects and Punctuation Marks………………. 64-67

Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Module 4

Short Arabic Passages……………………….. 68

Unit 1 Unit 2

Five Selected Passages………………………… 68-72 Conversation and Some Simple Arabic Poems 73-76

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MODULE 1

THE IMPORTACE OF ARABIC LANGUAGE, THE ARABIC ALPHABETS AND ITS FORM

Unit 1 Unit 2

The Importance of Arabic Language Arabic Short Vowels, Sukun, Nunation (Tanwīn), Long Vowels, Diphthongs, Double Consonants, the Moon and Sun letters.

UNIT 1

THE IMPORTANCE OF ARABIC LANGUAGE

CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 Brief History of Arabic 3.2 The Arabic Alphabet 3.4 Form of Arabic Letters Conclusion Summary Tutor Marked Assignment References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

A recourse to history of the advent of Islam in Nigeria shows the position of Arabic as its official language. The impact of Arabic language therefore cannot be overemphasized. In this unit, you are going to learn about the importance of Arabic language in understanding and assimilating Islamic knowledge in Nigeria and in the world.

2.0

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you should be able to: • • • • •

appreciate the importance of Arabic as language of commerce, politics, culture, and correspondence in the world history. Identify the orthography of Arabic alphabets and its form acknowledge particular importance of Arabic language on the sustainability of the Holy Qur'ān and Islam. acknowledge the importance of Arabic on research and documentation. Identify Arabic as the language that has great influence on the cross-fertilization of science and civilization at the global level. 1


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give a brief history of Arabic

3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 A Brief History Of Arabic

Arabic is the youngest of the Semitic group of languages. Other languages that fall into this class include Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Ugaritic, Acadian, Phoenician, Tigre, Tigina, Amharic and Geez. But marvelously, Arabic outlives them all. For instance, the Ugaritic and Acadian languages have died long ago while Aramaic, which was, for centuries, the lingua franca of the Western Asia survives in its pristine form only. Similarly, Syriac does thrive in its primitive form as at present. Furthermore, the Hebrew, one of the oldest Semitic family suffered untold neglect for centuries before and after the appearance of Prophet Isa (Jesus, peace be unto him) and during the days of Greek and Roman power. The rise of Islam and its spread further eclipsed the language for centuries before it finally, found official shelter in Israel. The Semitic languages of Ethiopia were equally confined to their areas of origin and they could not spread beyond their environment. Other languages, which are alien to the Semitic family but which also, suffered the same fate as the family did include Latin, Greek and Sanskrit. For example, Latin, which was the rich classical language that played important role in medieval Europe, finds little patronage in the modern world. Similarly, Greek, which was the most universal language in the ancient times, cannot be perfectly maintained by the Greece simply because her immediate neighbours have no interest in the language. As far as Sanskrit, which was the ancient Indian language is concerned, its popularity does not to go today beyond the four walls of the country. On the contrary, there has not been any established record of decline for Arabic. Though, the time of its emergence is yet to be known, its popularity dates back to the Jāhiliyyah (barbaric, primitive) age of Arab society and its popularity was not unconnected with the art of poetry. Some of the Arabs of this age in particular were gifted poets who composed poems brilliantly. Part of such poems composed was known as the Mu'allaqāt. It is said that the poetic competitions were organized among the poets of different tribes of the society. Judges were appointed and eloquence of the poets was used as criterion for selecting the best poet. The poems of this period, at least a great percentage of them, were not recorded until the third century of Islam. They used to be transmitted only. The remains of the poems we have today testify to the fact that Arabic had attained perfection right from its 2


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emergence and that it has not suffered any vicissitudes. However, the only language, which can be considered to be at par with Arabic in terms of classical importance, richness and continuous progress and prosperity from the time of its emergence up to the present time, is Chinese language. But the supremacy of Arabic is discernible from the fact that millions of Chinese muslims are masters of Arabic while many other millions are aspiring to learn the language. Meanwhile, the importance of Arabic language is manifested internationally and locally. Firstly, it is the lingua franca of over a hundred million inhabitants of the Middle East, which links three separate continents (Africa, Asia and Europe) together. In the early period of the expansion of Islam, the muslims came in contact with the Greek and their sciences and through the medium of Arabic they leaned and recorded their sciences. They even improved and standardized the sciences. Then, the muslims got access into North Africa and later crossed to Spain. It was at that time that the muslims vigorously pursued knowledge. By the middle of the eighth century, the Spanish muslim scholars travelled eastward in quest of learning, which was recorded in Arabic and by early eleventh century the reverse was the case. By the twelfth century, Arabic medicine and sciences had started finding their way into Europe where they were translated from Arabic to Latin and later to other European languages. Thus, it is no gain saying the fact that Arabic is the vehicle for the exchange and cross-fertilization of sciences and civilization at the global level. In fact, the modern civilization as well as the modern sciences might not have existed, at least to the extent we have them today, but for the laudable service of Arabic language, which preserved their origin and engineered their improvement and standardization. Even in the 16th century, Dutch physician; Laurentus Friseurs argued that the study of Arabic is indispensable for those wishing to make a career out of medicine. Secondly, apart form placing Arabic on equal pedestal with other international languages like English, French and German to mention but a few, Arabic has also gallantly withstood the test of time, gained wide currency as an international language of commerce, diplomacy, politics and so on. Its universal recognition manifested in the United Nations Organization (UNO), the Organization of African Unity (OAU), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). While commenting on the significance of Arabic as a universal language, Professor Girgis said: "In terms of the number of speakers and

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extent of its influence, Arabic is by far the most important Semitic language today and must be regarded as one of the important world languages. Thirdly, Arabic is specifically important to the muslims all over the world because it is the language of their sacred book; Qur'ān and Sharīah (Islamic law) in which the tenets of their religion are written. Allah says : ‫لعلـكم تـعـقلون‬ “We revealed it as an Arabic understand" (Q12:2)

‫إنا أنزلناه قرءانا عربيا‬ Qur'ān

so

that

you

may

‫وكذلك أنزلناه حكما عربيا‬ "Thus have We revealed it (Qur'ān) a decisive utterance in Arabic…. (Q13:37)

‫مه بشر( لس ان‬+‫ولقد نعلم أنهم يقولون إنما يعل‬ ‫ وهذا لس ان( عرب ي‬1‫الذى يلحدو ن إلي ه أعجمي‬ ‫مبين‬ "We know indeed that they say: it is a man that teaches him, the tongue of which they wickedly refer to is notably foreign while this is Arabic, pure and clean" (Q16:103). It is rightly noted that knowledge of Arabic is an indispensable prerequisite for proper understanding of Qur'ān and other Islamic books since their translations cannot, with utmost accuracy, convey their real messages. This is so because in translating one language to another, it is believed that a quarter of the conceptual value of the original language is lost. Furthermore, practical usefulness of Arabic cannot be over emphasized. It serves as a source of the vocabularies of some African language. For instance Swahli, the language widely spoken in East Africa, has sixty percent of its words and expressions originating from Arabic language. Similarly, about forty percent of Hausa words and expressions are from Arabic. For instance: Arabic Al-ahad Al-akhbar Jarīdah ‘Iim

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Hausa Alahadi Labaari Jariida Ilimi

Meaning Sunday News Newspaper Knowledge


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In like manner, a minor percentage of Yoruba words also originated from Arabic language e.g Arabic Yoruba Meaning ‫العربية‬

Q‫د‬S‫رع‬U‫ال‬ V‫آب‬ Q‫ر‬S‫م‬V‫ال‬ Q‫ل‬V‫ـص‬V‫ب‬S‫ال‬ Q‫ة‬V‫ن‬S‫ت‬a‫ف‬S‫ال‬ Q‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ـاف‬V‫الع‬

ar-ra ‘d aba al-‘amru al-basal al-fitnah al-‘afiyat

ara abo alamori alubosa fitina alaafia

tunder return matter/ essence onion calamity health

The language of West Europe still bears the imprints of Arabic influence in the form of numerous loan words and concept: Algebra (aljabr), Cotton (qutn), Sugar (sukar), surcre-french, zucchero-italian. All these instances show that Arabic had been the language of both learning and commerce for centuries Apart from linguistic service, Arabic renders cultural service to Africa. The true records of African history, which the Africans themselves can proudly call their own, was preserved by the language. Thus, knowledge of the language will enable aspiring scholars to drink deep into the parts of the Africans legacy contained in the Arabic manuscripts found in our universities, archives and museums. For the West African countries that have diplomatic relations with some Arab countries such as the United Arab Republic, the Republics of Sudan, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Libya and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia etc. Arabic is particularly useful. The Ministries of Information and External Affairs of such West African Countries need Arabist to ensure mutual understanding and exchanging of ideas among the countries involved in the diplomatic relations. In addition to that, Arabic is particularly important and useful to Nigerian nationals because it constitutes the native tongue of the Shuwa Arab, a tribe in Borno state. In Africa, it is the native language of countries like Morocco, Mauritania, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, and the Western Sahara. It accounts for about six percent of its original words and expression in Swahili languages. In Asia it is the medium of expression and communication in countries like Lebanon, Jordan, Sudan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar. Iraq, Palestine, and Yemen. In short, apart from being the lingua franca of more than one hundred million peoples, it is also estimated that it is being used as liturgical language by more than four hundred million people.

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3.1.1 The Arabic Alphabet Arabic is written from right to left. Arabic graphic symbols have been adopted by and adapted for many languages spoken by muslim nations, for example Urdu in Pakistan, Persian in Iran, and Malay in Malaysia. Hausa language used Arabic symbols before the advent of white men. The two commonest ways of writing are Naskhi normally used in print and formal writings often used in personal correspondences The Arabic alphabet consists of the following 28 letters Transliteration Pronunciation Arabi Transliteration Pronunciation Arabic c letter letter Đ Đād' ‫' ض‬ ’Alif ‫أ‬ /Hamzah Ţ Ţā' ‫ ط‬B Bā' ‫ب‬ Ż

Żā'

‫ ظ‬T

Tā'

‫ت‬

c

c

‫ ع‬Th

Thā'

‫ث‬

Gh

Ghayn

‫ غ‬J

Jīm

‫ج‬

F

Fāf

‫ ف‬Ң

Ңā'

‫ح‬

Q

Qāf

‫ ق‬Kh

Khā'

‫خ‬

K

Kāf

‫ ك‬D

Dāl

‫د‬

L

Lām

‫ ل‬Dh

Dhāl

‫ذ‬

M

Mīm

‫ م‬R

Rā'

‫ر‬

N

Nūn

‫ ن‬Z

Zāy

‫ز‬

H

Hā'

‫ هـ‬S

Sīn

‫س‬

W

Wā'

‫ و‬Sh

Shīn

‫ش‬

Y

Yā'

‫ ي‬S

Şād

‫ص‬

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Ayn


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3.1.2 Forms of Arabic Letters In writing Arabic, the letters take different forms according to their different positions in the word: whether at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end. The following table shows the different forms of the letters of the alphabet Ending position

Middle Position

Beginning a word

Standing alone

Arabic alphabet

‫ـا‬ ‫ـب‬ ‫ـت‬ ‫ـث‬ ‫ـج‬ ‫ـح‬ ‫ـخ‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ـس‬ ‫ـش‬ ‫ـص‬ ‫ـض‬ ‫ـط‬ ‫ـظ‬ ‫ـع‬ ‫ـغ‬ ‫ـف‬ ‫ـق‬ ‫ـك‬ ‫ـل‬ ‫ـم‬ ‫ـن‬ ‫ـه‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـي‬

‫ـا‬ ‫ـبـ‬ ‫ـتـ‬ ‫ـثـ‬ ‫ـجـ‬ ‫ـحـ‬ ‫ـخـ‬ ‫ـد‬ ‫ـذ‬ ‫ـر‬ ‫ـز‬ ‫ـسـ‬ ‫ـشـ‬ ‫ـصـ‬ ‫ـضـ‬ ‫ـطـ‬ ‫ـظـ‬ ‫ـعـ‬ ‫ـغـ‬ ‫ـفـ‬ ‫ـقـ‬ ‫ـكـ‬ ‫ـلـ‬ ‫ـمـ‬ ‫ـنـ‬ ‫ـهـ‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫ـيـ‬

‫ا‬ ‫بـ‬ ‫تـ‬ ‫ثـ‬ ‫جـ‬ ‫حـ‬ ‫خـ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ ‫سـ‬ ‫شـ‬ ‫صـ‬ ‫ضـ‬ ‫طـ‬ ‫ظـ‬ ‫عـ‬ ‫غـ‬ ‫فـ‬ ‫قـ‬ ‫كـ‬ ‫لـ‬ ‫مـ‬ ‫نـ‬ ‫هـ‬ ‫و‬ ‫يـ‬

‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫هـ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬

‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ح‬ ‫خ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ز‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫هـ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ي‬ 7


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Note: 1.

It will be noted that in the table of the alphabet given above the following six letters are shown as capable of being joined to a preceding letter only.

‫ادذرزو‬ Under no circumstance can they be joined to a succeeding letter. 2.

3.

4.0

When alif is joined to lām they are read together, as lam-alif and written thus ‫ل‬. When both of them are together in the middle of a word, they are written thus ‫ـل‬ When the letter hā’ (‫ )ه‬denotes the feminine ending of nouns and adjectives it is written with two dots above (‫ )ة‬and pronounced "t" this is known as tā' marbūta. (ta)

CONCLUSION

From the discussions so far you have learnt the following: • •

• •

• • • • • •

5.0

Arabic as most important member of the Semitic group of languages It is the youngest and the only thriving language in the group. Islam has played vital roles on its survival till today It is important because it is the lingua franca of over one hundred million inhabitants that cut across the globe. It is also the vehicle for the exchange and cross-fertilization of sciences and civilization at a point in the history of the world. It is placed on equal footing with other international languages, by gaining wider currency as language of commerce , diplomacy, politics and so on It is important specifically to the muslims all over the world because it is the language of their sacred book, the holy Qur'ān It is therefore an indispensable prerequisite for proper understanding of the Qur'ān and other Islamic books Its long history of acquaintance with other languages especially in Africa has enhanced its great influence on the vocabulary of those countries It helps in the diplomatic relations between some Arabic speaking countries in Africa and Asia.

SUMMARY

In this unit, you have been exposed to the importance of Arabic as an international language and as a language for the muslim's worship. In addition , you have been able to see how each of the Arabic letters looks like when even it stands alone, or when it is joined to a word either at 8


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the beginning , the middle or at the end. You are therefore advised strongly to master these letters before you go to the next unit.

6.0

TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1.

2.

List four major importance of Arabic as an international language Write all letters in Arabic alphabet in a descending order and their corresponding equivalents in English.

7.0

REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

Chejne, A. G. (1967). The Arabic Language: its role in History, Minneapolis: University Press. Hunwick, J. O. (1964). "The influence of Arabic in West Africa: A Preliminary Survey" in Transaction of the Historical Society of Ghana. (THSG), v.ii. Mazhar, M.A. (1972). Arabic: The Source of all the Languages, Nendein: Draus Versteegh, K. (1997). The Arabic Language, Edinburgh: Cambridge University Press.

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ARA181

UNIT 2

BASIC ARABIC

ARABIC VOWELS (SHORT AND LONG), NUNATION (TANWĪN) LONG VOWELS, DIPTHONGS, DOUBLE CONSONANTS, THE MOON AND SUN LETTERS

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Arabic Vowels 3.2 The Short Vowels 3.3 The Long Vowels – Hurūfu `l--Madd 3.4 Sukūn (Quiescence) 3.5 Nunation 3.6 Dipthongs 3.7 The Moon and Sun Letters 3.8 Double Consonants (Shaddah) 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Unlike in English, Arabic vowels are placed as a sign above or below a letter and called vocalization and without them the letters will be impossible for beginners to pronounce. The vowels are broadly divided into two, the short and the long vowels. Knowledge of the short vowels which shall be introduced first in this unit, will enhance quick and easy pronunciation of some simple words introduced later in the unit. This shall be followed by the extensive knowledge of the letters in nunation form and their pronunciation, the prolongation of letters through the long vowels and the introduction of the students to double consonants. The moon and sun letters especially in relation to the Arabic definite article shall also be treated in this unit.

2.0

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you should be able to: •

10

Recognise the vowels, nunation, double consonants as well as the moon and sun letters. Read the words written with all the signs applied in vocalization.


ARA181

3.0

BASIC ARABIC

MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Arabic Vowels Letters of Arabic alphabet are all consonants. They cannot be read correctly without the help of vowels. There are three short vowels and three long vowels in Arabic. Unlike Latin scripts, these vowels are not letters. Certain signs placed on or under the consonants concerned only represent them. This is known as vocalization.

3.2 The Short Vowels The short vowels are as follows: 1.

Fat-hah: It sounds /a/ as in ‘man’ and is represented in writing by a small slanting stroke placed on the consonant concerned. For example V‫ث‬

V‫ت‬

V‫ب‬

To read the above example we say Bā’ fat-ha /ba/ Tā’ fat-ha /ta/ Thā’ fat-ha /tha/ V ‫ث‬ Tha V‫د‬ da V‫س‬ sa V‫ط‬ Ţa V‫ف‬ fa V‫م‬ Ma V‫ي‬ Ya 2.

V ‫ت‬ ta V‫خ‬ kha ‫ز‬V za V‫ض‬ đa V‫غ‬ gha V‫ل‬ la V‫و‬ wa

V ‫ب‬ ba V‫ح‬ ha V‫ر‬ ra V‫ص‬ sa V‫ع‬ c a V‫ك‬ ka V‫هـ‬ ha

‫أ‬V a' V‫ج‬ ja V‫ذ‬ dha V‫ش‬ sha V‫ظ‬ ża V‫ق‬ qa V‫ن‬ na

Kasrah: It sounds /i/ as in “pit” and is represented in writing by a slanting stroke placed under the consonant concerned . For example

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a‫ث‬

a‫ت‬

a‫ب‬

To read the above example we say Bā’ kasrah /bi/ Tā’ kasrah /ti/ Thā’ kasrah /thi/ a ‫ث‬ Thi a‫د‬ di a‫س‬ si a‫ط‬ Ţi a‫ف‬ fi a‫م‬ Mi a‫ي‬ Yi

a ‫ت‬ ti a‫خ‬ khi ‫ز‬a zi a‫ض‬ đi a‫غ‬ ghi a‫ل‬ li a‫و‬ wi

a ‫ب‬ bi a‫ح‬ hi ‫ر‬a ri a ‫ص‬ si a‫ع‬ c i a‫ك‬ ki ‫ـ‬a‫ه‬ hi

‫إ‬a i' a‫ج‬ ji a‫ذ‬ dhi a‫ش‬ shi a‫ظ‬ żi a‫ق‬ qi a‫ن‬ ni

Dammah: It sounds /u/ as in "put" and is represented in writing by a 'waw' __Q__ placed on the consonant concerned For example Q‫ث‬ Q‫ت‬ Q‫ب‬ To read the above, we say Bā’ dammah /bu/ Tā’ dammah /tu/ Thā’ dammah /thu/ 3.

Q ‫ث‬ Thu Q‫د‬ du Q‫س‬ su Q‫ط‬ Ţu Q‫ف‬ fu Q‫م‬ Mu Q‫ي‬ yu 12

Q ‫ت‬ tu Q‫خ‬ khu ‫ز‬Q zu Q‫ض‬ đu Q‫غ‬ ghu Q‫ل‬ lu Q‫و‬ wu

Q ‫ب‬ bu Q‫ح‬ hu Q‫ر‬ ru Q‫ص‬ şu Q‫ع‬ c u Q‫ك‬ ku Q‫هـ‬ hu

‫أ‬V u' Q‫ج‬ ju Q‫ذ‬ dhu Q‫ش‬ shu Q‫ظ‬ żu Q‫ق‬ qu Q‫ن‬ nu


ARA181

3.3

BASIC ARABIC

The Long Vowels – Hurūfu `L -Madd

The long vowels are represented by adding one of the letters known in English as “letters of prolongation” and in Arabic as hurūf- ’al-maddi to the consonants concerned after the short vowels have been put. The letters of prolongation are: 1. ‫( ا‬Alif madd) meaning ’alif of prolongation and corresponding with

al-fa-thah, 2. ‫( و‬Wā’u madd) meaning wā’ of prolongation and corresponding with

damma 3. ‫( ي‬Yā’u madd) meaning yā’ of prolongation and corresponding with

kasrah. The long vowels are prolonged twice the pronunciation of the short vowels. They are as follow: i.

Al-fat-hah with ’alif madd: It sounds /ā/ as in ‘car’ and is represented by a similar stroke of ’al-fa-thah together with ’alif that follows the consonant concerned. ‫آ‬ For example ‫ با‬which is spelt thus: Bā’ fat-hah alif madd /baa/ ‫ تا‬which is spelt thus: Tā’ fat-hah alif madd /taa/ ‫ تا‬which is spelt thus : Thā’ fat-hah alif madd /thaa/

ii.

Al- kasrah with yā’u madd: it sounds /ii/ as in ‘sheep’ and is represented in writing by a similar stroke with ya’ following the consonant concerned. For example: ‫إى‬ ‫ى‬a‫ ب‬which is spelt: bā’ kasrah ya’ madd / bii/ T‫ تى‬which is spelt: tā’ kasrah ya’ madd /tii/ ‫ى‬a‫ ث‬which is spelt: thā’ kasrah ya’u madd /thii/

iii.

Dammah with wā madd. It sounds /uu/ as in ‘boot’ ‫و‬Q‫ب‬ ‫و‬Q‫ت‬ ‫و‬Q‫ث‬

which is spelt bā’ dammah waw madd / buu/ which is spelt: tā’ dammah was madd /tuu/ which is spelt: thā’ dammah waw madd /thuu/

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When the consonant of the elongated fathah is Alif as in ‫ آدم‬the sign of the fathah and the stressing Alif are to be replaced by madda thus (~) over the’Alif ‫آ‬. English Translation A youth It was long Slept To change To continue To deviate To be lost To aid / help

The long Fat-hah Transliteration Shābun Tāla Nāma Hāla Dāma Zāgha đā‘a Ghātha

Ò ‫ا‬V‫ش‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ال‬V‫ط‬ V‫ام‬V‫ن‬ V‫ال‬V‫ح‬ V‫ام‬V‫د‬ V‫اغ‬V‫ز‬ V‫اع‬V‫ض‬ V‫اث‬V‫غ‬

English Translation near big dear brief /Short advantageous not heavy indication far

The Long Kasrah Transliteration qarīb kabīr azīz wajīz mufīd khafīf dalīl ba‘īd

Arabic Ò‫يب‬a‫ر‬V‫ق‬ Ò‫ير‬a‫ب‬V‫ك‬ ‫ز‬Ò ‫ي‬a‫ز‬V‫ع‬ Ò‫يز‬a‫ج‬V‫و‬ Ò‫يد‬a‫ف‬Q‫م‬ ‫ف‬ Ò ‫ي‬a‫ف‬V‫خ‬ Ò‫ل‬a‫لي‬V‫د‬ Ò‫يد‬a‫ع‬V‫ب‬

English Translation mind confusion refutable suckling raised expectation calmness prevalence food

The Long Dammah Transliteration Dhuhūl mardūd raghūth marfū‘u ruqūb sukūn ‘umūm qūt

Arabic Ò ‫و‬Q‫ه‬V‫ذ‬ ‫ل‬ Ò‫ود‬Q‫د‬S‫ر‬V‫م‬ Ò‫وث‬Q‫رغ‬V Ò‫وع‬Q‫ف‬S‫ر‬V‫م‬ Ò‫وب‬Q‫رق‬V Ò‫ون‬Q‫ك‬Q‫س‬ Ò‫وم‬Ò‫م‬Q‫ع‬ Ò‫وت‬Q‫ق‬

3.4

Arabic

Sukūn (Quiescence)

The absence of vowels is indicated by a sign resembling a small circle on top of the consonant. This sig S is called “sukūn” meaning “quiescence i.e. no sound uttered after as the pronouncing of the consonant. For Example: 14


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‫ ب‬a‫ ت‬is spelt as tā’ kasrah ti, bā sukun /tib/ ‫ م‬V‫ ل‬is spelt as lām; fathhah lā min sukun /lam/ ‫ ل‬Q‫ ق‬is spelt as qāf dammah qu lām sukun /qul/ It should be noted that sukūn does not start a word in Arabic. It can only be in the middle or at the final position in a word. More examples of silent consonants are as follow: Arabic S‫ب‬V‫أ‬ S‫ف‬a‫ص‬ S‫ذ‬Q‫خ‬ S‫ف‬a‫ق‬ S‫ج‬Q‫ل‬

3.5

Transliteration ab sif khudh qif luj

Arabic S‫ل‬V‫ه‬ S‫ن‬V‫ل‬ S‫ر‬a‫س‬ S‫زر‬Q S‫ل‬a‫م‬

Transliteration hal lan sir zur mil

Nunation

We have earlier treated three short vowels in Arabic viz: Fat-hah indicated by V the kasrah represented by (____________), and Dammah is signified by ____ ; however, when these vowels are doubled they produce an effect called TANWĪN or nunation i.e. the sound N is pronounced though it is not written. Hence, fat-hatan (__Vً_) produces AN, kasra-tan (_ٍ__) produces IN and dammatān (QÒ_) produces UN sound. In addition, apart from closed ta’ (ta’ marbūţah) which bears only the double fa-tha (ً‫ة‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬S‫س‬Q‫ ;)م‬all other letters with double fat-ha must bear the addition of alif e.g. ‫عفوًا‬ More Examples on Nunation Pronunciation

Arabic

Pronunciation

Arabic

Alphabet an un in Ò‫ أ‬a‫ أ‬V‫أ‬ ban bin bun Ò‫ٍ ب‬a‫ ب‬V‫ب‬ tan tin tun Ò‫ ت‬a‫ت‬ ٍ V‫ت‬ than thin thun Ò‫ٍ ث‬a‫ً ث‬V‫ث‬ jan ji jun Ò‫ٍ ج‬a‫جً ج‬ ңan ңin ңun Ò‫ٍ ح‬a‫ ح‬V‫ح‬ khan khin Ò‫ٍ خ‬a‫ خ‬V‫خ‬

đan đin đun ţan ţin ţun żan żin żun ‘an ‘in ‘un ghan ghin ghun fan fin fun qan qin qun

Alphabet ‫ٍ ض‬a‫ ض‬V‫ض‬ ‫ٍ ط‬a‫ ط‬V‫ط‬ ً Ò‫ٍ ظ‬a‫ً ظ‬V‫ظ‬ ‫ ع‬a‫ع‬ ٍ V‫ع‬ ‫ غ‬a‫غ‬ ٍ ًV‫غ‬ ‫ ف‬a‫ف‬ ٍ V‫ف‬ Ò‫ ق‬a‫ق‬ ٍ V‫ق‬

khun dan din dhan

kan kin kun lan lin lun

‫ٍ ك‬a‫كً ك‬ ‫ٍ ل‬a‫لً ل‬

dun Ò‫د‬ dhin Ò‫ذ‬

a‫ ٍد‬V V‫د‬ a‫ًذ ٍذ‬

dhun 15


ARA181

ran rin run zan zin zun san sin sun shan shin shun şhan şin şun

3.6

BASIC ARABIC

‫ر‬Ò Ò‫ز‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬

a‫ٍر‬ ‫ًر‬ ٍa‫ًز ز‬ ٍa‫سً س‬ a‫ش‬ ٍ ً‫ش‬ a‫ص‬ ٍ ً‫ص‬

man min mun nan nin nun han hin hun wan win wun yan yin yun

‫م‬Ò Ò‫ن‬ ‫ه‬Ò Ò‫و‬ Ò‫ي‬

ٍ‫م‬a ً‫م‬ ٍa‫ً ن‬V‫ن‬ ٍa‫هً ه‬ ٍa‫وً و‬ ٍa‫ي ي‬ ً

Dipthongs

Diphthong is a combination of two sounds or vowel letters e.g. the sounds of ou in out and oy in boy are diphthongs. With the sign of sukūn and the weak consonants g and s we can thus make two diphthongs composed of a short “a” followed by a vowel less g or s which in pronunciation must be given full consonantal value e.g. ‫و‬V‫ ب‬baw and ‫ي‬V‫ب‬ bay. Thus aw and ay are almost identical with ough in bough and igh in bight.

3.7

Double Consonants (Shaddah)

If two identical consonants come together and are not separated by a vowel only one is written with ___ّ___ above it. This is called shaddah or strengthening. Thus, we have: Meaning to drag, draw to pour out to smell to flee, escape to solve (problem) to think about to clean to comb to arrange to train, drill

Arabic ‫ر‬S‫ر‬V‫ج‬ for ‫ب‬S‫ صب‬for ‫م‬S‫م‬V‫ ش‬for ‫ر‬S‫فر‬V for ‫ل‬S‫ل‬V‫ح‬ for ‫ر‬V‫ك‬S‫ك‬V‫ف‬ for ‫ف‬V‫ظظ‬ S V‫ ن‬for ‫ط‬V‫ش‬S‫ش‬V‫ م‬for ‫م‬V‫ظ‬S‫نظ‬V for ‫ب‬V‫رر‬S V‫ د‬for

‫ر‬V‫ج‬ U‫ب‬V‫ص‬ ‫م‬V‫ش‬ ‫ـر‬V‫ف‬ ‫ل‬V‫ح‬ V‫ـر‬U‫ك‬V‫ف‬ V‫ظف‬ U V‫ن‬ V‫ط‬U‫ش‬V‫م‬ ‫م‬U‫ظ‬V‫ن‬ V‫رب‬U V‫د‬

Vowelless dental consonants are generally assimilated to a following ‫ت‬ (t) the first being written without any sign and the second received shaddah e.g. ‫ قدتق‬for ‫ت‬S‫قد‬Q means I led. A vowel less ‫( ن‬n) assimilates to a following ‫( ل‬l) letter in pronunciation or actually in written as in the conjugation ‫ل‬V‫‘ أ‬alla ‫ ل‬S‫ ن‬V‫‘ أ‬anla (that not) and ‫ل‬a‫ إ‬for ‫ ل‬S‫‘ إ ن‬inla (if not, otherwise).

3.8

The Moon and Sun Letters

The particle al ‫ل‬V‫ أ‬in Arabic is added to nouns to make them definite. For example kitāb ‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ ك‬means a book; al-kitāb ‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬S‫ ال‬means the book. 16


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The Arabic alphabets are divided into Moon letters, ’al-hurūf-ulqamariyyah and sun letters, ’al-hurūf-ash-shamsiyyah. In the case of nouns starting with moon letters, the definite article is pronounced in full while the l is dropped in that of sun letters. English Translation the needle the cow the mountain the stone the bread the honey the stranger the mouse the moon the cup the king the cat the document the hand English Translation the crown the fox the bucket the fly the letter the butter the roof the police man the soap the estate the stamp the envelop the milk the carpenter

Nouns Starting With Moon Letters Transliteration

Arabic

’al-’ibrah ’al-baqarat ’al-jabal ’al-hajar ’al-khubz ’al-‘asal ’al-gharīb ’al-fa’r ’al-qamar ’al-ka’su ’al-malk ’al-hirr ’al-wathīqah ’al-yad

‫ة‬Q V‫ـر‬S‫أ الب‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ر‬V‫ـق‬V‫لب‬S ‫ب ا‬ Q‫ل‬V‫ـب‬V‫ـج‬S‫ج ال‬ ‫ر‬V‫ج‬V‫حـ‬S‫ح ال‬ Q‫ـز‬S‫ـب‬Q‫خ‬S‫خ ال‬ Q‫ـل‬V‫س‬V‫ـع‬S‫ع ال‬ ‫ب‬ Q S‫يـ‬a‫ر‬V‫ـغ‬S‫غ ال‬ ‫ر‬Q S‫ـأ‬V‫ـف‬S‫ف ال‬ ‫ر‬Q ‫ـ‬V‫ـم‬V‫ق‬S‫ق ال‬ ‫س‬ Q S‫ـأ‬V‫ـك‬S‫ك ال‬ Q‫ك‬S‫ـل‬V‫م‬S‫م ال‬ ‫ر‬Ú ‫ــ‬a‫ـه‬S‫ه ال‬ Q‫ة‬V‫ق‬S‫ـي‬a‫ث‬V‫ـو‬S‫و ال‬ ‫ــد‬V‫ـي‬S‫ي ال‬

Noun Starting With Sun Letters Transliteration

Arabic

’at-taj ’ath-tha‘lab ’ad-dalw ’adh-dhubāb ’ar-risālah ’az-zubd ’as-sath ’ash-shurtiyyu ’aş-şabun ’ad-difda‘ah ’aţ-ţabiu ’aż-żarf ’al-laban ’an-najār

Q‫اج‬U‫ت الت‬ Q‫ب‬V‫ـل‬S‫ـع‬U‫ث الث‬ ‫ـو‬S‫ل‬U‫د الـد‬ Q‫اب‬V‫بـ‬Ú‫ذ الذ‬ Q‫ـة‬V‫ال‬V‫سـ‬Û‫ر الر‬ Q‫ـد‬S‫زب‬Ú ‫ز الـ‬ Q‫ـع‬S‫ط‬U‫س الس‬ Ú‫طي‬ a S‫ـر‬Ú‫ش الش‬ Q‫ون‬Q‫ـاب‬U‫ص الص‬ Q‫دعـة‬S‫ف‬U‫ض الـض‬ Q‫ـع‬a‫اب‬U‫ط الطـ‬ Q‫ف‬S‫ـر‬U‫ظ الظ‬ Q‫ن‬V‫لـب‬U‫ل ال‬ Q‫ـار‬V‫ج‬U‫ن الن‬

4.0 CONCLUSION

17


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

You must have leant the following in this unit: • •

• •

• •

The Arabic short vowels and their pronunciation on two, three, and more than three letter words. The position of sukūn in an Arabic word and its pronunciation. How to recognize the long vowels and the method of its articulation. The diphthongs and the double consonants as well as the moon and sun letters. How to read simple words in Arabic, fully vocalized with all the signs introduced. How to write Arabic letters in a connected manner at the beginning, middle and end of the word.

5.0 SUMMARY We have dealt extensively with the preliminary aspect of our study of Arabic. It is expected that thorough mastery of all Arabic words provided and the ability to read them fluently are necessary pre-requisite for proper understanding of subsequent units. 6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Write a short note on Tanwīn.

2. Distinguish between Moon and Sun Letters. 3. Give two examples each of the words vocalized with: (a) Short vowels (b) Long vowels (c) Diphthongs (d) Nunation (e) Shaddah 4. Re-write the following words in joined form. (a) ‫ك ت ا ب‬ (b) ‫و ق ف‬ (c) ‫تلميذ‬ (d) ‫مدرس‬ (e) ‫ي و م‬ (f) ‫ه ل ا ل‬ (g) ‫ج م ل‬ (h) ‫ك ل م ة‬ (i) ‫و ل د‬ (j) ‫س ا ع ة‬

18


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

7.0 REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS

Adeniji, B. O and Hameed, O.O. (2000). A New Approach to the Arabic Lauguage for schools and Colleges, Abeokuta: at – Tayyibun Islamic Outlook. A new Approach to the Arabic Language for Schools and Colleges. Abeokuta: at-Tayyibun Islamic outlook. Mazhar, M.A. (1972). Arabic, the Source of all the Languages. Neidein. Draus Publishers.

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BASIC ARABIC

MODULE 2 Unit 1

ARABIC VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT

House-hold Items and Words Relating to Day to Day Activities Numbers, Dates, the Days, the Months, the Season Divisions d Human Body, Five Senses, Illness and Occupation. Some Arabic Customs, Greetings and Gender Numbers. The Nature, Trees, Insects. Reptiles, Inanimate Objects and some Arabic Adjectives. Food, Vegetables, Fruits, Drinks, Banks and Post Office

Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Unit 6

UNIT 1

HOUSE-HOLD ITEMS AND WORDS RELATING TO DAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Common Words at Home 3.2 Common words in the kitchen 3.3 Common Words in the School 3.4 Common Words in the Bookshop 3.5 Common Words in the Farm 3.6 Members of the Family 3.7 Name of Some Animals 3.8 Name of Some Birds 3.9 Common words in Sport 3.10 Some Common verbs 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

This unit introduces you o the learning of common vocabularies that are peculiar to various professions, environment, time and concepts. It is meant to enrich your knowledge on spoken and written Arabic.

2.0

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this study, you are expected to have learnt the following.

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BASIC ARABIC

• Names of various items that are unique to specific matters and environment • Some common verbs that are used for day to day activities.

3.0

Main Content

3.1

Common Words At Home

English Translation house window shutter bell lock stair roof garden shelf chair telephone Basket furnished house

Ò a‫ـز‬S‫ن‬V‫م‬ ‫ل‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـذ‬a‫اف‬V‫ن‬ a‫اب‬V‫لب‬S ‫ ا‬Q‫اع‬V‫ر‬S‫ص‬a‫م‬ Ò‫س‬V‫ـر‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫ـل‬V‫ـف‬V‫ق‬ Ò‫ج‬S‫ر‬Q‫د‬ ‫ـح‬S‫ط‬V‫س‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ق‬S‫ي‬a‫د‬V‫ح‬ Ü‫رف‬V Ü‫ي‬a‫س‬S‫ر‬Q‫ك‬ Ò‫ف‬a‫ات‬V‫ه‬ Ò‫لّـة‬V‫س‬ Ò‫وش‬Q‫ر‬S‫ـف‬V‫ م‬Ò‫ن‬V‫ك‬S‫س‬V‫م‬

garage sink sitting room chimney library bedroom pillow mirror

‫ة‬a V‫ار‬V‫ـي‬U‫ الس‬Q‫ة‬V‫ير‬S a‫ظ‬V‫ح‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـل‬V‫س‬S‫ـغ‬V‫م‬ a‫وس‬Q‫ل‬Q‫ج‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ـة‬V‫ف‬S‫ـر‬Q‫غ‬ Ò‫ـد‬a‫ق‬S‫ـو‬V‫م‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫بـ‬V‫ت‬S‫ـك‬V‫م‬ a‫م‬S‫ـو‬U‫ة الن‬Q ‫ـ‬V‫ف‬S‫ـر‬Q‫غ‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫اد‬V‫س‬a‫و‬ Ò‫آة‬S‫ـر‬V‫م‬

mattress

Ò‫اش‬V‫ـر‬a‫ف‬

3.2

Arabic

English Translation slab mailbox balcony bench tree grass key fence bathroom ceiling corridor iron air conditioning upstairs clothes closet couch curtain broom apartment electrical wirings Carpet

Arabic ‫ة‬Ò V‫لط‬ V V‫ب‬ a‫يد‬a‫ـر‬V‫ب‬S‫ ال‬Q‫وق‬Q‫د‬S‫ن‬Q‫ص‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ف‬S‫ـر‬Q‫ش‬ ‫د‬V‫ـع‬S‫ـق‬V‫م‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـر‬V‫ـج‬V‫ش‬ Ò‫ـب‬Q‫ـش‬Q‫ع‬ Ò‫ـاح‬V‫ـت‬S‫ف‬a‫م‬ Ò‫اج‬V‫ـي‬a‫س‬ Ò‫ـام‬VV‫مـ‬V‫ح‬ Ò‫ـف‬S‫ـق‬V‫س‬ Ò‫اق‬V‫رو‬Q Ò‫اة‬V‫ـو‬S‫ـك‬a‫م‬ a‫اء‬V‫ـو‬V‫ه‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ـيف‬a‫ي‬S‫ك‬V‫ت‬ Ú a‫و‬S‫ـل‬Q‫لع‬S‫ ا‬Q‫ـق‬a‫اب‬U‫الط‬ ‫ي‬ Ò‫ب‬S‫ـو‬V‫ث‬ ‫ة‬Ò ‫ـ‬V‫ان‬V‫ـز‬a‫خ‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ـك‬S‫ي‬a‫ر‬V‫أ‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ار‬V‫ـت‬V‫س‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـس‬V‫ن‬S‫ك‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ـة‬U‫ـق‬Q‫ش‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ي‬a‫ائ‬V‫رب‬V S‫ه‬V‫ك‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ك‬V‫ل‬S‫س‬V‫ال‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ـاد‬U‫ج‬V‫س‬

Common Words In The Kitchen

English Translation kitchen refrigerator oven table cupboard sink

Arabic Ò V‫ب‬S‫ط‬V‫م‬ ‫خ‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ج‬V‫ل‬V‫ث‬ Ò‫ن‬S‫ـر‬V‫ف‬ ‫ة‬Ò ‫ـ‬V‫ل‬a‫و‬V‫طا‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ان‬V‫ـز‬V‫خ‬ ‫ى‬a‫ان‬V‫و‬V‫ ال‬Q‫ل‬V‫س‬S‫ـغ‬V‫م‬

English Translation saucepan teakettle bowl utensil frying pan knife

Arabic ‫ر‬Ò S‫ـد‬a‫ق‬ a‫ي‬S‫أ‬V‫ ش‬Q‫ـق‬S‫ري‬a S‫ب‬a‫إ‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ي‬a‫ـد‬S‫زب‬Q ‫ة‬Ò ‫ـ‬V‫ـي‬a‫آن‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ل‬S‫ـق‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ين‬a‫ك‬a‫س‬ 21


ARA181

dish glass sugar-bowl coking pan kettle filter dust electric stove

3.3

spoon plate tray gas stove bottle broom folk

‫ة‬Ò V‫ـق‬V‫ع‬S‫ل‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ـق‬V‫ـب‬V‫ط‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫يـ‬a‫ـن‬S‫ي‬a‫ص‬ ‫ا ٍز‬V‫ غ‬Q‫ـد‬a‫ق‬S‫ـو‬V‫م‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ـن‬S‫ي‬a‫ـن‬V‫ق‬ Q‫ة‬V‫ـس‬V‫ن‬S‫ك‬aS‫الم‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ك‬S‫ـو‬V‫ش‬

Arabic ‫ة‬Ò ‫ـ‬V‫رس‬V S‫د‬V‫م‬ Ò‫صل‬ S V‫ف‬ V‫ن‬S‫ي‬a‫س‬Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫لم‬S ‫ ا‬Q‫رة‬V S‫ج‬Q‫ح‬ a‫د‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬V‫ع‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ب‬V‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫م‬ Ò‫ـل‬V‫م‬S‫ع‬V‫م‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ـب‬V‫ت‬S‫ـك‬V‫م‬ ‫ع‬ a ‫ا‬V‫م‬a‫ت‬S‫ج‬a‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫ال‬V‫ص‬ Q‫د‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬V‫ع‬S‫ال‬ a‫د‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬V‫ع‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ب‬a‫ائ‬V‫ن‬ Q‫ل‬U‫و‬V‫ أ‬Q‫س‬Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫م‬ Ò‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫ م‬,Q‫رس‬Û V‫د‬Q‫م‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫ م‬.Ò‫ة‬V‫س‬Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫م‬

English Translation pen exercise book ruler blackboard chalk duster pupil (male) student (male) pupil (female) student (female) fellow

Arabic ‫م‬Ò ‫ل‬VV‫ق‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫اس‬U‫ر‬Q‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ Ò ‫ا‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ـر‬V‫ط‬S‫س‬a‫م‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ور‬Q‫ب‬V‫س‬ Ò‫ير‬a‫اش‬V‫طب‬ V Ò‫ة‬V‫س‬U‫طل‬ Q Ò‫يـذ‬a‫لم‬S a‫ت‬ ‫ب‬ Ò a‫ال‬V‫ط‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫يذ‬a‫م‬S‫ل‬a‫ت‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫لب‬a‫ا‬V‫ط‬ Ò‫يل‬a‫زم‬V

Common Words In The Bookshop

English Translation books pens pencil arithmetic book science book history grammar book reading book paper ruler chalk poetry black-board map duster 22

Ò ‫ـ‬S‫ح‬V‫ص‬ ‫ن‬ Ò‫أس‬S ‫ـ‬V‫ك‬ ‫ة‬Ò ‫ـ‬V‫ي‬a‫ر‬S‫ـك‬Q‫س‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ـر‬V‫ـج‬S‫ن‬V‫ط‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ي‬V‫ـل‬V‫غ‬ Ò‫ـاة‬V‫ف‬S‫ص‬a‫م‬ ‫ف‬ Q ‫و‬Q‫ر‬V‫جا‬ S ‫ال‬ ‫ى‬a‫ائ‬V‫رب‬V ‫ـ‬S‫ه‬V‫ ك‬Q‫ـد‬a‫ق‬S‫و‬V‫م‬

Common Words In The School

English Translation school classroom staffroom principal’s office laboratory library assembly hall principal vice-principal senior-tutor teacher mistress

3.4

BASIC ARABIC

Arabic Ò ‫ت‬Q ‫ـ‬Q‫ك‬ ‫ب‬ ٍ‫ـر‬S‫ب‬a‫ ح‬Ò‫م‬V‫قل‬S V‫أ‬ ٍ‫اص‬V‫رص‬V Q‫لم‬VV‫ق‬ ٍ‫اب‬V‫س‬a‫ ح‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ٍ‫وم‬Q‫ل‬Q‫ ع‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ a‫يخ‬a‫ار‬V‫ ت‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ a‫د‬a‫اع‬V‫و‬V‫ب ق‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ a‫ة‬V‫اء‬V‫ر‬a‫ ق‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫رق‬V V‫و‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫طر‬ V S‫س‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ور‬Q‫ش‬S‫طب‬ V ‫ر‬S‫ع‬a‫ش‬ Ò‫د‬V‫سو‬ S V‫ أ‬Ò‫ح‬S‫و‬V‫ل‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ط‬S‫ري‬a V‫خ‬ Ò‫اة‬V‫ح‬S‫م‬Q‫م‬

English Translation globe ink ink-pot dictionary copy-book fountain pen stapler paper-ream story envelope novels bulletins magazine adventure stories

Arabic ‫ة‬Ò V‫ي‬a‫ض‬S‫أر‬V ‫ة‬Q U‫ر‬Q‫ك‬ Ò‫ـر‬S‫حب‬ a ‫ةم‬V‫بر‬V S‫مح‬ Ò‫وس‬Q‫ام‬V‫ق‬ Ò‫ر‬V‫ـت‬S‫ف‬V‫د‬ ٍ‫ل‬a‫ائ‬V‫برٍ س‬S a‫ ح‬Q‫لم‬VV‫ق‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫اس‬V‫ب‬V‫ك‬ ٍ‫رق‬V V‫ و‬Q‫ون‬Q‫اع‬V‫م‬ Ò‫ـة‬U‫ص‬a‫ق‬ Ò‫ف‬V‫ـل‬a‫غ‬ Q‫ات‬V‫اي‬V‫رو‬Û ‫ال‬ Q‫ات‬V‫ر‬V‫نش‬U‫ال‬ Q‫ت‬U‫ل‬V‫ج‬VS‫الم‬ a‫ات‬V‫ر‬V‫ام‬V‫غ‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ص‬V‫ص‬a‫ق‬


ARA181

3.5

BASIC ARABIC

Common Words In The Farm

English Translation farm vegetables fruit beans farmer tree branch palm-tree

3.6

Arabic Ò‫عـة‬V‫ر‬S‫ـز‬V‫ م‬/‫ـل‬S‫ق‬V‫ح‬ Ò‫ـر‬S‫ض‬Q‫خ‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ه‬a‫اك‬V‫ف‬ Ò‫ـول‬Q‫ق‬Q‫ب‬ Ò‫ح‬U‫ل‬V‫ف‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ـر‬V‫ج‬V‫ش‬ Ò‫رع‬S ‫ـ‬V‫ف‬ ‫ة‬Ò ‫ـ‬V‫ـل‬S‫خ‬V‫ن‬

Members of The Family

family father mother daughter brother sister grandfather grandmother grandson granddaughter uncle (related mother) uncle (related father) aunt (related mother aunt (related father) cousin (male) cousin (female) cousin (male) cousin (female) nephew nephew niece brother-in-law sister-in-law father-in-law

‫ة‬Ò V‫ل‬a‫ائ‬V‫ع‬ Ò‫ب‬V‫أ‬ Ü‫م‬Q‫أ‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـن‬S‫اب‬ Ò‫خ‬V‫أ‬ Ò‫ت‬S‫خ‬Q‫أ‬ Ü‫د‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫ة‬U‫د‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫يد‬a‫ف‬V‫ح‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫يد‬a‫ف‬V‫ح‬ to Ò‫ال‬V‫خ‬

mother-in-law daughter-in-law stepfather stepmother husband wife single (male) single (female) engaged spinster fiancé

‫ة‬Ò ‫ا‬V‫م‬V‫ح‬ ‫ة‬Ò ‫ـ‬U‫ن‬a‫ك‬ Û‫لم‬ Q ‫ ا‬Q‫ج‬S‫و‬V‫ز‬ ‫ب‬ Û V‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫ج‬S‫و‬V‫ز‬ Ò‫ج‬S‫و‬V‫ز‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ج‬S‫زو‬V ‫ب‬ Q Q‫ز‬S‫ع‬V‫أ‬ ‫ء‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ب‬S‫ز‬V‫ع‬ Ò‫ب‬S‫طو‬ Q S‫خ‬V‫م‬ ‫س‬ Ò a‫ان‬V‫ع‬ Ò‫يب‬S a‫ط‬V‫خ‬

to Ü‫م‬V‫ع‬

fiancée

‫ة‬Ò V‫ب‬S‫ي‬a‫خط‬ V

to Ò‫ة‬V‫ال‬V‫خ‬

married

Ò‫ّج‬V‫و‬V‫ز‬V‫ت‬Q‫م‬

to Ò‫ة‬U‫م‬V‫ع‬

divorced

Ò‫ق‬U‫ـل‬V‫ط‬Q‫م‬

widower widow bride-groom bride marriage engagement wedding twin wedding ring bachelor

Ò V‫م‬S‫أر‬V ‫ل‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ل‬V‫م‬S‫أر‬V Ò‫س‬S‫ري‬a V‫ع‬ Ò‫وس‬Q‫ر‬V‫ع‬ ‫ف‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫زف‬a / Q‫اج‬V‫زو‬a Q‫ـة‬V‫ـب‬S‫ط‬a‫خ‬ ‫س‬ Ò S‫ـر‬Q‫ ع‬/ Ò‫اف‬V‫ف‬a‫ز‬ Ò‫م‬V‫أ‬S‫ـو‬V‫ت‬ ‫ف‬ a ‫ـا‬V‫زف‬Û ‫ة ال‬Q V‫ـل‬S‫ب‬V‫د‬ ‫ر‬Ò ‫و‬Q‫ص‬V‫ح‬

‫م‬ã V‫ ع‬Q‫ـن‬S‫اب‬ ٍ‫م‬V‫ ع‬Q‫ـة‬V‫ـن‬S‫اب‬ ٍ‫ال‬V‫ خ‬Q‫بن‬S ‫ا‬ ٍ‫ال‬V‫ خ‬Q‫ـة‬V‫ـن‬S‫اب‬ ٍ‫خ‬V‫ أ‬Q‫ن‬S‫اب‬ ٍ‫ت‬S‫خ‬Q‫ أ‬Q‫بن‬S ‫ا‬ ٍ‫خ‬V‫ة أ‬Q ‫ـ‬V‫ـن‬S‫اب‬ Q‫ـر‬S‫ه‬a‫ص‬ ‫ي‬a‫م‬V‫ح‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫ـن‬S‫اب‬ Q‫و‬S‫م‬V‫ح‬

23


ARA181

3.7

BASIC ARABIC

Name of Some Animals

English lion rabbit snake cow mule owl crocodile fox camel house pig ram lioness tiger ewe

3.8

Arabic ‫ء‬Ò ‫ا‬V‫ـغ‬S‫ب‬V‫ب‬ ‫ل‬Ò Q‫ب‬S‫ـل‬Q‫ب‬ Ò‫ـة‬U‫ـط‬V‫ب‬ Q‫ـون‬Q‫س‬V‫ح‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ام‬V‫ـم‬V‫ح‬ Ò‫ـك‬S‫دي‬a ‫ة‬Ò V‫اج‬V‫ج‬V‫د‬ Ò‫وس‬Q‫ـاؤ‬V‫ط‬ Ò‫اب‬V‫ـر‬Q‫غ‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫اش‬V‫ـر‬V‫ف‬ ‫ر‬Ò S‫ـق‬V‫ص‬ ‫س‬ Q ‫ـي‬a‫ف‬V‫ل‬V‫س‬ Ü‫ي‬a‫ان‬V‫و‬V‫ـع‬S‫ف‬V‫ر أ‬Ò ‫ـ‬a‫ئ‬V‫طا‬

Arabic a‫ب‬S‫ط‬V‫ الق‬Ú‫ب‬Q‫د‬ Ò‫ـب‬S‫ئ‬a‫ذ‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫اف‬V‫ر‬V‫ز‬ Ò‫ـع‬S‫ب‬V‫ض‬ ‫ة‬V‫ـز‬S‫ن‬V‫ع‬ Ò‫ال‬V‫ـز‬V‫غ‬ Ò‫س‬V‫ـر‬V‫ف‬ Ò‫ـد‬S‫ه‬V‫ف‬ Ò‫ل‬S‫ـي‬a‫ف‬ Ò‫د‬S‫ـر‬a‫ق‬ Ò‫ب‬S‫ـل‬V‫ك‬ Ü‫ـر‬a‫ه‬ Ò‫اب‬V‫ك‬V‫أ‬ a‫اء‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫وس‬Q‫ام‬V‫ج‬ a‫ء‬V‫ا‬S‫ الم‬Q‫ب‬V‫ـل‬S‫ع‬V‫ث‬

English crane eagle ostrich hoopoe bat goose whine hat deer partridge pelican quail swallow turkey

Arabic ‫ي‬a‫ك‬S‫ر‬V‫ك‬ ‫ر‬Ò ‫ـ‬S‫س‬V‫ن‬ Ò‫ـة‬V‫ام‬V‫ـع‬V‫ن‬ Ò‫ـد‬Q‫ه‬S‫ـد‬Q‫ه‬ Ò‫اط‬V‫و‬S‫ط‬V‫و‬ Ò‫زة‬U V‫و‬ Ü‫ـي‬a‫ع‬S‫ـي‬V‫ـل‬Q‫ق‬ ‫ق‬ Ò ‫ا‬V‫ـز‬S‫ق‬V‫ز‬ Ò‫جل‬ V ‫ـ‬V‫ح‬ ‫ع‬V‫ح‬V‫ب‬ ‫ى‬V‫و‬S‫ـل‬V‫س‬ Ò‫ور‬Q‫ف‬S‫ص‬Q‫ع‬ ‫ش‬ ٍ V‫ب‬V‫ ح‬Q‫يك‬a‫د‬

English field golf boxing physical exercise cycling

Arabic Ò‫ان‬V‫د‬S‫ـي‬V‫م‬ Ò‫ف‬V‫ل‬S‫و‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـم‬V‫ك‬V‫ل‬Q‫م‬ Q‫ة‬U‫ي‬a‫ن‬V‫بد‬V S‫ة ال‬Q V‫اض‬V‫ري‬Û ‫ال‬

Common Words in Sport

English football goals basketball volleyball

Arabic a‫م‬V‫د‬V‫لق‬S‫ ا‬Q‫ة‬U‫ر‬Q‫ك‬ Q‫اف‬V‫د‬S‫ه‬V‫أ‬ a‫لّة‬U‫ الس‬Q‫ة‬U‫ر‬Q‫ك‬ a‫ة‬V‫ئر‬a U‫ الطا‬Q‫رة‬U ‫ـ‬Q‫ك‬

handball

Û‫د‬V‫ي‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬U‫ر‬Q‫ك‬

24

English polar bear wolf giraffe hyena goat gazelle / beer mare/horse leopard elephant monkey dog cat okapi water buffalo otter

Name of Some Birds

English Parrot nightingale duck goldfinch pigeon cock hen peacock crow butterfly falcon sailfish snakebird

3.9

Arabic Ò‫د‬V‫س‬V‫أ‬ Ò‫نب‬V S‫ر‬V‫أ‬ ‫ى‬V‫ـع‬S‫ف‬V‫أ‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ر‬V‫ـق‬V‫ب‬ Ò‫ل‬V‫بّـغ‬ Ò‫وم‬Q‫ب‬ Ò‫اح‬V‫ـس‬S‫م‬a‫ت‬ Ò‫ب‬V‫ل‬S‫ـع‬V‫ث‬ Ò‫ـل‬V‫ـم‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫ان‬V‫ـص‬a‫ح‬ Ò‫ير‬a‫ـز‬S‫خن‬ a ‫ش‬ Ò S‫ـب‬V‫ك‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـؤ‬Q‫ـب‬V‫ل‬ Ò‫ر‬a‫ـم‬V‫ن‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ـج‬S‫ع‬V‫ن‬

a‫ات‬V‫اج‬V‫ر‬U‫ الد‬Q‫وب‬Q‫ك‬Q‫ر‬


ARA181

wrestling tennis horse riding

BASIC ARABIC

‫ة‬V‫ع‬V‫ار‬V‫ص‬S‫الم‬ Q‫س‬a‫تن‬U‫ال‬ ‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫خ‬S‫ ال‬Q‫وب‬Q‫ك‬Q‫ر‬

fishing high jump hockey

a‫ك‬V‫م‬U‫ الس‬Q‫د‬S‫ي‬V‫ص‬ ‫ى‬a‫ال‬V‫ع‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ـز‬S‫ف‬V‫ـق‬S‫ال‬ ‫ى‬a‫ك‬S‫ـو‬V‫ه‬S‫ال‬

English He drank He arrived He accepted He laughed He rode to be heavy to be abundant to be nice to be easy to be difficult to be sweet

Arabic V‫رب‬a V‫ش‬ V‫م‬a‫قد‬V V‫ل‬a‫قب‬V V‫ك‬a‫ح‬V‫ض‬ V‫ب‬a‫رك‬V V‫ل‬Q‫ـق‬V‫ث‬ V‫ـر‬Q‫ـث‬V‫ك‬ V‫ن‬Q‫ـس‬V‫ح‬ V‫ل‬Q‫ه‬V‫س‬ V‫ب‬Q‫ـع‬V‫ص‬ V‫ب‬Q‫ذ‬V‫ع‬

3.10 Some Common Verbs English He ate He sat He watched He studied He tied He entered He read He explained He was ill He wrote He forgot

4.0

Arabic V‫ل‬V‫ك‬V‫أ‬ ‫س‬ V V‫ل‬V‫ج‬ ‫س‬ V V‫ر‬V‫ح‬ ‫س‬ V V‫ر‬V‫د‬ V‫بط‬V V‫ر‬ V‫خل‬ V V‫د‬ V‫رأ‬V ‫ـ‬V‫ق‬ V‫رح‬V V‫ش‬ ‫ض‬ V a‫ر‬V‫م‬ V‫بس‬a V‫ل‬ V‫ي‬a‫س‬V‫ن‬

CONCLUSION

You must have learnt in this unit some words that are peculiar to various places, animals, professions and sports.

5.0

SUMMARY

This unit has dealt with many common vocabularies that are necessary for the study of some important issues in subsequent units.

6.0

TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1)

Mention five words each that are common to the following: i. home ii. school iii. sports

2)

List ten verbs and their translation in English

7.0

REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS

El-Gemei, M.M. (1970). Arabic Book for Non-Arabs, Cairo: al-Ahrāmu t-Tijāriyyah press Hashim, A. (1969). Arabic Made Easy, Lahore: Ashraf Printing Press.

25


ARA181

UNIT 2

BASIC ARABIC

NUMBERS, DATES, THE DAYS, THE MONTHS, THE WEATHER AND THE SEASON

CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 Numbers 3.1.1 The Real Numbers 3.1.2 The Ordinal Number 3.2 The Dates 3.3 The Days 3.4 The Month 3.5 The Weather 3.6 The Season Conclusion Summary Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

The unit introduces you to both the real and ordinal numbers, days of the week and the months of the year, weather / seasons shall be discussed and the division of things into parts.

2.0

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you should be familiar with: • Numbering system in Arabic • Arabic names for dates, days of the week, months, weather and parts.

3.0

MAIN CONTENT

3.1

Numbers

3.1.1 The Real Numbers English one two three four

26

Arabic Ò‫د‬a‫اح‬V‫و‬ Q‫ان‬V‫ثن‬S ‫ا‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫لث‬ V V‫ث‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫بع‬V S‫ر‬V‫أ‬

English eighteen nineteen twenty thirty

Arabic V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ان‬V‫م‬V‫ث‬ ‫ر‬V V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫ة‬V‫ع‬S‫س‬a‫ت‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ر‬S‫ش‬a‫ع‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ث‬V‫ل‬V‫ث‬


ARA181

five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen

BASIC ARABIC

‫ة‬Ò V‫س‬S‫ـم‬V‫خ‬ ‫ة‬U‫ت‬a‫س‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ع‬S‫ب‬V‫س‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ي‬a‫ان‬V‫م‬V‫ث‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ع‬S‫س‬a‫ت‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ع‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫د‬S‫اح‬ ‫ر‬V V‫ش‬V‫ا ع‬V‫ثن‬S ‫ا‬ ‫ر‬V V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫ة‬V‫لث‬ V V‫ث‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫ة‬V‫ع‬V‫ب‬S‫أر‬V ‫ر‬V V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫ة‬V‫ـس‬S‫م‬V‫خ‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫ة‬V‫ت‬a‫س‬ ‫ر‬V V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬V‫ة‬V‫ع‬S‫ب‬V‫س‬

forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety hundred two hundred three hundred one thousand two thousand one million two million

V‫ون‬Q‫بع‬V S‫ر‬V‫أ‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ان‬V‫م‬V‫ث‬ V‫ون‬Ú‫ت‬a‫س‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ع‬S‫ب‬V‫س‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ان‬V‫م‬V‫ث‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ع‬S‫س‬a‫ت‬ ‫ة‬V‫ائ‬a‫م‬ a‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫ئ‬a‫م‬ ‫ة‬V‫ائ‬a‫م‬Q‫ث‬V‫ل‬V‫ث‬ ‫ف‬ Ò S‫ل‬V‫أ‬ a‫ان‬V‫ف‬S‫ل‬V‫أ‬ Q‫ون‬Q‫ي‬S‫ل‬a‫م‬ a‫ان‬V‫ون‬Q‫ي‬S‫ل‬a‫م‬

English Translation seventh eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth seventieth eightieth ninetieth one hundredth

Arabic

English in the morning at noon in the afternoon one quarter of an hour half an hour season

Arabic ‫احًا‬V‫ب‬V‫ص‬ ‫رًا‬S‫ظه‬ Q ‫ر‬a S‫ه‬Ú‫ الظ‬V‫د‬S‫ع‬V‫ب‬ a‫ة‬V‫اع‬V‫ع س‬Q S‫ب‬Q‫ر‬

3.1.2 The Ordinal Number English Translation First second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth

3.2

Arabic Q U‫و‬V‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ى‬a‫ان‬U‫الث‬ Q‫ث‬a‫ال‬U‫الث‬ Q‫ع‬a‫اب‬U‫الر‬ Q‫س‬a‫ام‬VS‫الخ‬ Q‫س‬a‫اد‬U‫الس‬ Q‫ع‬a‫اب‬U‫الس‬ Q‫ن‬a‫ام‬U‫الث‬ Q‫ع‬a‫اس‬U‫الت‬ Q‫ر‬a‫اش‬V‫ع‬S‫ال‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ى ع‬a‫اد‬V‫ح‬S‫ال‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ى ع‬a‫ان‬U‫الث‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ث ع‬ Q a‫ال‬U‫الث‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ع ع‬Q a‫اب‬U‫الر‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬Q‫س‬a‫ام‬VS‫الخ‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬Q‫س‬a‫اد‬U‫الس‬

‫ر‬V V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬Q‫ع‬a‫اب‬U‫الس‬ V‫ر‬V‫ش‬V‫ ع‬Q‫ن‬a‫ام‬U‫الث‬ ‫ـر‬V‫ش‬V‫ع ع‬Q a‫اس‬U‫الت‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ر‬S‫ش‬a‫ع‬S‫ال‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ر‬S‫ش‬a‫ع‬S‫ال‬V‫ى و‬a‫اد‬V‫ح‬S‫ال‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ر‬S‫ش‬a‫ع‬S‫ال‬V‫ى و‬a‫ان‬U‫الث‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ر‬S‫ش‬a‫ع‬S‫ال‬V‫ث و‬ Q a‫ال‬U‫الث‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ر‬S‫ش‬a‫ع‬S‫ال‬V‫ع و‬Q a‫اب‬U‫الر‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ث‬V‫ل‬U‫الث‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ع‬V‫ب‬S‫لر‬ V‫ا‬ V‫ون‬Q‫س‬S‫خم‬ V S‫ال‬ V‫ون‬Ú‫ت‬Û‫الس‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ع‬S‫سب‬ U ‫ال‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ان‬V‫م‬U‫الث‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ع‬S‫تس‬Û‫ال‬ Q‫ئة‬V ‫ا‬a‫م‬S‫ال‬

The Dates

English day week month year

Arabic ‫م‬Ò S‫و‬V‫ي‬ Ò‫وع‬Q‫ب‬S‫س‬Q‫أ‬ Ò‫ر‬S‫ه‬V‫ش‬ Ò‫ّة‬V‫ن‬V‫س‬

daytime night

‫ر‬Ò ‫ا‬V‫ه‬V‫ن‬ Ò‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫ل‬

‫ة‬a V‫اع‬V‫ف س‬ Q S‫ص‬a‫ن‬ Ò‫صل‬ S V‫ف‬ 27


ARA181

tomorrow yesterday hour moment minute second in the evening

3.3

BASIC ARABIC

‫ا‬V‫د‬V‫غ‬ ‫ة‬V‫ح‬a‫ار‬V‫ب‬S‫ال‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫اع‬V‫س‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫حظ‬ S V‫ل‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ق‬S‫ي‬a‫ق‬V‫د‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ان‬V‫ث‬ ً‫اء‬V‫س‬V‫م‬

Arabic a‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ـن‬S‫ث‬a‫ ال‬Q‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ a‫اء‬V‫ث‬V‫ل‬Ú‫ الث‬Q‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ a‫اء‬V‫ع‬a‫ب‬S‫لر‬ V ‫ ا‬Q‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ a‫س‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬VS‫ الخ‬Q‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ a‫ة‬V‫ع‬S‫م‬Q‫ج‬S‫ ال‬Q‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ ‫ت‬ a S‫ب‬U‫ الس‬Q‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ ‫د‬a S‫ح‬V‫ ال‬Q‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬

The Month

Months in the Transliteration English Calendar January ‫ر‬Q a‫اي‬V‫ين‬V February ‫ر‬Q a‫ائ‬V‫ر‬S‫ب‬V‫ف‬ March Q‫رس‬S ‫ا‬V‫م‬ April Q‫يل‬a‫ر‬S‫اب‬ May S‫و‬V‫اي‬V‫م‬ June S‫و‬V‫ني‬a ‫و‬Q‫ي‬ July S‫و‬V‫ي‬a‫ول‬Q‫ي‬ August ‫س‬ S Q‫ط‬S‫غس‬ Q V‫أ‬ September ‫ر‬S a‫ب‬S‫م‬V‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫س‬ October November December

3.5

‫ر‬S ‫ب‬a ‫و‬V‫ت‬S‫ك‬Q‫أ‬ ‫ر‬S a‫ب‬S‫م‬V‫وف‬Q‫ن‬ ‫ر‬S a‫ب‬S‫م‬V‫س‬S‫ي‬a‫د‬

Months of the Months in the Assyrian Islamic Calendar Calendar ‫ى‬a‫ان‬U‫ الث‬Q‫ون‬Q‫ن‬V‫كا‬ Ò‫رم‬U V‫ح‬Q‫م‬ ‫ط‬ Q ‫ا‬U‫ب‬Q‫ش‬ ‫ر‬Q V‫ف‬V‫ص‬ ‫ر‬Q ‫ا‬V‫آذ‬ a‫ل‬U‫لو‬ V ‫ع ا‬Q ‫ي‬a‫رب‬V Q‫ان‬V‫يس‬a‫ن‬ ‫ى‬a‫ان‬U‫ع الث‬Q ‫ي‬a‫رب‬V ‫ر‬Q ‫ا‬U‫أي‬ ‫ى‬V‫ل‬VS‫و‬Q‫ى ال‬V‫اد‬V‫م‬Q‫ج‬ a‫ان‬V‫ر‬S‫زي‬a V‫ح‬ ‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ان‬U‫ى الث‬V‫اد‬V‫م‬Q‫ج‬ ‫ز‬Ú ‫و‬Q‫م‬V‫ت‬ ‫ب‬ Q V‫ج‬V‫ر‬ ‫ب‬ Q ‫آ‬ Q‫ان‬V‫ب‬S‫ع‬V‫ش‬ Q‫ول‬Q‫يل‬S V‫أ‬ ‫ا ن‬V‫ض‬V‫رم‬V (month of fasting) a‫ل‬U‫لو‬ V ‫ ا‬Q‫ين‬a‫شر‬ S a‫ت‬ Ò‫ال‬V‫و‬V‫ش‬ ‫ى‬a‫ان‬U‫ الث‬Q‫ين‬a‫شر‬ S a‫ت‬ a‫ة‬V‫د‬S‫ع‬V‫ق‬S‫و ال‬Q‫ذ‬ a‫ل‬U‫لو‬ V ‫ ا‬Q‫ون‬Q‫ن‬V‫كا‬ ‫ة‬U‫حج‬ Q S‫و ال‬Q‫( ذ‬month of Hajj)

The Weather

English climate weather air 28

‫ ٍة‬V‫سن‬ V ‫ف‬ Q S‫ص‬a‫ن‬ a‫ار‬V‫ه‬U‫ الن‬Q‫ف‬a‫ص‬V‫ت‬S‫ن‬Q‫م‬ a‫يل‬S U‫ الل‬Q‫ف‬a‫ص‬V‫ت‬S‫ن‬Q‫م‬ Ú‫ي‬a‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫يس‬S ‫ـ‬a‫ب‬V‫ة ك‬Ò V‫ن‬V‫س‬ a‫س‬S‫م‬U‫ الش‬Q‫وق‬Q‫ر‬Q‫ش‬ a‫س‬S‫م‬U‫ الش‬Q‫وب‬Q‫ر‬Q‫غ‬

The Days

English Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday

3.4

half a year mid-day mid-night daily leap year sunrise sunset

Arabic Q‫اخ‬V‫من‬Q Q‫س‬S‫طق‬ V Q‫اء‬V‫هو‬V

English rain snow cold

Arabic Ò‫ر‬V‫ط‬V‫م‬ Ò‫لج‬S V‫ث‬ Ò‫د‬S‫بر‬V


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wind breeze sky horizon cloud fog dew

3.6

BASIC ARABIC

Q ‫ي‬a‫ر‬ ‫ح‬ Q‫يم‬a‫س‬V‫ن‬ Q‫اء‬V‫م‬V‫س‬ Ò‫فق‬Q V‫أ‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫م‬S‫ي‬V‫غ‬ Ò‫اب‬V‫ب‬V‫ض‬ ‫ع‬Ò ‫ي‬a‫ق‬V‫ص‬

ٍ V‫ز‬VQ‫ ق‬Q‫س‬S‫و‬V‫ق‬ ‫ح‬ Ò‫يد‬a‫ل‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫د‬S‫ع‬V‫ر‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫م‬a‫اص‬V‫ع‬ Ò‫ب‬S‫رط‬V Q‫س‬a‫م‬S‫ش‬Q‫م‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫وب‬Q‫رط‬Q

Season Division

English Autumn Winter Spring Summer

4.0

rainbow ice thunder storm wet sunny humidity

Arabic ‫ف‬ Q ‫ي‬a‫خر‬ V S‫ال‬ ‫ء‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ّت‬a‫الش‬ ‫ع‬Q ‫ي‬a‫رب‬U ‫ال‬ ‫ف‬ Q S‫ي‬U‫الص‬

CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have learnt the two types of numbers - the real and the ordinal. You have also learnt the seven days in a week; the twelve months in a year; the various types of weather and the four seasons.

5.0

SUMMARY

We have dealt with five different items that are useful in our proper understanding in our day to day activities.

6.0TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1. Count from 1 – 20 in Arabic 2. Write from 20 – 40 in Arabic. 3. Mention the seven days of the week. 4. How many months are there in Arabic calendar? Mention them.

7.0REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS Najīb, D. (2006). Arabic Language for Foreigners, Beirut: Al’ahliyyah Press. Versteegh, K. (1997). The Arabic Language, Edinburgh: Cambridge University Press.

29


ARA181

UNIT 3

BASIC ARABIC

HUMAN BODY, FIVE SENSES, ILLNESS AND OCCUPATION

CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 Parts of the Body 3.2. Five Senses 3.3 Illness 3.4 Occupations and Their Tools Conclusion Summary Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) References/Further Readings

1.0 INTRODUCTION In this unit you will be exposed to Arabic names of human body, man’s five senses, illness / ailment and various occupations.

2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you will be able to: •

list the Arabic names of various parts of the body and the five sense organs • identify and explain the various names of ailments in Arabic • list about the names of various occupations

3.0

MAIN CONTENT

3.1

Parts of the Body

English Translation head forehead eyes cheek nostrils mouth tongue neck

30

Arabic ‫س‬ Q S‫أ‬U‫الر‬ Q‫ة‬V‫ه‬S‫جب‬ V S‫ال‬ Q‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ع‬S‫ال‬ Ú‫خد‬ V S‫ال‬ Q‫وم‬Q‫يش‬V‫خ‬S‫ال‬ Q‫م‬V‫ف‬S‫ال‬ Q‫ان‬V‫س‬Û‫الل‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ب‬S‫رق‬U ‫ال‬

English Translation hair ears face nose chin lips teeth shoulder

Arabic ‫ر‬Q S‫ع‬U‫الش‬ Q‫ن‬S‫ذ‬Q‫ال‬ ‫ه‬Q S‫ج‬V‫و‬S‫ال‬ ‫ف‬ Q S‫ن‬V‫ال‬ Q‫ن‬S‫ق‬U‫الذ‬ Q‫ة‬VU‫ف‬V‫الش‬ Q‫ان‬V‫ن‬S‫لس‬ V‫ا‬ ‫ف‬ Q S‫ت‬V‫ك‬S‫ال‬


ARA181

hand breast naval knee ankle finger

BASIC ARABIC

‫د‬Q V‫لي‬S ‫ا‬ Q‫ي‬S‫ثد‬U‫ال‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ـر‬Ú‫الس‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ب‬S‫ك‬Ú‫الر‬ Q‫ب‬S‫ع‬V‫الك‬ ‫ع‬Q V‫ب‬S‫ص‬a‫إ‬

chest abdomen thigh foot skull elbow

‫ر‬Q S‫د‬U‫الص‬ Q‫ن‬S‫ط‬V‫لب‬S ‫ا‬ ‫ذ‬Q a‫خ‬V‫ف‬S‫ال‬ Q‫م‬V‫د‬V‫الق‬ Q‫ة‬V‫م‬Q‫ج‬S‫م‬Q‫ج‬ ‫ق‬ Q V‫ف‬S‫ر‬a‫م‬

3.2 The Five Senses English touch hearing sight smell taste

Arabic Q‫س‬S‫م‬U‫الل‬ Q‫ع‬S‫م‬U‫الس‬ Q‫ر‬V‫ص‬V‫الب‬ Q‫م‬U‫الش‬ Q‫ق‬S‫و‬U‫الذ‬

3.3 Illness English pain dizziness collie diarrhea headache common cold

Arabic ‫ع‬Ò S‫ج‬V‫و‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫خ‬S‫و‬V‫د‬ Q‫ص‬S‫غ‬V‫م‬ Q‫ال‬V‫ه‬S‫س‬a‫إ‬ ‫ع‬ Ò ‫ا‬V‫د‬Q‫ص‬ Ò‫ح‬S‫ش‬V‫ر‬

English abscess wound cough dumb deaf blind

Arabic Q‫ل‬V‫م‬Q‫د‬ Q‫ح‬S‫جر‬ Q Ò‫ة‬V‫ل‬S‫ع‬V‫س‬ ‫س‬ Q V‫ر‬S‫خ‬V‫أ‬ ‫م‬Ú V‫ص‬V‫ أ‬/ Q‫ش‬V‫ر‬S‫أط‬V ‫ى‬V‫م‬S‫ع‬V‫أ‬

fever measles small-pox leprosy

‫ى‬V‫م‬Q‫ح‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ـب‬S‫ص‬V‫ح‬ Ú‫ي‬a‫در‬S Q‫ج‬ Ò‫ص‬V‫بر‬V

lame cancer diabetes paralyses

Q V‫ر‬S‫ع‬V‫أ‬ ‫ج‬ Q‫ن‬V‫طا‬S‫ر‬Q‫س‬ ‫ى‬a‫ر‬V‫ك‬Q‫س‬ Q‫ج‬a‫ال‬V‫ف‬

3.4

Occupations and Their Tools

Carpenter – Q‫ار‬V‫ج‬U‫الن‬ English saw join glue hammer Blacksmith Q‫اد‬U‫د‬V‫ح‬S‫ال‬ pickaxe axe pump Tailor – Q‫اط‬U‫ي‬V‫خ‬ collar

‫ر‬Ò ‫ا‬V‫ش‬S‫ن‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ر‬S‫فأ‬V Ò‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ج‬Q‫ن‬ Ò‫اء‬V‫فر‬V

nail extractor padlock wimble

Arabic Ò‫ار‬V‫م‬S‫س‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫ع‬V‫ـز‬S‫ن‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ل‬S‫ف‬V‫ق‬ Ò‫ب‬V‫ـق‬S‫ث‬a‫م‬

Ò‫ل‬V‫و‬S‫ع‬a‫م‬ Ò‫س‬S‫أ‬V‫ف‬ Ò‫اخ‬V‫ف‬S‫ن‬a‫م‬

anvil fire kindling furnace

Q‫ان‬V‫ند‬S a‫س‬ a‫ار‬U‫ الن‬Q‫يل‬S a‫ع‬S‫ش‬V‫ت‬ Ò‫ر‬V‫و‬Q‫ك‬

Ò‫ة‬V‫اق‬V‫ي‬

trousers

Ò‫ال‬V‫و‬S‫ر‬a‫ س‬/ V‫ون‬Q‫ل‬Q‫ط‬S‫بن‬V 31


ARA181

dress Ò‫ام‬V‫د‬S‫هن‬a waistcoat Ò‫ة‬V‫در‬S V‫ص‬ Other occupations engineer Ò‫س‬a‫ند‬V‫ه‬Q‫م‬ barber Ò‫لق‬ U V‫ح‬ trader Ò‫جر‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ت‬ hunter Ò‫اد‬U‫ي‬V‫ص‬ editor ‫ي ٍر‬a‫حر‬ S V‫ ت‬Q‫يس‬a‫رئ‬V

4.0

BASIC ARABIC

sleeves dress

‫م‬Ò ‫ا‬V‫م‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ Ò‫ان‬V‫ت‬S‫س‬Q‫ف‬

lawyer shoe maker farmer teacher driver

‫ى‬a‫ام‬V‫ح‬Q‫م‬ ‫ى‬a‫اف‬V‫ك‬S‫اس‬ Ò‫ح‬V‫ل‬V‫ف‬ Ò‫س‬Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫م‬ Ò‫ق‬a‫ائ‬V‫س‬

CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have learnt about the Arabic names for various parts of the body in Arabic, the five senses and various names of ailments and occupations.

5.0

SUMMARY

In this unit, focus has been Arabic names for human body parts, the five senses, illnesses and occupations. 6.0

TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1.

What is the name given to the following in Arabic (a) A doctor (b) An editor (c) A collar (d) A pump (e) An axe

2.

Name five parts of the body in Arabic.

3.

Mention five illnesses in Arabic

7.0

REFERENCES / FURTHER READING

Abdul Jabbār, U. (N.D) al-Jadīd fit-Takhāţub wat-ta‘bīr, Books I &II, Cairo: Dar-al- Ma’ārif Ezzat, M. (1983). Everybody’s Conversational English, Cairo: Dar Memphis Printing Press.

32


ARA181

UNIT 4

BASIC ARABIC

SOME ARABIC CUSTOMS AND GREETINGS, GENDER NUMBERS IN ARABIC GRAMMAR

CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 3.0

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 Arabic Customs 3.2 Arabic Greetings 3.3 Gender Numbers 3.3.1 Masculine and Feminine Gender 3.4 Singular, Dual and Plural 3.4.1 Broken Plural 3.4.2 Sound Masculine Plural 3.4.3 Sound Feminine Plural Conclusion Summary Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

There are so many ways through which the Arabs express courtesy. The mode of greetings and customs of the Arabs are dealt with in this unit. It also focuses on the numbers in Arabic grammar. We shall distinguish between singular, dual and plural.

2.0OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you will be able to: • Express yourself in a simple manner of greetings in Arabic • List and explain the gender and number in Arabic grammar.

3.0

MAIN CONTENT

3.1 Arabic Customs English Translation If you please Please Thanks Not at all Excuse me Sorry

Arabic V‫ت‬S‫ح‬V‫م‬V‫ س‬V‫ذا‬a‫ – إ‬V‫ت‬S‫ح‬V‫م‬V‫ س‬S‫و‬V‫ل‬ V‫وك‬Q‫ج‬S‫أر‬V .V‫ك‬a‫ل‬S‫ض‬V‫ ف‬S‫ن‬a‫م‬ ‫رًا‬S‫ك‬Q‫ش‬ ‫وًا‬S‫ف‬V‫ع‬ ‫ى‬a‫ن‬S‫ح‬a‫ام‬V‫ س‬- ‫ى‬a‫ن‬S‫ر‬a‫ذ‬S‫أع‬V - ‫ى‬a‫ذن‬S a‫اخ‬V‫ؤ‬Q‫ ت‬V‫ل‬ ‫ف‬a‫آس‬ 33


ARA181

3.2

BASIC ARABIC

Arabic Greetings

English Translation Peace be upon you Good morning

Arabic ‫ت‬ ٍ ‫ق‬V‫ و‬U‫ي‬V‫ى أ‬a‫ ) ف‬S‫م‬Q‫ك‬S‫ي‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬Q‫م‬V‫ل‬U‫)الس‬ ‫ر‬a S‫ي‬V‫لخ‬S ‫ ا‬Q‫اح‬V‫ب‬V‫ص‬

Good evening Good night Good bye (farewell) Happy new year If God wills or if God wishes Good luck! All the best Say peace to your family for me I will be seeing you before long Congratulations on your success How are you today ? I am fine, thanks Is the family all right? We are well, thank you

‫ر‬a ‫ي‬S V‫خ‬S‫ ال‬Q‫اء‬V‫س‬V‫م‬ ‫ر‬S‫ي‬V‫ى خ‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬V‫ون‬Q‫ح‬a‫صب‬ S Q‫ ت‬- Q‫ح‬a‫ب‬S‫ص‬Q‫ن‬ a‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬U‫ الس‬V‫ع‬V‫اعًا – م‬V‫د‬a‫و‬ ‫ وأنـتم طـيّبون‬/ ‫ ٍر‬S‫ي‬V‫خ‬a‫ ب‬S‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬V‫امٍ و‬V‫ ع‬Ú‫ل‬Q‫ك‬ ِ‫ ال‬V‫اء‬V‫ ش‬S‫إن‬ ٍ‫ر‬S‫خي‬ V U‫ل‬Q‫ ك‬V‫ك‬V‫ى ل‬U‫ن‬V‫تم‬V V‫يدًا أ‬a‫ع‬V‫ا س‬ï‫ظ‬V‫ح‬ V‫ك‬a‫ت‬Va‫ائل‬V‫ى ع‬V‫ل‬a‫ى إ‬a‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫غ س‬S Û‫ل‬V‫ب‬ ‫يبًا‬a‫ر‬V‫ ق‬a‫اء‬V‫ق‬Û‫ى الل‬V‫ل‬a‫إ‬ V‫حك‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ج‬V‫ن‬a‫ ب‬V‫ك‬Q‫ئ‬Û‫هن‬V Q‫أ‬ ‫؟‬V‫م‬S‫و‬V‫لي‬S ‫ ا‬V‫ك‬Q‫ال‬V‫ ح‬V‫ف‬S‫ي‬V‫ك‬ ‫رًا‬S‫ك‬Q‫ ش‬,Q‫ام‬V‫ير‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ى م‬V‫ل‬V‫ى ع‬Û‫ن‬a‫إ‬ ‫ ؟‬Q‫ام‬V‫ير‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ى م‬V‫ل‬V‫ة ع‬Q V‫ل‬a‫ائ‬V‫ع‬S‫ ال‬S‫ل‬V‫ه‬ V‫ك‬Q‫ر‬Q‫ك‬S‫ش‬V‫ أ‬,ٍ‫ر‬S‫ي‬V‫بخ‬a ‫يعًا‬a‫م‬V‫ا ج‬U‫ن‬a‫إ‬

3.3

Gender Numbers

3.3.1 Masculine and Feminine Gender

‫ث‬U‫ن‬V‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬V‫ و‬Q‫ر‬U‫ك‬V‫ذ‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬

Genders in Arabic are two types they are ‫ر‬U‫ك‬V‫ذ‬Q‫( م‬masculine) and ‫ث‬U‫ن‬V‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬ (Feminine). ‫ر‬U‫ك‬V‫ذ‬Q‫م‬S‫( ال‬Masculine) denotes male among human being, animals, place or thing. For example: ‫يذ‬a‫م‬S‫ل‬a‫( ت‬a student), ‫ك‬S‫ي‬a‫( د‬a cock), ‫وف‬Q‫خر‬ V (a lamb), ‫د‬a‫ج‬S‫س‬V‫( م‬a mosque). ‫ث‬U‫ن‬V‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬S‫( ال‬Feminine) denotes female gender among human being, animal, place or thing. For example ‫ة‬V‫يذ‬a‫لم‬S a‫( ت‬A female student) ‫ة‬V‫ج‬S‫ع‬V‫( ن‬a ewe) ‫ة‬V‫اج‬V‫ج‬V‫( د‬a hen) ‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫( م‬a school) It is pertinent to mention here that there is no neutral gender in Arabic. The table below shows masculine and feminine Arabic by closed ‘tā’ at the end. Feminine Ò‫ة‬V‫ن‬a‫م‬S‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫د‬a‫ال‬V‫و‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫خ‬S‫ي‬V‫ش‬

34

‫ث‬U‫ن‬V‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬

Masculine Q‫ر‬U‫ك‬V‫ذ‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬ Ò‫ن‬a‫م‬S‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬ Ò‫د‬a‫ال‬V‫و‬ Ò‫خ‬S‫ي‬V‫ش‬


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

Adding closed ‘ta’ at the end does not form feminine nouns of some masculine Feminine ‫ث‬U‫ن‬V‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬ Ò‫اة‬V‫ف‬Q‫ح‬S‫ل‬Q‫س‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫اق‬V‫ن‬ Ò‫ة‬V‫اج‬V‫ج‬V‫د‬

Masculine Ò‫م‬V‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫غ‬ Ò‫ل‬V‫م‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫ك‬S‫دي‬a

‫ر‬U‫ك‬V‫ذ‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬

The closed ‘ta’ is not the only feminine sign. The long vowel ‘Alif may suffix feminine nouns and adjectives. The feminine proper noun ‫ى‬V‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫ ل‬has this ‘Alif suffix. The feminine proper nouns ‫ء‬V‫حل‬ S V‫ ن‬and the feminine adjective ‫اء‬V‫ن‬S‫س‬V‫( ح‬in ‫م‬V‫ري‬S V‫م‬ ‫اء‬V‫ن‬S ‫س‬V‫( )ح‬Maryam is pleasant) have this feminine ’Alif followed by Hamzah which makes this ’Alif a little longer. Therefore, the feminine ’Alif followed by a Hamzah is called the elongated ’Alif ‫ ف‬S‫ل‬V‫ال‬ ‫ود‬Q‫د‬S‫م‬VS‫المـ‬whereas that of ‫ى‬V‫يل‬S V‫ ل‬is called the short ’Alif ‫ور‬Q‫ص‬S‫ق‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ف‬S‫لل‬ V‫ا‬ The closed feminine tā’ is to be pronounced as an unvowelled hā if the reader pauses at the end of the noun. The feminine ending ‫ ة‬tun occurs in many words, which have no masculine form e.g ‫ة‬V‫ن‬S‫ي‬a‫د‬V‫ م‬madinatun – a city, ‫ة‬V‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫جن‬ Q - a garden, ‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ك‬S‫ح‬V‫ م‬- a law court. It is occasionally, although rarely, found in words which are masculine e.g. ‫ة‬V‫يف‬a‫ل‬V‫ – خ‬successor Caliph, ‫ة‬V‫ال‬U‫رح‬V - a great traveller, globe trotter. The following classes of words are feminine without requiring the distinctive feminine ending: i)

ii) iii) iv)

v)

All words and proper names, which are by their nature feminine e.g. ‫م‬Q‫ أ‬- mother, ‫وس‬Q‫ر‬V‫ ع‬- a bride, ‫ت‬S‫خ‬Q‫ أ‬- a sister, ‫ عجوز‬an old woman, particles which with special meaning can be applied to females such as ‫ل‬a‫ام‬V‫ – ح‬pregnant, ‫ع‬a‫ض‬S‫ر‬Q‫ م‬- suckling (adjective) Most (though not all) names of countries and cities e.g. ‫ن‬V‫د‬S‫ن‬V‫– ل‬ London, ‫ر‬S‫ص‬a‫ م‬- Egypt, ‫ا‬V‫س‬S‫رن‬V V‫ ف‬- France, ‫د‬Q S‫ن‬a‫ه‬S‫ال‬- India Some parts of the body, which occurs in pairs e.g. ‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ ع‬- a eye, ‫د‬V‫ي‬ - a hand, ‫ن‬S‫ذ‬Q‫ أ‬- an ear, ‫ل‬S‫رج‬a - a foot. A number of words which are feminine by usage e.g. ‫ح‬S‫ي‬a‫ – ر‬a wind, ‫ب‬S‫ر‬V‫ ح‬- a war, ‫ار‬V‫ د‬- a house, ‫ار‬V‫ – ن‬a fire , ‫ض‬S‫أر‬V earth / ground, ‫س‬S‫م‬U‫ الش‬- sun. A number of words are of common gender and may be masculine or feminine e.g. ‫ال‬V‫ ح‬- a state, ‫ي ق‬a‫ر‬V‫ ط‬- a road, ‫وق‬Q‫ س‬a market (usually feminine) ‫ين‬Û‫ك‬a‫ – س‬a knife (usually feminine).

35


ARA181

3.4

BASIC ARABIC

Singular, Dual and Plural

In Arabic, there are three numbers. They are ‫د‬V‫ر‬S‫ف‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬which denotes one, singular dual ‫نى‬V‫ث‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬which denotes two and plural ‫ ع‬S‫جم‬ V S‫ ال‬which denotes more than two. 1. Singular - ‫د‬V‫ر‬S‫ف‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬is a noun indicating one person, or thing or an

adjective describing such a noun, whether it is masculine or feminine. 2. Dual - U‫نى‬V‫ث‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬: is a noun indicating two persons, or two things,

masculine or feminine or an adjective modifying such a noun. To form dual in Arabic, the vowel of the last letter of the concerned noun should be changed to al-fa-thah and then alif and nun (‫ ن‬,‫)ا‬ should be added to the noun in the accusative or genitive case. For example ‫ م‬V‫ قل‬becomes a‫ا ن‬V‫لم‬VV‫ق‬. But if nouns are in the accusative or genitive case, silent ya and nun should be added e.g. ‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫لم‬VV‫ ق‬if the noun ends with a closed ta, it will be changed to ordinary tā before adding ’Alif or yā and nūn. For instance ‫ة‬V‫م‬a‫اد‬V‫ خ‬becomes ‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ت‬V‫م‬a‫اد‬V‫ خ‬or a‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫دم‬a‫ا‬V‫خ‬. It should be pointed out here that the nun of the dual must always take kasrah. Example: ‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫ب‬a‫ال‬U‫ الط‬a‫ ت‬V‫اء‬V‫ ج‬the (two) student girls came. Dual noun ‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫ب‬a‫ال‬V‫ ط‬is in the nominative case. ‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫لب‬a‫ا‬V‫ ط‬Q‫ت‬S‫ أي‬I saw the (two) students. Dual noun is in the accusative case. ‫ن‬S‫سي‬ V Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫ف‬S‫ر‬Q‫ غ‬a‫ه‬a‫هذ‬V This is the room of the two teachers. Dual noun is in the genitive. When ‫نى‬V‫ث‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬is “‫اف‬V‫ض‬Q‫ ن" م‬is dropped. ‫م‬S‫ح‬V‫ا ل‬V‫ت‬V‫ع‬S‫قط‬a two pieces of meat is in the nominative case ‫م‬S‫ح‬V‫ل‬S V‫تى‬V‫ع‬S‫ط‬a‫ ق‬two pieces of meat is in oblique case. ‫ة‬V‫ف‬Û‫ الص‬must also agree with ‫وف‬Q‫ص‬S‫و‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬in number. If ‫وف‬Q‫ص‬S‫و‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬be ‫ مثنى‬then ‫ة‬V‫ف‬Û‫ الص‬must also be U‫نى‬V‫ث‬Q‫م‬ ‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫ل‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬V‫لج‬S ‫ ا‬a‫ت‬S‫بن‬a S‫ا ال‬V‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ ع‬The two beautiful eyes of the girl. ‫ة‬V‫ل‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬V‫ج‬S‫ ال‬a‫ت‬S‫ن‬a‫ب‬S‫ا ال‬V‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ ع‬The two eyes of the beautiful girl. ‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫يل‬a‫جم‬ V a‫ت‬S‫بن‬a S‫ا ال‬V‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ ع‬The two eyes of the girl are beautiful. 3. are:

Plural - Q‫ ع‬S‫جم‬ V S‫ال‬: there are three kinds of plural in Arabic. They

i.

Sound Masculine Plural ‫م‬a‫ال‬U‫ الس‬a‫ر‬U‫ك‬V‫ذ‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ ع‬S‫م‬V‫ ج‬which is formed by adding waw and nun to the last letter of the noon when the noun is in the accusative or genitive case. For instance ‫س‬Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫ م‬becomes ‫ون‬Q‫رس‬Û V‫د‬Q‫ م‬in the case of the nominative case and ‫ن‬S‫ي‬a‫س‬Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫ م‬in the case of the genitive and accusative case. It should be noted that the nun of the plural should carry al-fathah while that of dual should carry ’al-kasrah. When ‫م‬a‫ال‬U‫ الس‬a‫ر‬U‫ك‬V‫ذ‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ ع‬S‫م‬V‫ ج‬is ‫ا ف‬V‫ض‬Q‫ م‬then ‫ ن‬is dropped. ‫ة‬V‫ س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫م‬S‫و ال‬Q‫ّ م‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫ م‬the teachers of the school is in the

36


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

nominative case and ‫ معلمي المدرسة‬the teachers of the school is in the genitive case ‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫در‬S V‫ الم‬V‫ون‬Q‫م‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫ الم‬and ‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫ين الم‬a‫م‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫ الم‬are not correct. Sound Feminine Plural‫م‬a‫ال‬U‫ الس‬Q‫ث‬V‫ؤن‬VQ‫ الم‬Q‫ع‬S‫م‬V‫ج‬: which is found by adding ’Alif and open tā’ to the feminine noun concerned. For ‫ة‬V‫لب‬a‫ا‬V‫ط‬ becomes ‫ا ت‬V‫ب‬a‫ال‬V‫ ط‬these kinds of plurals are referred to as sound because they are formed without disrupting the structure of the singular.

ii.

iii.

Broken Plural ‫ر‬a ‫ي‬a‫س‬S‫تك‬U‫ ال‬Q‫ع‬S‫م‬V‫ج‬: This is a noun indicating three or more persons or things or an adjective describing such a noun. This plural does not retain the structure of its singular. For instance ‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫و‬ becomes ‫د‬V‫ل‬S‫و‬V‫ أ‬this plural has many patterns so, a learner should memorize as many plural as he can.

The table below shows the singular, dual and plurals of some nouns.

3.4.1

Broken Plural

Plural‫ جمع‬Dual ‫مثنى‬ Singular ‫ مفرد‬English Q‫ل‬Q‫س‬Q‫ر‬ a‫ن‬V‫ول‬Q‫س‬V‫ر‬ Ò‫ول‬Q‫س‬V‫ ر‬a messenger Q‫ن‬S‫د‬Q‫م‬ a‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫ين‬a‫مد‬V ‫ة‬V‫ين‬a‫د‬V‫ م‬a city Q‫ار‬V‫ح‬a‫ب‬ a‫ان‬V‫ر‬S‫ح‬V‫ب‬ ‫ر‬Ò S‫بح‬V a sea Ò‫م‬V‫ل‬S‫أق‬ a‫ان‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ق‬ Ò‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ ق‬a pen Ò‫اق‬V‫و‬S‫أس‬ a‫ان‬V‫وق‬Q‫س‬ Ò‫وق‬Q‫ س‬a market Q‫اء‬V‫ن‬S‫أب‬ a‫ان‬V‫ن‬S‫إب‬ Ò‫ن‬S‫ إب‬a son Ò‫وش‬Q‫ي‬Q‫ج‬ a‫ان‬V‫ش‬S‫ي‬V‫ج‬ Ò‫ش‬S‫ي‬V‫ ج‬an army Q‫ر‬Q‫ه‬S‫أش‬ a‫ان‬V‫ر‬S‫ه‬V‫ش‬ Ò‫ر‬S‫ه‬V‫ ش‬a month Q‫رق‬Q Q‫ط‬ a‫ان‬V‫يق‬a‫ر‬V‫ط‬ Ò‫يق‬a‫ر‬V‫ ط‬a road Q‫اء‬U‫ب‬a‫أط‬ a‫ان‬V‫يب‬a‫ب‬V‫ط‬ Ò‫يب‬a‫ب‬V‫ ط‬a physician

3.4.2

Sound Masculine Plural

Plural‫ جمع‬Dual ‫مثنى‬ Singular ‫مفرد‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ح‬V‫ل‬V‫ف‬ a‫ان‬V‫لح‬ V V‫ف‬ Q‫ح‬V‫ل‬V‫ف‬ V‫ون‬Q‫اخ‬U‫ب‬V‫ط‬ a‫ان‬V‫اخ‬U‫طب‬ V Q‫اخ‬U‫ب‬V‫ط‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ف‬U‫ظ‬V‫و‬Q‫م‬ a‫ان‬V‫ف‬U‫ظ‬V‫و‬Q‫م‬ Q U‫ظ‬V‫و‬Q‫م‬ ‫ف‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ج‬a‫ر‬V‫ف‬V‫ت‬Q‫م‬ a‫ان‬V‫رج‬a V‫ف‬V‫ت‬Q‫م‬ Q a‫ر‬V‫ف‬V‫ت‬Q‫م‬ ‫ج‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ئز‬a ‫ا‬V‫ف‬ a‫ان‬V‫ز‬a‫ائ‬V‫ف‬ ‫ز‬Ò ‫ئ‬a ‫ا‬V‫ف‬

3.4.3

English a peasant a cook a clerk a spectator a winner

Sound Feminine Plural

Plural‫ جمع‬Dual ‫مثنى‬ Singular ‫مفرد‬ Q‫ات‬V‫يد‬ÛV‫س‬ a‫ان‬V‫دت‬V Û‫ي‬V‫س‬ Q‫ة‬V‫يد‬ÛV‫س‬ Q‫ت‬V‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫غ‬ a‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫ال‬U‫غس‬ V Q‫ة‬V‫ال‬U‫س‬V‫غ‬ ‫ت‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫و‬S‫أخ‬ a‫ان‬V‫ت‬S‫أخ‬ ‫ت‬ Q S‫أخ‬Q

English a lady a washer woman a sister

37


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

‫ت‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫اط‬U‫ي‬V‫خ‬ Q‫ات‬V‫رس‬Û V‫د‬Q‫م‬

4.0

a ‫ا‬V‫ت‬V‫اط‬U‫ي‬V‫خ‬ ‫ن‬ a‫ان‬V‫ت‬V‫س‬Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫م‬

‫ة‬Q V‫اط‬U‫ي‬V‫ خ‬a seamistress Q‫ة‬V‫رس‬Û V‫د‬Q‫ م‬a female teacher

CONCLUSION

In this unit you have learnt various ways through which the Arabs express courtesy, their mode of greetings and customs and the gender number in Arabic grammar.

5.0

SUMMARY

We have dealt with some of the customs of the Aras, their greetings and expressions of courtesy, and gender numbers in Arabic grammar. 6.0

TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1.

Give the feminine of the following words Ò‫م‬V‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫ – غ‬Ò‫ك‬S‫ي‬a‫ – د‬Ò‫ل‬V‫م‬V‫س – ج‬ Ò Û‫ر‬V‫د‬Q‫ – م‬Ò‫ب‬a‫ال‬V‫ – ط‬Ò‫ب‬a‫ت‬V‫ – ك‬Ò‫جر‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ – ت‬Ò‫ن‬a‫م‬S‫ؤ‬Q‫م‬

Give the dual and plural forms of the following nouns Ò‫ة‬V‫يق‬a‫حد‬ V – Ò‫ر‬a‫م‬V‫ – ن‬Ò‫ي‬a‫س‬S‫ر‬Q‫ – ك‬Ò‫يق‬a‫د‬V‫ – ص‬Ò‫ر‬a‫ائ‬V‫ – ط‬Ò‫ة‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫ة – م‬V‫د‬Û‫ي‬V‫ – س‬Ò‫ل‬a‫ام‬V‫ – ع‬Ò‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫ – و‬Ò‫رس‬a ‫ا‬V‫ح‬ 3. How do you greet your Muslim friends? 2.

4.

What do you say when you want to greet in the morning and evening?

7.0REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS Hameed, M. (1969). At-Tuhfat As-Sanīyyah,. Beirut: Dār-al-Fikr Sa’d, H. & Abdul-Majeed, M. (1427). Qawā’id-ul-Lughat-l- ‘Arabiyyah, Benghazi: Dār-l ‘Âyn.

38


ARA181

UNIT 5

BASIC ARABIC

THE NATURE, TREES, INSECTS, REPTILES, INANIMATE OBJECTS AND ADJECTIVES IN ARABIC GRAMMAR

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 The Nature 3.2 The Trees 3.3 The Insects and Reptiles 3.4 Inanimate Objects 3.5 Adjectives 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

In this unit, names of natural things including the trees, various insects, reptiles, inanimate objects and adjectives in Arabic grammar shall be introduced.

2.0OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you are expected to be familiar with: • •

The names of the various natural things including the trees, insects, reptiles and inanimate objects. The adjectives in Arabic grammar

3.0MAIN CONTENT 3.1

The Nature

English earth region horizon lighting sea lake volcano

Arabic Q‫ض‬S‫أر‬ Q‫يم‬a‫قل‬S ‫إ‬ Q‫فق‬S ‫أ‬ Q‫ق‬S‫بر‬V Q‫حر‬ S V‫ب‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ر‬S‫حي‬ V Q‫ب‬ Q‫ان‬V‫ك‬S‫بر‬Q

English thunderbolt desert Rock weather flood dark shade

Arabic Q‫ة‬V‫ق‬a‫اع‬V‫ص‬ Q‫اء‬V‫ر‬S‫ح‬V‫ص‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ر‬S‫خ‬V‫ص‬ Q‫س‬S‫ق‬V‫ط‬ Q‫ان‬V‫وف‬Q‫ط‬ Q‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ظ‬ Ò‫ل‬a‫ظ‬

39


ARA181

cold soil hill snow harbour mountain island ice south atmosphere stone pebbles hot bay eclipse equator smoke thunder moisture sand wind earthquake storm sun coast plain

3.2

olive tree

storm dust cloud continent pole moon top canal rainbow universe water ocean zone climate wave fire spring star river light air valley mud oasis sea-shore spark

Q‫ة‬V‫ف‬a‫اص‬V‫ع‬ Q‫ار‬V‫ب‬Q‫غ‬ Q‫ة‬V‫م‬S‫ي‬V‫غ‬ Q‫رة‬U ‫ا‬V‫ق‬ ‫ب‬ Q S‫ط‬Q‫ق‬ Q‫ر‬V‫م‬V‫ق‬ Q‫ة‬U‫م‬a‫ق‬ ‫ة‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ن‬V‫ق‬ Q‫ح‬V‫ز‬V‫ ق‬Q‫س‬S‫و‬V‫ق‬ Q‫ن‬S‫و‬V‫ك‬S‫ال‬ Q‫اء‬V‫م‬ Q‫يط‬a‫ح‬Q‫م‬ Q‫ة‬V‫ق‬V‫ط‬S‫ن‬a‫م‬ Q‫اخ‬V‫ن‬Q‫م‬ Q‫ة‬V‫ج‬S‫و‬V‫م‬ ‫ر‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ن‬ ‫ع‬Ò S‫ب‬V‫ن‬ Q‫م‬S‫ج‬V‫ن‬ Q‫ر‬S‫ه‬V‫ن‬ Q‫ور‬Q‫ن‬ Q‫اء‬V‫و‬V‫ه‬ ‫ي‬a‫اد‬V‫و‬ Q‫حل‬ S V‫و‬ Q‫ة‬V‫اح‬V‫و‬ ‫ئ‬a‫اط‬V‫ش‬ ‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ر‬V‫ش‬

Arabic ‫اص‬V‫ج‬a‫ة إ‬Q V‫ر‬V‫ج‬V‫ش‬ ‫شجرة برتقال‬ ‫شجرة بلوط‬ ‫شجرة بلح‬ ‫شجرة تفاح‬ ‫شجرة خيزران‬

English Arabic banana tree ‫ز‬Q S‫و‬V‫ م‬Q‫ة‬V‫جر‬ V V‫ش‬ almond trtee ‫شجرة لوز‬ vine tree ‫كرمة‬ fig tree ‫شجرة تين‬ pomegranate tree ‫شجرة رمان‬ quince tree ‫شجرة‬ ‫سفرجل‬ ‫ شجرة زيتون‬jujube tree ‫شجرة عناب‬

Insects and Reptiles

English flea mosquito bug 40

‫د‬Q S‫بر‬V Q‫اب‬V‫تر‬Q Ò‫ة‬V‫م‬S‫ك‬V‫ أ‬/ Ü‫تل‬V Q‫لج‬S V‫ث‬ Ò‫ء‬V‫نا‬V ‫ـ‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬ Ò‫ل‬V‫جب‬ V Q‫رة‬V ‫ي‬a‫جز‬ V Q‫يد‬a‫ل‬V‫ج‬ Q‫وب‬Q‫جن‬ V Ú‫و‬V‫ج‬ Q‫جر‬ V V‫ح‬ ‫ى‬V‫ص‬V‫ح‬ QÜ‫ار‬V‫ح‬ Q‫يخ‬a‫ل‬V‫خ‬ ‫وف‬Q‫س‬Q‫وف – ك‬Q‫س‬Q‫خ‬ a‫اء‬V‫و‬a‫ت‬S‫ط الس‬ Ú V‫خ‬ Q‫ان‬V‫خ‬Q‫د‬ Q‫د‬S‫رع‬V Q‫ة‬V‫وب‬Q‫رط‬Q Q‫ل‬S‫رم‬V Q‫ح‬S‫ري‬a ‫ل‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ز‬S‫زل‬a Q‫ة‬V‫ع‬V‫ب‬S‫زو‬V Q‫س‬S‫م‬V‫ش‬ Q‫حل‬ a ‫ا‬V‫س‬ Q‫ل‬S‫ه‬V‫س‬

Trees

English pear tree orange tree oak tree palm tree apple tree cane tree

3.3

BASIC ARABIC

Arabic

English ‫وث‬Q‫غ‬S‫بر‬Q fly ‫وض‬Q‫ع‬V‫ ب‬reptile ‫ة‬U‫ق‬V‫ ب‬drone

Arabic ‫ة‬Q V‫اب‬V‫ذب‬Q Q‫ة‬V‫ف‬a‫اح‬V‫ز‬ ‫ل‬S‫نح‬U‫ر ال‬Q V‫ك‬V‫ذ‬


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

serpent locust grasshopper snake chameleon insect beetle worm caterpillar silkworm

3.4

‫ان‬V‫ب‬S‫ع‬V‫ث‬ ‫ة‬V‫اد‬V‫جر‬ V ‫ب‬Q‫د‬S‫جن‬ Q ‫ة‬U‫ي‬V‫ح‬ ‫ء‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ب‬S‫حر‬ V ‫ة‬V‫شر‬ V V‫ح‬ ‫ة‬V‫س‬Q‫ف‬S‫خن‬ Q ‫ة‬V‫ود‬Q‫د‬ V‫جر‬ V V‫ة ش‬Ú V‫ود‬Q‫د‬ a‫قز‬V ‫ة‬V‫ود‬Q‫د‬

‫ة‬V‫لي‬aS‫ح‬V‫س‬ ‫ور‬Q‫رص‬S Q‫ص‬ Ú‫ث‬V‫ع‬ Q‫ب‬V‫ر‬S‫ق‬V‫ع‬ Q‫ة‬V‫اش‬V‫فر‬V ‫وت‬Q‫ب‬V‫ك‬S‫ن‬V‫ع‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ل‬S‫م‬V‫ق‬ Q‫ة‬V‫حل‬ S V‫ن‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫ل‬S‫م‬V‫ن‬ ‫ة‬V‫ام‬V‫ى س‬V‫فع‬S V‫أ‬

Inanimate Objects

English Translation mountain village wall

Arabic Ò‫ل‬V‫ب‬V‫ج‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ري‬S V‫ق‬ Q‫ئط‬a ‫ا‬V‫ح‬ Q‫ف‬S‫ق‬V‫س‬

ceiling roof stone ship

3.5

lizard cricket moth scorpion butterfly spider louse bee ant viper

English Translation window door corridor aeroplane

Q S‫ط‬V‫ س‬ball ‫ح‬ ‫ر‬Ò V‫ج‬V‫ ح‬boat Ò‫ة‬V‫ين‬a‫ف‬V‫ س‬book

Arabic Ò‫اك‬U‫ب‬Q‫ش‬ Ò‫اب‬V‫ب‬ ‫ى‬V‫ش‬S‫م‬V‫ز – م‬Q ‫ي‬a‫هل‬S V‫د‬ Ò‫رة‬V a‫ائ‬V‫ط‬ ‫ة‬Ò U‫ر‬Q‫ك‬ Ò‫ب‬a‫ار‬V‫ق‬ ‫ب‬ Ò ‫ا‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬

Adjectives ‫فة‬L‫الص‬

Adjective is used to qualify a noun. In English we say “an ignorant boy” an Arab would say a boy ignorant in Arabic. Noun (‫ )اسم‬qualified comes first and the adjective come next ‫ل‬a‫اه‬V‫ ج‬Ò‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫ و‬and ignorant boy. ‫يف‬a‫ر‬V‫ل ش‬Ò Q‫ج‬V‫ ر‬a noble man, ‫ير‬a‫ب‬V‫ ك‬Ò‫ت‬S‫ي‬V‫ ب‬a big house. An adjective in Arabic follows the noun it qualifies. It must agree with the nouns it qualifies (Q‫وف‬Q‫ص‬S‫و‬V‫ )الم‬in 1. 2. 3. 4.

Case ending Gender Number Indefinitness or definiteness

‫ة‬U‫ي‬a‫ن‬V‫ غ‬Ò‫ة‬V‫يد‬ÛV‫ى س‬a‫ن‬S‫ت‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬ ‫ل‬Q a‫اض‬V‫ الف‬Q‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫ الم‬V‫ر‬V‫ض‬V‫ح‬ a‫ة‬V‫يل‬a‫جم‬ V a‫ة‬V‫ري‬V‫ ق‬a‫ فى‬Q‫يش‬a‫أع‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ب‬U‫ذ‬V‫ه‬Q‫ م‬Ò‫ب‬V‫طل‬ Q ‫ء‬a V‫ؤل‬V‫ه‬

a rich lady visited me the noble teacher arrived I live in a beautiful village these are well mannered students

There exist numerous adjectival patterns, the most important of which are

41


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the following:

42

BASIC ARABIC


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BASIC ARABIC

i.

Ò a‫اع‬V‫ ف‬actually is the active participle of the simple verb. e.g. ‫ل‬ [‫ل‬a‫اه‬V‫ – ج‬ignorant, pl. ‫ر‬a‫اج‬V‫ [ ]ت‬Ò‫ال‬U‫ه‬Q‫ – ج‬trader or merchant pl. Ò‫ار‬U‫تج‬Q] [‫ب‬a‫ات‬V‫ – ك‬writing, a clerk, pl. Ò‫م‬a‫ال‬V‫[ ]ع‬Ò‫اب‬U‫ت‬Q‫ك‬-learned, pl. Q‫اء‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬Q‫]ع‬

ii.

Ò‫يل‬a‫ع‬V‫ف‬- more commonly adjectival than nominal e.g. [Ò‫يد‬a‫ع‬V‫س‬- happy, fortunate, pl. ‫يم‬a‫ر‬V‫[ ]ك‬Q‫اء‬V‫د‬V‫ع‬Q‫ – س‬generous, pl.Q‫اء‬V‫م‬V‫ر‬Q‫]ك‬ [‫يف‬a‫ر‬V‫ – ش‬noble, pl.‫ي‬a‫ب‬V‫ [ ] غ‬Q‫اء‬V‫ف‬V‫ر‬Q‫ – ش‬stupid, pl. Q‫اء‬V‫ي‬a‫ب‬S‫]أغ‬

‫ن‬V‫ل‬S‫ع‬V‫ف‬

.iii – 2nd declension from simple verbs of the pattern ‫ل‬a‫ع‬V‫ف‬ denoting temporary state, e.g. ‫ن‬V‫ل‬S‫س‬V‫ك‬ Q- lazy, pl. ‫ى‬V‫ال‬V‫س‬V‫ ك‬fem. sing. ‫ى‬V‫ل‬S‫س‬V‫ك‬ ‫ان‬V‫ش‬S‫ط‬V‫ – ع‬thirsty, pl. ‫ى‬V‫اش‬V‫ط‬V‫ ع‬fem. sing.‫ى‬V‫ش‬S‫ط‬V‫ع‬ ‫ان‬V‫س‬S‫ع‬V‫ ن‬- sleepy, pl. ‫ى‬V‫اس‬V‫ع‬V‫ ن‬fem. sing. ‫ى‬V‫س‬S‫ع‬V‫ن‬

N.B. In modern Arabic, the pattern ‫ ن‬V‫ل‬S‫ع‬V‫ ف‬usually takes the sound endings in the feminine and plural, e.g. ‫ان‬V‫ب‬S‫ع‬V‫ ت‬tired. iv. ‫ول‬Q‫ع‬V‫ – ف‬is an intensive from of patterns (i) and (iii) e.g. [Q‫ول‬Q‫ه‬V‫ج‬- very ignorant] [‫ول‬Q‫س‬V‫ – ك‬very lazy] v. ‫ال‬U‫ع‬V‫ – ف‬denoting habitual action or profession, e.g. [‫ال‬U‫ك‬V‫ – أ‬always eating, gluttonous] [‫اء‬U‫د‬V‫ – ع‬always running, a runner] patterns (iv) and (v) take the regular feminine and sound plural endings. vi.

‫ول‬Q‫ع‬S‫ف‬V‫ – م‬actually the passive participle of simple verbs, e.g.[‫ور‬Q‫ر‬S‫س‬V‫– م‬ pleased, overjoyed] [‫ول‬Q‫غ‬S‫ش‬V‫ – م‬occupied, busy] This pattern takes the sound plural ending when it refers to rational beings, otherwise broken plural or the sound feminine plural ending, e.g. ‫وم‬Q‫ س‬S‫ر‬V‫ – م‬a decree / a verdict, pl. ‫ضو ع‬S‫و‬V‫[ ] م‬Q‫يم‬a‫ا س‬V‫ر‬V‫ – م‬a subject, topic, pl. Ò‫وعا ت‬Q‫ض‬S‫و‬V‫م‬. The pattern ‫ل‬V‫ع‬S‫ – أف‬fem. sing. ‫ء‬V‫ل‬S‫ع‬V‫ ف‬masc. and fem. pl.‫ل‬S‫ع‬Q‫ف‬ is confined to adjectives denoting colours or defects of the body, e.g. [‫د‬V‫و‬S‫س‬V‫ – أ‬black, fem. sing. ‫اء‬V‫د‬S‫و‬V‫ س‬pl. Ò‫ود‬Q‫]س‬ [‫ر‬V‫م‬S‫ح‬V‫– أ‬red , fem. sing. ‫راء‬S‫م‬V‫ ح‬pl. ‫ر‬Ò S‫م‬Q‫]ح‬ [‫ر‬V‫ف‬S‫ – أص‬yellow, fem sing. ‫راء‬S‫ف‬V‫ ص‬pl. ‫ر‬Ò S‫ف‬Q‫]ص‬ [Q‫ر‬V‫ض‬S‫أخ‬- green, fem. sing. ‫راء‬S‫ض‬V‫ خ‬pl. ‫ر‬Ò S‫ض‬Q‫]خ‬ [‫ض‬V‫بي‬S ‫ – أ‬white, fem. sing. ‫اء‬V‫ض‬S‫ي‬V‫ ب‬pl. ‫يض‬a‫] ب‬ N.B. the sound group being ‘uy’ being repugnant to Arab ears ‘u’ changes into ‘i' the vowel cognate to the following consonant. [‫م‬V‫بك‬S ‫ – أ‬dumb, fem. sing. ‫اء‬V‫م‬S‫ك‬Q‫ ب‬pl.Ò‫م‬S‫ك‬Q‫]ب‬ [Q‫ش‬V‫ر‬S‫أط‬- deaf, fem. sing. ‫اء‬V‫رش‬S V‫ ط‬pl. Ò‫رش‬S ‫ط‬ Q] [‫ى‬V‫م‬S‫ – أع‬blind, fem. sing. ‫ياء‬S‫م‬V‫ ع‬pl. Ò‫ي‬S‫م‬Q‫]ع‬ 4.0 CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have learnt the names of natural things, insects, reptiles, inanimate objects and adjectives in Arabic grammar.

43


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5.0SUMMARY We have dealt with names of natural things, reptiles and insect, as well as trees, other inanimate objects and adjectives in Arabic grammar.

6.0TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1.

Mention four names of each from the following: nature, trees, insects, reptiles and inanimate objects

2.

What is the position of the adjective in relation to the qualified noun?

7.0 REFERENCES/ FURTHER READINGS

Cowan David (1983); Modern Literary Arabic, Lagos; Islamic Publications Bureau Jarim, A & Ameen M. (N.D) An-Nahw-ul-wādih-fi Qawā‘idi-l-lughatl-‘Arabiyyah- li-madāris-l-marhalat-il-ūla; vol 1, Cairo: Dār-ulMa’ārif.

44


ARA181

UNIT 6

BASIC ARABIC

FOOD, VEGETABLES & FRUITS, DRINKS, BANK AND POST OFFICE

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Food 3.2 Vegetables and Fruits 3.3 Drinks 3.4 Banks and Post Office 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0INTRODUCTION This unit is a continuation of the preceding unit on vocabulary development specifically touching on the kinds of foods in our environment, vegetable, fruits and drinks. The units will also focus on some words use in banks and post office.

2.0OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you should be able to: • • •

Identify various kinds of food in Arabic. Familiarize yourself with various kinds of vegetables, fruits and drinks. Also recognize some words used in banks and post office

3.0MAIN CONTENT 3.1

Food

English food boiled eggs fried eggs milk chicken fish Tea

Arabic ‫م‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ع‬V‫ط‬ Ò‫وق‬Q‫ل‬S‫س‬V‫ م‬Q‫ض‬S‫ي‬V‫ب‬ ‫ى‬a‫ل‬S‫ق‬V‫ م‬Q‫ض‬S‫ي‬V‫ب‬ Q‫يب‬a‫ل‬V‫ح‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫اج‬V‫ج‬V‫د‬ Q‫ك‬V‫م‬V‫س‬ Q‫اي‬V‫ش‬

English beef salt butter cream breakfast lunch dinner

Arabic a‫ل‬S‫ج‬V‫ ع‬Q‫حم‬ S V‫ل‬ Q‫ح‬S‫ل‬a‫م‬ Q‫ة‬V‫د‬S‫زب‬Q ‫ة‬V‫شط‬ S V‫ق‬ Q‫ور‬Q‫فط‬Q Q‫اء‬V‫د‬V‫غ‬ Q‫اء‬V‫ش‬V‫ع‬

45


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

honey yoghurt

3.2

Ò‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫ ع‬sausage ‫ة‬Q V‫ن‬S‫ب‬V‫ ل‬egg

‫ق‬a‫ان‬V‫ق‬V‫ن‬ Q‫ض‬S‫بي‬V

Vegetables and Fruits

English pomegranate apricots onion dates dried dates tomato cucumber fig oranges carrot pineapple

Arabic ‫ان‬V‫م‬Q‫ر‬ ‫ش‬V‫م‬S‫ش‬a‫م‬ ‫ل‬V‫ص‬V‫ب‬ Q‫ح‬V‫ل‬V‫ب‬ Q‫ر‬V‫م‬V‫ت‬ Q‫م‬a‫اط‬V‫م‬V‫ ط‬/ ‫ة‬V‫ور‬Q‫د‬S‫ن‬V‫ب‬ Ò‫اء‬V‫ث‬a‫ ق‬/ Q‫ار‬V‫ي‬a‫خ‬ Q‫ن‬S‫ي‬a‫ت‬ Q‫ال‬V‫ق‬a‫رت‬S Q‫ب‬ Q‫زر‬V V‫ج‬ ‫س‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫ن‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬

English grape pear nut apple olive lettuce quince almond pepper potato peach

Arabic

English carrot juice soft drink cacao yoghurt wine

Arabic ‫ر‬V‫جز‬ V ‫ر‬Q ‫ي‬a‫ص‬V‫ع‬ ‫ات‬V‫طب‬ Û V‫ر‬Q‫م‬ ‫او‬V‫اك‬V‫ك‬ ‫ن‬V‫ب‬V‫ل‬ ‫يذ‬a‫نب‬V

Q V‫ن‬a‫ع‬ ‫ب‬ Q‫اص‬V‫ج‬a‫إ‬ ‫ز‬Q S‫و‬V‫ج‬ Q‫اح‬V‫ف‬Q‫ت‬ ‫ون‬Q‫ت‬S‫زي‬V ‫س‬ Ú V‫خ‬ ‫ل‬V‫رج‬S V‫ف‬V‫س‬ ‫ز‬Q S‫و‬V‫ل‬ ‫ل‬Q‫لف‬S Q‫ف‬ ‫ا‬V‫اط‬V‫بط‬V Q‫اق‬U‫ر‬Q‫د‬

3.3 Drinks English water milk coffee juice lemonade

Arabic ‫ء‬Q ‫ا‬V‫م‬ Q‫يب‬a‫ل‬V‫ح‬ ‫ة‬V‫و‬S‫ه‬V‫ق‬ ‫ر‬Q ‫ي‬a‫ص‬V‫ع‬ ‫ة‬V‫د‬V‫ون‬Q‫يم‬a‫ب‬

3.4 Banks And Post Office English cheque current account my account credit interest shares debts

Arabic Q‫يك‬a‫الش‬ ‫ب‬ a ‫ا‬V‫س‬a‫ الح‬Q‫ل‬S‫ف‬V‫ق‬ ‫ى‬a‫ار‬V‫ ج‬Q‫اب‬V‫س‬a‫ح‬ Q‫يد‬a‫بر‬V ‫ى‬a‫اب‬V‫س‬a‫ح‬ Q‫يد‬a‫ر‬V‫ب‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫جر‬ S Q‫أ‬ ‫اد‬V‫م‬a‫ت‬S‫اع‬ ‫ى‬V‫و‬V‫ ج‬Q‫يد‬a‫بر‬V ‫ة‬V‫د‬a‫ائ‬V‫ف‬ ‫ية‬V‫ق‬S‫بر‬V ‫هم‬S‫ر الس‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ع‬S‫اس‬ ‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫تم‬a S‫س‬a‫إ‬ Ò‫ون‬Q‫دي‬Q ‫جوالة( مالية‬ ‫على البريد‬ assets Q‫ول‬Q‫ص‬Q‫ أ‬post office ٍ‫د‬S‫ري‬a V‫ ب‬Q‫ب‬V‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫م‬ endorse ‫ وقع‬exchange/remittance ‫تحويل‬ rate of exchange ‫ سعر الصرف‬cashier ‫محصل النقود‬ travellers ‫ت‬ ‫شيكا‬ phone ‫هاتف‬ cheque ‫سياحية‬ bonds (‫سندات‬ counter ‫شباك الخزينة‬

46

Arabic

English closing of account mail postage airmail telegram form postal order


ARA181

4.0

BASIC ARABIC

CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have learnt about: i. ii.

Various kinds of food, vegetables, fruits and drinks Names of some words used in banks and post office

5.0

SUMMARY

The vocabularies learnt in this unit relate to foods, vegetables, fruits, drinks, banks and post office in Arabic

6.0

TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1.

Mention four major kinds of foods in our environment

2.

What are the Arabic words for the following (a) dates (b) apple (c) nut (d) honey (e) chicken (f) interest (g) mail (h) form (i) cashier

7.0

REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS

Abdur-Rahmān, Khiyāl & Abd-al-Lateef, Uthmān (1975). al-Qirā’at-l‘Arabiyyah liş-Şaffi r-Rābi‘al-Ibtidāi’, Riyadh: Wizārat-al-ma’ārif Press Ismā‘il, M., Nasif, M. & Mukhtār, T. ( n.d.) Al-‘arabiyyat-l-lin-nāshi’īn. Riyadh: wizārat-al-Ma’ārif Press.

47


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

MODULE 3 Unit 1 Unit 2

GRAMMAR, COMMON WORKS SELECTED ACTIVITIES

AND

Prepositions, Adverbs and Further Lessons on Pronouns Common Words used in Hospital, Government Service, Commerce etc. Relative and Interrogative pronouns, and Introduction to Sentence Construction. Directions, Measurements, School Subjects and Punctuation Marks.

Unit 3 Unit 4

UNIT 1

PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS AND FURTHER LESSIONS ON PRONOUNS

CONTENTS

4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0

Introduction Objectives Main Content 3.1 Preposition 3.2 Adverbs 3.3 Personal Pronouns 3.4 Basic Division of Personal Pronouns 3.5 The Terms of Nominative Personal Pronouns 3.6 The Verb and Its Doer 3.7 The Terms of Accusative Personal Pronouns 3.8 Terms of the Genitive Personal Pronouns Conclusion Summary Tutor-Marked Assignment (TMA) References and Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.0 2.0 3.0

This unit is a continuation of an aspect of unit 3 which specifically focused on pronunciations. In this unit, however, emphasis will be on the two forms of adverb: the adverbs of time and of place; the prepositions and their uses as well the interrogative and relative pronouns. 2.0

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you are expected to: •

• 48

Get familiar with the prepositions in Arabic and their usage Be acquainted with adverbs and their usage


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

List and explain other kinds of pronouns and their usage.

3.0

MAIN CONTENT

3.1

Prepositions

Prepositions are particles often placed before a noun in Arabic and render it in the genitive. Since Arabic grammar deals mainly with the case endings, the Arabic prepositions are referred to as ‘huruful-jarr ‫ر‬V‫ج‬S‫ ال‬Q‫و ف‬Q‫حر‬ Q which literally means the particles of genitive, they are given this term in Arabic because they govern the nouns that follow them in the genitives case. For example, when we say:‫ل‬Q‫رج‬V a‫ ت‬S‫ي‬V‫لب‬S ‫ ا‬a‫‘ فى‬there is a man in the house’ the particle (‫( ) فى‬in) is a preposition followed by the noun (a‫ ت‬S‫ي‬V‫ب‬S‫( )ال‬house) which is in the genitive case because of the particle (‫ )فى‬that governs it. Some of the Arabic prepositions are: i.

‫ى‬V‫ل‬a‫( إ‬to ) Examples: ‫ة‬V‫ين‬a‫د‬V‫م‬S‫لى ال‬a‫ إ‬Q‫ت‬S‫ئ‬a‫( ج‬I came to the city) ‫ر‬a ‫ي‬a‫د‬Q‫م‬S‫ى ال‬V‫ل‬a‫ إ‬Q‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫و‬S‫ ال‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ (the boy wrote to the director)

ii.

‫ى‬V‫ل‬V‫( ع‬on): Examples: the desk)

iii. iv.

‫ب‬V‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ى الم‬V‫ل‬V‫ا ع‬V‫ه‬V‫م‬V‫قل‬V Q‫ة‬V‫م‬a‫اط‬V‫ ف‬S‫ت‬V‫ع‬V‫ض‬V‫( و‬Fatimat put her pen on a‫د‬V‫ع‬S‫ق‬V‫م‬S‫ى ال‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬Q‫لب‬a‫ا‬U‫ الط‬V‫س‬V‫ل‬V‫( ج‬the student sat on the bench)

‫( فى‬in): Examples: a‫د‬a‫ج‬S‫س‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬a‫ون في‬Q‫م‬a‫ل‬S‫س‬Q‫م‬S‫( ال‬the muslims are in the mosque ) ‫ء‬a ‫ا‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬a‫ في‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬S‫ ال‬V‫ع‬V‫ق‬V‫و‬ (the book fell into the water ) ‫ن‬a‫( م‬from; of): Examples: ‫ت‬ a S‫ي‬V‫ب‬S‫ ال‬V‫ن‬a‫ م‬Ò‫م‬a‫اد‬V‫ا ق‬V‫ن‬V‫( ا‬I am coming from home) a‫ب‬V‫خش‬ V S‫ ال‬V‫ن‬a‫ م‬Ú‫ي‬a‫س‬S‫ر‬Q‫ك‬S‫ا ال‬V‫ذ‬V‫( ه‬this chair is of wood)

v.

‫ن‬V‫( ع‬till): Examples: ‫ب‬a‫ال‬U‫ الط‬a‫ال‬V‫ ح‬S‫ن‬V‫ ع‬Q‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬V‫ل‬V‫أ‬V‫س‬ (the teacher asked about the condition of the student) a‫ل‬S‫ص‬V‫ف‬S‫ ال‬a‫ن‬V‫ ع‬Q‫يف‬a‫ر‬V‫ع‬S‫ ال‬V‫اب‬V‫( غ‬the monitor was absent from the class)

vi.

‫ى‬U‫ت‬V‫( ح‬till): Examples:

‫ر‬S‫ه‬Ú‫ظ‬S‫ى ال‬U‫حت‬ V ‫ى‬a‫وس‬Q‫ر‬Q‫ د‬Q‫ت‬S‫ع‬V‫اج‬V‫( ر‬I revised my lessons till noon) ‫ل‬S‫ي‬U‫ى الل‬U‫حت‬ V a‫د‬a‫ج‬S‫س‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬a‫ى في‬V‫ق‬S‫أب‬VV‫( س‬I will remain in the mosque till night)

49


ARA181

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vii.

‫( و‬used for oath) Examples: a‫وال‬ (I swear by Allah) a‫جم‬ S U‫( والن‬I swear by star)

viii.

‫( ب‬with): Example a‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫لق‬S ‫ا‬a‫ب ب‬ Q Q‫ت‬S‫ا أك‬V‫ن‬V‫( أ‬I am writing with pen) ‫ة‬a U‫ر‬Q‫لك‬a‫ با‬Q‫ب‬V‫ع‬S‫ل‬V‫ى ي‬a‫بن‬S ‫( ا‬my son is playing with the ball)

ix.

a ‫ل‬ (for): Examples: ‫س‬a‫ار‬V‫ح‬S‫ لل‬Q‫ب‬S‫ل‬V‫ك‬S‫ا ال‬V‫ذ‬V‫( ه‬this dog is for the guard) Ò‫يل‬a‫م‬V‫ ج‬Ò‫م‬V‫ات‬V‫ت خ‬ a S‫ن‬a‫ب‬S‫ل‬a‫ل‬ (this beautiful ring is for the girl)

x.

V ‫ك‬ (as; alike) Example: ‫ر‬a a‫م‬U‫الن‬V‫ر ك‬Ò a‫ه‬S‫ال‬ (a cat is like a tiger) ‫ب‬ a ‫ي‬a‫ب‬Û‫الط‬V‫م ك‬Q Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫م‬S‫( ال‬a teacher is like a doctor)

3.2

Adverbs

Adverbs are of two kinds they are:- ‫ان‬V‫ك‬V‫ الم‬Q‫ ف‬S‫ظر‬ V (adverb of place) and ‫ان‬V‫م‬V‫ الز‬Q‫ ف‬S‫ظر‬ V (adverb of time). Both of them are in the accusative case and govern the nouns in the genitive case, adverbs of time and place include. Place English In front of

Time Arabic

English ‫ أمام‬morning

Arabic ‫صباحا‬

behind

V‫ف‬S‫ل‬V‫ ح‬night

ً‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫ل‬

over under

V S‫و‬V‫ ف‬day ‫ق‬ V‫ت‬S‫ح‬V‫ ت‬tomorrow

‫مًا‬S‫و‬V‫ي‬ ‫دًا‬V‫غ‬

with beside

‫د‬V S‫ن‬a‫ ع‬month V‫ب‬S‫ن‬V‫ ج‬year

‫رًا‬S‫ه‬V‫ش‬ ً‫ل‬S‫و‬V‫ح‬

EXAMPLES: English Translation

Arabic

Adverb of place The boy stands in front of the mirror

‫ظرف المكان‬ ‫آة‬S‫ر‬a‫ أمام الم‬Q‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫و‬S‫ ال‬Ú‫ف‬a‫ق‬V‫ي‬

The cat sleeps behind the door The bird is on the tree

‫اب‬V‫ة خلف الب‬Q U‫ط‬a‫ق‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ام‬V‫ن‬V‫ت‬ ‫ة‬V‫جر‬ V U‫ فوق الش‬Q‫ير‬S U‫الط‬

He is sitting under the tree The pen is with the boy 50

‫ة‬V‫ر‬V‫ج‬U‫ تحت الش‬Ò‫س‬a‫ال‬V‫ ج‬V‫و‬Q‫ه‬ ‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫ عند الو‬Q‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫الق‬


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

‫م‬a‫ل‬V‫ جنب المًع‬Q‫لب‬a‫ا‬U‫الط‬

The student is beside the teacher EXAMPLES: English Translation

Arabic ‫ظرف الزمان‬ ‫ا‬V‫اح‬V‫ب‬V‫ ص‬Q‫مس‬U‫ الش‬Q‫رق‬a S‫ش‬Q‫ت‬

Adverb of Time the sun rises in the morning The bat flies in the mid-night I spent a complete year in Libya

‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫ ل‬Q‫اش‬V‫ف‬Q‫ الخ‬Q‫ير‬a‫ط‬V‫ي‬ ‫ل‬a‫ام‬V‫ول ك‬V‫ا ح‬V‫ي‬a‫يب‬a‫ ل‬a‫ في‬Q‫ت‬S‫ي‬V‫ض‬V‫ق‬

Zaid returns to his house at sunset.

3.3

Personal Pronouns

‫ا ًء‬V‫ش‬a‫ ع‬a‫ه‬a‫يت‬S V‫ ب‬V‫لى‬a‫ إ‬Q‫د‬S‫زي‬V ‫ع‬V V‫ج‬V‫ر‬

(‫)الضمائر‬

Arabic pronouns are divided into three parts i. ii. iii.

Detached Attached Implied

‫ة‬V‫ل‬a‫ص‬V‫ف‬S‫ن‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬ ‫ة‬V‫ل‬a‫ص‬U‫ت‬Q‫الم‬ ‫ر‬U‫د‬V‫ق‬Q‫الم‬

The Arabic personal pronoun is nominative, accusative and genitive. English Translation English The Examples Case Pronoun Nominative I

Accusative

Me

Possessive

My

Arabic ‫ الضمائ المثلة‬Arabic ‫ ر‬Case

I am a student Ò‫لب‬aV‫ا ط‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫ أن‬NomiI wrote the lesson ‫س‬S‫م‬V‫ أ‬V‫س‬S‫ر‬U‫ الد‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ Q‫ ت‬native yesterday. V‫س الن‬ V S‫ر‬U‫ الد‬Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ أ‬Implied (I) I am writing the lesson now Mahmud treated me Q‫ود‬Q‫حم‬ S V‫ى م‬a‫ن‬V‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫أًك‬ ‫ ـى‬Accuwell Q‫ود‬Q‫م‬S‫ح‬V‫م م‬V V‫ر‬S‫أك‬V V‫اي‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ V‫اي‬U‫ي‬a‫ إ‬sative Me alone Mahmud treated well To me (there is)a small car

Ò‫ة‬a‫ير‬a‫صغ‬ V Ò‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫سي‬ V ‫ى‬a‫ـى ل‬ Ò‫ة‬a‫ير‬a‫غ‬V‫ى ص‬a‫رت‬V ‫ا‬V‫ي‬V‫ـى س‬

Gene-tive

My car is small

3.4

Basic Division of Personal Pronoun

(a)

The nominative detached pronoun is the subject of a nominal sentence. (b) The nominative attached Pronoun is the subject, (doer), of verb. (c) The implied pronoun is also the subject of a verb.

51


ARA181

(d)

(e)

(f)

3.5

BASIC ARABIC

The accusative Pronoun is the object of a verb. It is most frequently attached, like the ya suffix in ‫ى‬a‫ ن‬V‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫ ;أ‬but it is rarely detached coming before the verb for emphasis. This sentence then reads: ‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫ أ‬V‫اي‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ The Genitive Pronoun which is the object of a preparation or the second part construct phrase is always attached and is identical with the accusative attached pronoun, like the yā’ in ‫ى‬a‫“ ل‬to me ’’ ‫ى‬a‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ ك‬my book. We may add here that when a statement begins with a noun or a pronoun and is followed by a verb; the pronoun or noun is treated as the subject of a nominal sentence; not of the verb. The subject of the verb cannot precede it; it has to follow it tangibly or to be regarded as an implied pronoun. If we say, for example, ‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ا ك‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬ “I wrote,” the statement is regarded as a nominal sentence of which the pronoun ‫ا‬V‫أن‬ ‘I’ is the subject. The subject of the verb ‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬is the tā, Q‫ت‬, and the verbal sentence consisting of the verb and its subject doer is regarded as the predicate.

The Terms of Nominative Personal Pronoun

Attached Pronoun ‫ة‬V‫ل‬a‫ص‬U‫ت‬Q‫ر الم‬Q ‫ائ‬V‫م‬V‫ الض‬Detached Pronoun ‫ائر‬V‫م‬V‫الض‬ ‫ة‬V‫ل‬a‫ص‬V‫ف‬S‫ن‬Q‫الم‬ Person Meaning Pronoun Meaning Pronoun Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬I ‫ا‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫ن‬V‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ Q‫ن‬S‫ح‬V‫ن‬ First I wrote We Q‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ك‬V‫ت‬Q‫الم‬ We wrote You (boy) wrote You (girl) wrote You (2 boys) wrote

V S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ a‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬You (male) ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ S‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬You (female) U‫ن‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ You (2 males)

You (2 girls) wrote

You (2 females)

You (boys) wrote

You (males)

You (girls) wrote

You (females)

52

V S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ a‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ S‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬

Second Q‫ب‬V‫اط‬V‫خ‬Q‫الم‬


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

(He) Wrote (She) Wrote They (2 boys) wrote They (2 girls) wrote They (boys) wrote They (girls) wrote

V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬He She S‫ت‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ They (2 males) ‫ا‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬They (2 females) They ( males) ‫ا‬V‫ت‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ They (females) ‫و‬Q‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬

V‫و‬Q‫ه‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ه‬

V‫ن‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬

U‫ن‬Q‫ه‬

V‫ي‬Q‫ه‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ ه‬Third Q‫ب‬a‫ائ‬V‫غ‬S‫ال‬ S‫م‬Q‫ه‬

This means: (when a boy is spoken to) the same applies to other words in parentheses.

3.6

Q‫ر‬S‫م‬V‫ال‬

The Verb and Its Doer ‫ع‬ Q a‫ار‬V‫ض‬Q‫الم‬ Nominal Sentence

First

‫ى‬a‫اض‬V‫الم‬ Verbal Nomina Verbal Sentence l Sentenc Persons Sentenc e e ‫ب‬ Q Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ا أ‬V‫ن‬V‫*أ‬ Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫*أ‬ Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ا ك‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬ Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ *Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫نك‬V Q‫ن‬S‫نح‬V *Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ا ن‬V‫بن‬S V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬Q‫ن‬S‫ح‬V‫ن‬ ‫ا‬V‫ن‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ S. D&P. *Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ت‬V‫ت‬S‫أن‬ V‫ين‬a‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ت‬a‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ a‫ان‬V‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ا ت‬V‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ V‫ون‬Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ت‬S‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ V‫ن‬S‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫تك‬V U‫ن‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬

*Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ت‬ V‫ين‬a‫تب‬Q S‫ك‬V‫ت‬ a‫ان‬V‫تب‬Q S‫ك‬V‫ت‬ V‫ون‬Q‫تب‬Q S‫ك‬V‫ت‬ V‫ن‬S‫تب‬Q S‫ك‬V‫ت‬

V S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬V‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ت‬ a‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬a‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V ‫ م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ S‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬S‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ت‬S‫تب‬V V‫ ك‬U‫ن‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬V‫أ‬

V S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ a‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬M.S S‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬F.S

Second

*S‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬Q‫أ‬ *‫ى‬a‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬Q‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬Q‫أ‬ ‫وا‬Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬Q‫أ‬ V‫بن‬S Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬Q‫أ‬

D. M.P F.P

53


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

Q‫د‬U‫م‬V‫ح‬V‫ب م‬ Q Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ي‬V‫ ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬Q‫د‬U‫م‬V‫ح‬V‫ ب م‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ة‬Q V‫م‬a‫اط‬V‫ب ف‬ Q Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ت‬ * Q‫د‬U‫م‬V‫ح‬V‫م‬ ‫ ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ي‬ ‫ة‬V‫طم‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ ت ف‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ان‬V‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫الو‬ *‫ت‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ة‬V‫طم‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ف‬ a‫ان‬V‫ت‬S‫ن‬a‫ب الب‬ Q Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ا ن ت‬V‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫ ب الو‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ي‬ ‫ا‬V‫تب‬V V‫ك‬ ‫ان‬V‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫الو‬ ‫د‬V‫ل‬S‫لو‬ V ‫ا ن ا‬V‫نت‬S a‫ ت الب‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ Q‫ات‬V‫ن‬V‫ب الب‬ Q Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ت‬ ‫ا‬V‫ت‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ان‬V‫نت‬S a‫الب‬ ‫د‬V‫ل‬S‫و‬V‫ ب ال‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫وا‬Q‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫د‬V‫ل‬S‫و‬V‫ال‬ ‫ا ت‬V‫ن‬V‫ ت الب‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ن‬S‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ات‬V‫ن‬V‫الب‬

M.S

Third

*Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ي‬Q‫د‬U‫م‬V‫ح‬V‫م‬ *Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ت‬Q‫ة‬V‫طم‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ف‬ ‫ان‬V‫تب‬Q S‫ك‬V‫ ي‬a‫ان‬V‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫الو‬ ‫ان‬V‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ت‬a‫ان‬V‫نت‬S a‫الب‬ ‫ون‬Q‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ي‬Q‫د‬V‫ل‬S‫و‬V‫ال‬ V‫ن‬S‫ب‬Q‫ت‬S‫تك‬V Q‫ات‬V‫ن‬V‫الب‬

F.S M.D F.D M.P F.P

Note that the ‫ون‬Q‫ك‬Q‫ س‬of the ‫يث‬a‫ان‬U‫اء الت‬V‫ ت‬is replaced by the ‫ة‬V‫ر‬S‫س‬V‫ك‬because the ‫ون‬Q‫ك‬Q‫س‬ of the ‫م‬V‫ ل‬of ‫ ال‬follows * An asterisk is placed over the verb in the table when its subject is an implied pronoun.

3.7

The Terms of Accusative Personal Pronouns

Attached Pronouns ‫الضمائر المتصلة‬ Meaning

Pronoun Meaning ‫ى‬a‫ن‬V‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫ أ‬Me (alone you treated well) ‫ا‬V‫ن‬V‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ We (alone you treated well)

Person Pronoun (V‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ )أك‬V‫اي‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ (V‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ )أك‬V‫انا‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬

First

You treated me well

Detached Pronouns ‫الضمائر المتصلة‬

You treated us well

…………………(f). …………………

…………………………….

………………….

…………………………….

………………….

…………………………….

54

Second

I treated you well (m)

‫ك‬ V Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ (Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ )أك‬V‫اك‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ ‫ك‬ a Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ (Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ )أك‬a‫اك‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ك‬Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫ أ‬You (alone I treated well) (m) (Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ا )أك‬V‫م‬Q‫اك‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ ‫م‬Q‫ك‬Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ (Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫م )أك‬Q‫اك‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ك‬Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫(…………………………… أ‬f). (Q‫ت‬S‫رم‬V S‫ )أك‬U‫ن‬Q‫اك‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

I treated her well

(Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ )أك‬Q‫اه‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ (Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ا )أك‬V‫اه‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ (Q‫ت‬S‫رم‬V S‫ا )أك‬V‫م‬Q‫اه‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ (Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫م )أك‬Q‫اه‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬ (Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ )أك‬U‫ن‬Q‫اه‬U‫ي‬a‫إ‬

I treated them well They (alone I treated well) ……………………. …………………………… ……………………. ……………………………

3.8

Terms of the Genitive Personal Pronoun

Attached Pronouns ‫الضمائر المتصلة‬

Pronoun Meaning a‫ لى‬My book ‫ا‬V‫ لن‬Our book

Person Pronoun a‫ابى‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫ا‬V‫ن‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬

First

Meaning To me

Detached Pronouns ‫الضمائر المتصلة‬

To us

……….. ………..

….………………

……….

………………….

………..

…………………. ‫ه‬Q V‫ل‬ ‫ا‬V‫ه‬V‫ل‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ه‬V‫ ل‬His book S‫م‬Q‫ه‬V‫ل‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ه‬V‫ ل‬Her book

To him To her To them

Their book

The them

……………..

To them

……………..

4.0

‫ه‬Q Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫ا‬V‫ه‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ه‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫م‬Q‫ه‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ه‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬

Third

To you

V Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫ك‬ a‫ك‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ك‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ ‫م‬Q‫ك‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ك‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬

Second

V V‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ a‫ك‬V‫ل‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ك‬V‫ ل‬Your book (M) S‫م‬Q‫ك‬V‫ل‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ك‬V‫(………………… ل‬F)

CONCLUSION

In this unit, you have learnt about the prepositions, adverbs, and further 55

Third

I treated him well

‫ه‬Q Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫ه‬Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ ‫ا‬V‫م‬Q‫ه‬Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫ أ‬Him (I treated well) ‫م‬Q‫ه‬Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫أ‬ U‫ن‬Q‫ه‬Q‫ت‬S‫م‬V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫ أ‬Her (I treated well)


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lessons on pronouns.

5.0

SUMMARY

We have dealt with the usage of prepositions, adverbs and personal pronouns in Arabic grammar.

6.0

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1.

Use the following personal pronouns in sentences of your own: ‫اي‬U‫ إي‬- ‫م‬Q‫ت‬S‫ – أن‬Q‫ن‬S‫نح‬V – V‫ت‬S‫أن‬

2.

Use the following prepositions in sentences of your own. a‫ – فى‬S‫ن‬a‫ى – م‬V‫ل‬V‫ – ع‬S‫ن‬V‫ع‬

3.

Fill in the blank spaces with suitable words ‫؟‬V‫ك‬Ú‫م‬Q‫ أ‬.........................................-1 ‫؟‬V‫ت‬S‫ئ‬a‫ ج‬..................................-2

5

‫؟‬V‫ك‬Q‫ال‬V‫ ح‬..................................2.

Use these adverbs in sentences: ‫ق‬ V S‫و‬V‫ – ف‬V‫ل‬S‫ي‬V‫ – ل‬V‫ام‬V‫م‬V‫ا – أ‬V‫م‬S‫و‬V‫ةً – ي‬V‫اع‬V‫س‬

7.0

REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS

Antoine, El-Dahdah (1992) A dictionary of Universal Arabic Grammar: Arabic-English, Beirut: Maktabatu Lubnān Muhammad, Abdur-Ra’ūf (N.D.) Arabic for English speaking Students, Cairo: ’Ahrām-t-tijāriyyah Press.

56


ARA181

UNIT 2

BASIC ARABIC

COMMON WORDS USED IN HOSPITAL, GOVERNMENT SERVICE, AND COMMERCE ETC

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Common Words Used in Hospital 3.2 Common Words Used in Government 3.3 Common Words Used in Commerce 3.4 Common Words Used in Sea-Shore 3.5 Common Words Used in Television Station 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Modern day activities require our contacts with other people in various areas of discipline and profession. This unit deals with some commonly used names and items that are peculiar to those disciplines.

2.0OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you should be able to acquire enough words in Arabic that are peculiar to some disciplines.

3.0MAIN CONTENT 3.1Common Words Used In Hospital English injection doctor’s prescription blood pressure dentist pills ointment tablets

Arabic

English Q‫ة‬V‫ن‬S‫ق‬Q‫ ح‬surgery a ‫ي‬a‫ب‬U‫ الط‬Q‫ف‬S‫ص‬V‫ و‬bandages ‫ب‬ ‫م‬a U‫ الد‬Q‫ط‬S‫غ‬V‫ ض‬patients a ‫ا‬V‫ن‬S‫لس‬ ‫ن‬ V ‫ ا‬Q‫يب‬a‫ب‬V‫ ط‬nurses Q‫وب‬Q‫ب‬Q‫ح‬S‫ ال‬children disease (pediatrics) Q‫هم‬V S‫ر‬V‫ م‬blood transfusion Q‫اص‬V‫ر‬S‫ق‬V‫ أ‬optician

Arabic Ò‫ة‬V‫حي‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ر‬a‫ ج‬Ò‫ة‬U‫ي‬a‫ل‬V‫م‬V‫ع‬ Q‫ة‬V‫بط‬a S‫لر‬ V‫ا‬ ‫ى‬V‫رض‬S V‫م‬S‫ال‬ Q‫ات‬V‫ّض‬a‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫الم‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ف‬S‫لط‬ ‫ل‬ V ‫ ا‬Q‫اض‬V‫ر‬S‫م‬V‫أ‬ ‫م‬a U‫ الد‬Q‫ل‬S‫ق‬V‫ن‬ a ‫و‬Q‫ي‬Q‫ الع‬Q‫يب‬a‫طب‬ ‫ن‬ V

57


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3.2Common Words Used In Government English king president kingdom republic constitution parliament ambassador embassy capital independent voting election vice minister

3.3

Q‫ير‬a‫ز‬V‫و‬

Arabic

‫نقود‬ ‫وسيط‬ ‫مبلغ‬ ‫ربح‬ ‫يربح‬ ‫يخسر‬ ‫يبيع‬ ‫حسم‬ ‫رأس مال‬ ‫بـيع( بالمزاد‬ ‫وكالة‬ ‫إمضاء‬

English receipt project debt monopoly bankruptcy expenses customer balance consumption accountant value bill

Arabic

‫وصل‬ ‫مشروع‬ ‫دين‬ ‫احتكار‬ ‫إفلس‬ ‫نفقات‬ ‫زبون‬ ‫رصيد‬ ‫إستهلك‬ ‫محاسب‬ ‫قيمة‬ ‫فاتورة حساب‬

Common Words Used In Sea-Shore

English sea side swimming swimming suits

58

‫ملك‬ ‫رئي س‬ ‫جمهورية‬ ‫مملكة‬ ‫جمهورية‬ ‫دستور‬ ‫برنمان‬ ‫سفير‬ ‫سفرة‬ ‫عاصمة‬ ‫استقلل‬ ‫تصويت‬ ‫إنتخاب‬ ‫نائب‬

English Arabic ministry ‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ ministry of foreign ‫ة‬a V‫ي‬a‫ج‬a‫ار‬V‫ الخ‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ affairs ministry of interior ‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫خل‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ الد‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ ministry of defence a‫اع‬V‫ف‬a‫ الد‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ ministry of justice a‫ل‬S‫د‬V‫ الع‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ ministry of finance ‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ال‬V‫ الم‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ ministry of public works a‫ال‬V‫غ‬S‫ الش‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ ministry of health ‫ة‬V‫ح‬a‫ الص‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ ministry of education ‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ب‬S‫تر‬V ‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬ opposition ‫ة‬V‫ض‬V‫ار‬V‫ع‬V‫م‬ director Q‫ير‬aa‫د‬Q‫م‬ inspector ‫ش‬L‫مفت‬ authority ‫سلطة‬ ُ prime minister ‫ي س‬a‫ئ‬V‫ر‬ ‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ز‬a‫و‬

Common Words Used In Commerce

English money broker amount profit to gain to lose to sell discount capital auction agency signature

3.4

Arabic

Arabic ‫شاطئ البحر‬ ‫باحة‬L‫الس‬ ‫لبسة البحر‬

English amusement pleasure shallow water

Arabic

‫تسلية‬ ‫سرور‬ ‫مياه الضحلة‬


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3.5

BASIC ARABIC

Common Words Used In Television Station

English news loudspeaker news in full studio

Arabic ‫ر‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ب‬S‫خ‬V‫أ‬ ‫ر‬L‫المكب‬ ‫أخبار( بالتفصيل‬ ‫استوديوهة‬

English tone control contrast channel television

Arabic ‫ضابط النغمة‬ ‫التباين‬ ‫القنواة‬ ‫التليفزيون‬

4.0CONCLUSION In this unit, you have leant about Arabic language registers that are related to some various fields of human activities.

5.0SUMMARY We have dealt with some commonly used names and items that are peculiar to government service, commerce, sea-shore and television station.

6.0TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT 1.

Use these words in sentences

2.

‫ب‬ Q a‫ائ‬V‫ – ن‬Q‫ة‬V‫ك‬V‫ل‬S‫م‬V‫ – م‬Q‫اص‬V‫قر‬S ‫ – أ‬Q‫ة‬V‫ن‬S‫حق‬ Q – Q‫ور‬Q‫ت‬S‫س‬V‫د‬ Translate the following words to Arabic balance – monopoly – inspector – election – capital

7.0 REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS Rufāi, ’Abd-ul-Azeez & ’Abd-ul-Jabbār Umar (1969). Al-mutāli’at-ussu’ūdiyyah li- ş - şaffi-l-khāmis-il-ibitidā, Riyādh: WizāratulMa’ārif Press. Şābir, ’Abdu `l-Fatāh & ‘Umar, ‘Ali (N.D) al-Qirā’at-ur-Rashīdat Vol.1, Cairo: Dar-al-Ma’ārif Press.

59


ARA181

UNIT 3

BASIC ARABIC

RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS, AND INTRODUCTION TO SENTENCES CONSTRUCTION

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Relative Pronouns 3.1.1 The Common Relative Pronouns in Arabic 3.2 Interrogative Pronouns 3.3 Introduction to Sentence Construction 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor-Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

This unit deals with relative and interrogative pronouns in Arabic language. It also introduces you to various ways of constructing simple nominal and verbal sentences Arabic.

2.0

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you should be able to: • •

Identify some relative and interrogative pronouns in Arabic language Construct simple sentences in Arabic

3.0 MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Relative Pronouns ‫السم الموصول‬

A relative pronoun is the noun that gives information about its antecedent with the aid of a relative clause. It is considered as a definite noun. Example

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3.1.1 The Common Relative Pronouns in Arabic Singular Masculine Feminine

Dual ‫ى‬a‫الّذ‬ ‫ى‬a‫الّت‬

Plural a‫ان‬V‫الّذ‬ a‫ان‬V‫الّلت‬

I read the book which I bought These are the (2) boys who played These are the boys who travelled The girl who danced has come The two girls are playing skillful These are the girls who are travelling

V‫ين‬a‫الّذ‬ a‫اللّتى‬

Q‫ته‬Q S‫ي‬V‫تر‬V S‫ى اش‬a‫ اّلذ‬V‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ات‬V‫ر‬V‫ق‬ ‫ا‬V‫ب‬a‫ع‬a‫ ل‬a‫ان‬V‫ الّلذ‬a‫ان‬V‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫و‬S‫ ال‬a‫ان‬V‫ذ‬V‫ه‬ ‫وا‬Q‫فر‬V ‫ا‬V‫ س‬V‫د الّذين‬V‫ل‬S‫ء الو‬a V‫ل‬Q‫ؤ‬V‫ه‬ S‫ت‬V‫قص‬V V‫ى ر‬a‫ت‬U‫ ال‬Q‫ت‬S‫بن‬a S‫ت ال‬ a V‫اء‬V‫ج‬ a‫ان‬V‫رت‬V ‫ه‬a ‫ا‬V‫ م‬a‫ان‬V‫ب‬V‫ع‬S‫ل‬V‫ ت‬a‫ان‬V‫ اللّت‬a‫ان‬V‫نت‬S a‫الب‬ V‫ن‬S‫فر‬a ‫ا‬V‫س‬Q‫ى ي‬a‫لت‬U‫ ال‬Q‫ات‬V‫بن‬V ‫ء ال‬a V‫ل‬Q‫ؤ‬V‫ه‬

3.2Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun asks about a person, things, time, place reason, number or quality and condition. It inquires about the occurrence of the verb, therefore, the answer to a question. An interrogative pronoun has to give the information required; whereas the answer to a question introduced by ‫ل‬V‫ ه‬or the ‫ أ‬has to be the equivalent of No ‫ ل‬or yes Q‫ م‬S‫ع‬V‫ن‬. For example ‫ذا‬V‫ ه‬S‫ن‬V‫( م‬who is this) should give the name of a person like ‫د‬S‫زي‬V ‫ا‬V‫ذ‬V‫ه‬ (that is Zayd) and ‫ن‬Q‫ك‬S‫س‬a‫ ت‬V‫ ن‬S‫( أي‬where are you living) would be something like this ‫ة‬V‫ين‬a‫د‬V‫ الم‬a‫ فى‬Q‫ن‬Q‫ك‬S‫ أ س‬I stay in the city, but the answer to the question ‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ر ع‬V V‫ض‬V‫ ح‬S‫ل‬V‫ ه‬or ‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ ع‬V‫ر‬V‫ض‬V‫( أح‬is Umar around) should be either ‘‫ ’نعم‬Yes or ‘ ‫ ’ل‬No Interrogative Pronoun ‫؟‬S‫ن‬V‫م‬ ‫ا؟‬V‫م‬ ‫اذا؟‬V‫م‬ ‫؟‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬ ‫ا؟‬V‫اذ‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬

Equivalent Who? What? What? Why? Why?

‫؟‬V‫ن‬S‫ أي‬Where? ‫ى؟‬V‫ت‬V‫ م‬When?

Example ‫ا؟‬V‫ذ‬V‫ ه‬S‫ن‬V‫م‬ ‫ا؟‬V‫هذ‬V ‫ا‬V‫م‬ ‫ى؟‬V‫جر‬ V ‫ا‬V‫اذ‬V‫م‬ ‫ا؟‬V‫هذ‬V V‫م‬a‫ل‬ ‫ ت‬S‫ك‬V‫تر‬V ‫ا‬V‫اذ‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬ ‫؟‬V‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫م‬S‫ال‬ ‫؟‬Q‫ن‬Q‫ك‬S‫س‬V‫ ت‬V‫ن‬S‫أي‬ ‫؟‬Q‫ة‬V‫اس‬V‫در‬Û ‫ ال‬Q‫أ‬V‫د‬S‫ب‬V‫ى ت‬V‫ت‬V‫م‬

‫؟‬V‫ف‬S‫ي‬V‫ ك‬How? ‫؟‬S‫م‬V‫ ك‬How many?

‫؟‬V‫ت‬S‫ أن‬V‫ف‬S‫ي‬V‫ك‬ ‫؟‬V‫ت‬S‫ح‬a‫رب‬V ‫لرًا‬ V ‫و‬Q‫ د‬S‫م‬V‫ك‬

‫؟‬S‫م‬V‫ ك‬How much?

‫؟‬a‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫سي‬ U ‫ ال‬Q‫ن‬V‫م‬V‫ ث‬S‫م‬V‫ك‬

‫؟‬S‫ن‬V‫م‬a‫ ل‬To whom, whose?

‫؟‬Q‫ب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬S‫ا ال‬V‫ذ‬V‫ ه‬S‫ن‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬

Meaning Who is this? What is this? What happend? Why is this? Why did you leave the school? Where do you live? When does the school session begin? How are you? How many dollars did you earn? How much is the price of the car? To whom does the

61


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

‫؟‬U‫ي‬V‫ أ‬Which?

‫؟‬Ú‫ب‬a‫ح‬Q‫ ت‬a‫ة‬V‫ه‬a‫اك‬V‫ ف‬U‫ي‬V‫أ‬

‫؟‬S‫ل‬V‫ ه‬Do you? Did you? ‫؟‬Q‫س‬S‫م‬U‫ الش‬a‫ت‬V‫ع‬V‫ل‬V‫ ط‬S‫ل‬V‫ه‬ Will you? e.t.c ‫( أ؟‬a) same as S‫ل‬V‫ه‬ ‫ر ؟‬Q V‫م‬V‫ق‬S‫ع ال‬V V‫ل‬V‫أط‬ (b) which (of two ‫ م‬V‫ أ‬V‫ة‬V‫ين‬a‫د‬V‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ل‬Û‫ض‬V‫ف‬Q‫ت‬V‫أ‬ things) ‫ة‬V‫ي‬S‫ر‬V‫ق‬S‫ال‬

book belong? Which fruit do you like? Has the sun appeared? Has the moon appeared? Do you prefer the town or the village?

Note that the Arabic question mark is exactly the same as the English question mark except that it faces the right side. After a preposition ‫ا‬V‫م‬, an interrogative pronoun is generally shortened to‫م‬ and written attached to the preposition, e.g. ‫؟‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬ ‫؟‬V‫م‬V‫إل‬ ‫؟‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ ‫؟‬U‫م‬a‫م‬

for what, why? till when? for what? from what?

Note that the noun qualified by ‫م‬V‫ ك‬how much, many? is in the accusative singular. e.g. ‫ابًا‬V‫ت‬a‫ ك‬S‫م‬V‫ ك‬how many books? ‫دًا؟‬V‫ل‬V‫ و‬S‫م‬V‫ ك‬how many boys? ‫ة؟‬V‫اع‬U‫ الس‬a‫م‬V‫ك‬ what time is it? Ú ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ is an interrogative adjective governs a following genitives, e.g. ‫تٍ؟‬S‫بي‬V Ú‫ أي‬which house? ٍ‫جل‬ Q V‫ ر‬Ú‫ي‬V‫ أ‬which man? a‫ال‬V‫ج‬Û‫ الر‬Ú‫ي‬V‫أ‬ which (one) of the men? Ú ّ‫أ‬ ‫ي‬ is very often used as common gender and its feminine ‫ة‬U‫ي‬V‫أ‬ neglected, e.g. ‫ة‬V‫ير‬a‫م‬V‫ أ‬Ú‫ي‬V‫ أ‬which princess?

3.3Introduction To Sentence Construction A complete sentence in Arabic is a combination of two or more words in a way that is meaningful. Examples: ‫ى‬a‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ا ق‬V‫ذ‬V‫ه‬ this is my pen ‫ة‬V V‫ال‬V‫س‬Û‫ الر‬Q‫د‬S‫زي‬V V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ ك‬Zaid wrote a letter The imperative ‫ب‬V‫ه‬S‫ذ‬a‫‘ إ‬go’ is a complete sentence because it consists of a verb and an implied subject. A phrase cannot be regarded as a complete 62


ARA181

BASIC ARABIC

sentence no matter the number of its words ‫ير‬a‫ص‬V‫ى الح‬V‫ل‬V‫س ع‬a‫ل‬S‫ج‬V‫ ت‬S‫ن‬a‫( إ‬if you sit on the mat) is not a complete sentence even though it contains four words. A sentence which starts with a noun or pronoun in Arabic is termed a nominal sentence ‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫م‬S‫س‬a‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫ل‬S‫م‬Q‫ الج‬e.g. Ò‫ضر‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ ح‬Q‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫الو‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫ر‬a‫اض‬V‫ ح‬Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬a‫الب‬ ‫ة‬Ò V‫يف‬a‫ظ‬V‫ ن‬Q‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫در‬S V‫الم‬ a‫ل‬S‫ص‬V‫ الف‬a‫ في‬Q‫يذ‬a‫م‬S‫تل‬Û‫ال‬

(the boy is present) (the girl is present) (the school is neat) (the student is in the class)

The first noun (subject) and the second one (predicate) are used in the nominative case. A sentence which starts with a verb either perfect or imperfect in Arabic is termed a verbal sentence ‫ة‬U‫ي‬a‫ل‬S‫ع‬a‫ الف‬Q‫ة‬V‫ل‬S‫جم‬ Q ‫ ال‬e.g. ‫ق‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫ح‬S‫ إس‬V‫س‬V‫ل‬V‫ج‬ ‫ب‬ V ‫ا‬V‫ت‬a‫ الك‬Q‫يل‬a‫اع‬V‫م‬S‫رأ إس‬S‫ق‬a‫ي‬ V‫ن‬V‫ ال‬a‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫در‬S V‫ى الم‬V‫ل‬V‫ إ‬Ú‫ي‬a‫ل‬V‫ ع‬Q‫هب‬V S‫يذ‬ ‫ة‬V V‫اح‬V‫ف‬Ú‫ لت‬Q‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫ الو‬V‫ل‬V‫ك‬V‫أ‬

Is-hāq sat Ismā‘īl is reading the book Ali is going to the school now The boy ate the apple

When the doer ‫ل‬a‫ا ع‬V‫ الف‬is a feminine a silent ‘ta’ should be added to make the verb feminine e.g. Q V‫ين‬S V‫ ز‬S‫ت‬V‫س‬V‫ل‬V‫ج‬ ‫ب‬ Q‫ة‬V‫طم‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ ف‬S‫ت‬V‫ب‬V‫ت‬V‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫ن‬V‫ الب‬Q‫ل‬Q‫ك‬S‫أ‬V‫ت‬

Zainab sat Fatimah wrote The girls are eating

4.0 CONCLUSION In this unit, you have learnt about relative and interrogative pronouns in Arabic grammar. You also learnt about the various ways of constructing simple sentences in Arabic.

5.0 SUMMARY We have dealt with relative and interrogative pronouns and the various ways of constructing simple sentences in Arabic. 6.0

1. 2. 3.

TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT Give five examples of nominal and verbal sentences. What are the relative pronouns? What are the interrogative pronouns? Use each in a separate sentence. 63


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7.0REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS Jamā’atun mina `l-asātidhah (1967). Qawā‘id-us-Şarf wan-Nahw- lişşufūf-il-ibtidāiyyah, Beirut: Al-Maktab-at-Tijārī Publishers Ameen Hasan & Tha’ālabi Yahyah (1975). Qawā‘id –ul-lughat‘Arabiyyah liş-Şaffi th-thālith-il-mutawasit, Baghdad: Matba’at – al-Az-har.

64


ARA181

UNIT 4

BASIC ARABIC

DIRECTIONS, MEASUREMENTS, EDUCATION AND PUNCTUATION MARKS IN ARABIC

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Directions 3.2 Measurements 3.3 Education 3.4 Punctuation Marks in Arabic 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Further development of vocabularies is necessary in this unit especially on Measurement, Names of colours and the application of punctuation marks in modern Arabic literature writing.

2.0OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you should be able to acquire enough vocabularies that are peculiar to directions, measurements and education. You should be able to identify the punctuation marks in Arabic and their uses.

3.0MAIN CONTENT 3.1

Directions

English East West

Arabic

English ‫ق‬ Q S‫ر‬V‫ ش‬South Q S‫ر‬V‫ غ‬North ‫ب‬

Arabic Q‫وب‬Q‫جن‬ V Q‫ال‬V‫م‬a‫ش‬

3.2Measurements English millimetre metre gram inch kilometre foot

Arabic a‫تر‬S a‫يم‬a‫ل‬a‫م‬ ‫ر‬a S‫ت‬a‫م‬ ‫ام‬V‫ر‬a‫ج‬ V ‫ش‬S‫ن‬a‫إ‬ ‫ر‬a S‫ت‬a‫م‬S‫و‬V‫يل‬a‫ك‬ S‫م‬V‫قد‬V

English n yard metre square metre cube mile hectare ton

Arabic ‫د‬S‫ار‬V‫ي‬ S‫بع‬UV‫ر‬V‫ر م‬a S‫ت‬a‫م‬ ‫ب‬S‫ع‬V‫ك‬V‫ر م‬a S‫ت‬a‫م‬ ‫ل‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬ ‫ار‬V‫ت‬S‫هك‬a S‫طن‬ V

65


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3.3Education English Arabic kindergarten a‫ال‬V‫طف‬ S ‫ ال‬Q‫ة‬V‫ض‬S‫و‬V‫ر‬ elementary ‫ة‬V‫ئي‬a ‫ا‬V‫د‬a‫ت‬S‫ة الب‬Q ‫س‬ V V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫الم‬ school (primary) secondary school ‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫و‬V‫ان‬Ú‫ة الث‬Q V‫رس‬V S‫د‬V‫الم‬ boarding school Q‫ة‬V‫لي‬aa‫اخ‬V‫ د‬Ò‫ة‬V‫رس‬V S‫د‬V‫م‬ languages ‫ات‬V‫غ‬Q‫ل‬ arithmetic ‫اب‬V‫س‬a‫ح‬ botany ‫ات‬V‫ب‬V‫ن‬ geology ‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ند‬S V‫ه‬ sociology Q‫ماع‬a‫ت‬S‫اج‬ hall Q‫ة‬V‫ال‬V‫ص‬ Faculty ‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ك‬ Bachelor’s ‫س‬a‫ان‬V‫س‬Û‫ الل‬Q‫جة‬ V V‫ر‬V‫د‬ degree Doctorate ‫اه‬V‫ور‬Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫د‬ Faculty of Arts ‫اب‬V‫الد‬Q‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ك‬ Faculty of Law Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Veterinary science Institute of Archeology

English algebra geometry trigonometry mechanics physics chemistry zoology philosophy history education Department Master’s degree

Institute Faculty of Sciences ‫وق‬Q‫ق‬Q‫ الح‬Q‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ ك‬Faculty of Engineering a‫ب‬Û‫ة الط‬Q V‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ ك‬Faculty of Agriculture ‫ى‬a‫ر‬V‫يط‬V‫ الب‬a‫ب‬Û‫ الط‬Q‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ ك‬Institute of Oceanography

Arabic ‫ر‬V aS‫ـ‬V‫جب‬ S ‫ال‬ Q‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫د‬S‫هن‬V ‫ات‬V‫لث‬VV‫ث‬Q‫ م‬Ò‫اب‬V‫س‬a‫ح‬ ‫ا‬V‫يك‬a‫ن‬V‫ك‬S‫ي‬a‫م‬ ‫ة‬V‫يع‬a‫طب‬ V Q‫اء‬V‫ي‬a‫يم‬a‫ك‬ ‫ان‬V‫و‬V‫حي‬ V ‫ة‬V‫ف‬V‫لس‬S V‫ف‬ Q‫يخ‬a‫ار‬V‫ت‬ ‫م‬S‫ي‬a‫عل‬S V‫الت‬ Q‫سم‬ S a‫ق‬ ‫ير‬a‫ت‬S‫س‬a‫ج‬V‫ الم‬Q‫ة‬V‫ج‬V‫در‬V ‫د‬Q V‫ه‬S‫ع‬V‫م‬ ‫وم‬Q‫ل‬Q‫ة الع‬Q U‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ك‬ ‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫د‬S‫ن‬V‫ة اله‬Q U‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ك‬ ‫ة‬V‫اع‬V‫ر‬Û‫الز‬Q‫ة‬U‫ي‬a‫ل‬Q‫ك‬ ‫ البحا ث‬Q‫د‬V‫ه‬S‫ع‬V‫م‬ ‫المائية‬

a‫ار‬V‫ الث‬Q‫د‬V‫ه‬S‫ع‬V‫ م‬Institute of ‫معهد الل ـغات‬ oriental languages ‫الشرقية‬

3.4 PUNCTUATION MARKS IN ARABIC ‫علمة الترقيم‬

Note After call and division (of ideas ): Oh man, you are threatened with danger Between two sentences, one of which is motive for the occurrence of the second: I knew he would come; is it possible that he wouldn’t? At the end of a meaning: The sun is rising. Before an expression explaining the preceding one: He said: I am going To indicate suppression of words: The professor came and began…. 66

English translation Arabic Comma {,} Q‫ة‬V‫ل‬a‫اص‬V‫الف‬ Semi colon

Full stop Colon

{‫ }؛‬Q‫ة‬V‫ع‬a‫اط‬V‫الق‬

{.} ‫ة‬Q V‫ط‬S‫ق‬Ú‫الن‬

‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ {:} a‫يح‬a‫ض‬S‫و‬V‫الت‬ Dot of Suspension ‫ف‬S‫ذ‬V‫ الح‬Q‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ {...}


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After sentences asking questions: What is Question mark your name? After astonishment and impact: then he looked at him with amazement! Double bracket: to convey communication of words: Jibril said: “I appreciated silence in listening to the prattler” At the beginning and the end of an inserted sentence and to indicate the change of speaker: What is your name?My name is Sulaiman Around numbers and sometimes for bracketing: Eight (8) women came. At the end of a foot note indicate that the subject is continued on the next page. Around an expression needed to be isolated. Al-Ma’ariy said: My father inflicted on me [although there were many inflictions on him] while I did no harm to anyone

‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ ‫ام‬V‫ه‬S‫ف‬a‫ت‬S ‫ال س‬ {‫}؟‬ Exclamation mark ‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ {!} a‫ال‬V‫ع‬a‫ف‬S‫الن‬ Quotation marks ‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ "} a‫ا س‬V‫تب‬a S‫الق‬ {" Dash

Parentheses Mark continuity Brackets

‫ة‬V‫ض‬a‫ار‬V‫الع‬ {-} ‫ان‬V ‫و س‬S V‫الق‬ {( )} ‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ {=} a‫ة‬U‫ي‬S‫بع‬a ‫ا‬V‫الت‬ ‫ة‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬V‫ع‬ ‫ر‬S ‫ص‬V‫الح‬ {[ ] }

4.0CONCLUSION In this unit, you have learnt enough vocabularies that are peculiar to directions, and measurements. You have also learnt the punctuation marks in Arabic

5.0SUMMARY We have dealt with the words that are peculiar to directions and measurements. You have been introduced to the specific usage of punctuation marks in Arabic 6.0 TUTOR-MARKED ASSIGNMENT

1.

Translate the following words into Arabic Modern School – Institute – Hall – Kindergarten – Physics

2.

Translate the following words into English ‫ة‬Q V‫ي‬Û‫ل‬Q‫ – ك‬V‫اع‬V‫م‬a‫ت‬S‫اب – إج‬V‫س‬a‫ليم – ح‬V‫ع‬U‫ر – الت‬a ‫ي‬a‫ت‬S‫جس‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ة الم‬V‫ج‬V‫ر‬V‫د‬

3.

Explain the usage of punctuation marks in Arabic.

7.0REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS 67


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‘Anīs, I. (1971). Al-Lughawiyyāt, Cairo: Maktab-al-Jīl. Najeeb, Izzud-deen (2005). Marji’uka-d-Dā’im fi Qawā’id-l-Lughatil-’Injiliziyyah, Jeddah: Maktabat-s-sa’i Publishers.

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MODULE 4 Unit 1 Unit 2

Five Selected Passages Conversation and some simple Arabic poems.

UNIT 1

SHORT ARABIC PASSAGES

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Short Arabic Passage 3.1.1 A Neat Boy 3.1.2 The School 3.1.3 Our Teacher 3.1.4 The Lost Purse 3.1.5 My First Day in the School 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

Having mastered all necessary vocabularies in the preceding units, this unit is basically on the short passages written in Arabic. All the words used in the passages are those you have been accustomed with.

2.0

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this unit, you should be able to read with assimilation, simple and short Arabic passage.

3.0MAIN CONTENT 3.1Short Arabic Passage 3.1.1

‫ولد( نظيف‬ .a‫ه‬a‫م‬S‫نو‬V S‫ن‬a‫رًا م‬Û‫ك‬V‫ب‬Q‫ م‬Q‫ظ‬a‫ق‬S‫ي‬V‫ست‬ S V‫ف ي‬ Ò ‫ي‬a‫نظ‬V Ò‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫و‬-1 .a‫ه‬a‫اش‬V‫ر‬a‫ ف‬S‫ن‬a‫الً م‬V‫ ح‬Q‫ض‬V‫ه‬S‫ن‬V‫ي‬-2 .‫فًا‬S‫ي‬V‫د ص‬V a‫ار‬V‫لب‬S ‫ ا‬V‫اء‬V‫لم‬S ‫ ا‬Q‫ل‬a‫م‬S‫ع‬V‫ت‬S‫س‬a‫ي‬-3 .a‫ون‬Q‫اب‬U‫الص‬V‫ء و‬a ‫ا‬V‫م‬S‫ال‬a‫ ب‬Q‫ه‬V‫ق‬Q‫ن‬Q‫ع‬V‫ و‬Q‫ه‬V‫ه‬S‫ج‬V‫و‬V‫ه و‬Q V‫ر‬S‫ع‬V‫ش‬V‫ و‬a‫ه‬S‫ي‬V‫اع‬V‫ر‬a‫ذ‬V‫ه و‬a S‫ي‬V‫د‬V‫ ي‬Q‫ك‬Q‫ر‬S‫ف‬V‫ي‬-4 .a‫اة‬V‫ش‬S‫ر‬Q‫ف‬S‫ال‬a‫ه ب‬Q V‫ان‬V‫ن‬S‫س‬V‫ أ‬Q‫ظّف‬ Û V‫ن‬Q‫ي‬-5 .a‫ة‬V‫ف‬V‫ش‬S‫ن‬a‫م‬S‫ال‬a‫ ب‬Q‫ه‬V‫م‬S‫جس‬ a ‫ف‬ Q U‫ش‬V‫ن‬V‫ت‬V‫ي‬-6 ‫اة‬S‫ر‬a‫لم‬S ‫ ا‬V‫ام‬V‫م‬V‫ أ‬Q‫ه‬V‫ر‬S‫ع‬V‫ ش‬Q‫ح‬V‫ر‬S‫س‬V‫ي‬-7

69


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TRANSLATION A NEAT BOY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A neat boy wakes up early from his bed. He gets up at once from his bed. He goes to the bathroom. He uses cold water in summer. He rubs his hands, arms, hair, face and neck with water and soap. He cleans his teeth with brush. He dries his body with towel. He combs his hair in front of a mirror. ‫المدرسة‬ .Ò‫ة‬V‫ير‬a‫ث‬V‫ا ك‬V‫ه‬Q‫ات‬V‫ر‬Q‫ج‬Q‫ح‬V‫ و‬, Ò‫ة‬V‫ير‬a‫ب‬V‫ا ك‬V‫تن‬Q V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫م‬-1 .‫انى‬U‫ف الث‬ a U‫ الص‬a‫ا في‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬-2 .a‫ة‬V‫ع‬a‫اس‬V‫ و‬a‫ة‬V‫جر‬ S Q‫ ح‬a‫ في‬Q‫س‬a‫ل‬S‫ج‬V‫أ‬-3 .Ò‫ة‬V‫ير‬a‫ث‬V‫ ك‬Ò‫فذ‬a ‫ا‬V‫و‬V‫ن‬V‫ و‬Ò‫اب‬V‫ا ب‬V‫ه‬V‫ل‬-4 .Û‫ي‬a‫رس‬S Q‫ى ك‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬Q‫س‬a‫ل‬S‫نج‬V Q‫ن‬S‫ح‬V‫ن‬-5 .Û‫ي‬a‫س‬S‫ر‬Q‫ى ك‬V‫ل‬V‫س ع‬ Q a‫ل‬S‫ج‬V‫ ي‬Q‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬V‫و‬-6 .Ò‫اء‬V‫د‬S‫و‬V‫ س‬Ò‫ة‬V‫ور‬Q‫ب‬V‫لٍ س‬S‫فص‬V Û‫ل‬Q‫ ك‬a‫فى‬-7 .Q‫ير‬a‫اش‬V‫ب‬U‫ط‬V‫ و‬Ò‫ة‬V‫س‬U‫ل‬V‫ا ط‬V‫ه‬V‫ت‬S‫ح‬V‫ت‬V‫و‬-8 .a‫ير‬a‫اش‬V‫طب‬ U ‫ال‬a‫ ب‬a‫ة‬V‫ور‬Q‫ب‬U‫ى الس‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬V‫س‬S‫در‬U ‫ب ال‬ Q Q‫ت‬S‫ك‬V‫ ي‬Q‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫م‬S‫ال‬-9 .V‫ين‬Û‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫رم‬a V‫ت‬S‫ح‬V‫أ‬V‫ و‬,‫ى‬a‫ت‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫ م‬Ú‫ب‬a‫ح‬Q‫ا أ‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬-10

3.1.2

TRANSLATION THE SCHOOL 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

3.1.3

70

Our school is big and its rooms are many. I am in class two. I sit in a spacious room. It has a door and many windows. We sit on benches. The teacher sits on a chair. There is a black board in each class. Under it is a duster and pieces of chalk. The teacher writes lesson on the blackboard with pieces of chalk. I like my school and I respect the teachers. ‫منا‬L‫معل‬ .Ò‫يم‬a‫ح‬V‫ ر‬Ò‫يق‬a‫ف‬V‫ا ش‬V‫ن‬Q‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫م‬-1 .‫ا‬V‫ن‬Q‫ب‬Û‫ذ‬V‫ه‬Q‫ي‬V‫ا و‬V‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫ل‬V‫ف ع‬ Q a‫ط‬S‫ع‬V‫ي‬-2 .V‫ل‬a‫م‬S‫ه‬Q‫م‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ح‬V‫ص‬S‫ين‬V V‫ و‬,U‫د‬a‫ج‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ع‬Û‫ج‬V‫ش‬Q‫ي‬V‫و‬-3 .V‫ين‬a‫جح‬ a ‫ا‬U‫ الن‬V‫ن‬a‫ م‬V‫ون‬Q‫ك‬V‫ن‬a‫ ل‬Û‫د‬a‫ج‬S‫ى ال‬V‫ل‬V‫ا ع‬V‫ن‬Ú‫ث‬Q‫ح‬V‫ي‬V‫و‬-4


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.a‫لق‬QQ‫خ‬S‫ ال‬V‫وء‬Q‫س‬V‫ و‬,V‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫ك‬S‫ال‬V‫ و‬,V‫ب‬a‫ذ‬V‫ك‬S‫ه ال‬Q V‫ر‬S‫ك‬V‫ا ي‬V‫ن‬Q‫م‬Û‫ل‬V‫ع‬Q‫م‬-5 ,V‫ة‬V‫اف‬V‫نظ‬U‫ال‬V‫ و‬,a‫ل ق‬QQ‫خ‬S‫ ال‬V‫ م‬V‫ر‬V‫ك‬V‫ و‬,U‫د‬a‫ج‬S‫ال‬V‫ و‬,V‫ق‬S‫د‬Û‫ا الص‬V‫ ن‬S‫ي‬V‫إل‬a Q‫ ب‬Û‫ب‬V‫ح‬Q‫ي‬V‫و‬-6 .a‫ن‬S‫ي‬V‫د‬a‫ال‬V‫و‬S‫ال‬V‫ ال و‬V‫ة‬V‫اع‬V‫ط‬V‫و‬ .a‫يه‬a‫رض‬S Q‫ا ي‬V‫لً م‬a‫ إ‬Q‫ل‬V‫م‬S‫نع‬V V‫ه ول‬Q V‫ح‬S‫ص‬Q‫ع ن‬Q V‫م‬S‫س‬V‫ن‬V‫ و‬,Q‫ه‬Ú‫ب‬a‫نح‬Q Q‫ن‬S‫ح‬V‫ن‬-7 ENGLISH TRANSLATION OUR TEACHER 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Our teacher is kind-hearted. He loves us and trains us. He encourages the assiduous students and advises the negligent ones. He exhorts us to be diligent so that we can be successful students. Our teacher hates lies, negligence, and bad habits. He makes us love truth, diligence, noble behaviour, cleanliness, obedience to Allah and our parents. We love him, we listen to his advice and we do nothing except what pleases him.

‫الكيس المفقود‬

3.1.4

.a‫ه‬a‫ود‬Q‫ق‬Q‫ ن‬Q‫س‬S‫ي‬a‫ط ك‬ V V‫ق‬V‫س‬V‫ و‬,a‫ع‬a‫ار‬U‫ الش‬a‫ى فى‬a‫ش‬S‫م‬V‫ ي‬Ò‫جل‬ Q V‫ ر‬V‫ان‬V‫ك‬-1 .Q‫ه‬V‫ ل‬Q‫ه‬V‫تب‬V S‫ا ان‬V‫م‬V‫و‬-2 .Ò‫م‬V‫ل‬Q‫ غ‬Q‫ه‬S‫ن‬a‫ م‬a‫د‬S‫ع‬Q‫ى ب‬V‫ل‬V‫ه ع‬Q V‫اء‬V‫ر‬V‫ و‬V‫ان‬V‫ك‬V‫و‬-3 .Q‫ه‬V‫ط‬V‫ق‬V‫فل‬V V‫ط‬V‫ق‬V‫ س‬V‫ين‬a‫ ح‬V‫يس‬a‫ك‬S‫ى ال‬V‫ا‬V‫ر‬V‫ف‬-4 .V‫ه‬V‫ك‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫ى أ‬V‫حت‬ V a‫جل‬ Q U‫ الر‬V‫اء‬V‫ر‬V‫ و‬V‫ض‬V‫ك‬V‫ر‬V‫و‬-5 .V‫ك‬S‫ن‬a‫ م‬V‫ط‬V‫ق‬V‫ س‬V‫ك‬Q‫يس‬a‫ا ك‬V‫هذ‬V Q‫ه‬V‫ ل‬V‫ال‬V‫ق‬V‫ف‬-6 .V‫م‬V‫ل‬Q‫غ‬S‫ ال‬V‫ر‬V‫ك‬V‫ش‬V‫ و‬V‫يس‬a‫لك‬S ‫ ا‬Q‫ل‬Q‫رج‬U ‫ ال‬V‫ذ‬V‫خ‬V‫أ‬V‫ف‬-7 .a‫ود‬Q‫ق‬Ú‫ الن‬S‫ن‬a‫ئٍ م‬V‫ش‬a‫ ب‬Q‫ه‬V‫فئ‬a ‫ا‬V‫ك‬Q‫ ي‬S‫ن‬V‫ أ‬V‫اد‬V‫ر‬V‫أ‬V‫و‬-8 .‫ئًا‬S‫ي‬V‫ ش‬V‫ذ‬Q‫خ‬S‫أ‬V‫ ي‬S‫ن‬V‫ أ‬V‫فض‬V V‫ ر‬Q‫ه‬U‫ن‬V‫ك‬V‫ل‬V‫ و‬V‫م‬V‫ل‬Q‫غ‬S‫ ال‬Q‫ه‬V‫ر‬V‫ك‬V‫ش‬-9 ENGLISH TRANSLATION THE LOST PURSE 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

6) 7) 8) 9)

A man was walking in the street and the purse containing his money dropped. He was unaware of it. A boy was behind him in a far distance. He saw the purse when it dropped and picked it up. He ran after the man until he caught up with him. He told him ‘this is your purse. It fell off you’ The man got the purse and thanked the boy He wanted to reward him with some amount from the money The boy thanked him but refused to take anything.

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‫يومى الول في المدرسة‬

3.1.5

‫ى‬a‫ه‬S‫ج‬V‫ و‬Q‫ت‬S‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫غ‬V‫رًا و‬a‫اك‬V‫ى ب‬a‫ا ش‬V‫فر‬a S‫ ن‬a‫ م‬Q‫ ت‬S‫ض‬V‫نه‬V ,a‫ل‬U‫ الو‬a‫ي ع‬a‫ب‬U‫ الر‬a‫ر‬S‫ه‬V‫ ش‬a‫ل‬U‫ الو‬a‫ م‬S‫و‬V‫لي‬S ‫ ا‬a‫ف ي‬-1 .a‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫در‬S V‫م‬S‫ ال‬a‫ول‬Q‫دخ‬Q a‫ادًا ل‬V‫د‬S‫تع‬a S‫ اس‬V‫ة‬V‫يف‬a‫ظ‬U‫ الن‬V‫بى‬a ‫ا‬V‫ث‬a‫ ث‬Q‫ت‬S‫س‬a‫ب‬V‫ل‬V‫ و‬,‫ى‬a‫ر‬S‫ع‬V‫ ش‬Q‫ت‬S‫ط‬U‫ش‬V‫م‬V‫و‬ ‫د‬V‫ل‬S‫ الو‬V‫ن‬V‫يرًا م‬a‫ث‬V‫ ك‬Q‫ت‬S‫هد‬V ‫ا‬V‫ ش‬a‫يق‬a‫طر‬ U ‫ى ال‬a‫ف‬V‫ و‬.a‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫م‬S‫ى ال‬V‫ل‬a‫ى إ‬Û‫م‬Q‫ أ‬V‫ع‬V‫ا حًا م‬V‫ب‬V‫ ص‬Q‫ت‬S‫هب‬V V‫ذ‬-2 .‫ة‬V‫يل‬a‫طو‬ U ‫ة ال‬a V‫ل‬S‫ط‬Q‫ع‬S‫ ال‬V‫د‬S‫بع‬V ‫ا‬V‫ه‬S‫ي‬V‫إل‬a S‫م‬a‫ه‬a‫وع‬Q‫ج‬Q‫ر‬a‫ ب‬V‫ين‬a‫ور‬Q‫ر‬S‫س‬V‫ م‬a‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫لم‬S ‫ى ا‬V‫ل‬a‫ى إ‬a‫ل‬S‫ث‬a‫ م‬V‫ين‬a‫هب‬a ‫ا‬V‫ذ‬ ‫ى‬a‫ ف‬V‫ و‬a‫ار‬V‫زه‬S ‫ال‬V‫ر و‬a ‫ا‬V‫ج‬S‫لش‬ V ‫ا‬a‫ ب‬Ò‫ة‬V‫وع‬Q‫زر‬S V‫ة م‬Ò V‫يق‬a‫د‬V‫ح‬V‫ر و‬Ò ‫ي‬a‫ب‬V‫ ك‬Ò‫ ب‬V‫ع‬S‫ل‬V‫ا م‬V‫ي ه‬a‫ ف‬, Ò‫ة‬V‫يل‬a‫م‬V‫ ج‬Q‫ة‬V‫ س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫م‬S‫ال‬-3 .‫ت‬V‫ل‬a‫او‬V‫ط‬V‫ و‬Ò‫د‬a‫اع‬V‫ق‬V‫ا م‬V‫ه‬a‫ف‬V‫ر‬Q‫غ‬ ‫ى‬a‫م‬S‫ ا س‬V‫ل‬U‫ج‬V‫ س‬V‫ عٍ و‬Q‫اض‬V‫و‬V‫ت‬a‫ ب‬Q‫ ه‬Q‫بت‬S V‫ج‬V‫أ‬V‫ة و‬a V‫ل‬a‫ئ‬S‫ س‬V‫ ال‬V‫ ض‬S‫ع‬V‫ى ب‬a‫ن‬V‫ل‬V‫أ‬V‫فس‬V ,a‫ة‬V‫ س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫لم‬S ‫ ا‬Q‫يد‬a‫م‬V‫ا ع‬V‫ن‬V‫ل‬V‫ب‬S‫ق‬V‫ت‬S‫ا س‬-4 ‫ة‬V‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬S‫ال‬V‫ و‬V‫ة‬V‫اء‬V‫ر‬a‫ق‬S‫ ال‬aQ‫لّ م‬V‫ع‬V‫ت‬V‫ى ن‬a‫ا ق‬V‫ف‬Va‫ ر‬V‫ ع‬V‫ نا م‬V‫ أ‬Q‫ي ت‬a‫ق‬V‫ب‬V‫ى و‬Û‫ م‬Q‫ا أ‬V‫ ن‬S‫ت‬V‫ع‬U‫د‬V‫ و‬U‫ م‬Q‫ى ث‬Û‫ف‬V‫ى ص‬a‫ ل‬V‫ ن‬U‫ي‬V‫ع‬V‫و‬ .‫اب‬V‫س‬a‫ح‬S‫وال‬ ‫ل‬Q‫ ك‬a‫ة‬V‫رس‬V S‫د‬V‫م‬S‫ى ال‬V‫ل‬a‫ إ‬Q‫هب‬V S‫ذ‬V‫ى أ‬Û‫ن‬V‫أ‬a‫ ب‬Ò‫ور‬Q‫خ‬V‫ا ف‬V‫ن‬V‫أ‬V‫ و‬a‫لى‬a‫ز‬S‫ن‬V‫لى م‬a‫ورًا إ‬Q‫ر‬S‫س‬a‫ م‬Q‫ت‬S‫د‬Q‫ ع‬a‫اء‬V‫س‬V‫م‬S‫ى ال‬a‫ف‬V‫و‬-5 .‫وم‬Q‫ي‬ TRANSLATION MY FIRST DAY IN THE SCHOOL 1)

On the first day in the month of Rabiul-awwal, I rose up very early from my bed, washed my face, combed my hair and wore my clean dress in preparation to go to school.

2)

I went to the school in the morning with my mother. I saw on the way many children going to the school like me. They were happy for their resumption after the long holiday. The school is beautiful. In it, there is a big playground and a garden with trees and flowers. There are benches and a table in its rooms. The principal of the school received us. He asked me some questions and I answered with respect. He registered my name and placed me in a class. I bade my mother farewell and I was with my friends learning reading, writing and mathematics. I returned to my home happily in the evening and I am proud of going to the school everyday.

3) 4)

5)

4.0CONCLUSION In this unit, you have read some simple and interesting passages in Arabic with emphasis on word usage.

5.0SUMMARY We have selected simple and interesting passages for reading with emphasis on word usage.

6.0 72

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENTS


ARA181

1. 2.

BASIC ARABIC

Use the following words in complete sentence: Q‫ت‬S‫ن‬a‫بل‬S‫ ال‬- Q‫ة‬V‫ور‬Q‫ب‬U‫ – الس‬Q‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫م‬S‫د – ال‬Q V‫ل‬V‫و‬S‫ – ال‬Q‫اب‬V‫ت‬a‫ك‬S‫ال‬ Fill in the gaps with suitable words a‫لم‬S‫ الس‬a‫ان‬V‫رك‬S V‫ أ‬............................ Q‫لة‬U‫الص‬-1 ...................................a‫ر‬S‫ه‬V‫ ش‬a‫ في‬Q‫ان‬S‫ر‬Q‫ق‬S‫ ال‬V‫زل‬V V‫ن‬-2 ‫ة‬V‫و‬S‫ر‬V‫م‬S‫ال‬V‫ا و‬V‫ف‬U‫ الص‬V‫ين‬V‫ ب‬Q‫يل‬a‫اع‬a‫م‬S‫س‬a‫ إ‬........................... -‫ج‬ ................................. a‫ فى‬Q‫ه‬V‫ت‬V‫يب‬a‫ق‬V‫ ح‬Q‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ ع‬V‫ى‬a‫س‬V‫ ن‬-‫د‬ Û‫ي‬a‫س‬S‫ر‬Q‫ الك‬.............................. Q‫ة‬V‫طم‬ a ‫ا‬V‫ ف‬S‫ت‬V‫س‬V‫ل‬V‫ ج‬-‫ه‬

7.0REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS Nukhbatun min Asātidhati-l-‘Arabiyyah (1969). ’Al-jadīd fi `lQirā’atil-‘Arabiyyah Vol 1, Beirut: Maktabatul-Madrasat wadārul-Kitāb-il-Lubnān. Hayhat-t-Ta’lif-li `l-Madāris (1964). Al-Qirā’atu `l-‘Arabiyyat-ilHadīthah vol. 1, Beirut: Dāru-n-Nahdat al-Hadīthah.

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ARA181

UNIT 2

BASIC ARABIC

CONVERSATION AND SOME SIMPLE ARABIC POEMS

CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Objectives 3.0 Main Content 3.1 Conversation 3.2 Wise Sayings 3.3. Simple Arabic Poems 4.0 Conclusion 5.0 Summary 6.0 Tutor Marked Assignment (TMA) 7.0 References/Further Readings

1.0

INTRODUCTION

This is the concluding unit of this work and it is a conversation between two people. Similarly, simple Arabic poems are added to complement this subject.

2.0 OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit you should be able to express yourself well enough in a spoken Arabic language. You should be able to know some wise sayings and simple Arabic poems.

3.0MAIN CONTENT 3.1 Conversation ‫المحادثة‬

Ú a‫ل‬V‫اع‬V‫ر ي‬a S‫ي‬V‫ الخ‬Q‫اح‬V‫ب‬V‫ص‬ ‫ي‬ Q‫ر‬V‫م‬V‫اع‬V‫ ي‬a‫ور‬Ú‫ الن‬Q‫اح‬V‫ب‬V‫ص‬ ‫؟‬Q‫ب‬V‫ه‬S‫تذ‬V V‫ن‬S‫ أي‬V‫لى‬a‫إ‬ a‫ة‬V‫س‬V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫ الم‬V‫ب إلى‬ Q V‫ه‬S‫أذ‬ ‫؟‬V‫ك‬a‫ست‬ V V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫ م‬a‫لً في‬S‫ص‬V‫ ف‬S‫م‬V‫ك‬ ٍ‫ول‬Q‫فص‬Q Q‫ة‬V‫س‬S‫م‬V‫ى خ‬a‫ست‬ V V‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫ م‬a‫في‬ ‫س؟‬ Q Q‫ر‬S‫تد‬V V‫اذا‬V‫م‬ a‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫لم‬S‫ الس‬a‫ات‬V‫راس‬aÛ‫ والد‬a‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫رب‬V V‫ الع‬V‫ة‬V‫غ‬Ú‫س الل‬ Q Q‫ر‬S‫أد‬ ‫؟‬a‫ة‬V‫بي‬a V‫ر‬V‫ الع‬a‫ة‬V‫غ‬Ú‫س الل‬ Q Q‫ر‬S‫تد‬V V‫اذا‬V‫م‬a‫ل‬ a‫م‬V‫ل‬S‫ والس‬a‫يم‬a‫ر‬V‫ الك‬a‫رآن‬Q‫ الق‬Q‫ة‬V‫غ‬Q‫ى ل‬a‫ه‬V‫ و‬.a‫م‬V‫ال‬V‫ الع‬a‫ في‬Ò‫ة‬U‫م‬a‫ه‬Q‫ م‬Ò‫ة‬V‫غ‬Q‫ها ل‬U‫ن‬V‫ ل‬a‫ة‬V‫ي‬a‫رب‬V V‫ الع‬a‫ة‬V‫غ‬Ú‫س الل‬ Q Q‫ر‬S‫د‬V‫أ‬

74

:Q‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ع‬ :Ú‫ي‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬ :Q‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ع‬ :Ú‫ي‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬ :Q‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ع‬ :Ú‫ي‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬ :Q‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ع‬ :Ú‫ي‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬ :Q‫ر‬V‫م‬Q‫ع‬ :Ú‫ي‬a‫ل‬V‫ع‬


ARA181

3.2

BASIC ARABIC

Wise Sayings

Correct the son and he will give you ‫يرًا‬a‫ب‬V‫ ك‬a‫ه‬a‫ب‬V U‫ر‬Q‫ س‬,‫يرًا‬a‫غ‬V‫ه ص‬Q V‫د‬V‫ل‬V‫ب و‬ V U‫ أد‬S‫ن‬V‫م‬ rest Idleness is the root of all evil ‫ر‬ã V‫ ش‬Û‫ل‬Q‫ ك‬Q‫اس‬V‫س‬V‫ أ‬Q‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫ك‬S‫ال‬ Idleness is the devil’s bolster. a‫ان‬V‫ط‬S‫ي‬V‫ الش‬Q‫ة‬V‫اد‬V‫س‬a‫ و‬Q‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫ك‬S‫ال‬ Idleness rusts the mind a‫ل‬S‫ق‬V‫ الع‬Q‫أ‬V‫د‬V‫ ص‬Q‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫ك‬S‫ال‬ Idleness is the key of beggary. Q‫ل‬V‫س‬V‫ك‬V‫ ال‬a‫ر‬S‫ق‬V‫ الف‬Q‫اح‬V‫ت‬S‫ف‬a‫م‬ Knowledge is power Ò‫ة‬V‫و‬Q‫ة ق‬V‫ف‬a‫ر‬S‫ع‬V‫الم‬ Patience is a virtue Ò‫ة‬V‫يل‬a‫ض‬V‫ ف‬Q‫ر‬S‫صب‬ U ‫ال‬ Plough deep and you will get plenty of V‫د‬V‫ج‬V‫ و‬U‫د‬V‫ ج‬S‫ن‬V‫م‬ corn A friend in need is a friend indeed a‫ة‬U‫د‬a‫ الش‬a‫ في‬V‫اك‬V‫ آس‬S‫ن‬V‫ م‬Q‫يق‬a‫د‬V‫الص‬ A hungry stomach has no ears ‫عًًا‬a‫ائ‬V‫ ج‬Q‫ع‬a‫م‬S‫س‬Q‫ ت‬V‫ ل‬V‫نك‬V a‫إ‬ A word is enough for the wise ‫ة‬V‫ار‬V‫ الش‬a‫يه‬a‫ف‬S‫ك‬V‫ ت‬Q‫يب‬a‫اللب‬ Acts speak louder than words ٍ‫ال‬V‫ق‬V‫ م‬S‫ن‬a‫ م‬Q‫ح‬V‫فص‬S ‫الٍ ا‬V‫ ح‬U‫رب‬Q Advie is ever in want V‫ار‬V‫ش‬V‫ت‬S‫ اس‬a‫ن‬V‫ب م‬ V ‫ا‬V‫ خ‬V‫ل‬ Always in a hurry always behind ‫ى‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬Q‫ول‬Q‫ز‬V‫ت‬V‫لٍ و‬V‫ج‬V‫ى ع‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬Q‫ا ض‬V‫ر‬S‫م‬V‫ى ال‬a‫ا ت‬V‫ت‬ ‫ل‬S‫ه‬V‫م‬ As you sow, so shall you reap. Q‫د‬Q‫ص‬S‫ح‬V‫ ت‬Q‫ع‬V‫زر‬S V‫ا ت‬V‫م‬ From others’ faults, wise men learn. a‫ه‬a‫ير‬V‫غ‬a‫ظ ب‬ V V‫ع‬U‫ ات‬a‫ن‬V‫ م‬Q‫قل‬a ‫ا‬V‫الع‬

3.2Simple Arabic Poems ‫دعاء الصلة‬ ‫دعاء‬

‫ت‬S‫ع‬V‫د‬S‫أب‬VV‫ و‬V‫ء ض‬S ‫ا‬V‫س‬V‫م‬V‫بحٍ و‬S Q‫ ص‬Û‫كل‬Q ‫ا‬V‫ء ن‬S ‫ا‬V‫فض‬V ‫ى ال‬a‫ى ف‬a‫اد‬V‫ه‬V‫يت‬V S‫اء‬V‫م‬U‫الس‬ ‫ت‬V‫فاض‬V‫ و‬S‫ء ت‬S ‫ا‬V‫فض‬V ‫ ال‬a‫اف‬V‫ط‬S‫أل‬a‫ب‬ ‫ء‬S ‫ا‬V‫س‬a‫ك‬V‫بًا و‬V‫را‬V‫ش‬V‫ء و‬S ‫ما‬U‫الن‬a‫ب‬ ‫دعـــاء‬

‫ت‬S‫ي‬U‫و‬V‫ س‬V‫نت‬S V‫ى أ‬Û‫ل‬V‫نص‬Q Û‫رب‬V ‫ا‬V‫ ي‬V‫لك‬V ‫مس‬U‫ الش‬V‫ت‬S‫عل‬V V‫ج‬V‫ر و‬S ‫ا ال‬V‫ن‬V‫ل‬ ‫و‬QQ‫حن‬ S V‫ي‬V‫ء و‬V S‫ف‬Û‫ الد‬Q‫ل‬a‫رس‬S Q‫صًا ي‬S‫ر‬Q‫ق‬ ‫و‬V‫ و‬Û‫تز‬V S‫ه‬V‫ض ف‬ V S‫ الر‬V‫رت‬S V‫أم‬VV‫و‬ ‫زقًا‬S ‫ر‬a V‫اس‬U‫ الن‬V‫ت‬S‫ب‬V‫ه‬

75


‫‪BASIC ARABIC‬‬

‫فضل الم‪L‬‬

‫‪ARA181‬‬

‫ي‪V‬ا ‪a‬إل‪V‬ه‪a‬ى ي‪V‬ا ‪a‬إل‪V‬ه‪a‬ى اج‪V S‬عل‪ a‬ال‪V S‬يو‪S‬م‬ ‫ن ‪V‬ف‪a‬ى د‪Q‬ر‪Q‬وس‪a‬ى و‪V‬أ‪V‬ن‪a‬ر‬ ‫س‪V‬ع‪a‬يدًا و‪VV‬أع‪Û a‬‬ ‫‪a‬يق الم‬ ‫فــضل‬ ‫ع‪V‬ق‪S‬ل‪a‬ى و‪V‬ق‪S V‬لب‪a‬ى و‪V‬اج‪V S‬عل‪ a‬ال‪U‬تو‪S‬ف‬ ‫حم‪a a‬بل‪V‬دى‬ ‫ح‪V‬ظ‪Û‬ى و‪V‬ا ح‪V‬من‪Û‬ى و‪V‬ا ‪S‬‬ ‫و‪V‬ام‪S‬ل الد‪Ú‬ن‪S‬ي‪V‬ا س‪V‬لم‪V‬ا ي‪V‬ا إ‪Va‬له‪a‬ى يا‬ ‫ن ا‪Q‬م‪Û‬ى‬ ‫عن‪S‬د‪a‬ى إ ‪U‬‬ ‫‪a‬ىف‪a‬ى ا ‪S‬لك‪V‬و‪S‬ن ‪a‬‬ ‫ك‪aQ‬إل‪V‬ل‪Ú‬هم‪V‬ا‬ ‫ه‪U V‬يأ‪V‬ت‪ S‬ل‪a‬ى و‪V V‬تم‪UV‬نت‪ S‬ل‪a‬ى ف‪V‬ل‪V‬حًا ل‪V‬ك‬ ‫شهر‬ ‫رمضانم‪Û‬ى ح‪a‬ين‬ ‫ن أ‪Q‬‬ ‫‪a‬ى إ‪S a‬‬ ‫حي‪V‬ات‬ ‫ي‪V‬ا أ‪Q‬م‪Û‬ى ‪V‬‬ ‫ت‪V‬د‪S‬ع‪Q‬و‬ ‫جئ‪S‬ت‪ V‬ي‪V‬ا ‪V‬رم‪V‬ض‪V‬ان‪V Q‬أه‪S‬لً ف‪V‬م‪V‬ل‪S‬ت‬ ‫‪a‬‬ ‫سل‬ ‫ب‪ًÚ‬االنّأـ‪V‬ان‪a S‬‬ ‫ت‪aV‬ىفي‪ a‬ا ‪S‬لع‪V‬ام‬ ‫ض ن أ‪VV‬وح‪V‬ر‬ ‫الر‪V VS‬‬ ‫ن ف‪a‬يك‪ V‬ف‪aِV‬ذ‪V‬ا‬ ‫ف‪V‬ر‪a‬يد‪ Q‬ن‪V V‬زل‪ V‬ا ‪S‬لق‪Q‬ر‪S‬آ ‪Q‬‬ ‫حت‪ V‬ه‪a‬ل‪V‬ل و‪aV‬إذ‪V‬ا و‪UV‬لي‪S‬ت‪ V‬ع‪V‬ن‪U‬ا‬ ‫ل‪S Q‬‬

‫ب الد‪U‬عو‪V‬ات و‪V V‬كث‪a‬ير‬ ‫ي‪V‬ا ‪Q‬مج‪a‬ي ‪V‬‬ ‫ال‪V S‬بر‪V‬ك‪V‬ات و‪VV‬أد‪V‬اء ال‪S‬و‪V‬ا ج‪a‬با‪V‬ت‬ ‫ب‪a‬ال‪Q S‬عل‪Q‬وم‪ a‬الن‪U‬ا ف‪a‬عات و‪V‬ن‪V‬ص‪a‬يب‪a‬ى ف‪a‬ى‬ ‫حد‪a‬ث‪V‬ات‬ ‫ن ‪a‬ش‪Q‬ر‪Q‬و ‪a‬ر ال‪V S‬‬ ‫حي‪V‬اة‪ a‬م‪S a‬‬ ‫ال ‪V‬‬ ‫جب‪ S‬ك‪Q‬ل‬ ‫ش‪V‬ا ‪a‬مل‪ V‬ك‪Q‬ل‪ U‬ا ‪S‬لج‪a‬ه‪V‬ات‪ a‬اس‪S‬ت‪a V‬‬ ‫صف‪V‬ل‬ ‫جز‪V‬اء‪Q S‬كل‪ U‬أس‪S‬ب‪V‬اب‬ ‫‪a‬ىتأ‪aQ‬ىم‪Û‬ى ال‪V S‬‬ ‫ل ي‪V‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫حب‪Û‬ى‬ ‫ا ‪S‬له‪V‬ن‪V‬اء‪ S‬و‪V V‬نج‪V‬احًا ب‪a‬ا ‪S‬رت‪a‬ق‪V‬اء‪V S‬لك‪Q a‬‬ ‫و‪V‬ا ‪S‬لو‪V‬ف‪V‬ا ‪S‬ء ي‪V‬ق‪V S‬بل‪ Q‬ال‪ Q‬الد‪Ú‬ع‪V‬ا ‪S‬ء‬

‫سع‪a‬يد‪a S‬من‪ S‬ق‪V‬ر‪a‬يب‬ ‫حي‪U‬اك‪ V‬ال ‪U‬‬ ‫‪a‬بم‪V V‬‬ ‫جر‪ a‬و‪V‬ح‪a‬يد‬ ‫ت في‪ a‬ال‪S V‬‬ ‫و‪V‬ب‪V‬ع‪a‬يد‪ S‬أ‪V‬ن‪V S‬‬ ‫و‪V‬م‪V‬ــن‪ S‬ب‪a‬الـــ‪Ú‬روح‪Q a‬تف‪S‬ـــد‪a‬ين‪a‬ى‬ ‫أ‪V‬ح‪V‬ــب‪ Ú‬الن‪U‬ــاس‪ a‬لـ‪a‬ى أ‪Q‬م‪Û‬ــى‬ ‫فى‬ ‫ح‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫د‬ ‫‪S‬‬ ‫‪a‬ي‬ ‫د‬ ‫ج‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪S‬‬ ‫ا‬ ‫‪Ú‬و‪V‬ام‪Q‬ر‬ ‫‪V‬ــت‪ S‬ع‪V‬ل‪V‬ــى م‪V‬ــه‪S‬ـد‪a‬ى ‪Q‬تغ‪V‬ـــط‪Û‬ي‪S‬ن‪a‬ى‬ ‫الل‪V‬نةٍ ق‬ ‫ف‪V‬ك‪V‬ـــ‪S‬مو‪V‬م‪aa‬بن‪S‬ه‪a‬ل‪V‬ي‪S‬ـــ‬ ‫ئ ع‪V‬ــذ‪S‬بٍ و‪V‬إ‪a‬ن‪S‬شـ‪V‬ـــادٍ ت‪Q‬ــغ‪V‬‬ ‫ب‪a‬ص‪V‬ـــو‪S‬تٍ ه‪V‬ـــاد‪ٍ a‬‬ ‫‪V‬ـــــن‪a‬ح‪ّS‬ــــمعي‪aS‬ينن‪a‬ي‪a‬ى‪a‬ىد‪S‬‬ ‫ط‪S‬ر‪a‬‬ ‫ف‬ ‫‪a‬‬ ‫ل‬ ‫‪S‬‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪V‬را‬ ‫و‬ ‫ف‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫د‬ ‫‪S‬‬ ‫‪a‬ي‬ ‫ت‪V‬خ‪V‬ـاال‪VQ S‬كو‪S‬ن‪ a‬ن‪V‬ش‬ ‫ف ع‪V‬ــل‪V‬ي‪ U‬م‪a‬ــن‪ S‬ب‪V‬ــر‪S‬دٍ و‪V‬م‪a‬ــن‪ S‬ح‪V‬ـــر‪ ã‬ف‪V‬ت‬ ‫ض أ‪Q‬ن‪V‬ــاد‪a‬يــه‪V‬ا ف‪V‬ت‪Q‬ــع‪S‬ـط‪a‬ـــين‪a‬ى‬ ‫و‪V‬م‪a‬ـــن‪ S‬أ‪V‬ل‪VV‬ــمٍ و‪V‬م‪a‬ــن‪ S‬م‪V‬ـر‪ٍ V‬‬ ‫ب‪a‬ــر‪Q‬وح‪a‬ى س‪V‬ــو‪S‬ف أ‪S Q‬فد‪a‬ي‪S‬ــه‪V‬ا ك‪V‬ــم‪V‬ا ب‪a‬الــــــر‪Ú‬وح‪Q a‬تف‪S‬د‪a‬يـــنى‬ ‫و‪V‬أ‪V‬س‪S‬ـــع‪V‬ى ف‪a‬ـــى ‪V‬هن‪V‬ــــاء‪V‬ت‪a‬ه‪V‬ا ك‪V‬ـــم‪V‬ا ت‪V‬س‪S‬ع‪V‬ــى و‪Q‬ت ‪S‬رض‪a‬ـينى‪a‬‬

‫‪CONCLUSION‬‬

‫‪4.0‬‬

‫‪In this unit, you have read some simple conversations between two‬‬ ‫‪people, wise sayings and Arabic poems.‬‬

‫‪SUMMARY‬‬

‫‪5.0‬‬

‫‪We have dealt with conversation between two people. Wise sayings and‬‬ ‫‪simple Arabic poems are added for learners to memorize. One should‬‬ ‫‪engage oneself in interaction on day – to – day activities in the society‬‬ ‫‪so as to be well versed in Arabic language.‬‬

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ARA181

6.0 1.

BASIC ARABIC

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT Answer the following questions:

‫؟‬V‫يك‬V‫ل‬a‫ إ‬a‫اس‬U‫ الن‬Ú‫ب‬V‫أح‬V S‫ن‬V‫ م‬-‫أ‬ ‫؟‬V‫ك‬Û‫م‬Q‫ أ‬V‫و‬S‫ح‬V‫ ن‬V‫ك‬S‫ي‬V‫ل‬V‫ ع‬Q‫ب‬a‫يج‬V ‫ا‬V‫اذ‬V‫ م‬-‫ب‬ ‫؟‬V‫ك‬Ú‫أم‬Q V‫ك‬V‫وا ل‬Q‫ج‬S‫ر‬V‫ا ت‬V‫اذ‬V‫ج – م‬ 2.

Fill in the gaps with suitable words

‫م‬S‫و‬V‫لي‬S ‫ ا‬S‫ل‬V‫ع‬S‫ى اج‬a‫ه‬V‫ل‬a‫ا إ‬V‫ أ – ي‬............................................ ‫ان‬V‫ض‬V‫م‬V‫ا ر‬V‫ ي‬V‫ت‬S‫جئ‬ a – ‫ ب‬................................................ ‫ل‬V‫نز‬V – ‫ ج‬............................................................... ‫ن‬a‫ م‬U‫ي‬V‫ل‬V‫ف ع‬ Q ‫ا‬V‫خ‬V‫ د – ت‬..............................................

7.0 REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS Lajnatun fi wizārat at-tarbiyah (1977). al-Qirā’tu `l –carabiyyat liş – Şaffi `r – Rābici-l ibtidā’ī, Baghdād: Mat-bacat Ufsīt li `n-nashr. Machad at-Tarbiyah, (2004). ‘Al-Qirā ‘atu `l – cArabiyyatu `l –Jadīdah li `l- madārisi `l – Ibtidā’iyyah vol. iv. Zāria: Ahmadu Bello University Press.

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Базовый арабский  

arabic basic