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BAKE​ it until you ​MAKE​ it! ​

BAKING SODA = - = - = - = - = - =  QUESTION    How do the different leavening agents affect bread?    HYPOTHESIS    If I use baking soda to leaven my bread then the bread will rise the quickest because baking soda  is known for being a 100 percent bicarbonate which we can see when we use baking soda in  baking. With these bubbles of carbon dioxide we will assume that this is the best leavening agent.     The difference between the control group (yeast) and the experimental groups is the leavening  agents that are being used. We have sourdough starters, baking soda, and yeast. These all have  different effects on how they make their breads rise. We will be seeing this change or comparison  in pictures and results below.     MATERIALS  ● 3 ½ cups of All Purpose Flour    ● 1 teaspoon of Sugar  ● 1 teaspoon of Salt  ● 1 teaspoon of Baking Soda  ● 2 cups of Buttermilk    PROCEDURE: Baking Soda    1. Preheat oven to 450° fahrenheit.  2. Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together.  3. Pour buttermilk into the bowl, and leave ¼ of cup of it in the measuring cup. Use the fork as  a claw to move the flour together. Use the leftover buttermilk if necessary. Do not knead the  mixture.  4. When finished, scatter dough across a smooth surface  to make sure that the dough does not stick to the table.  Make the dough round and have a thickness of 1 ½.  5. Make a mildly deep cross on the dough, but make sure  the cut is not reaching all the way to the edges of the  dough.  6. Bake for 15 minutes.  7. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30 minutes  more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow  when tapped on the bottom and be golden in color.  One way to check if your bread is done is to use a  thermometer. Cook until temperature in center reaches  195-200 degrees.     


NBE. 2018. Baking Soda Results:    This bread was quite softer compared to the 4 other breads that we had tasted and observed. It  was faster to bake. The outer surface of the bread was interesting to see because you could see  that it looked like a rustic bread. It smelled like a biscuit and the inner texture was much softer.        

Height

Width

Length

Before

1 ½ inches

7 2/8 inches

6 ¼ inches

After

3 ½ inches

8 inches

7 ⅛ inches

          YEAST  = - = - =     MATERIALS    ● 3 Cups of water    ● 6.5 - 7.5 Cups All-purpose flour  ● 1 Tablespoon of salt  ● 1.5 Tablespoons yeast  ​

2018.YeastBread.SN

PROCEDURE   1. Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm" means  about 105°F.Mix and stir everything together to make a very sticky, rough dough. If you have  a stand mixer, beat at medium speed with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds.   2. Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the bucket with a lid or  plastic wrap.  3. Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for 2 hours. Then  refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days.  4. When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour; this will make it  easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be  about the size of a softball, or a large grapefruit.    5. ​Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or a longer log.  6. Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or parchment-lined baking  sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top. 


5. Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60 minutes or longer.  6. If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven preheats. Place a  shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and have 1 cup of hot water ready to  go.  7. When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3 times, making a cut  about 1/2" deep.  8. Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the shallow pan on  the rack beneath.  9. Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes.  10. Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in a plastic bag  at room temperature.  Yeast:   Results: This bread looked similar to the baking soda bread that we had made. We can see from  the crust that it looks more like a rustic bread rather than a sourdough bread which is lighter and  comes out thinner than baking soda and yeast bread.   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       SOURDOUGH : HOMEMADE    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=    MATERIALS      ● 3 ⅓ cups flour  ● 4/3 to 1 ½ cups of water    ● 1 ⅙ teaspoons of salt  ● ¼ cup starter    PROCEDURE  GR (2018)​ homemade bread    1. First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½ cup of water into  a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday for a week you take half of the  dough and put it in a separate jay, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of  flour and another ½ cup of water.  2. When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your starter, more  flour, salt, and water.    3. Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl  4. Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl  5. Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl  6. Mix well   7. Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes   8. Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt  9. Knead well for 10-15 minutes  10. Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test   11. Make the dough into a loaf  12. Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour 


13. Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees 14. Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked    This bread was sour compared to all the others considering it is sourdough bread. This one was a  lot lighter than the baking soda and yeast bread. It didn’t rise as much as as I expected it to  compared to the four others.      - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -                 SOURDOUGH : COMMERCIAL  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=  MATERIALS    ● 1/3 cup sourdough starter  ● 1 scant tablespoon salt  ● 1 - 1 1/2 cup water  ● 3 1/3 cup white flour          PROCEDURE    1. Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together.  Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a moist bread dough.  2. Knead the dough until it passes the “windowpane test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of  dough will stretch  between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow light to pass through.  3. Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing  basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a  towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours.  4. Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp knife or razor blade.  5. Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the loaf, until the internal  temperature reaches 210°F. (Use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or side of the  loaf). Cool before slicing.    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   SOURDOUGH : DENNIS Before:     MATERIALS    ● 1 tablespoon active sourdough starter 


(1/2 cup) all-purpose flour or bread flour (1/3 cup) water  1 tablespoon salt  (2 1/2 cups) water    (5 1/2 cups) all-purpose flour or bread flour 

● ● ● ● ●

PROCEDURE  1. Make sure your sourdough culture is active.  2. Make the leaven (overnight.)  3. Test that the leaven is ready.    4. Dissolve the salt.  5. Mix the leaven and water.  6. Add the flour.  7. Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours.)  8. Mix in the salt.  9. Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours.)    10. Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes.) 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

​ ​B.D. (2018) After Result of Breaking Dennis’ Dough 

Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls. Shape the loaves.  Transfer to the proofing baskets.      Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge).  Heat the oven to 500°F.  Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens.  Score the top of the loaf.  Bake the loaves for 20 minutes.  Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes.  Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes.  Bake another 15 to 25 minutes.  Cool the loaves completely. 

Results: The look of this last sourdough was surprising. The starter for Dennis’ sourdough was very small  compared to the other two starters that we had for the other sourdough breads. I wasn’t able to taste this  one. But, I did see that it was much harder than the others. It was puffier instead of the two that were flat. The  color was similar to the two sourdough breads that we had. I was surprised in the rise of this sourdough  because I would have thought to see a similarity in size, so i’m wondering what could have been different.  

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     Variable 

Control Group 

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2 

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

Flour type All purpose     

All purpose

All purpose All purpose 

All purpose

Dough rise time   

28 mins   

15 mins  

15-60 mins

4-24 hours

30 mins- 1 hour  

Oven

450

450 ℉

400

400

450


temp.  

 

Bake time 25-35 mins     

38 mins

1-3 hours

30-60 mins

30-50 mins

RESULTS   

Control group: Yeast Exp. #1: ​Baking Soda  Exp. #2: ​Homemade Sourdough  Exp #3: ​Commercial Sourdough  Exp #4; ​Dennis’ Sourdough  * These units are in​ inches      Yeast 

Height

Width

Length

Before

1 inches

4 ½ inches

8 inches

Ball

2 inches

3 ½ inches

4 ½ inches

After

2 ½ inches

6 ½ inches

5 ½  

 

 

Baking Soda

Height

Width

Length

Before

1 ½ inches

7 2/8 inches

6 ¼ inches

After

3 ½ inches

8 inches

7 ⅛ inches

Increase in Volume

2 inches

1 2/8 inches

1 ⅛ inches


Sourdough: Homemade 

Height

Width

Length

Before

2 ½ inches

4 inches

5 inches

After

3 inches

7.5 inches

6 inches

 

Sourdough;  Commercial 

Width

Length

Height  

Before  

11 inches

12 inches

1 inches

After  

7 inches

10 inches

1 inches

Sourdough:   Dennis’  

Height

Width

Length

Before  

1 ½ in

5 ½ in  

5 ½ in  

After

3 ½ in  

7 in  

6 ½ in

 

CONCLUSION    To conclude, my partners and I believe that baking soda is the best leavening agent for bread  because we were able to see the rise in the dough and out of all the other breads that my peers  completed this was the fastest bread to make. This bread took a total of 38 mins to bake. We were  able to see the rise in bread within 15 minutes within baking. Baking soda falls on the basic side of  the pH scale. The pH level is at 9 for baking soda. When we took the bread out we were able to see  that the bread has formed a tough crust on the top and surrounding the inner dough. The taste was  not as sour as expected, compared to the other breads where we were able to taste the acidity in  the sourdoughs because of the fermentation. The bread grew a significant amount while being in  the oven. Before, our dough was 1 ½ inches tall, 7 1/4inches wide, and 6 ¼ inches long. After, the  loaf was 3 ½ inches tall, 8 inches wide, and 7 ⅛ inches long. The overall increase in each dimension  was 2 inches tall, 1 2/8 inches wide, and 1 ⅛ inches long. I think it’s clear to say that ​baking soda ​is  the right way to go when wanting to use a leavening agent in your next baking project.     Citations:  Wells. Sara. ​One Hour No Rise Rustic Bread Loaf. ​13. 3. 2016. 9. 5. 2018     

Eat2 action project nissrine & aura (6)  
Eat2 action project nissrine & aura (6)  
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