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BAKE​ it until you ​MAKE​ it! ​

BAKING SODA = - = - = - = - = - =  QUESTION    How do the different leavening agents affect bread?    HYPOTHESIS    If I use baking soda to leaven my bread then the bread will rise the quickest.      MATERIALS    ● Mixing Bowl  ● 3 ½ All Purpose Flour    ● 1 teaspoon of Sugar  ● 1 teaspoon of Salt  ● 1 teaspoon of Baking Soda  ● 2 cups of Buttermilk  ● Fork    RESULTS 

     


NUTRIENTS   All purpose flour:    455 calories  95.4 grams of carbohydrates  .3 gram of sugar  12.9 grams of protein  133.75mg of potassium  Total fat: 1.2 grams     Sugar:    PROCEDURE    1. Preheat oven to 450° fahrenheit.  2. Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together.  3. Pour buttermilk into the bowl, and leave ¼ of cup of it in the measuring cup. Use the fork as  a claw to move the flour together. Use the leftover buttermilk if necessary. Do not knead the  mixture.  4. When finished, scatter dough across a smooth  surface to make sure that the dough does not stick to  the table. Make the dough round and have a  thickness of 1 ½.  5. Make a mildly deep cross on the dough, but make  sure the cut is not reaching all the way to the edges  of the dough.  6. Bake for 15 minutes.  7. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30  minutes more. When done, the loaf will sound  slightly hollow when tapped on the bottom and be  golden in color. One way to check if your bread is  done is to use a thermometer. Cook until  temperature in center reaches 195-200 degrees.          RESULTS   

Height

Width

Length

Before

1 ½ inches

7 2/8 inches

6 ¼ inches

After

3 ½ inches

8 inches

7 ⅛ inches

Increase in Volume

2 inches

1 2/8 inches

1 ⅛ inches


CALCULATIONS   BUTTERMILK  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=    PROTEIN    17% x 2 = 34%    34% of daily value  ---------------    FAT    4% x 2 = 8%    8% of daily value  ---------------    CALORIES    110 calories x 2 = 220 calories.    220 ÷ 2000 = .11 x 100 = 11%    11% of # of calories needed per day.  ---------------    CARBOHYDRATES    4% x 2= 8%  8% of daily value  ---------------    ALL PURPOSE FLOUR  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=    PROTEIN    14 x 3 grams = 42  42 grams of protein in our bread      CARBOHYDRATES 


7% x 14 = 98   98% of daily value    CALORIES    100 x 14 = 1400 ÷ 2000 = .7 x 100 = 70%    70%    SUGAR  =-=-=-=-=    CARBOHYDRATE    1% of daily value  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -           YEAST  = - = - =     MATERIALS    ● 3 Cups of water    ● 6.5 - 7.5 Cups All-purpose flour  ● 1 Tablespoon of salt  ● 1.5 Tablespoons yeast    PROCEDURE    1. Combine all of the ingredients in a large  mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm"  means about 105°F.Mix and stir everything  together to make a very sticky, rough  dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at  medium speed with the beater blade for  30 to 60 seconds.   2. Next, you're going to let the dough rise,  just let it stay there, covering the bucket  with a lid or plastic wrap.  3. Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the  dough rise at room temperature for 2  hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2  hours, or for up to about 7 days. 


4. When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour; this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be  about the size of a softball, or a large grapefruit.  5. Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or a longer log.  6. Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or parchment-lined baking  sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top.  7. Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60 minutes or  longer.  8. If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven preheats. Place a  shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and have 1 cup of hot water ready to  go.  9. When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3 times, making a cut  about 1/2" deep.  10. Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the shallow pan on  the rack beneath.  11. Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes.  12. Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in a plastic bag  at room temperature.    This bread looked similar to the baking soda bread that we had made. We can see from the crust  that it looks more like a rustic bread rather than a sourdough bread which is lighters and comes out  thinner than baking soda and yeast bread.   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    SOURDOUGH : HOMEMADE  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=  MATERIALS    ● 3 ⅓ cups flour  ● 4/3 to 1 ½ cups of water  ● 1 ⅙ teaspoons of salt  ● ¼ cup starter    PROCEDURE    1. First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½ cup of water into  a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday for a week you take half of the  dough and put it in a separate jay, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of  flour and another ½ cup of water.  2. When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your starter, more  flour, salt, and water.  3. Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl  4. Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl  5. Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl  6. Mix well   7. Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes  


8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt Knead well for 10-15 minutes  Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test   Make the dough into a loaf  Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour  Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees  Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked 

This bread was sour compared to all the others considering it is sourdough bread. This one was a  lot lighter than the baking soda and yeast bread. It didn’t rise as much as as I expected it to.     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -        SOURDOUGH : COMMERCIAL  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=  MATERIALS    ● 1/3 cup sourdough starter  ● 1 scant tablespoon salt  ● 1 - 1 1/2 cup water  ● 3 1/3 cup white flour    PROCEDURE    1. Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together.  Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a  moist bread dough.  2. Knead the dough until it passes the “windowpane  test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will  stretch  between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to  allow light to pass through.  3. Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan,  proofing  basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a  towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours.  4. Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very  sharp knife or razor blade.  5. Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the  size of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches  210°F. (Use a meat thermometer inserted into the  bottom or side of the loaf). Cool before slicing.    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -    


SOURDOUGH : DENNIS   MATERIALS    ● 1 tablespoon active sourdough starter  ● (1/2 cup) all-purpose flour or bread flour  ● (1/3 cup) water  ● 1 tablespoon salt  ● (2 1/2 cups) water    ● (5 1/2 cups) all-purpose flour or bread flour    PROCEDURE  1. Make sure your sourdough culture is active.  2. Make the leaven (overnight.)  3. Test that the leaven is ready.  4. Dissolve the salt.  5. Mix the leaven and water.  6. Add the flour.  7. Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours.)  8. Mix in the salt.  9. Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours.)  10. Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes.)  11. Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls.  12. Shape the loaves.  13. Transfer to the proofing baskets.      14. Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge).  15. Heat the oven to 500°F.  16. Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens.  17. Score the top of the loaf.  18. Bake the loaves for 20 minutes.  19. Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes.  20. Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes.  21. Bake another 15 to 25 minutes.  22. Cool the loaves completely.  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     Variable 

Control Group 

Exp. Group 1

Exp. Group 2

Exp. Group 3

Exp. Group 4

Flour type     All  purpose   

All purpose

All purpose

All purpose

All purpose

Dough rise time   

15 mins  

   


Oven temp.   

   

450 ℉

Bake time        

38 mins

Dough amount   

   

Other  

   

  CONCLUSION    To conclude, my partner and I believe that baking soda is the best leavening agent for bread  because we were able to see the rise in the dough and out of all the other breads that my peers  completed this was the fastest bread to make. This bread took a total of 38 mins to bake. We were  able to see the rise in bread within 15 minutes within baking. Baking soda falls on the basic side of  the pH scale. The pH level is at 9 for baking soda. When we took the bread out we were able to see  that the bread has formed a tough crust on the top and surrounding the inner dough. The taste was  not as sour as expected compared to the other breads where we were able to taste the acidity in  the sourdoughs because of the fermentation. The bread grew a significant amount while being in  the oven. Before, our dough was 1 ½ inches tall, 7 2/8 inches wide, and 6 ¼ inches long. After, the  loaf was 3 ½ inches tall, 8 inches wide, and 7 ⅛ inches long. The overall increase in total volume  was 2 inches tall, 1 2/8 inches wide, and 1 ⅛ inches long. I think it’s clear to say that ​baking soda ​is  the right way to go when wanting to use a leavening agent in your next baking project.     Citations:  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  

Eat2 action project nissrine & aura (4)  
Eat2 action project nissrine & aura (4)  
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