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_§S>imMm lrJUoem ew^m§Jr nwamo{hV 1980 n`ªV H°$cJar_Ü`o \$maM WmoS>r _amR>r Hw$Qw>§~o hmoVr. AYyZ _YyZ OodUmÀ`m {Z{_ÎmmZo hr _moOH$s _amR>r Hw$Qw>§~o EH$_oH$m§À`m Kar ^oQV> AgV. Ë`m Xaå`mZ H°$cJarV B§YZ VocmMm ì`dgm` ~amM ^a^amQ>rcm Amcm hmoVm. Ë`m {Z{_ÎmmZo Ë`m ì`dgm`mVrc ~è`mM _amR>r Hw$Qw>§~m§Mo H°$cJarV ñWcm§Va Pmco. _±mQ´>r`chÿZ Am_Mo nwamo{hV Hw$Qw>§~hr Ë`mM gw_mamg H°$cJarV nmohMco. _amR>r gU EH$[ÌV gmOao H$aÊ`mMr _±mQ´>r`c_Ü`o àWm hmoVr. Ver àWm H°$cJarVhr gwê$ H$amdr Ago _r OJÞmW dmUr Am{U BVa {_Ìm§Zm gwM{dco. Ë`m gwMZocm Mm§Jcm à{VgmX {_imcm Am{U ~hþVm§er _amR>r Hw$Qw>§~m§Zr EH$Ì O_yZ nm°Q>-cH$ OodUmÀ`m ñdénmV {Xdmir gmOar H$aÊ`mMr àWm gwê$ Ho$cr. lr. M§ÐH$mÝV H${ncoœar øm§Zr nwT>mH$ma KoD$Z 1985 gmcr ES>_§Q>Z_Ü`o Aë~Q>m© Am{U gmñH$°{MdZÀ`m _amR>r Hw$Qw>§~m§Mo EH$ `eñdr g§_ocZ KS>dyZ AmUco. Ë`mdoir CnpñWV Agcoë`m H°$cJarVrc _amR>r _§S>itZr nwT>rc g§_ocZ 1986 gmcr H°$cJarV H$am`Mr KmofUm Ho$cr. g§_ocZmgmR>r g§nyU© n{ü_ H°$ZS>m Am{U A_o[aH$oVrc dmqe½Q>Z ñQ>oQ>_Yrc gd© _amR>r Hw$Qww>§~m§Zm Am_§ÌU Úm`Mo R>aco. g§_ocZmMr ì`már dmT>{dÊ`m_mJo _w»` {dMma hmoVm _amR>m {VVwH$m _oidmdm Ÿ& _hmamï´> Y_© dmT>dmdm Ÿ&&

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Vi_icm' `m gmdaH$am§À`m H${dVoZo ~m~yOtZr _¡\$scrMr gm§JVm Ho$cr. Img cmoH$mJ«hmñVd {Vgè`m {Xder lr. gwYra \$S>Ho$ `m§Zr JrV am_m`UmMm H$m`©H«$_ gmXa H$aÊ`mMo _mÝ` Ho$co. AmXë`m 4


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{Xder amÌr 2 dmOon`ªV gwJ_ g§JrVmMm H$m`©H«$_ Am{U gH$mir Xhm dmOVm JrV am_m`U! ~m~yOtZm {dlm§Vr {_imcrM ZìhVr. nU {dûm«m§VrMr V_m Z ~miJVm a{gH$m§À`m ào_mImVa ~m~yOtZr hm ImOJr ñdénmMm H$m`©H«$_ S>°m. OJÞmW Am{U H$_cVmB© dmUtÀ`m Kar CËH¥$ï>nUo gmXa Ho$cm. ñdmV§Í`dra gmdaH$am§À`m OrdZmdarc {MÌnQ H$mT>Ê`mÀ`m ~m~yOtZr A§JrH$macoë`m H$m`m©gmR>r CnpñWVm§Zr gT>i hmVmZo XoU½`m {Xë`m. Ë`m_wio gmdaH$a {MÌnQ>mÀ`m CÎma A_o[aHo$Vrc {ZYr g§H$cZmÀ`m n{hë`m H$m`©H«$_mMm _mZ H°$cJar ehamcm {_imcm.

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

øm g§_ocZmMr H$m`_ ñdénr AmR>dU amhmdr `mgmR>r "ñ_a{UH$m' à{gÜX H$aÊ`mMo R>aco. Hw$. CËncm nwamo{hVZo ñ_a{UHo$Mo _wIn¥ð> V`ma Ho$co. {XZm ZmIdm, ew^m§Jr nwamo{hV, _rZm nam§Ono Am{U H$mhr _§S>itZr g§_ocZmMm d¥Îmm§V Am{U Ë`mg§~§{YV coI {c{hÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar pñdH$macr. `m gdmªÀ`m à`ËZmVyZ EH$ gw§Xa ñ_a{UH$m V`ma Pmcr. ñ_a{UHo$V ~è`mM cmoH$m§Mr A{^àm`mMr nÌo N>mncr AmhoV. Z_wÝ`mXmIc H$mhtMm gmam§e Imcr {Xcm Amho. •

M{H$V, à^m{dV, IyfrV - ho VrZ ^md O_mdmÀ`m Mohè`mda ñnï>nUo ì`º$ hmoV hmoV.o ... n«doe Ho$ë`mnmgyZ H°$cJar gmoS>on`ªV àË`oH$ jU AmZ§XmZo {^OyZ qM~ Pmcm. ... H°$cJarV Ah_h{_H$m EH$M hmoVr, Amcoë`m A{WVtMo `mo{Oë`mnojm OmñV Mm§Jco AmXam{VÏ` H$go H$aVm `oB©c? Jmonmi Am{U gw{ZVm Hw§$Mya, gmñH$mQ>yZ

g§_ocZ H$go ìhmdo `mMm EH$ AmXe© åhUyZ ho g§_ocZ ñ_aUmV amhrc. amOrd Xoe_wI, ES>_§Q>Z

g§_ocZ \$maM CÎm_ d gm§ñH¥${VH$ H$m`©H«$_m§Zr ^acoco hmoV.o ... gdmªÀ`m Mohè`mda Va AmZ§X hgV IoiV hmoVm. gm¡. gwcmoMZm H$mocmaH$a, AH$mocm

ZoÌXrnH$ Z¥Ë`, gwûm«mì` Jm`Z, ~hmaXma ZmQ>H$, Vm§~wcmg{hV gwJ«mg ^moOZ! ìdm ìdm. _§S>ir BVH$m AmIrd aoIrd Ñï> cmJÊ`mOmoJm H$m`©H«$_ Ho$cmV. ... A{^Z§XZ! _rZm nam§Ono, ìh±Hw$ìha

ew^m§Jr nwamo{hV {XZm ZmIdm OJÞmW dmUr g§O` qeXo O_Z _§YmZo (?) OJr qgJ gwYra na~ gwaoe ^Q> AemoH$ H$moQ>oMm em{cZr _moH$mer `ed§V _UoarH$a {XnH$ _wÝer

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

ew^m§Jr nwamo{hV Z§{XZr qgJ gwYra na~ gwYra na~ gw{Zc H$maImZrg Vwfma {MÌo e¡cm n§S>rV ho_§V ~oS>} ew^m§Jr nwamo{hV gc_m JX} ûm«r{Zdmg ~jr amOûm«r R>mH$wa-XogmB© O`§V VmoaUo

H°$cJarVrc C„oI{Z` _amR>r H$m`©H«$_ 1986 gwYra \$S>Ho$ (gwJ_ g§JrV Am{U JrV am_m`U) 1987 nw.c. Am{U gw{ZVm Xoenm§S>o (AmZ§X`mÌr ~moaH$a) Zm.J. Jmoao (^mfU) cú_U Xoenm§S>o (dèhmS> {ZKmc§ c§S>Zcm) 1988 am_ ZJaH$a (am_ ZJar) 1992 ûm«ram_ cmJy , amo{hUr hÎm§JS>r, {Ziy \w$co, _mohZ JmoIco Am{U Mmê${ecm gm~io (H$_cm ZmQ>H$) 1993 dg§V ~mnQ> (H$mì` dmMZ) 2000 ~m~mgmho~ nwa§Xao ({edMarÌ) 2001 A^` ~§J (godmJ«m_ Vo emoYJ«m_) {dO` ^Q>H$a (_hmamï´>mMr na§nam) gwf_m Xoenm§S>o (ìh`, _r gm{dÌr !) 2005 g§O` CnmÜ`o (Jßnmï>H$) 2007 gwYra JmS>Jri (_wcImdoJir _mUgo !) 5


Ony `m _amR>r! OJÞmW dmUr ew^m§JrMr XmoÝhr _wco, CËncm Am{U Anma, CÎm_ _amR>r ew^m§JrÀ`m {eH${dÊ`mÀ`m nÜXVrda {VMr EH$ {dÚmWuZr AZwîH$m ~mocVmV Am{U BVHo$M Zìho Va {c{hVmV Am{U dmMVmVhr. CËncm JX} hrMo ^mî` IynM ~mocHo$ Amho. Vr åhUVo ‘Odi Odi Mma df} Va _amR>rV H${dVmhr H$aVo. 1986 gmcr n{ü_ H°$ZS>m _amR>r _r _amR>r emioV {Z`_mZo OmV Ago H$maU ew^m§Jr _mder Zoh_rM A{YdoeZmMm g_mamon CËncmÀ`m ‘ûm«o` H$moUm AmO Úmdo’ `m H$mhrVar ZdrZ Am{U CËgwH$Vm dmT>{dUmè`m Jmoï>r {eH$dV Ago. H${dVoZo Pmcm. Xa dfu ^maVmVyZ _amR>rMr B`Îmmdma nmR>çnwñVHo$ Am_Mo {ejU ZwgVo nwñVH$s ZìhVo. {Za{Zamio Ioi dmnê$Z Am_Mm _mJdyZ ew^m§JrZo Amnë`m _wcm§H$Sy>Z _amR>rMm nÜXVera B`Îmmdma Aä`mg _Zmoa§OH$ H$aÊ`mV _mder AJXr Va~oO hmoVr. Aä`mg H$adyZ KoVcm. n[aUm_r CËncmZo 12dr n`ªV _amR>rMo {eH$dÊ`mgmo~V _mder éMH$a _amR>r ImÚnXmW©hr Amåhmcm Úm`Mr. Cn_m, gm§Om, ^monù`mÀ`m nwè`m, gm~wXmÊ`mMo dS>,o cmSy> {ejU `eñdr[aË`m nyU© Ho$co. 1987 gmcr H°$cJarVrc ñH$yc \$m°a B§{S>`Z c±½doOog A±S> AmQ>©g `m g§ñWoZo Mmc{dcoë`m emioV Aem {Za{Zamù`m nXmWmªMr Md AmOhr _cm AmR>dVo.’ CËncm _amR>rMo dJ© ¿`m`Mr. {eënm `mXd `m§Zr _amR>r emio~ÔcMm Amncm AZw^d Amnë`m _wcm§Zm {Xcocr g§Yr H°$cJarVrc BVa _amR>r _moR>çm AJË`mZo H$i{dcm Amho. Ë`m {c{hVmV, ‘H°$cJarV Hw$Qw>§~mVrc _wcm§Zmhr Úmdr hr H$ënZm AZoH$ df} ew^m§JrÀ`m _ZmV nmohmoMë`mZ§VaMo gwadmVrMo {Xdg AOyZhr _cm AmR>dVmV. KmoiV hmoVr. 2002 À`m gw_mamg ~arM _amR>r Hw$Qw>§~o H°$cJarV H$moUrhr _amR>r _mUgo _cm _m{hV ZìhVr. `oWë`m B§J«Or dmñVì`mcm Amë`m_wio ew^m§Jrcm _amR>r emioMr H$ënZm àË`jmV dmVmdaUmV _mÂ`m _wcr _amR>r H$go {eH$Uma hm àý _mÂ`m nwT>o AmUVm Amcr Am{U Ë`m dfu {VZo Amnë`m Kar {dZmewëH$ hmoVm. _cm _amR>r AmdS>Vo Am{U _mÂ`m _wctZrhr Vr ^mfm _amR>rMr emim gwê$ Ho$cr. Xa a{ddmar gH$mir hr emim ^aVo. {eH$mdr Am{U _amR>rVrc g_¥ÜX gm{hË` dmMmdo Ago _cm Xadfu _wcm§Mr g§»`m dmT>VM Jocr Am{U Ë`mZwgma dJ©hr dmT>co. _ZmnmgyZ dmQ>V hmoVo. Aem _Z:pñWVrV AgVm§Zm AMmZH$ _cm `§Xm 15 _wco emioV Amho. ew^m§JrÀ`m _Zmoa§OH$ {eH$dÊ`mÀ`m Hw$UrVar ew^m§JrVmBªÀ`m _amR>r emio~Ôc gm§{JVco Am{U Ë`m nÜXVr_wio _wco CËgwH$VoZo a{ddmaMr dmQ> ~KV AgVmV. gmo~V EH$ _hËdmMr gwMZmhr Ho$cr: ew^m§JrVmB© _wcm§À`m CnpñWVr~m~VrV H$_mcrÀ`m H$mQ>oH$moa AmhoV, _wcm§Zr ew„H$ H$maUmgmR>r J¡ahOa am{hcoco Ë`m§Zm A{O~mV MmcV Zmhr. Oam ^rV^rVM _r ew^m§JrVmBªZm \$moZ Ho$cm. Amnë`m {Z`_m~m~V Ë`m AJXr R>m_ hmoË`m. na§Vw Ë`m§À`m _amR>r {eH$dÊ`mÀ`m Vi_irMrhr _cm OmUrd Pmcr. Amnë`m ì`ñV X¡Z§{XZ H$m`©H«$_mVyZ Ë`m doi H$mT>VmV. ghm{OH$M nmcH$m§Zrhr emioMr {eñV nmim`cm hdr hr Ë`m§Mr Anojm amñVM Amho.’ ‘darc gd© Jmoï>r cjmV KoD$Z 2007 gmcr _r Amamohrcm Ë`m§À`m emioV XmIc Ho$co. Amamohr AmVm _amR>r CÎm_ ~mocm`cm, {chm`cm Am{U dmMm`cm cmJcr Amho. _amR>rVrc Amnë`m àJVr~Ôc {Vcm Iyn g_mYmZ dmQ>Vo. _amR>r H$mì`mMrhr {Vcm JmoS>r {Z_m©U Pmcr Amho. ho gd© ew^m§JrVmBªÀ`m à`ËZmZo gmÜ` Pmcoo. _amR>r ^mfm {eH$m`cm Am{U {eH$dm`cmhr Ver gmonr Zmhr. ^maVm~mhoa Agcoë`m _wcm§Zm _amR>r {eH$dUo ho Iao Va EH$ AmìhmZM AgVo. Amamohr ~è`mM dfmªnmgyZ ^maVm~mhoa Amho. ghm{OH$M {Vcm ^maVr` gUmdmam§Mr AWdm MmcrarVtMr H$mhrM H$ënZm Zmhr. øm Jmoï>r {Vcm g_OmdyZ gm§JUo Oam H$R>rUM Amho. na§Vw ew^m§JrVmB© ho ghOJË`m H$ê$ eH$VmV.’

ew^m§JrVmBªÀ`m _mJ©Xe©ZmImcr EH$mJ« {MÎmmZo _amR>rMm Aä`mg

ew^m§JrÀ`m _amR>r emio~Ôc {H$aU H$moëhQ>H$am§Zr Amncr à{VH«$`m nwT>rc eãXmV ì`º$ Ho$cr. ‘Q>moH$s`moV AgVm§Zm VoWë`m _amR>r _§S>imZo Mmc{dcoë`m g§ñH$ma dJm©V Am_Mr _wco OmV AgV. 2002 gmcr H°$cJarV Amë`mZ§Va VgmM CnH«$_ `oWë`m _§S>imV gwé H$aÊ`mMr H$ënZm gwMoVmZo _§S>imÀ`m H$m`©H$m[aUrnwT>o _m§S>cr. ew^m§JrVmBªZr Vr àË`jmV AmUcr Am{U Vr AmOVmJm`V Mmcy R>odcr Amho. Am_Mr _wco, {gÜXmW© Am{U Hw$Umc, Ë`m§À`m emioV XmoZ df} {eH$crV. {gÜXmW© AmVm _amR>r dmMyhr eH$Vmo.’ 6


_amR>rMm B{Vhmg {ZVrZ ~moago B{VhmgmMo AdOS> AmoPo S>moŠ`mda KoD$Z Zm ZmMm H$am nXñWc Ë`mMo Am{UH$ MTy>Z Ë`mda ^{dî` dmMm Hw$R>ë`mhr àXoemMm, g§ñWoMm,g§ñH¥$VrMm AWdm ^mfoMm B{Vhmg qdXm H$a§XrH$am§Zr {c{hë`mà_mUo ^{dî`mMr Mmhÿc KoÊ`mgmR>r Cn`moJr `oVmo. Amnë`m g§ñWoÀ`m 25 dfmªÀ`m B{VhmgmMm _mJmodm `m ñ_a{UHo$Ûmao KoVm§Zm Amnë`m ^mfoÀ`m XrS> hOma dfmª©À`m B{Vhmgmda WmoS>r ZOa Q>mH$Ê`mg haH$V Zgmdr OJmVë`m ZD$ H$moQ>r cmoH$m§Mr _mV¥^mfm _amR>r Amho. `m Ñï>rZo _amR>rMm H«$_m§H$ gd© ^mfm§_Ü`o n§Yamdm cmJVmo.

1334) ZmWn§Wr` H$dr _wHw§$XamO `m§Zr {c{hcocm {ddoH$qgYy hm _amR>rVrc AmÚJ«W§ Amho. Xod{JarÀ`m (AmOMo Xm¡cVm~mX) `mXdm§Zr _amR>r ^mfocm amO^mfoMm XOm© àmá H$ê$Z {Xcm `m H$mimV _amR>rV Á`moVrfemñÌ, Am`wd}X, nwamUo, doXm§V Aem AZoH$ {df`m§da J«§W {c{hco Joco. Zcmonm»`mZ, ép»_Ur ñd`§da, lrnVrMo Á`moVrf_mcm ho J«W§ `mM H$mimV {c{hco Joco. _amR>rÀ`m cmoH${à`Vo_Ü`o dmaH$ar g§àXm`mMm qghmMm dmQ>m Amho. Am`©, Ð{dS>, d¡îUd Am{U e¡d gdmªZmM n§T>anyaMm {dR>mo~m Amncm dmQ>Vmo. g§V kmZoœa (1271-93) `m§À`m A_¥VmZw^d Am{U kmZoœar~Ôc R>mD$H$ Zgcocm _amR>r {daimM. _èhmQ>r`oMm ZJar Ÿ& ~«÷{dÚoMm gwH$miyH$ar Ÿ& KoUo XoUo gwImM doèhr Ÿ& hmo XoB© OJm Ÿ& _mPm _èhmQ>rMr ~mocy H$d{VHo$ Ÿ& n[a A_¥VmVo hr n¡Om {O§Ho$ Ÿ& Eogr Ajao{M a{gHo$ _oi{dZ Ÿ&& g§V Zm_Xod (1270-1350) {dgmo~m IoMa, OZm~mB©, gmdVm _mir, Jmoamo~m Hw§$^ma, Zahar gmoZma, MmoIm _oim, H$mÝhmonmÌm `m gd© g§V _§S>itZr dmaH$ar g§àXm` Am{U _amR>rMr nVmH$m \$S>H$dV R>odcr.

_amR>rÀ`m CJ_m{df`r g§emoYH$m_Ü`o EH$_V Zmhr. _hmamï´>r, H$ÞS>, VocJy, àmH¥$V, _mJYr, V{_i Aem AZoH$ ^mfm§Mm _amR>rer g§~Y§ OmoS>Vm `oVmo. V{_i Am{U OwZr _amR>r (g§V kmZoœam§À`m H$mimVrc) øm§Mo nXH«$_, ì`mH$aU, dmŠ`aMZm ømV IynM gmå` Amho. g§ñH¥$V, àmH¥$V, An^«§e, _hmamï´>r Ago ~Xc hmoV _amRr ^mfm ~ZV Jocr Agmhr EH$ {dMmaàdmh Amho. AZoH$ _amR>r eãX, g§ñH¥$V, eãXmnmgyZ WmoS>m\$ma ~Xc hmoD$Z ~Zco AmhoV. F$, B©, Am¡ ho dU© g§ñH¥$V_YyZ _amR>rV Amco. AWm©VM `m{edm` _amR>r ^mfoZo nmcr, AY©_mJYr, qhXr, \$magr, Aa~r, VwH$s©, B§J«Or, nmoVw©JrO, JwOamWr, Amoar`m, ~§Jmcr ^mfm§_YyZhr eãX KoVco AmhoV.

B.g. 1350 Vo 1550 `m H$mimV _hmamï´>mV XwîH$mi, naH$s` AmH«$_U `m§Zr Yw_mHw$i KmVcm. Varhr `m H$mimV g§V EH$ZmW (1548-99) Am{U g§V VwH$mam_ (1588-1649) `m§Zr AZoH$ ^º$sna aMZm H$ê$Z _amR>r ^mfm OmJ¥V R>odcr. EH$ZmWm§Zr 20000 Amoì`m§Mo ^mdmW© am_m`U {chrco. _wºo$œam§Zr (160860) _hm^maVmMo _amR>rV ^mfm§Va Ho$co. dm_Z n§{S>V, aKwZmW n§{S>V, lrYa, _`ya n§{S>V (_moamon§V) `m§Zr 16 ì`m Am{U 17 ì`m eVH$mV AZoH$ aMZm WmoS>çmem g§ñH¥$V àMya _amR>r_Ü`o Ho$ë`m. `m CcQ> g§V am_Xmgm§Zr (1608-82) OZ- gm_mÝ`m§Zm OmñV OdiMo dmQ>Umao Xmg~moY, _ZmMo ûcmoH$ àMcrV Ho$co.

_amR>rÀ`m Aä`mgH$m§gmR>r gmVmè`mcm gmnS>cocm B.g. 739 Mm {dO`m{XË`mMm Vm_«nQ>, B.g. 983 Mm ldU~oiJmoicm gmnS>cocm Jmo_VoœamMm {ecmcoI, B.g.1289 Mm CZHo$œaMm {ecmcoI _hÎdmMo AmhoV. B. g. 859 À`m Y_m}nXoe_mcm `m J«W§ mV _amR>r ^mfoMm C„oI Amho. _amR>r ^mfm H$er Amho ho XmoZ AmoirV gm§{JVco Amho. gcc{`-n`-gMmam n`{S>`_mUm gwdÊUa`Uo„m Ÿ& _ahR>` ^mgm H$m{_Ur ` AS>dr` aohVr Ÿ&& "_amR>r ^mfm gw§Xa H$m{_Zrà_mUo AgyZ Vr AQ>drà_mUo gw§Xa JVrMr, _XZmZo ^acocr Am{U Mm§Jë`m dUm©Mr Amho' Ago _amR>r ^mfoMo H$m¡VwH$ Ho$coco Amho. _amR>r ^mfm cmoH$m§Zm AmdS>Vo, H$maU Vr H$mimÀ`m AmoKmV ñdV:cm ~XcdyZ KoVo.

Ë`mZ§VaÀ`m H$mimV _amR>r H${dVm emhram§À`m nmodmS>çm§_Ü`o Am{U cmdÊ`m§_Ü`o \w$ccr. emhra A¾rXmg Am{U VwierXmg `m§Zr {edmOr _hmamOm§Mo nmodmS>o {c{hco. emhra hmoZmOr ~mim `m§Mo, "gm§Jm _wHw§$X Hw$Ur hm nm[hcm', "cQ>nQ> cQ>nQ> VwPo MmcUo', "KZí`m_ gw§Xam', `m {d{dY àH$maÀ`m aMZm Hw$Umcm~ao _mhrV ZgVrc. (nmZ 19 da)

_hmZw^md n§WmÀ`m MH«$Ya ñdm_tMo {eî` åhmB§^Q> `m§Zr 1285 gmcr {c{hcocm crimM[aÌ hm J«§W _amR>rVrc n{hco gm{hË` _mZco OmVo. H$mhtÀ`m _Vo `mXd H$mimV (B.g.8507


em§V j_merc ~m~yOr OJÞmW dmUr Q>moam§Q>moV 1985 gmcr ^acoco ~¥hÝ_hmamï´> _§S>imM§ Xwga§ amJ_mcm å`w{PH$ gmogm`Q>rÀ`m AZoH$ H$m`©H«$_mVyZ ~{KVc§ hmoV§. Ë`m nmíd©^y_rda ~m~yOtMm j_merc ñd^md _mÂ`m _Zmda Iyn A{YdoeZ ZwH$VoM g§nc§ hmoV§ Am{U 1987 gmcr Ý`y Ogu `oWo Am`mo{OV Ho$coë`m {Vgè`m A{YdoeZmMr Zm§Xrhr Pmcr hmoVr. Imocda n[aUm_ H$ê$Z Jocm. BÀN>m AgyZhr npíM_ H°$ZS>mVrc _amR>r ^m{fH$m§Zm ~¥hÝ_hmamï´> H°$cJarcm `oÊ`mnydu ~m~yOtZr gmdaH$a Xe©Z à{Vð>mZMr _§S>im§À`m `m g§_ocZmgmR>r BVŠ`m Xya OmU§ Am{W©H$ÑîQ>çm ^maVmV ZwH$VrM ñWmnZm Ho$cr hmoVr. Ë`m YVuda gmdaH$a nadS>Ê`mgmaI§ ZìhV§. ho cjmV KoD$Z H°$cJarÀ`m _amR>r _§S>itZr {MÌnQ>mÀ`m {ZYr g§H$cZmgmR>r CÎma A_o[aHo$V B§{S>`m ho{aQ>oO 1986 gmcr npíM_ H°$ZS>mVrc _amR>r _§S>itM§ A{YdoeZ \$mD§$S>oeZ ñWmnÊ`mMo ~m~yOtMo à`ËZ gwê$ hmoV.o `m \$mD§$S>oeZgmR>r ^a{dÊ`mMr `moOZm AmIcr. à_wI nmhþUo åhUyZ ~m~wOr (gwYra CÎma A_o[aHo$Vrc {ZYr g§H$cZmÀ`m n{hë`m H$m`©H«$_mMm _mZ \$S>Ho$) `m§Zm {Z_§ÌU Joc§ Am{U ~m~wOtZr Hw$R>ë`mhr àH$maMo H°$cJar ehamcm {_imcm. ~m~yOtZr 4 Am°JñQ> amoOr a{gH$m§À`m AmT>odoT>o Z KoVm {Z_§ÌUmMm cJoM ñdrH$ma Ho$cm. ~m~wOtZr {Z_§ÌU AmJ«hmImVa JrVam_m`UmMm H$m`©H«$_ gmXa Ho$cm. AmXë`m ñdrH$maë`mZo A{YdoeZmgmR>r AWm©VM XO}Xma JmÊ`mMm H$m`©H«$_ {XderMm H$m`©H«$_ nhmQ>o XmoZ> dmOon`ªV Mmcë`mZo ~m~yOtZm R>acm Am{U à_wI nmhþUm åhUyZhr ~m~wOtgmaIo EH$ {Zacg, {dlm§VrMr {ZVm§V JaO hmoVr. Varhr a{gH$m§À`m ào_mcm ZH$ma XoU§ VoOñdr ì`{º$_Ëd Amåhmcm cm^c§. Ë`m§Zm O_c§ Zmhr. H$m`©H«$_ ImgJr ñdê$nmMm Agë`mZo ~m~yOtMm gwJ_ g§JrVmMm H$m`©H«$_ 3 Am°JñQ>cm amÌr 8 dmOVm R>acm hmoVm. lmoË`m§Zr 7 dmOë`mnmgyZM {WEQ>ada JXu Ho$cr hmoVr. CËgwH$ lmoË`m§Zr {WEQ>a AJXr \w$cyZ Joc§ hmoV§. "XohmMr {VOmoar ^{º$MmM R>odm', "Yw§X `oWo _r ñd¡a Pmo{H$Vmo _ÚmMo ß`mco' Aem AZoH$ cmoH${à` JmÊ`m§Zr H$m`©H«$_mcm a§J MT>V hmoVm. ~m~yOtMo "Pmcm _hma n§T>arZmW' ho JmU§ EoH$md§ Aer _cm A{Zdm`© BÀN>m Pmcr Am{U _r ~m~yOtZm Ver {dZ§Vr Ho$cr. _mÂ`m {dZ§Vr_wio Ë`m§Mr _moR>r n§MmB©V Pmcr. naH$s`m§À`m Jwcm_{JarMm ^nH$mam `m JmÊ`mVyZ `oVmo åhUyZ ho JmU§ åhUy Z`o Ago ~m~wOtZr R>a{dc§ hmoV§. Amncm hm {ZU©` Vo H$Q>mjmZo nmiV AgV. Varhr _mÂ`m {dZ§VrMm Aìhoa Ë`m§Zr Ho$cm Zmhr. _mÂ`m {dZ§VrMm _mZ amIÊ`mgmR>r Amncr ^y{_H$m A{Ve` gm¡å` eãXmV àW_ Ë`m§Zr {deX Ho$cr Am{U Ë`mZ§Va AJXr {XcIwcmgnUo Ë`m§Zr Vo JmU§ noe Ho$c§. Amnë`m {dMmagaUrMm ~mJwc~wdm Z H$aVm BVam§À`m BÀN>oMm _mZ amIÊ`mM§ gm¡OÝ` A^mdmZoM OmUdV§. `m~m~VrV ~m~yOtZr XmI{dcocm _ZmMm _moR>onUm IamoIaM A{ÛVr` hmoVm.

àdoe_yë`mMr AQ> ZìhVr. EopÀN>H$ XoU½`mVyZ O_coco gd© _mZYZ ~m~yOtZr gmdaH$a {MÌnQ>mgmR>r {Xë`mM§ Omhra Ho$c§.

H°$cJar_Ü`o Pmcocr hr AmoiI nwT>o A{YH$ ÑT> hmoV Jocr. `m AmoiIrcm nwT>o [OdcJ ñZohmMr nmcdr \w$Q>cr. ~m~yOtZr _cm AJXr ghO Amnë`m {_Ìn[admamV gh^mJr H$ê$Z KoVc§. Z§Va "dmUrH$mH$m' `m ZmË`mZo _r \$S>Š`m§À`m Hw$Qw>§~mer OmoS>cm Jocmo. lrYagmaIm JwUr H$cmH$ma Am{U Ë`mMr {MÌmgmaIr O~m~Xma H$V©ì`Xj nËZr `m§À`merhr _mPr Mm§JcrM _¡Ìr Pmcr. gmh{OH$M ~m~yOr Joë`mM§ H$ic§ Voìhm _Z gwÞ Pmc§. "XmoZ {Xgm§Mr a§JV g§JV, XmoZ {Xgm§Mr ZmVr' Aer g_OyV ~m~yOrM KmcV Amco hmoVo. Varhr hOmamo _¡cm§da amhUmè`m _mÂ`mgma»`m _mUgmÀ`m _ZmVhr AJ{UV ñ_¥Vr R>odyZ Jocoë`m `m amOg nmIamÀ`m {d`moJmZo Ord AOyZhr H$idiVmoM.

H°$cJar Agmo{gEeZ Am°\$ _amR>r ^m[fŠgÀ`m CËgmhr H$m`©H$Ë`mªZr ~m~yOtÀ`m nyd©nadmZJr{edm` `m a§Jcoë`m H$m`©H«$_mMo Üd[Z_wÐU Ho$c§. Xwgè`m {Xder Üd[Z_wÐUm~ÔcMr hH$sH$V _r Ë`m§À`m H$mZmda KmVcr. dmQ>c§ hmoV§, nyd©nadmZJr{edm` Üd[Z_wÐU Ho$c§ åhUyZ ~m~yOr amJdVrc. nU Vg§ H$mhrM Pmc§ Zmhr. AJXr em§VnUo "Üd[Z_wÐU H$am`cm ZH$mo hmoV'o EdT>rM Ë`m§Zr {Q>ßnUr Ho$cr. H$m`©H«$_mÀ`m Üd[Z_wÐUm~m~V H$cmH$ma _§S>ir {H$Vr H$mQ>oH$moa Am{U H$R>moa AgVmV ho _r 8


dèhmS> {ZKmc§ c§S>Zcm aOZr àgmX H$mÝQ>oQ>r n{ü_ H°$ZS>m _amR>r ^m{fH$m§Mo {Vgao g§_ocZ EH$ d XmoZ hmoV.o Vgo nm{hco AgVm ZmQ>H$mMm {df`M A{Ve`moº$rMm Amho. Am°JñQ> 1987 cm ES>_§Q>Z `oWo A{Ve` Yw_YS>mŠ`mZo d na§Vw Varhr AJXr gmÜ`m ~mocrZo d ghO A{^Z`mZo cú_Uamd `eñdrarË`m nma nS>co. H°$cJarÀ`m _amR>r _§S>imMo Ë`mdoiMo Amnë`mcm c§S>Zcm ZoVmV øm§VM Ë`m§À`m ZmQ>H$mÀ`m `eñdrVoMo AÜ`j S>m°. OJÞmW dmUr `m§Zr Ë`mgmR>r EH$ Img ZmQ>H$ J_H$ Amho. _hmamï´>mVyZ {Z_§{ÌV H$oco hmoVo Am{U Vo `m g§_ocZmMo à_wI `m ZmQ>H$mM§ H$WmZH$ A{Ve` gmY§ Amho. H$merZmW hm EH$m AmH$f©U hmoV.o ZmQ>H$mMo Zmd hmoVo "dèhmS> {ZKmc§ c§S>Zcm'. àm. IoS>çmVrc J^©lr_§V eoVH$è`mMm (~mßnm§Mm) EHw$cVm EH$ _wcJm cú_Uamd Xoenm§S>o `m§M§ ho EH$nmÌr ZmQ>H$ Ë`mdoir _hmamï´>mV IynM c§S>Zcm {eH$m`cm OmVmo d {VWë`m EH$m Jmoè`m _wcrer c¾ cmoH${à` hmoVo. øm EH$nmÌr ZmQ>H$mMm hm 815 H«$_m§H$mMm à`moJ H$aÊ`mMr BÀN>m Amnë`m ~mßnmOdi àH$Q> H$aVmo. KamVë`m hmoVm. n«`moJmÀ`m H«$_m§H$mdê$ZM Ë`mÀ`m cmoH${à`VoMr à{MVr `oVo. gJù`m§§M§M Ym~§ XUmUV§. eodQ>r Amncm _wcJm Ë`mÀ`m OrdmM§ cú_Uamd Xoenm§S>o ho Am¡a§Jm~mXMo a{hdmgr. Am¡a§Jm~mX åhUOo H$mhr ~a-dmB©Q> H$aoc `m ^rVrZo H$_©R> ~mßnm {daKiVmo d c¾mMr Zr{c_m _§YmZrM _mhoa. Ë`m_wio Ë`m§À`m AmXam{VÏ`Mr gd© ~mocUr H$aÊ`mgmR>r g§_Vr XoVmo. IoS>çmVrc H$merZmWMo dS>rc O~m~Xmar _§YmZr Hw$Qw>§{~`m§Zr AmZ§XmZo pñdH$macr. ~mßnm d c§S>ZMo H$merZmWMo ^mdr gmgao Om°Z S>ogcr `m§Mr JmR>^oQ> Aë~Q>m©À`m _amR>r _§S>itZm g§_ocZmÀ`m {Z{_ÎmmZo ho ZmQ>H$ nmhÊ`mMm Anyd© `moJ Amcm. g§_ocZmÀ`m AmXë`m {Xder ES>_§Q>Z_Ü`o Oar MH«$sdmXimZo Yw_mHy$i KmVcm hmoVm, VargwÕm H°$cJarMr ~hþVm§er _§S>ir CËgmhmZo CnpñWV hmoVr. ZmQ>H$mÀ`m à`moJmcm gwadmV Pmcr Am{U H$mhr jUmVM gd© lmoVo _§S>ir VZ _Z YZ {dgê$Z _§Ì_w½Y Pmcr. cú_Uamdm§Zr gwadmVrÀ`m àñVmdZoV gm§{JVco H$r, "Vwåhr \$º$ IoS>çm§V Amhm§V Aer H$ënZm H$am, c§S>Zcm nmohM{dÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar _mPr.' Am{U Ajae: Ë`m§Zr ho åhUUo Iao H$ê$Z XmI{dco. H$ënZoÀ`m dmdamVyZ Ë`m§Zr àojH$m§Zm dmñVdVoMo Xe©Z KS>{dco. A{Ve`mo{º$nyU© A{^Z`mVyZ Ë`m§Zr gdm©g_moa IoS>çmMo amoOMo ì`dhmar OrdZ, _mUgo, Ë`m§Mo dmJUo, ~mocUo, MmcUo, Ë`m§À`m gd`r øm§Mo hþ~ohÿ~ {MÌ C^o Ho$co. jUmjUmcm Amnë`m {dZmoXmZo d A{^Z`mZo Ë`m§Zr àojH$m§Zm hg{dco VgoM H$mhr àg§Jr J§^rahr ~Z{dco. `m ZmQ>H$mMm à^md àojH$mda BVH$m Pmcm hmoVm H$s, _ZmZo àË`oH$ OU Amnc§ H°$ZS>mVrc dmñVì` {dgê$Z AmYr _amR>dmS>çmVrc EH$m N>moQ>çmem IoS>çmV Am{U Z§Va c§S>Zcm nmohmooMcm hmoVm. EImÚm OmXyJmamZo Oer OmXyMr H$m§S>r {\$admdr d BH$S>Mr Xw{Z`m {VH$S>o H$amdr AgmM H$mhrgm Vmo àH$ma hmoVm. c§S>Zcm c¾mcm OmD$Z Amë`mda gwÕm H$mhr doimZo AmnU hm°c_Ü`oM ~gcmo AmhmoV hr OmUrd

KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mMm EH$_od Xwdm åhUOo H$merZmWMm MwcV ^mD$ ~~Ý`m. H$maU ~~Ý`m{ed` Ë`m KamV B§J«OrMo {H$Sw>H$ {_Sy>H$ kmZ Hw$Umcmhr ZgVo. Voìhm H$merZmWÀ`m g§nyU© c¾mMr O~m~Xmar Zm°Z_°{Q´>H$ ~~Ý`mÀ`m B§J«Orda nS>Vo. eodQ>r EH$XmMm Om°Zamd `oVmo d ~mßnmZo gm§{JVcoë`m gd© AQ>r _mÝ` H$ê$Z c¾ c§S>Zcm H$am`M§ R>aV§, Am{U _J g§nyU© dèhmS> c§S>Zcm Om`À`m H$ënZoZo hþaiyZ OmV§. VoìhmnmgyZ Vo dèhmS> c§S>Zcm OmD$Z c¾ hmoB©n`ªV H$m` H$m` {dZmoXr àg§J KS>VmV `mM§ gw§Xa dU©Z `m ZmQ>H$mV nhm`cm {_iV. H$_©R> ~mßnm, ~m`H$s ~~Ý`m, nmümÎ` Pmcocm H$merZmW, Om°Zamd, H$merZmWMr AmB© d KamVcr ~arMer chmZ _wco hr gd© nmÌo cú_Uamdm§Zr Amnë`m A{^Z` H$m¡eë`mZo BVŠ`m {Od§VnUo C^r Ho$cr AmhoV H$s AmnU Ë`mVë`m EImÚm nmÌmcm {dgam`M§ Oar R>adc§ Var {dgê$ eH$V Zmhr. JmdmV n{hë`m§Xm EImXm Jmoam _mUyg Amcm H$s Ë`mÀ`m{df`r dmQ>Uma§ AmH$f©U d Ë`mda hmoUmar à{V{H«$`m, ehamV n{hë`m§XmM Amë`mda {VWë`m {d{dY Jmoï>t{df`r dmQ>Umar CËgwH$Vm Ago AZoH$ IoS>çmVë`m cmoH$m§À`m ñd^mdmMo n¡cy `mM§ Ë`m§Zr A{Ve` gyú_ {ZarjU H$ê$Z _moR>çm Hw$ecVoZo `m ZmQ>H$mV gmXa Ho$co AmhoV. {deofV: EH$Ì Hw$Qw>§~mV H$m_mdê$Z hmoUmar ~m`H$m§Mr Ywg\y$g, ~marH$ gmarH$ Jmoï>rVco 9


hodoXmdo `m amoOÀ`m Am`wî`mVrc gmÜ`m gmÜ`m Jmoï>r _moR>çm Iw~rZo Ë`m§Zr àojH$mg_moa Cä`m Ho$ë`m.

"dèhmS> {ZKmc§ c§S>Zcm' `m ZmQ>H$mMo gdm©V _hÎdmMo d¡{eîQ>ç åhUOo `m ZmQ>H$mMm g§nyU© H$Vm©-H$a{dVm - coIH$, {X½Xe©H$, H$cmH$ma, gmXaH$Vm© gd© H$mhr - ñdV: cú_Uamd Xoenm§S>o AmhoV. ~mcnUmnmgyZ Agcocr ZmQ>H$mMr AmdS>, _wimVM Agcocr A{^Z`mMr OmU, Am{U ~mcJ§Ydmªgma»`m _hmZ ì`º$s¨H$Sy>Z {_imcoc§ àmoËgmhZ d Amerdm©X, `m gdmª_wio àm. cú_Uamd Xoe>nm§S>çm§Zr ZmQ>çjoÌmV Cƒ {ejU KoD$Z Amnc§ Am`wî` Ë`mcm dmhÿZ ¿`m`M§ R>adc§. Ë`m§Zr cmoH$ZmQ>ç d àm`mo{JH$ ZmQ>ç ho XmoZ {df` KoD$Z Ë`mV nrEM².S>r. àmá Ho$cr. _amR>dmS>m {dÚmnrR>mV ZmQ>ç{d^mJmMo n«_wI åhUyZ Ë`m§Zr ~arM df} H$m_ Ho$co. Ë`m§Mm IoS>çmVcm EH$ {_Ì naXoemV WmoS>o {Xdgm§gmR>r OmD$Z `oVmo. Amë`mda Ë`mÀ`m ~mocÊ`mV dmJÊ`mV Pmcocm danm§Jr ~Xc d Ë`mda Ë`mÀ`m KamVë`m cmoH$m§À`m à{V{H«$`m `m N>moQ>çmem {df`mVyZ "dèhmS> {ZKmc§ c§S>Zcm' `mMm CJ_ Pmcocm Amho.

CÎm_ A{^Z`, AmH$f©H$ g§dmX d IwgIwerV {dZmoX Agm {ÌdoUr g§J_ `m ZmQ>H$mV AmT>iVmo. ZmQ>H$mMo AS>rM Vmg hmñ`H$„moimV H$go ^a©H$Z {ZKyZ OmVmV ho g_OVM Zmhr d Ë`mMm AmZ§X _Z_wamX cwQ>ë`mM§ g_mYmZ àË`oH$mÀ`m Mohè`mda {XgV§ nU ho gd© nm{hë`mda _ZmV EH$ e§H$m `oVo H$s hm {df` {H$VnV dmñVdVocm Yê$Z Amho ! VargwÕm AmOH$mcÀ`m YH$mYH$sÀ`m OrdZmV {Z^}i H$a_UyH$ d g_mYmZ `mÀ`mnojm AmUIr H$moUVr Anojm AmnU EImÚm Mm§Jë`m ZmQ>H$mnmgyZ H$amdr ! Ë`m X¥ï>rZo cú_Uamd Xoenm§S>çmMm hm EH$ nmÌr à`moJ åhUOo Ho$di S>moù`m§ZmM d H$mZmcmM Zìho Va _Zmcm gwÕm _oOdmZr hmoVr.

ûm«r. d gm¡. cú_U Xoenm§S>o `m§À`m g_doV O_Z Am{U {Zcr_m _§YmZo

10


nw.c.- EH$ {ZIi _mUyg OJÞmW dmUr Owc¡ 1987 _Ü`o Ý`wOgu, Ý`w`m°H©$ Am{U {\$cmS>oë\$s`m `m§Zr g§`wº$arË`m Am`mo{OV Ho$coë`m ~¥hÝ_hmamï´> _§S>imÀ`m A{YdoeZmgmRr AÜ`j åhUyZ nw. c. `oUma ho H$ië`m~amo~a A{YdoeZmZ§Va Ë`m§Zr H°$cJarcm `md§ Ag§ AmJ«hmM§ {Z_§ÌU Amåhr Ë`m§Zm {Xc§. Ë`m§Zr Vo ñdrH$mac§. nw.c., gwZrVm~mB©, nw.c§.Mo _ohþUo lÕmZ§X RmHy$a, Am{U Ë`m§À`m nËZr gm¡. {Z_©cmVmB© Ago Mm¡K§OU `oUma Am{U _mÂ`m Kar amhUma Ag§ Rac§.

AmOmanUm_wio nmhþÊ`m§À`m AmJ_ZmVcm hm ~Xc Vr H$gm ñdrH$maoc, Ë`m§M§ AmXam{VÏ` ZrQ> hmoB©c H$m, Aem {dMmam§Zr _r YmñVmdcmo hmoVmo. nU gwX¡dmZo, gJi§ H$mhr RrH$RmH$ Pmc§. Ë`m gmV AmR> {Xdgm§V nw.c§.Mm hOaO~m~rnUm, Ë`m§Mo H$cmJwU `m~amo~aM Ë`m§Mr VÎd{Zð>m, g§doXZercVm, JwUJ«mhH$Vm, AmnwcH$s, _mUwgH$s Aem Ë`m§À`m {d{dY n¡cy§M§ Xe©Z Pmc§ Am{U Ë`m§M§ _mUygnU öX`mV H$m`_M H$moac§ Joc§.

ìh±Hy$da Vo H°$cJar hm am°H$sO nd©VmVyZ OmUmam AmJJmSrMm àdmg IynM aå` Amho. åhUyZ Agm àdmg H$ê$Z _J H°$cJarcm nmohMm`M§ Ag§ Ë`m Mm¡Km§Zr Radc§. nU Ë`m§À`m EH$m ^amoemÀ`m {_ÌmZo `mo½` doir Ë`mgmRrMr {VH$sQ>§ IaoXr Z Ho$ë`mZo Ë`m§Zm Vmo ~oV aÔ H$amdm cmJcm. nw.c§.Mm \$maM {ha_moS Pmcm Am{U Ë`m_wio R>acoë`m VmaIoÀ`m XmoZ {Xdg AmYrM {d_mZmZo Vo H°$cJarcm nmohMVrc Agm {Zamon Amcm. EH$sH$S>o Ë`m§Mm ghdmg AmUIr XmoZ {Xdg {_iUma `mMm AmZ§X Agcm Var H$_{cZrÀ`m

Ë`m Mm¡Km§Zm gJirH$S>o qhS>dm`M§ åhUOo IM© hmoUmaM åhUyZ _r AmYrM ~±Ho$VyZ 500-600 Sm°cg© H$mT²>y Z Rodco hmoV.o nU H$moUV§hr àojUr` ñWi ~Km`cm Jocmo H$s _r JmSr Wm§~dVmjUr S>m°. R>mHy$a nQ>H$Z JmSrVyZ CVê$Z {VH$sQ>§ H$mT>yZ AmUm`Mo. _r Ë`m§Zm åhQ>c§, "Ahmo, Vwåhr _cm H$mhr H$am`Mr g§YrM XoV Zmhr.' nw.c. åhUmco, "Ag§ H$g§, Vwåhr Am_À`mgmR>r EdT>r 3-4 {Xdgm§Mr gwÅ>r H$mT>crV. Vw_À`m JmSrVyZ Amåhmcm qhSdVm`, `mnojm OmñV H$m` H$am`cm nm[hOo?'

pñ_Vm ZmIdm, A§H$w e ZmIdm, gwZrVm Xoenm§S>o, dmUr _mVmoûm«r, OJÞmW dmUr, d¥fmcr ZmIdm, H$_{cZr dmUr, nw.c. Xoenm§S>o

nw.c§.À`m dmñVì`mXaå`mZ _mPr A{e{jV AmB©hr _mÂ`mH$S>o Amcocr hmoVr. {c{hVm dmMVm `oV Zgc§ Var AmB©cm ~arM OwZr JmUr nmR> hmoVr. {VMm AmdmOhr ~è`mn¡H$s hmoVm. Amncr JmUr BVam§Zm EoH$dÊ`mMr {Vcm ^mar hm¡g. g§^mì` YmoH$m cjmV KoD$Z "nw.c§.Zm VwPr JmUr{~Ur EoH$dyZ CJmM gVmdy ZH$mog.' Ago _r {Vcm ~Omdc§ hmoV.§ AmB© _mÂ`m gyMZoMo nmcZ

H$arc Ag§ _cm dmQ>c§ hmoV§. na§Vw _mÂ`m gm§JÊ`mnojm {VMr JmU§ åhUyZ XmI{dÊ`mMr D$_uM daMT> R>acr. _r Amgnmg ZgVmZm {VZo nw.c§.Zm Amncr JmUr EoH$dcrM. H°$ZSmVrc àojUr` gamoda, coH$ cwB©g, ~Km`cm Jocmo AgVm§Zm nw.c§.Zr _cm {VM§ H$m¡VwH$ gm§{JVc§. _r AmíM`© ì`º$ Ho$c§. H$maU AmB© _mPo EoHo$c Ag§ _cm dmQ>c§ hmoV§. nw.c. {VÀ`m JmÊ`m§Zr ~moAa Va Pmco ZmhrVM CcQ> 11


Aem OdinmgÀ`m ehamVrc _amR>r _§SitMrhr Ver _mJUr hmoVr. nw.c§.Zr "dmè`mdaMr damV' qH$dm "Agm _r Agm_r' _Yc§ H$mhrVar gmXa H$amd§ Aer gdmªMr BÀN>m hmoVr. nU Ë`m§Zm _mÌ gwZrVm~mBªÀ`m gh^mJmZo H${dd`© ~moaH$am§À`m H${dVm gmXa H$am`À`m hmoË`m. H$m`©H«$_mM§ gmXarH$aU AJXr CÎm_ arVrZo ìhm`cm hd§ `mda gwZrVm~mBªMm H$Qmj hmoVm. Ë`m_wio H$m`©H«$_mÀ`m AmYrÀ`m H$mimV Amåhr H$moUmH$Sohr Jocmo H$s gwZrVm~mBªMr gm¢X`©emoYH$ ZOa {VWë`m gw§Xa PmSm§À`m Hw§$Sçm {Q>nm`Mr Am{U Ë`m hiyM _cm {dMmam`À`m, "hr PmS§ Amnë`m H$m`©H«$_mÀ`m {Xder gOmdQ>rgmRr {_iVrc H$m?' CÎma AWm©VM hmoH$mamWu {_im`Mo. H$m`©H«$_mÀ`m doir øm AZoH$ gw§Xa PmSm§Zr a§J_§M IynM gwemo{^V {XgV hmoVm. nw.c§.Zr AmYrM gm§JyZ Q>mH$c§, "H$m`©H«$_ Mmcy AgVm§Zm \$moQ>moMo âc°e CSdm`Mo ZmhrV. Z§Va _r Vwåhmcm Img \$moQ>mogmR>r nmoPog XoB©Z.' nw.c. Am{U gwZrVm~mBªZr gmXa Ho$coë`m "AmZ§X`mÌr ~moaH$a' `m§À`m H${dVm AmOhr H$mZmV Kw_V AmhoV. _mPr AmB©gwÕm H$m`©H«$_mcm Amcr hmoVr. H$m`©H«$_mZ§Va gwZrVm~mBªZr AmB©H$S>o Img Mm¡H$er H$ê$Z H$m`©H«$_ AmdScm H$m Am{U Ë`mVë`m H$moUË`m H${dVm {deof AmdSë`m Aer {VÀ`mH$S>o {dMmaUm Ho$cr.

_cmM Ë`m§Zr gwZmdc§, "Ahmo dmUr, Ag§ H$m` H$aVm! Ë`m§À`m JmÊ`mVrc eãXm§Zm \$ma _hÎd Amho. ho eãX nwT>o cmon nmdVrc. ho cmoH$YZ Vwåhr OnyZ Rodm`cm hdo. eŠ` {VVŠ`m cdH$a Vwåhr Ë`m§Mr JmUr Üd{Z_w[ÐV H$ê$Z Rodm.' _mÂ`m AmB©Mr JmUr hm EH$ _moR>m g_¥Õ Rodm Amho ømMr _cm nw.c§.Zr OmUrd H$ê$Z {Xcr. Ë`m§À`m gm§JÊ`mà_mUo _r AmB©Mr gd© JmUr Üd{Z_w[ÐV H$ê$Z R>odcr. nw.c. nmhþUo åhUyZ Amco nU KamVcoM hmoD$Z Joc.o EH$Xm AgoM Amåhr ~mhoéZ Amcmo. Kar H$_{cZrZo {IMSr H$ê$Z R>odcr hmoVr. hgVIoiV OodU§ Pmcr, {IMSr Odi Odi g§ncr. H$_{cZr Vo nmVoc§ YwÊ`mgmR>r CMcUma, VoìhT>çmV nw.c§.Zr Vo _mJyZ KoVc§ Am{U Imcr Agcocr IadS> MmQy>Z nwgyZ ImD$Z QmH$cr Am{U åhUmco, "_cm \$ma AmdS>Vo IadS.>' gwXmå`mMo nmoho lrH¥$îUmZo AmdSrZo Imëë`mda gwXmå`mcm {H$Vr H¥$VH¥$Ë` dmQ>c§ Agoc Vo _cm Ë`m {Xder g_Oc§. nw.c§.Zr Or VÎd§ Oncr, Ë`mÀ`m {déÕ H$moUr ~mocc§ qH$dm H$mhr KSc§ H$s Vo H$go ZmamO ìhm`Mo ho hr Amåhr AZw^dc§. JmSrVyZ OmV AgVmZm nw.c. _mÂ`m eoOmar ~gm`Mo. JmS>rV _mÂ`mH$S>o 32 H°$goQ> gZr ^acocr EH$ noQ>r hmoVr. nw.c§.Zr Ë`m§À`m ng§VrMr cmdcocr H°$goQ EoH$V Jßnm _maV Am_Mm àdmg Mmcm`Mm. EH$Xm "ewH«$Vmam'Mr H°$goQ> Ë`m§Zr {ZdS>cr. nU Vr Añgc H$°goQ> ZgyZ ~ZmdQ> H$m°nr Amho ho cjmV Amë`mda nw.c. amJmdco. Aer AZ{YH¥$VnUo H$m°nr H$aUo ho MyH$ Amho Aem AWm©M§ H$mhrVar Vo {MSy>Z ~mocco. Amåhr gJioM Jßn Pmcmo. WmoSçm doimZo Ë`m§ZrM nwÝhm g§^mfUmcm gwédmV H$éZ dmVmdaU nyd©dV Ho$c§. nU `m àg§Jmdê$Z gd©M H$cmH$mam§{df`r Ë`m§Zm {H$Vr H$iH$i hmoVr, Ë`m§À`m h¸$m§~m~V Vo {H$Vr OmJê$H$ hmoVo `mMm àË`` Amcm.

gwZrVm~mB© Am{U nw. c. ho EH$ {dcjU OmoS>n§ hmoV.§ nw. c. åhUOo XmoñVm§À`m JmoVmdù`mV a_Umao, Jßnm§_Ü`o doiH$mimM§ ^mZ {dgaUmao, {eñVrMr Mm¡H$Q> \$maer Z _mZdUmao, H$coÀ`m na_mZ§XmV ì`dhmamcm cwSw~wSy> Z XoUmao Am{U gwZrVm~mB© åhUOo ñdV… CÎm_ H$cmH$ma Am{U H$cmonmgH$ AgyZhr Aï>mdYmZr AgUmè`m, AË`§V ZrQ>ZoQ>Š`m, ñdÀN>>Vm{à`, {eñV~Õ X¡Z§{XZr AgUmè`m. gdm©V _hÎdmM§ åhUOo ¹${MV àg§Jr ñdV… dmB©Q>nUm KoD$Z Am{W©H$ ì`dhma MmoI gm§^miUmè`m - Á`mMm nw.c§ Zm _Zñdr H§$Q>mim hmoVm. Vo C^`Vm H°$cJarcm Am_À`mH$S>o AgVmZm _amR>r à{Vð>mZ ñWmnZ H$aÊ`m{df`r Am_M§ ~mocU§ Mmcc§ hmoV.§ nw.c§.Zm Vr H$ënZm \$maM ng§V nS>cr hmoVr, Ë`m_wio Vo CËgmhmZo gyMZm H$aV hmoVo. à{Vð>mZ ñWmnm`Mo åhUOo Am`H$a ImË`mÀ`m OmMH$ AQ>r nmim`Mr ~§YZ§ AmcrM. nw.c. Xoenm§S>o \$mD§$S>oeZÀ`m H$m`m©Xaå`mZ Amcoë`m AZw^dmMm _cm Cn`moJ ìhmdm `m hoVyZo gwZrVm~mBªZr {d{dY H$am§g§~YrÀ`m {Z`_m~m~V MMm© H$am`cm gwédmV Ho$cr. Ia§ Va hr ~mOy gm§^miU§ Amdí`H$M hmoV.§ nU nw.c§. _Ycm g¥OZerc H$cmH$ma øm Zrag MM}cm H§$Q>micm. Vo H$mhrgo d¡VmJyZ åhUmco, "gwZrVm, Vy hoM ~mocV amhUma Agerc Va _r da OmD$Z PmonVmoM H$gm!'

AgmM Xwgam àg§J åhUOo EH$Xm AerM Jßnm§Mr _¡\$c O_cr AgVmZm EH$ ~mB© VmdmVmdmZo _w§~B©{df`r ~mocy cmJë`m. "ho naàm§VmVyZ cm|T>o `oVmV, añË`mda amhVmV. `m§À`m_wio _w§~B©M§ dmQmoi§ Pmc§`, gJir emZ Jocr Amho. øm \w$Q>nmWdaÀ`m cmoH$m§Zm hmH$cyZ {Xc§ nm{hOo.' dJ¡ao dJ¡ao. nw.c§.Zm Vo ghZ Pmc§ Zmhr, Vo cJoM åhUmco, "H$m? Vr _mUg§ ZmhrV? Ë`m§Zm OJÊ`mMm h¸$ Zmhr?' Ë`m§À`m CÎmw§J ì`{º$_Ëdmcm _mUwgH$sÀ`m AñVamZo H$g§ A{YH$M g§nÞ Ho$c§ Amho `mMr OmUrd `m àg§Jmdê$Z Pmcr. H°$cJarV AgVm§Zm nw.c§. Mm EImXm Omhra H$m`©H«$_ ìhmdm Aer g_ñV _amRr _§SitMr BÀN>m hmoVr. ES_§Q>Z (300 {H$._r.), gmñH$mQy>Z (700 {H$._r.), [aOm`Zm (600 {H$._r.) 12


nw.c§.M§ d¡VmJU§ _r g_Oy eH$Vmo. na§Vw g¥OZercVm Am{U MmoI ì`mdhm[aH$Vm `m§Mr gwZrVm~mBªZr `mo½` gm§JS> KmVë`m_wioM nw.c§.À`m XmV¥Ëdmcm ~ha Amcm Am{U _wº$m§JU gma»`m AZoH$ g§ñWm§Zm Ë`m_wio ^aKmog XoU½`m {_imë`m ho {Z{d©dmX.

"~m§gar' {df`r ~moccmo. "~m§gar' Mm EH$hr A§H$ Z ~KVmM Ë`m§Zr eoam _macm, "BH$S>o Hw$Urhr Am{U H$mhrhr \$mcVy Jmoï>rhr N>mnVmV.' Ë`m§À`m `m eoè`mZo _r IynM da_cmo. Ë`mdoir nw.c§.À`m JwUJ«mhH$VoMr _cm àH$fm©Zo AmR>dU Pmcr.

nU hoM nw.c., Ooìhm EImÚm Jmoï>rV ag ¿`m`Mo Voìhm {H$Vr _ZmnmgyZ Ë`mV cj Kmcm`Mo Vohr _r AZw^dc§. AmR>dS>m^amVrc _w¸$m_mV nw.c§.er ~è`mM {df`mda MMm© Pmë`m. Ë`mV H$m.g. dmUr _amRr àJV AÜ``Z g§ñWm gwê$ H$aÊ`mg§~Y§ rMm àñVmd _hÎdmMm hmoVm. _r _amRrÀ`m g§dY©ZmgmRr g§ñWm H$mT>Uma, ho EoHy$Z Ë`m§Zm Iyn ~a§ dmQ>c§. Ë`mZ§Va ^maVmV Jocmo AgVmZm g§ñWoMr ^y{_H$m Ra{dÊ`mgmRr g§ñWoMo {Z`mo{OV g§MmcH$ S>m.° a_oe daIoS>o `m§Zm _r _wÔm_ nw.c§. Zm ^oQm`cm KoD$Z Jocmo. AmXë`mM {Xder Ë`m§Zm H$m{cXmg nwañH$ma {_imcm hmoVm. Ë`m§À`m AZoH$ MmhË`m§Mr Ë`m§Zm ^oQm`cm JXu hmoUma, Aemdoir Vo Amnë`mcm MM}gmRr \$magm doi XoUma ZmhrV Ago Amåhr J¥hrVM Yac§ hmoV§. na§Vw nw.c. Ë`m {Xder Am_À`mer \$maM AmpË_`VoZo g{dñVa ~mocco. Vmg XrS> Vmg MMm© Mmccr. A{^Z§XZmgmR>r `oUmè`m XyaÜdZtMm IUIUmQ> gwê$ Pmcm Am{U MM}V ì`Ë`` `oD$ cmJcm. A{^Z§XZmgmR>r `oUmè`m XyaÜdZrnojm nw.c§.Zm _amRrÀ`m {dH$mgmgmR>r Mmccocr MMm© _hÎdmMr dmQ>cr. åhUyZ Xwgè`m doir XyaÜdZrMr K§Q>m dmOVmjUr Ë`m§Zr Ë`mMr nrZM H$mTy>Z R>odcr. Ë`m§À`m `m _Z:nyd©H$VoZo Amåhr IynM ^mamdyZ Jocmo. Iyn _moRr C_oX Ë`m_wio Amåhmcm {_imcr.

H$moc§{~`m AmBg{\$ëS> nmhm`cm {Z_©cm R>mH$ya, gwZrVm Xoenm§S>o, OJÞmW dmUr Am{U nw.c. Xoenm§S>o

nw.c§.À`m {ZdS>H$ \$moQ>m|Mm A§V^m©d Agcoc§ "{MÌ_` ñdJV' ho nwñVH$ à{gÕ Pmë`mZ§Va _cm _mPm {_Ì gwYra gdya `mMm \$moZ Amcm. Vmo åhUmcm "Aao OJZ, nw.c§. ~amo~aMm VwPm EH$ \$moQ>mo N>mnyZ Amcm`.' Vmo \$moQ>mo nhm`Mr _cm IynM CËgwH$Vm hmoVr. gwYraZo Ë`mMr H$m°nr _cm nmR>dcr. _mPm {hdmù`mV dmnam`Mm Vm§~S>m H$moQ> Am{U _I_crMr Q>monr nw.c§.Zm IynM AmdS>m`Mr. Hw$R>ohr ~mhoa OmVmZm Vmo H$moQ> Am{U Vr Qmonr KmcyZM Vo ~mhoa {ZKV. \$moQmo_Ü`o Ë`m§À`m A§Jmda Vmo H$moQ> Am{U S>moŠ`mda Vr Qmonr hmoVr. (Vmo H$moQ> Am{U Vr Qmonr ho _r AOyZhr OnyZ R>odco AmhoV. nw.c§.Zr dmnaë`m_wio Ë`m XmoÝhr dñVy A_yë` Pmë`m AmhoV.) H$moc§{~`m AmB©g{\$ëS> hm A{VàM§S> {h_ZJ nhm`cm _r nw.c., gwZrVm~mB©, S>m°. Am{U gm¡. RmHy$a `m§Zm KoD$Z Jocmo hmoVmo. Voìhm S>m°. RmHw$am§Zr hm \$moQ>mo H$mTcm hmoVm. Vmo \$moQmo nw.c§.Zr "{MÌ_` ñdJVmV' A§V^y©V Ho$cm hmoVm. \$moQmoImcr {c{hc§ hmoV§ "H°$ZSm_Ü`o H°$cJarMo Am_Mo ñZohr àm. dmUr `m§À`m g_doV {h_ZX nmhm`cm Jocmo AgVmZm'. nw.c§. Zr {Xcocr "ñZohr' hr CnmYr _cm nÙlr, nÙ{d^yfU nojmhr _mocmMr dmQ>Vo.

nw.c§.À`m _mÂ`m KaÀ`m dmñVì`mV Am_À`m IynM Vmam Owië`m, AZoH$ d¡`{º$H$ {df`m§dahr Vo _mÂ`mer _moH$ionUmZo ~mocco. Vo S>m°ŠQ>aoQ> nXdr g§nmXZ H$ê$ eH$co AgVo nU Vg§ Pmc§ Zmhr `oWnmgyZ Ë`m§À`m nmë`m©À`m OwÝ`m KamÀ`m AmR>dUr Ago gJio {df` Ë`m§À`m MM}V `m`Mo. _r Ë`mdoir g§JrVmcm dm{hcoë`m "~m§gar' ZmdmÀ`m {Z`VH$m{cH$mM§ g§nmXZ H$arV Ago. Ë`mMo H$mhr A§H$ _r Ë`m§Zm XmI{dco. Vo Ë`m§Zm A{Ve` AmdS>co. Voìhm NCPA Mo Vo Sm`aoŠQ>a hmoV.o ~mgar {Z`VH$m{cH$ _r NCPA cm nmR>dm`M§ Am{U NCPA M§ OZ©c Ë`m§Zr _cm nmR>dm`M§ Ag§ N>mZ gmQ>§ cmoQ>§ Ë`m§Zr gwê$ Ho$c§. nw.c§.À`m AmJ_ZmZ§Va H$mhr AmRdS>çm§Zr _hmamîQ´>mVrc EH$ à»`mV gm{hpË`H nwT>mar Am_À`mH$S>o _w¸$m_mcm hmoV.o Ë`m§Zmhr _r ghO

13


AmH$m§jmnwT>Vr {OWo JJZ R>|JUo & OJÞmW dmUr CÎma A_[aHo$Vrc _amR>r ^m{fH$ _§S>itZr Zì`m XoemV _amR>r ^mfm Am{U g§ñH¥$Vrer Agcoco Amnco ZmVo OnyZ Ro>dÊ`mgmR>r AZoH$ eham§V _amR>r _§S>io ñWmnZ Ho$cr. 1981 _Ü`o øm gJù`m ñWm{ZH$ _§S>im§Mr ~¥hÝ_hmamï´> _§S>i Am°\$ Zm°W© A_o[aH$m (~rE_E_) `m ZmdmZo EH$ _Ü`dVu g§ñWm ñWmnZ Pmcr. `mZ§Va cJoMM ~rE_E_Zo CÎma A_o[aHo$Vrc _amR>r ^m{fH$ A{Zdmgr ^maVr`m§Mo Û¡dm{f©H$ A{YdoeZ Am`mo{OV H$am`cm gwédmV Ho$cr. øm A{YdoeZm§_wio CÎma A_o[aHo$Vrc _amR>r H$cmH$mam§Zm ZmQ>Ho$, JmUr Am{U Z¥Ë` gmXa H$aÊ`mgmR>r ì`mgnrR> {_imco. gJù`mV _hÎdmMo åhUOo VéUnUmVrc Amnë`m AmR>dUtZm COmim XoÊ`mgmR>r øm A{YdoeZm§Zr ñWcm§V[aVm§gmR>r EH$ Mm§Jcr gmo` H$ê$Z {Xcr. CX²KmQ>Z Am{U g_márMo ^ì` gmohio Ë`mMà_mUo ^maVmVë`m à{gÕ H$cmH$mam§Mo _Zmoa§OZmMo H$m`©H«$_ hr øm A{YdoeZmMr _w»` AmH$f©Uo AgVmV.

2001À`m A{YdoeZmgmR>r H°$cJarMo {Z_§ÌU nmR>dÊ`mÀ`m _mÂ`m YmS>gr H$ënZocm ñWm{ZH$ _amR>r _§S>i à{VgmX XoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AJXrM Yyga hmoVr. na§Vw hr YmS>gr _mohr_ am~{dÊ`mÀ`m _mÂ`m gm_Ï`m©da _§S>imÀ`m Ë`m doiÀ`m AÜ`jm S>m°.Z§{XZr qgJ øm§Mm {dídmg hmoVm. Ë`m§Zr Am{U Ë`m§À`m H$m`©H$m[aUrÀ`m g^mgXm§Zr _mPr H$ënZm AmZ§XmZo _mÝ` Ho$cr Am{U A{YdoeZmgmR>r H°$cJarMo {Z_§ÌU V`ma H$aÊ`mMo Am{U Vo gmXa H$aÊ`mMo gd© A{YH$ma _mÂ`mH$S>o gwnyX© Ho$co. 1999 gmcr g°Z hmoOo `oWo Pmcoë`m A{YdoeZmVrc PJ_JmQ> AmOdaÀ`m BVa Hw$R>ë`mhr A{YdoeZmV ~Km`cm {_imcm Zmhr. øm A{YdoeZmVrc gdm©V _w»` AmH$f©U hmoVo Vo åhUOo à{gÕrMo dc` Agcoë`m nmíd©Jm{`H$m Amem ^mogco Am{U Xwgao AmH$f©U hmoVo Ë`m doiMr gdm©{YH$ à{gÕ ~m°crdyS> A{^ZoÌr _mYwar Xr{jV. øm PJ_JË`m AmH$f©UmV ^a åhUyZ VoWrc ñWm{ZH$ H$cmH$mam§Zr gmXa Ho$coco AZoH$ Aà{V_ gm§ñH$¥{VH$ H$m`©H«$_ ! VoWo IMm©da H$moUVrhr _`m©Xm ZìhVr; {gcrH$m°Z ìh°crMo Mma nmM _amR>r H$amoSnVr A{YdoeZ gdm©{YH$ PJ_JrV H$am`cm hOmamo Sm°cg©À`m XoU½`m XoÊ`mgmR>r EH$_oH$m§er MT>mAmoT> H$arV hmoV.o

~rE_E_À`m n{hë`m ZD$ A{YdoeZm§_Ü`o àmÜ`mnH$, A{^ZoVm, coIH$, amOH$maUr, nÌH$ma Aem à{gÕ ì`º$s¨Zm à_wI nmhþUo åhUyZ {Z_§{ÌV Ho$co OmB©. nU _hmamï´>mVrc EImÚm {Z:ñdmWu g_mOgodH$mcm à_wI nmhþUm qH$dm à_wI dº$m åhUyZ ~mocmdÊ`mMm {dMma H$moUË`mhr A{YdoeZmV Pmcocm ZìhVm. Agm {dMma ìhmdm `mgmR>r _r à`ËZ H$am`Mo R>a{dco. A{YdoeZmÀ`m ì`dñWmnZmV ñdV: gh^mJr hmoD$Z Am{U A{YdoeZ g_Ýd`H$mMr O~m~Xmar A§Jmda KoD$ZM ho hmoD$ eH$Uma hmoV.o Ë`mgmR>r 1999À`m àma§^r, g°Z hmoOoÀ`m A{YdoeZÀ`m H$mhr _{hZo AmYr, _r _¡XmZmV CVam`Mm YmS>gr ~oV AmIcm Am{U 2001 gmcr hmoUmè`m A{YdoeZmgmR>r H°$cJarMo {Z_§ÌU nmR>dVm `oB©c H$m `mMm {dMma H$am`cm gwédmV Ho$cr.

EHy$U dmVmdaU BVHo$ {XndyZ Q>mH$Umao hmoVo H$s nwT>À`m A{YdoeZmgmR>r {Z_§ÌU XoÊ`mMr H$moUË`mhr ehamZo {hå_V Ho$cr Zmhr. H°$cJarMo {Z_§ÌU XoVmZm " _r IynM AñdñW hmoVmo ' ho {dYmZgwÜXm Iè`m dmñVdmMr OmUrd H$ê$Z Úm`cm AnwaoM Amho. Am_À`mH$So> Zm Va Hw$Qw§>~m§Mr nwaoer g§»`m hmoVr Zm Va EdT>çm _moR>çm IMm©cm hmV^ma cmdUmao cjmYre ! {Z_§ÌU XoUmè`m _§S>imÀ`m g^mgXm§Mm EH$ OWmM {Z_§ÌU XoÊ`mÀ`m doir hOa AgVmo. BWo _mÂ`m _XVrcm Am_À`m _§S>imMm H$moUrhr g^mgX CnpñWV ZìhVm. hr gJir {damoYmË_H$ nmíd©^y_r AgyZhr _moR>o YmS>g H$ê$Z H°$cJarMo {Z_§ÌU _r ~rE_E_H$S>o gmXa Ho$co. "H°$cJarV A{YdoeZmgmR>r gwg‚m g^mJ¥h (H$ÝìhoZeZ g|Q>a) Agoc H$m ? A{YdoeZmgmR>r `oUmè`m à{V{ZYtgmR>r {Za{Zamù`m hm°Qo>ëg_Ü`o nwaoem Imoë`m CncãY hmoVrc H$m ?' øm Am{U Aem gma»`m AZoH$ e§H$m§Mo {ZagZ H$aÊ`mMr _r V`mar R>odcr hmoVr. A{YdoeZmgmR>r H°$cJarV Zì`mZoM ~m§Ycoco A{YdoeZ g^mJ¥h Ama{jV Ho$ë`mMo h_r nÌ Am{U A{YdoeZmXaå`mZ VrZ amÌtgmR>r AJXr _m\$H$ XamV EH$yU 1,050 Imoë`m CncãY H$ê$Z XoÊ`mV `oVrc Aer AYm© S>PZ hmoQo>ëgH$Sy>Z Amcocr nÌo _r ~amo~a KoD$Z Jocmo hmoVmo. " {d_mZ àdmgmÀ`m Ñ{ï>H$moZmVyZ H°$cJar gmo`rMo Amho

AmOn`ªVMr gJir A{YdoeZo _amR>r Hw$Qw§>~m§Mr g§»`m eoH$S>çm§V AgUmè`m _moR>çm eham§V Pmcr hmoVr. àË`oH$ A{YdoeZmgmR>r {ZXmZ EH$drgÀ`m Odinmg ñWm{ZH$ g{_Ë`m ñWmnZ H$amì`m cmJVmV. àË`oH$ g{_VrV H$_rVH$_r VrZ g^mgX ¿`m`Mo R>a{dco Var Amåhmcm ñdoÀNo>Zo H$m_mg V`ma AgUmao 63 hÿZ OmñV g{_Vr g^mgX Amdí`H$ hmoVo. H°$cJarV \$º$ n§MoMmirg _amR>r Hw$Qw§>~o hmoVr. Ë`m n§MoMmirg Hw$Qw§>~m§Vrc ZìdX àm¡T> ì`º$s¨n¡H$s gJioM ñdoÀN>oZo øm g{_Ë`m§da H$m_ H$amd`mg V`ma hmoVrc Aer ImÌr XoUo eŠ` ZìhVo. EImX² Xwgè`m Hw$Qw§>~mMm AndmX dJiVm H°$cJarVrc H$moUVohr Hw$Qw§>~ `mnydu ~rE_E_À`m A{YdoeZmcm CnpñWVhr am{hco ZìhVo. Aer nmíd©^y_r AgVmZm 14


O~m~Xmar KoUmam H$moUr cjmYre CncãY ZgVmZm A{YdoeZm~ÔcÀ`m Am_À`m _hÎdmH$m§jm§nwT>o JJZ IamoIaM R>|JUo hmoVo ! _mÂ`m Ñï>rZo A{YdoeZmMr nmíd©^y_r ì`ŠV H$aUmao ømhÿZ Xwgao Mm§Jco ~moYdmŠ` {_iUoM eŠ` ZìhVo. e¡cmZo {MH$mQ>rZo Am{U ZoQ>mZo {nÀN>m nwa{dë`m_wio _rZm Zoê$aH$aZo Am_À`m ñdmJV g_ma§^mVrc "gømÐrMo ñdJV'øm H$m`©H«$_mMr O~m~Xmar KoVcr. e¡cm~amo~a H$m_ H$aUo hm EH$ AmZ§XXm`H$ AZw^d hmoVm. A{YdoeZmÀ`m `em_Ü`o {VMm qghmMm dmQ>m hmoVm. Iao gm§Jm`Mo Va {VÀ`m ZoV¥Ëdm_wioM Am_Mo "AmH$m§jmnwT>{V {OWo JJZ R>|JUo !' ho ~moYdmŠ` gmW© H$aVm Amco.

H$m ? ' `m Ë`m§À`m àýmMo _cm _wirM AmíM`© dmQ>co Zmhr. {d_mZ àdmgmÀ`m Ñ{ï>H$moZmVyZ A_o[aHo$Vrb >~hþVoH$ _moRr ehao H°$cJarer OmoS>cocr AmhoV ho _r Ë`m§À`m {ZXe©Zmg AmyUZ {Xco. " OJmVrc gdm©V _moR>m _¡XmZr Ioi '( {X J«oQ>oñQ> AmD$Q>S>moAa emo Am°Z AW© ) åhUyZ AmoiIcr OmUmar OJà{gÕ ñQ°>ånrS~ÔcMr Am{U ^ì` H°$Zo{S>`Z am°H$sO²~ÔcMr _m{hVrnÌHo$hr àñVmdmgmo~V g_m{dï> H$am`cm _r {dgacmo ZìhVmo. ~rE_E_À`m H$m`©H$m[aUrÀ`m {ZXmZ XmoZ g^mgXm§Zm _r CÎma A_o[aHo$V H$arV Agcoë`m ^maVr` g§JrV Am{U Z¥Ë`mÀ`m àgmamMr Am{U _hmamï´> godm g{_VrÀ`m _mÜ`_mVyZ ^maVmVrc {ZamYmam§À`m _XVrgmR>r H$arV Agcoë`m g_mOH$m`m©Mr _m{hVr hmoVr. `eñdrnUo AmìhmZo nocÊ`m~m~VÀ`m _mÂ`m j_Vo~Ôc Ë`m XmoKm§Zmhr ImÌr hmoVr. A{YdoeZmÀ`m g_mamonmÀ`m doir 2001À`m A{YdoeZmgmR>r H°$cJarZo {Xcoë`m {Z_§ÌUmMr Ë`m§Zr KmofUm Ho$cr. H°$cJarVrc chmZ _amR>r g_wXm`m_wio A{YdoeZ H$go nma nSo>c ømMr e§H$m ì`º$ H$ê$ZM AZoH$m§Zr _mPo A{^Z§XZ Ho$co. EH$ {_Ì ømcm AndmX hmoVm. Ë`mcm A{O~mV Hw$R>crhr e§H$m ZìhVr. Ë`mZo _cm "gmonm' Cnm` gwM{dcm. "" Vwåhmcm _moR>çm g_wXm`mMr JaOM Zmhr, \$º$ AmUIr Xhm "OJÞmW dmUr' C^o H$am Am{U Vw_M§ H$m_ hmoB©c.'' g§»`onojm XOm© OmñV _hÎdmMm AgVmo hoM Ë`mcm gy{MV H$am`Mo hmoV.o Ë`mMm "gmonm' Cnm` åhUOo Xhm dmhÿZ KoVcoco H$m`©j_ H$m`©H$V} emoYyZ Ë`m§Zm H$m_mcm cmdUo !

H°$cJarVrc {dZ` XÎmmZr _amR>r _§S>imMm g^mgX ZìhVm. Ë`mMr _mV¥^mfm Amho JwOamWr. ì`dgm`mZo A{^`§Vm Agcocm {dZ` Üd{Z{MÌUmVhr VÁk Amho. Am_À`m Üd{Z{MÌ g{_VrMo AÜ`jnX ñdrH$mê$Z _cm _XV H$aÊ`mMr _r Ë`mcm {dZ§Vr Ho$cr. Am_À`m d¡`{º$H$ g§~§Ym§_wio Ë`mZo Vr AmZ§XmZo ñdrH$macr Am{U Vmo Am_À`m _hÎdmÀ`m ñd`§godH$ _§S>imV _ZmnmgyZ gh^mJr Pmcm. Ë`mÀ`m Hw$Qw§>~mVrc Mma cmoH$ Am{U XmoZ {_Ì Agm ñdV:Mm ñd`§godH$m§Mm EH$ JQ> Ë`mZo Amnë`m _XVrgmR>r V`ma Ho$cm. Ë`m§À`m _XVr_wio A{YdoeZmMo Odinmg nÞmg hOma S>m°cg© dmMco. {dZ`gmo~V gmñH$mQ>yZMm _mPm {_Ì gwZrc Mm¡~i `mZo A{YdoeZmVrc gd© àg§Jm§Mr N>m`m{MÌo H$mT>Ê`mMr O~m~Xmar ñdrH$macr. 2001À`m ~rE_E_À`m A{YdoeZmÀ`m Am`moOZmV gh^mJr hmoÊ`mgmR>r _r ES>_§Q>ZhÿZ gwaoe JwO©acm {Z_§{ÌV Ho$co. Ë`mZo _mPo {Z_§ÌU AmZ§XmZo ñdrH$maco. Ë`m_mJMr XmoZ H$maUo Ë`mZo _cm gm§{JVcr. EH$Va EdT>çm _moR>çm H$m_mV _cm _XV H$aUo Am{U Xwgao åhUOo A_o[aHo$Vrc _amR>r cmoH$m§Zm {ZgJ©aå` Aë~Q>>m©Mo Xe©Z KS>{dUo. ~rE_E_ A{YdoeZmMm A§J^yV ^mJ AgyZhr AJXr ñdV§Ì Agcoë`m ì`mdgm{`H$ n[afXoÀ`m ({~{PZog H$m°Ý\$aÝgÀ`m) Am`moOZmMr g§nyU© O~m~Xmar gwaoeZo AmnUhÿZ ñdrH$macr Am{U ñdV§ÌnUo H$m_ H$ê$Z EH$ A{Ve` `eñdr ì`mdgm{`H$ n[afX KS>dyZ AmUcr.

Oar "gmonm' Zgcm Var hm Cnm` AJXr `mo½` hmoVm. H°$cJarÀ`m _amR>r g_wXm`mV Ago Xhm H$m`©H$V} gmnS>Uo AeŠ` hmoV.o ømgmR>r CÎma A_o[aHo$Vrc gd© _amR>r g_mOmV Aem H$m`©H$Ë`mªMm emoY ¿`mdm cmJUma hmoVm. VgoM H°$cJarVrc _hmamï´>m~mhoaÀ`m _mÂ`m BVa ^maVr` {_Ì_§S>itMrhr _XV _cm ¿`mdr cmJUma hmoVr. H°$cJarà_mUoM ES>_§Q> Z, gmñH$mQy>Z d ìh±Hw$ìha `oWrc _amR>r _§S>im§Zr _XVrgmR>r hmV nwT>o H$oc.o `mZ§Va CÎma A_o[aH$m^aMo Mm§Jco H$m`©H$V} emoYyZ A{YdoeZmÀ`m Cng{_Ë`m§Mr aMZm H$aÊ`mV Amcr. A{YdoeZmÀ`m EH$drg Cng{_Ë`m§n¡H$s Mm¡Xm§Mo AÜ`j H°$cJar ~mhoaMo _amR>r {_Ì hmoVo Am{U VrZMo AÜ`j H°$cJarVrcM na§Vw _amR>r g_mOm~mhoaMo _mPo ^maVr` {_Ì hmoV.o Cacoë`m§n¡H$s \$º$ Mma Cng{_Ë`m§Mo AÜ`j H°$cJarVrc _amR>r _§S>imMo gXñ` hmoVo.

~rE_E_À`m A{YdoeZmV ñd`§godH$m§Mr OwidmOwid H$aUo Am{U Ë`m§Zm ì`dpñWV gm§^miyZ KoUo ho \$ma _hÎdmMo H$m_ AgVo. Ë`m H$m_mgmR>r H$m`©j_ Am{U ñdIwerZo H$m_ H$aUmar ì`º$s emoYUo ho EH$ _moRo> AmìhmZM hmoV.o _mÂ`m Smoù`mg_moa n{hc§ Zmd Amco Vo eoar JwO©aMo. {Vcm ñdV:cm _amR>r ~mocVm `oV Zmhr nU _amR>r ~mocUmè`m gwaoe JwO©aer {VZo c¾ Ho$co Amho. H°$ZS>mÀ`m Jc© JmB©S²>g_Yrc {VMm gh^mJ Am{U Ë`m g§ñWogmR>r ñd`§godH$m§À`m g_Ýd`mÀ`m {VZo Ho$coë`m H$m¡eë`nyU© H$m_m~Ôc _cm _m{hVr

~rE_E_À`m AÜ`jm e¡cm {dÛm§§g øm§Zm A{YdoeZmgmR>r EH$ AJXr MnIc ~moYdmŠ` {_imco, "AmH$m§jm§nwT>{V {OWo JJZ R>|JUo !' lr. H¥$. H$moëhQ>H$am§Zr {H$Vr gw§Xa Am{U CXmÎm H$ënZm `m H$mì`n§º$sVyZ ì`º$ Ho$cr Amho ! H°$cJarVrc AJXr chmZ _amR>r g_wXm` Am{U Ë`m chmZem g_wXm`mV A{YdoeZmÀ`m IMm©Mr 15


hmoVr. _r Oam MmMaVM {Vcm _mÂ`m ~rE_E_ A{YdoeZmÀ`m _mo{h_oV _XV H$aÊ`m~Ôc {dMmaco. {VZo AmZ§XmZo hmoH$ma {Xë`mda _cm AmíM`m©Mm gwIX Y¸$mM ~gcm. eoarZo H°$cJar Am{U ES>_§Q>Z_YyZ AZoH$ ñd`§godH$ Jmoim Ho$co. ~hþVoH$ ñd`§godH$ _amR>r g_wXm`m~mhoaMo hmoV.o A{YdoeZmMo VrZ {Xdg eoarÀ`m ghZercVoMr narjm ~KUmao hmoV.o H$m`©dmhr g{_Ë`m§Zr Am`Ë`m doir Ho$cocr ñd`§godH$m§Mr _mJUr A{Ve` VUmdnyd© n[apñWVrVhr {VZo gpñ_V Mohè`mZo d em§V {MÎmmZo nyU© Ho$cr.

_wcmIVtMr H$ënZm H$mT>cr. Aem _wcmIVrVyZ A{YdoeZmgmR>r Amcoë`m à{V{ZYtÀ`m Iè`mIwè`m à{V{H«$`m ì`º$ hmoUma hmoË`m. {dZ`Zo H°$_oam_Z ~ZyZ Am{U eoarZo _wcmIVH$ma ~ZyZ S>PZmhÿZ A{YH$ à{V{ZYtÀ`m _wcmIVr H°$_oè`mV nH$S>ë`m. A{YdoeZmÀ`m eodQ>À`m {XderÀ`m H$m`©H«$_mXaå`mZ {dZ`Zo øm _wcmIVr _mo>R>çm nS>Úmda {M{ÌV Ho$ë`m. _wcmIVtMo BVHo$ OcX àgmaU ~KyZ àojH$hr IynM à^m{dV Pmco. àojH$m§Zm EHy$U H$ënZm \$maM AmdS>cr. {dZ` Am{U eoar XmoKm§§da H$m¡VwH$mMm dfm©d Pmcm. ~rE_E_À`m H$moUË`mM A{YdoeZmV Aem CËñ\y$V© _wcmIVtMo gmXarH$aU _r nm{hco Zmhr.

eodQ>À`m {Xder XwnmaÀ`m OodUmÀ`m doir eoar Am{U {dZ`Zo A{YdoeZmVrc à{V{ZYtÀ`m Am`Ë`m doiÀ`m CËñ\y$V©

~¥hÝ_hmamï´> _§S>imÀ`m A{YdoeZàg§Jr é~oZ ZoëgZ, gwaoe JwO©a, _wacr n|T>maH$a, gwYra na~, _Zmoha Omoer, pŠc¨Q> S>Ý\$S>©, {dO` ^QH$a, A^` ~§J, e¡cm {dÛm§g> Am{U OJÞmW dmUr

_mPr gyZ à{V_m H$moUVohr hmVr KoVcoco H$m_ A{Ve` {eñV~Õ nÕVrZo nma nmS>Vo. H$moUVrhr Jmoï> gwì`dpñWV Pmë`m{edm` {VMo g_mYmZ hmoV Zmhr. gmh{OH$M A{YdoeZmÀ`m Am`moOZmV {VZo gh^mJr ìhmdo Aer _mPr BÀN>m hmoVr. A{YdoeZmV OdiOdi 35% CnpñWVr hr 18 Vo 35 d`moJQ>mÀ`m VéUm§Mr AgVo. VéUm§À`m `m JQ>mMo {VZo gwH$mUy g{_VrV à{V{Z{YËd H$amdo hr _mPr gyMZm {VZo AmZ§XmZo _mÝ` Ho$cr. Z§Va gwH$mUy g{_VrMo {MQ>Urg nXhr {VZo pñdH$maco. doiÀ`m doir B{Vd¥Îm {c{hÊ`mMo Am{U VËnaVoZo Vo {dVaU H$aÊ`mMo H$m_ {VZo CÎm_ àH$mao Ho$co. ~¡R>H$sV MM}cm Amcoë`m gd©

_wÔçm§Mm AMyH$ Jmofdmam {VÀ`m B{Vd¥ÎmmVyZ àVrV hmoV Ago. g{_VrÀ`m gJù`m ~¡R>H$sV gh^mJr hmoD$Z {VZo g{_VrÀ`m {Z`moOZ Am{U AmIUrda Amncm ñdV:Mm Agm R>gm C_Q>dcm. ñQ°>ånrS>Mm Img Zmï>m, amÌrMo ^moOZ Am{U Z¥Ë` øm gma»`m VéUm§À`m AZoH$ H$m`©H«$_m§_Ü`o Am`Ë`m doir AmUIr C_oXdma KoUo ~aoM ÌmgmMo AgVo. Varhr Aem EoZdoir Amcoë`m C_oXdmam§Zm {VZo Hw$R>ë`mhr n«H$mao ÌmJm Z H$aVm gm_mdyZ KoVco. Z§Va `oUmè`m `m C_oXdmam§Zm AÝ`Wm øm _`m©{XV àdoem§À`m H$m`©H«$_mV gh^mJr hmoVm Amco ZgVo. _mPm _wcJm amOyhr à{V_m~amo~a VéUm§À`m g{_Vr_Ü`o hmoVm. na§Vw Ë`mMm à_wI gh^mJ hmoVm ì`mdgm{`H$ 16


n[afXoÀ`m g{_VrV. ^maVmÀ`m gwna g§JUH$mMo OZH$ S>m°. {dO` ^Q>H$a øm§Zr _cm nmR>dcoë`m B©-_oc _Ü`o Img H$ê$Z ì`mdgm{`H$ n[afXo_Ü`o amOyZo Ë`mÀ`m gmXarH$aUmÛmao Omo R>gm C_Q>dcm Ë`mMm {deof C„oI Ho$cm.

_XV KoD$Z _mÂ`m {_ÌmÀ`m gëë`mMr ì`dpñWV A§_c~OmdUr Ho$cr. AmaVrÀ`m CÎm_ Am`moOZm_wio gJir _wco Am{U Ë`m§Mo nmcH$ Iwe hmoV.o A{YdoeZmÀ`m _w»` H$m`©H«$_mMm AmñdmX KoD$Z Ooìhm nmcH$ _wcm§Zm Ý`m`cm Amco Voìhm _wco Ë`m§À`mH$S>o naV `m`cmM V`ma ZìhVr. XmoZ nojm A{YH$ Hw$Qw>§~m§H$Sy>Z Amåhmcm hr à{V{H«$`m EoH$m`cm {_imcr. EH$m Hw$Qw>§~mZo AmYrÀ`m A{YdoeZmVrc AZw^dhr gm§{JVcm. VoWo nmiUmKamV H§$Q>miyZ Jococr _wco nmcH$m§À`m `oÊ`mMr AmVwaVoMr dmQ> nhmV AgV. {Xdg^amVrc _wcm§À`m H$m`©H«$_mMm XOm©, Ë`mVrc {d{dYVm Am{U e¡j{UH$ Cn`wº$Vm `m~m~V nmiUmKamÀ`m gmo`rMm cm^ KoUmè`m gd© nmcH$m§À`m à{V{H«$`m gH$mamË_H$M hmoË`m.

ì`mgnrR> Am{U gOmdQ> g{_VrMm à_wI âcmo[aS>mMm {H$emoa nmR>mao _mÂ`m g_{n©V H$m`©j_ ñd`§godH$m§À`m JQ>m_Ü`o hmoVm. Ë`mZo Ë`mÀ`m _XVrgmR>r ñdV:Mm EH$ JQ> V`ma Ho$cm hmoVm. Ë`m_Ü`o Ë`mMm _wcJm {dXoe, _wcJr Amgmdar JwßVo Am{U _oar {H$cJmoa d ñQ>rìh Om°O© `m XmoZ ghH$mè`m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVm. ì`mgnrR>mdarc gJù`m H$m`©H«$_m§À`m nmœ©^y_rgmR>r CÎm_ gOmdQ> V`ma H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`mZo KoVcoë`m H$ï>m§Mr H$moUr H$ënZmM H$ê$ eH$V Zmhr. A{YdoeZmÀ`m VrZ {Xdgm§Xaå`mZ Ë`mÀ`m _XVrgmR>r Amåhr Ë`mcm AmUIr VrZ ñWm{ZH$ ñd`§godH$ {Xco. eaX _moH$mer Ë`mn¡H$s EH$ hmoVm. {H$emoacm ZmQ>H$mgmR>r ì`mgnrR>mda H$mhr \${Z©Ma hdo hmoVo. Vo AJXr _m\$H$ XamV {_idyZ Úm`cm eaXZo _XV Ho$cr. 65 Sm°cg©Mr chmZer XoUJr XoD$Z Ë`mZo Vo H°$cJar B§Q>a-\o$W ñQ>moAa_YyZ \${Z©Ma CgZdma AmUco.

~rE_E_ A{YdoeZmV H$ÝQ>rÝ`wBªJ _o{S>H$c EÁ`wHo$eZ hm EH$ ñdV§Ì H$m`©H«$_ AgVmo. n§oQ>rŠQ>>Z ({~«{Q>e H$moc§{~`m) `oWrc S>m°. {dcmg à^y øm§Zr øm H$m_mMr gd© O~m~Xmar ñdrH$macr hmoVr. H°$cJarVrc EëH$Z² MarH$a, gwZ§Xm _UoarH$a Am{U _`wam a§Jm`Z øm§Zr AZwH«$_o gw{dYm, ^moOZ Am{U àXe©Z g{_VrMr gyÌo gm§^micr. Q>moam|Q>moÀ`m {dZm`H$ JmoIco `m§Zr A{YdoeZmÀ`m ñ_a{UHo$À`m àH$meZmMr O~m~Xmar KoVcr. ~m°ñQ>ZMo gwYmH$a doc§H$sdma ZmQ>ç Am{U H$cm g{_VrMo à_wI hmoVo. A{YdoeZmV EH$mM doir Mma {^Þ g^mJ¥hm§_Ü`o hmoUmè`m H$m`©H«$_m§gmR>r doJdoJù`m JQ>m§Mr {ZdS> H$aÊ`mMo H$m_ Ë`m§Zr nm{hco. na§Vw Ë`m§Zm A{YdoeZmcm CnpñWV amhVm Amco Zmhr. gmñH$mQy>ZÀ`m àH$me gwcmIoZo Am`Ë`m doir øm H$m`©H«$_m§À`m gmXarH$aUmMo H$m_ nm{hco. Ý`y OguÀ`m gwZrc nmQ>cm§Zr H$m`©emim g{_VrMo H$m_ ñdrH$mê$Z Ë`mgmR>r `mo½` {df` Am{U ì`º$s¨Mr {ZdS> Ho$cr.

^maVmVrc à»`mV emór` g§JrVH$mam§À`m gwOZ amU§oÀ`m Hw§$Më`mVyZ CVacoë`m V¡c{MÌm§Mo àXe©Z ho A{YdoeZmVrc AmUIr EH$ AmH$f©U hmoVo. øm à»`mV H$cmH$mam§À`m Mohè`mdarc ^md amU|Zr Iyn ~maH$mì`mZo {Q>nco hmoV.o {_imcoë`m g§Yr~Ôc H¥$VkVm ì`º$ H$aVmZm amUo åhUmco, "A{YdoeZmVrc _mÂ`m {MÌm§À`m àXe©ZmMr g§Yr hr _mÂ`m~amo~a ZoÊ`mgmR>r EH$ gwIX ñ_¥VrM Amho.'

AmYr Z_yX Ho$ë`mà_mUo _hmamîQ´>mVrc g_mO godH$m§Zm ~rE_E_À`m A{YdoeZm§Zm {Z_§{ÌV H$ê$Z Ë`m§À`m {Z:ñdmWu g_mO$H$m`m©cm à{gÕr XoÊ`mMr àWm gwê$ H$aÊ`mMo _mPo ñdßZ hmoVo. à{gÕ g_mOgodH$ Sm°. A^` ~§J `m§Zm H°$cJarÀ`m A{YdoeZmgmR>r à_wI dŠVo åhUyZ {Z_§{ÌV H$aÊ`mV _r `eñdr Pmë`mZo _mPm hm CÔoe g\$c Pmcm. "godmJ«m_ Vo emoYJ«m_' øm Ë`m§À`m öX`ñneu ì`m»`mZmZo gd© CnpñWV IynM ^mamdyZ Joco. S>m°ŠQ>g©, B§{O{Z`g© qH$dm VËg_ AZoH$ {dÚm{d^y{fV ì`mdgm{`H$ ì`m»`mZmZ§Va Ë`m§Zm dmHy$Z Z_ñH$ma H$arV hmoVo. ~rE_E_ A{YdoeZmV g_mOgodH$mÀ`m Pmcoë`m `m n{hë`md{hë`m `eñdr ì`m»`mZmMo à{VÜdZr A{YdoeZmÀ`m ~mhoahr Xyada C_Q>co. _w§~B©À`m gdm}X` _§S>imZo ho ì`m»`mZ JwOamWr, qhXr Am{U B§J«Or ^mfm§_Ü`o nwpñVHo$À`m ñdê$nmV à{gÜX Ho$co. AmOdaÀ`m H$moUË`mhr ~rE_E_ A{YdoeZmVrc dŠË`mÀ`m ^mfUmMm BVH$m XyaJm_r n[aUm_ Pmcocm Zmhr. A{YdoeZmV g_mOgodH$mcm

~¥hÝ_hmamï´> _§S>imÀ`m A{YdoeZmVrc ^mfUàg§Jr S>m°. {ZVy _m§S>H$o Am{U S>m°. A^` ~§J

g°Z hmoOoÀ`m _mÂ`m EH$m {_ÌmZo VoWrc A{YdoeZmÀ`m Ë`mÀ`m AZw^dmdê$Z Amåhmcm "H$m` H$amdo Am{U H$m` H$ê$ Z`o' ømMr EH$ `mXrM _mÂ`mH$S>o nmR>dcr hmoVr. Ë`m A{YdoeZmVrc chmZ _wcm§Zm gm§^miÊ`mÀ`m nmiUmKamÀ`m gmo`ter {ZJ{S>V H$mhr g_ñ`m Ë`mZo àH$fm©Zo Am_À`m {ZXe©Zmg AmUë`m hmoË`m. nmiUmKa g{_VrMr à_wI AmaVr H$maImZrgZo em{cZr _moH$metMr 17


{Z_§{ÌV H$aÊ`mMm hm n{hcmM à`ËZ BVH$m à^mdr R>acm H$s nwT>rc gd© A{YdoeZmVyZ hr na§nam Mmcy R>>odÊ`mV Amcr.

AndmX R>aco. Ë`mM A§H$mV H$Yr Zìho Vo n{hë`m§XmM A{YdoeZmda AmYm[aV ì`§J{MÌm§Mr _m{cH$m nU N>mncr hmoVr. hr gJirM ì`§J{MÌoo A{YdoeZmMo H$m¡VwH$ H$aUmar hmoVr. A{YdoeZmg§~Y§ rÀ`m à{V{H«$`m ì`º$ H$aUmao Imcrc XmoZ CVmao IynM CX²~moYH$ AmhoV.

S>m°. A^` ~§Jm§IoarO ^maVmÀ`m gwna g§JUH$mMo OZH$ S>m.° {dO` ^Q>H$a, Amnë`m h`mVrVM X§VH$Wm ~ZyZ am{hcoco öX`eë`{demaX S>m°. {ZVy _m§S>Ho$, "CÈ>mU nyc VÁk>' ("X âcm`Amoìha _°Z') _m. {ZVrZ JS>H$ar, Am§Vaamï´>r` ZmUo {ZYrMo (B§Q>aZ°eZc _moZoQ> ar \§$SmMo) àemgH$s` AÜ`j S>m°. {dO` Ho$iH$a, ^maVmMo AdOS> CÚmoJY§Úm§Mo _§Ìr _m. _Zmoha Omoer, Aë~Q>m©Mo dm{UÁ` {dñVma _§Ìr _m. _mH©$ Zm°[ag Am{U ^{dî`doÎmo ê$~oZ ZoëgZ `m§Mmhr A{YdoeZmV g_mdoe hmoVm.

"" H°$cJarMo A{YdoeZ åhUOo EH$ M_ËH$maM åhUmdm cmJoc. _r EoH$c§ hmoV§ H$s gJim gmdim Jm|Yi Agoc H$maU H°$cJarVrc _amR>r g_wXm` (AmH$mamZo) IynM chmZ Amho. Vw_À`m ghH$m`m©Mm Am{U {dMmam§Vrc g_§OgnUmMm _r AZw^d KoVcm hmoVm, _cm (H$moUVmhr) Jm|Yi Ano{jV ZìhVm na§Vw Varhr _cm \$ma OmñV Anojmhr ZìhVr nU _cm AmíM`©M dmQ>c§, gJi§ BVH§$ gw§Xa Am`mo{OV Ho$c§ hmoV§ H$s _r EH$m dmŠ`mV Ë`mM§ dU©Z H$arZ, "gw~H$, XoIUo Am{U AmQ>monera A{YdoeZ !' ''

A{YdoeZmÀ`m g_mamonmMm H$m`©H«$_ _hmamï´>mMr cmS>H$s Jm{`H$m H¡$. _m{UH$ XmXaH$a-d_m© øm§À`m OrdZmda AmYm[aV hmoVm. g§JrV H$m`©H«$_m§Mo {Z_m©Vo _w§~B©Mo AemoH$ hm§S>o øm§Zr hm _ëQ>r{_S>r`m H$m`©H«$_ gmXa Ho$cm hmoVm. AemoH$ hm§S>|Zr H$m`©H«$_mgmR>r _m{UH$VmBªÀ`m A{Ve` öX`ñneu JmÊ`m§Mr {ZdS> Ho$cr hmoVr. Ë`m§Zr {c{hcoë`m O~aXñV H$WmZH$mÀ`m {ZdoXZmMo H$m_ _m{UH$VmBªMr _wcJr d§XZm JwßVo H$arV hmoVr. "cm{dVo _r {Zam§OZ...' øm H$m`©H«$_mÀ`m g_mamonmVrc JrVmZo àojH$m§À`m _ZmMm R>md KoVcm. H$m`©H«$_ g§në`mda gJù`m§À`m Smoù`m§Vrc Aly Jmcm§da AmoKiV hmoVo.

pñ_Vm ^mJdV, Q>moam|Q>mo "" H°$cJarMr " gwnmar ' KoD$Z Amcoë`m S>m°. OJÞmW dmUr øm§À`m H$m`©j_VoMr nyU© H$ënZm AgUmè`m§À`mhr _ZmV AZoH$ àý{MÝho XmQy>Z Amcr hmoVr. _J BVam§Mo H$m` ? ... "AmH$m§jmnwT{V {OWo JJZ R>|JUo' ho Xhmì`m A{YdoeZmMo gyÌ {eamoYm`© _mZÊ`mMr Ë`m§Mr {OÔ H°$cJarcm hOa Agcoë`m àË`oH$mcm nmdcmonmdcr ZOaocm `oV hmoVr. "H°$cJarM§ A{YdoeZ H$gc§ nma nS>V§` ?' øm e§Ho$nmgyZ Vo, "H°$cJarM§ A{YdoeZ aÔ hmoV§ Amho ~a§ H$m !' Aem dmdS>çm§n`ªVÀ`m gd© {d¿Zg§Vmofr Vèhm AZw^dmcm `oV hmoË`m nU... Vgo ìhm`Mo ZìhVo !''

àË`oH$ A{YdoeZmZ§Va EH$Vm Ì¡_m{gH$ A{YdoeZmVrc AZwHy$c d à{VHy$c Jmoï>rda à{V{H«$`m XoUmao coI àH$m{eV H$aVo. EH$VmÀ`m Am°ŠQ>mo~a 2001À`m A§H$m_Ü`o H°$cJarÀ`m A{YdoeZmg§X^m©V nmM coI N>mnyZ Amco hmoV.o nmMm§n¡H$s H$moUË`mhr coImV A{YdoeZmg§X^m©V à{VHy$c à{V{H«$`m ZìhVr. ghgm, H$m` MwH$co Am{U H$m` gwYmam`cm hdo øm~Ôc gyMZm H$aUmè`m H$mhr à{V{H«$`m AgVmV. H°$cJar A{YdoeZ ømcm

XwJm© nmÀN>mnyaH$a, Q>moam|Q>mo Am°ŠQ>mo~a 2001 À`m EH$VmÀ`m Ì¡_m{gH$mV à{gÜX Pmcocr nwT>rc VrZ ì`§J{MÌo IynM ~mocH$s AmhoV.

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g§O` CnmÜ`o `m§Mo Jßnmï>H$ ho_§V ~oS>} gmYaU _o 2005 À`m gwadmVrcm ìh±Hw$ìhaÀ`m _amR>r _§S>iMm _cm \$moZ Amcm. ‘ g§O` CnmÜ`o `m§Mm ìh±Hw$ìhaÀ`m _§S>imV Pmcocm Jßnmï>H$ H$m`©H«$_ IynM cmoH${à` Pmcm Am{U Ë`m§À`m Jßnmï>H$mgma»`m AmUIr EH$m H$m`©H«$_mMr _§S>imÀ`m gXñ`m§Zr OmoaXma _mJUr Ho$cocr Amho. hm cmoH${à` H$m`©H«$_ H°$cJar _amR>r _§S>imcm gmXa H$am`Mm Agë`mg g§O` CnmÜ`o e{Zdmar, 4 OyZcm, H°$cJarcm `oD$ eH$Vrc.’ _mÂ`m H$m`©H$mar _§S>icm H$ënZm AmdS>cr Am{U _r Am_Mm hmoH$ma Ë`m§Zm H$i{dcm.

Amho. Ë`m§À`m H$m`©H«$_mda {Q>nÊUr H$amd`mMr Pmë`mg BVHo$ gm§JVm `oB©c H$s, Ë`m§Zr Amnë`m JwéMr {dÚm AmË_gmV H$ê$Z Ë`m§Mo Zmd gmW© R>a{dco Amho. ------------------------------------(nmZ 7 dê$Z) {edN>ÌnVtÀ`m H$mimV, _amR>rV {eacocm \$magrnUm H$mTy>Z {Vcm g§ñH$¥VZrð> ê$n XoÊ`mV Amco. Ë`mgmR>r amOì`dhma H$moe V`ma Ho$cm Jocm. nU noedoH$mimn`ªV `mMm A{VaooH$ hmoD$Z _amR>rMo _amR>rnUM OUy Zï> hmoD$ cmJco. g§V EH$ZmWm§À`m dMZmMr BWo AmR>dU `oV,o ""g§ñH¥$V Xodo {Z{_©cr, àmH¥$V H$m` MmoamnmgyZr Amcr ?'' hm g§ñH¥$VMm A{VaoH$hr hiyhiy H$_r Pmcm.

hm H$m`©H«$_ IamoIaM àe§gZr` Pmcm. g§nyU© lmoV¥dJ© CnmÜ`o `m§À`m Iw_mgXma {dZmoXm§Zr _§Ì_w½Y Pmcm hmoVm. ~{hUm~mB©, Hw$gw_mJ«O `m§À`m H$mhr H${dVm§Mo Am{U ñdV: {c{hcoë`m H$mhr H${dVm§Mo Ë`m§Zr dmMZ Ho$co. _amR>r dmL²>_`, Ë`mdoir Mmcy Agcoë`m gm_m{OH$ Am{U amOH$r` KS>m_moS>r, Y_© BË`mXr {df`mda Ë`m§Zr {dñVmarV {Q>ßnUr Ho$cr. CnmÜ`o `m§Zr _amR>r {dZmoXr gm{hË`mVrc AÌo, J{X_m, H$moëhQ>H$a AmXr coIH$m§À`m {dZmoXr e¡crda {dñVmarV {dícofU Ho$co.

Adm©MrZ H$mimV {H$cmo©ñH$a, Xodc Am{U JS>H$è`m§À`m _amR>r ZmQ>H$m§Zr _amR>r_Ü`o nwÝhm {Od§VnUm AmUcm. Ho$edgwV, Ho$edHw$_ma (à. Ho$. AÌo), har Zmam`U AmnQ>o, Hw$gw_mJ«O ({d. dm. {eadmS>H$a), ~m.gr. _T>o}H$a, {dZmo~m ^mdo, {d. g. Im§S>oH$a, nw. c. Xoenm§S>o, VH©$VrW© cú_Uemór Omoer, ñdmV§Í`dra gmdaH$a, AaqdX JmoIco, J§JmYa JmS>Jri, ~m. ^. ~moaH$a, Or.E. Hw$cH$Uu, ~{hUm~mB©, Zm. Ym|. _hmZmoa Aem Ag§»` ZmQ>H$H$ma H$dr, H$mX§~arH$mam§Zr _amR>rMo _amR>rnU Onco.

CnmÜ`o `m§Zr XmoZ Vmgm§À`m H$m`©H«$_mV gm{hË`, H$cm, amOH$maU, g_mOH$maU, ZmQ>H$, H$mì`, g§JrV, g§ñH¥$Vr BË`mXr doJdoJù`m {df`m§Mm gw§Xa Jmo\$ Jw§\y$Z gd© lmoV¥dJm©cm IwMuda {IidyZ R>odco. Ë`m§À`m doJdoJù`m {df`mVrc AJmY kmZmZo lmoVo AM§{~V Pmco. lr. CnmÜ`o `m§Mr g§dmXe¡cr ghO Am{U AmoKdVr hmoVr. Ë`m§Mo ñd{Z{_©V {dZmoX Iw_mgXma hmoV.o Ë`m§Zr Ho$coë`m {dZmoXm§Mr VwcZm nw.c. Xoenm§S>o§À`m {dZmoXmer Ho$cr Va dmdJo R>aUma Zmhr. X¡Z§{XZ ì`dhmamV KS>Umè`m Jmoï>r {dZmoX Am{U ZmQ>çmÀ`m ñdê$nmV lmoË`mn`ªV nmohmoMdÊ`mMr EH$ AZmoIr H$cm CnmÜ`o `m§À`mH$S>o Amho.

`m _amR>rÀ`m WmoS>Š`mV {c{hcoë`m B{VhmgmVyZ Oa H$mhr ^{dî` dmMm`Mo Pmco Va EdT>o Z¸$r åhUVm `oB©c H$s, ""àhma {H$Vrhr hmodmoV, g§H$Q>o {H$Vrhr `odmoV, _mÂ`m _m` _amR>rMr nwÊ`mB© BVH$s Wmoa Amho H$s, `wJ cmoQ>cr Var _amR>rMr Wmoadr WmoS>rhr H$_r hmoUma Zmhr,'' H$dr gwaoe ^Q> `m§À`m eãXmV {chm`Mo åhQ>co Va, cm^co Amåhmcm ^m½` ~mocVmo _amR>r Omhcmo IaoM YÝ` EoH$Vmo _amR>r, Y_©, n§W, OmV EH$ OmUVmo _amR>r EdT>çm OJmV _m` _mZVmo _amR>r nmhþUo Oar Ag§»` nmogVo _amR>r Amnë`m KarM hmc gmogVo _amR>r ho AgoM {H$VrH$ Ioi nmhVo _amR>r eodQ>r _Xm§Y V»V \$moS>Vo _amR>r

CnmÜ`o ho EH$ Amnë`m H$coÀ`m ì`dgm`mcm g§nyU©nUo dmhÿZ KoVcoco J¥hñW AmhoV. Ë`m§Zm Amnë`m H$coÛmam g_mOmV H$mhrVar Mm§Jco ìhmdo Ago dmQ>Vo. Ë`m Ñï>rZo Ë`m§Zr Amnë`m H$m`©H«$_mV g_mOmV {XgUmè`m gH$mamË_H$ KQ>Zm§Mmhr g_mdoe H$am`cm hdm. Jßnmï>H$ H$m`©H«$_mÛmao ^«ï>mMmamdarc {dZmoXmg_doV Ë`mdarc Cnm`mÀ`m {Xem gwMdyZ H$mhr {dYm`H$ g§Xoe g_mOmcm XoVm Amcm Va Ë`mMm g_mOmda Iyn XyaXeu Am{U CnH$maH$ n[aUm_ hmoB©c. CnmÜ`o `m§Zr H${dd`© J.{X. _mS>JyiH$a `m§Zm Amnco Jwé _mZco

g§X^©: Prabhakar Machawe, "Marathi: The Language and Its Linguistic Traditions', Indian & Foreign Review, March 1985

19


ghc "{gH$mo_r coH$' H$S>o ... àrVr Xoenm§S>o _r H°$cJarcm gwZoÀ`m ~mi§VnUmgmR>r _mÂ`m _wcmH$S>o Joco AgVm§ZmM AmZ§XmMr ^amV ^a åhUyZ {ZgJm©Zo nU dfm©d H$am`cm hmoV.o VoWo Joë`mda ~mimcm ~KyZ _cm Iyn AmZ§X Pmcm Am{U gwédmV Ho$cr. Ë`m nmdgmV H$mhr OU {H«$Ho$Q> IoiV hmoV,o H$mhr _mÂ`m _wcm§Mo ~mcnU AmR>dy cmJco. _mÂ`m ZmVrÀ`m ~mccrcm M|Sy> IoiV hmoV,o H$mhr nmÊ`mV nmohV hmoVo. Amåhr Ooð> ZmJ[aH$ _mÌ ~KÊ`mV VmgZ²Vmg OmD$ cmJco. AemVM {Za§OZZo _cm gm§{JVco JmÊ`mÀ`m ^|S>çm§Mr _Om cwQ>V hmoVmo. H$s, AmB©, Amnë`mcm 10 Owc¡cm "{gH$mo_r coH$' `m {R>H$mUr Am_À`m H°$cJar _amR>r _§S>imZo H$mT>coë`m ghcrcm Om`Mo Amho. _amR>r _§S>imMo Zmd EoHy$Z _cm \$ma AmZ§X Pmcm Am{U dmQ>co, ""naàm§Vr` ^mfm§Mr Ioim _YyZ-_YyZ hmocr Ÿ& AOam_a _amR>r Ago Am_wMr _m`~mocr Ÿ&&'' nan«m§VmV OmD$Z Ë`m§Mo Mm§Jco JwU AdcmoH$Z H$amdo nU Amnë`m _mV¥^y_rMm d _mV¥^mfoMm ~mUm _mÌ gVV VodV R>odmdm, hrM Amncr Iar g§ñH¥$Vr Am{U na§nam. `mgmR>r gd© _amR>r _mUgm§Zm EH$Ì AmUyZ AZoH$ H$a_UwH$sMo H$m`©H«$_ Am`mo{OV H$aÊ`mMr IynM JaO AgVo. H$maU AZoH$OU EH$Ì ~m§YÊ`mMo d Ë`m§À`mer ^md{ZH$, AmpË_H$, OdirH$, gmYÊ`mMo H$m_ ho H$m`©H«$_ H$aV AgVmV.

hm gd© AmZ§X cwQ>VmZm EH$sH$S>o _§S>imÀ`m gXñ`m gm¡. g§JrVm VmoaUo BVa XmoKr {VKrgmo~V AñVmì`ñV {dIwacoë`m gm_mZmMr EH${ÌV gm§JS> KmcV hmoË`m. OmSOyS> gm_mZm§Mr hcdmhcd H$am`cm nwéf_§S>irhr nwT>o gagmdcr hmoVr. ho AmdOy©Z gm§JÊ`mMm CÔoe åhUOo Amnë`mH$S>ë`mgmaIo BH$S>o ZmoH$aMmH$a ZgVmV. AmnUM "ZmoH$a' d AmnUM "~m°g'! ho gd© {eH$Ê`mgmaIo Amho. Ë`m_wio Amig hm eãX Amnë`m `mXrVyZ hÔnma H$amdmM cmJVmo.o

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"ghc' IynM A{dñ_aUr` Pmcr. ho gd© AZw^dVm§Zm _r naXoemV Amho hoM _wir H$mhr H$mi {dgê$Z Joco. `mVM `m _§S>imMo `e XS>coco Amho. `mnwT>ohr AgoM H$m`©H«$_ Am_cmV AmUyZ _amR>rMo ~rOmamonU gVV _amR>r _mUgm§À`m _Zm_ZmV éOdyZ Ë`mcm ào_, dmËgë`, AZw^d, AZoH$ `moOZm§Mo IVnmUr KmcyZ Ë`mMr gdmªJmZo gwÑT> dmT> hmoB©c `mH$S>o _§S>i OmVrZo cj nwadoc, hrM _mPr àmW©Zm Am{U Vwåhm gdmªZm ew^merdm©X.

Am_Mr ghc "{gH$mo_r coH$'cm Jocr Ë`mdoir _mPr ZmV \$º$ XrS> _{hÝ`mMr hmoVr. {Za§OZcm åhQ>co H$s, Aao, AmnU {hcm KoD$Z H$go Om`Mo? Vmo åhUmcm, H$mhr H$miOr H$ê$ ZH$mo. Amåhr gd© ì`dpñWV Am`moOZ Ho$co Amho. {Vcm H$mhrM Ìmg hmoUma Zmhr. 10 Owc¡ 2010 amoOr Amåhr coH$cm nmohmoMë`mda VoWrc _amR>r dmVmdaUmZo _r ^mamdyZ Joco. jU^a dmQ>co H$s _r _mÂ`m _mV¥^y_rdaM Amho. EHy$U ì`dñWm cmO~m~ hmoVr. Joë`m Joë`m ZmíVm, H$m°\$s Am{U erVno`! Z§VaÀ`m OodUmVrc ^anya ìham`Q>r nmhÿZ Va _cm IynM Amü`© dmQ>co. àË`oH$mZo _ZmnmgyZ ~Zdcoco nXmW© nmhÿZ gdmªÀ`m Vmo§S>mcm nmUr gwQ>c.o ho ImD$ H$s Vo ImD$ Aer gdmªMr pñWVr Pmcr. gdmªZr V¥á hmoD$Z nmoQ>mda hmV {\$adV 20


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