4th May 2016
The thesis titled Old Quarter Heritage Nexus: Architecture as a catalyst for heritage revitalisation has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the Bachelors Program in the Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi â€“ 110002, India under the supervision of Ar. BK Tanuja & Ar. Meena Mani (Design Guides) and Ar. Bashubi Dasgupta (Research Guide). I hereby submit two hard copies of the report for internal and external evaluation respectively. The undersigned hereby declares that this is her original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other University.
Fifth Year B.Arch. Section-B
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
27th May 2016
This thesis was carried out during the January â€“ May 2016 semester in the Department of Architecture under our guidance. Thereafter, based on the declaration dated 4th May 2016 by the candidate, the work was placed in front of the Juries held on 23rd, 25th & 26th May 2016. On successful completion of the Jury process and completion of the Report in all respects including the last chapter by the Candidate we provisionally accept the Thesis Report and forward the same to the Studio Director.
Ar. Bashubi Dasgupta
Ar. Meena Mani
Ar. BK Tanuja
On successful completion of the course by the candidate I hereby accept this completed report on behalf of the Head of the Department to be placed in the Library of School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.
Prof. ML Bahri Studio Director
Acknowledgements I have to begin by thanking my thesis mentors Ms. Meena Mani and Ms. BK Tanuja, not as a matter of official courtesy but because their constant confidence in us shined through the sessions of severe critique. Your inputs helped me shape the project better but always allowed it to be MY thesis. I am grateful to my Research Guide Ms. Bashubi Dasgupta, Studio Director Prof. ML Bahri and Thesis Coordinator Prof. Dr. Aruna Ramani Grover for guiding me throughout the program. The resource persons I met in Goa whose energetic outlook and advice on the many real-time issues surrounding my project built the very foundation of this exploration and also helped me concretise my position on it before beginning with the architecture of it - Ar. Arminio Rebeiro, Prof. Dr. Ashish S Rege, Ar. Dean D’Cruz, Ar. Gerard Da Cuhna, Mr. Jack Sukhija and everyone at the Charles Correa Foundation. My parents deserve a round of applause for silently and constantly supporting me throughout these months. Thank you for keeping the faith as I vanished, physically and mentally, for days and weeks on an end. A huge shout-out to supremely cool “faculty members” – Archana Khanna, Manu Mahajan and Nimesh Pilla, who have consistently given me their inputs at various stages of the thesis journey. Your refreshing points of view have always been helpful in understanding many things – about buildings and the people inside, about architecture and urban design, about the experience and the image…. about thesis and life beyond. My two go-to people – Jithin and Aishwarya. One is a Pandora box of ambition and ideas, the other a ceaseless source of positive energy. I found inspiration in trusted friends and mentors, but also in unexpected sources. Thank you everyone, named and unnamed, for keeping me going! Nishita
Synopsis With a concern for the condition of urban heritage in our city fabric at the core of this search, the thesis project grows out of what the ‘site’ needs — the ‘site’ being inclusive of the heritage setting it sits within, the people associated with it and the land that gives it a physical entity. It is understood that a multi-dimensional approach is required while addressing such urban issues. The quest is then to understand what role Architecture can play as a catalyst for revitalisation and how this gets translated into a Space. The research work, inclusive of theory, interviews and settlement mapping, undertaken as part of the process builds the base for understanding the social and physical dimensions of the project. The potential of heritage tourism as a facilitator for the revitalisation process has many positive aspects and is thus explored to develop a sensitive approach. The needs, expectations and aspirations of multiple stakeholders, including the host community and expected visitors, are taken into consideration to arrive an appropriate building programme which would try to fulfill the multiple demands from the same project in a holistic manner. The project tries to address issues of a deteriorating physical precinct, modern incongruences in a heritage settlement, an authentic experience of the built and unbuilt heritage and the lack of open public space in a dense settlement. Appropriate construction technology and contemporary architectural form is also explored as part of the architectural design. This thesis book tries to encapsulate the Design journey — the designer’s thought process resulting in a designed intervention. Where the academic exercise ends, the interim product hopes to initiate further ideation and debate on this issue, not just from an architectural point of view but through a holistic inter-disciplinary approach.
सारांश हमारी शहरी विरासत की स्थिति को इस खोज के मूल पे रखते हुए,
यह परियोजना अपने निर्माण स्थल की ज़रूरतों
के आधार पे विकसित हुई है. इस निर्माण स्थल से जुड़े अनेक लोग और भावनायें भी हैं. यह निश्चित है की इस तरह
शहरी मुद्दों को संबोधित करते हुए एक बहु-आयामी दृष्टिकोण आवश्यक है. खोज यह है की शहरी विरासत के पुनरोद्धार के कार्य में वास्तुकला की क्या भूमिका है और इसका एक निर्मित अनुवाद कैसे किया जा सकता है.
इस परियोजना के सामाजिक और भौतिक आयामों को समझने के लिए अनुसंधान कार्य, सिद्धांत, साक्षात्कार और
निपटान मानचित्रण को आधार बनाया गया है. पुनरोद्धार की प्रक्रिया के लिए एक सुविधा के रूप में हेरिटेज पर्यटन के संभावित कई सकारात्मक पहलू हैं और एक संवेदनशील दृष्टिकोण विकसित करने के लिए उन्हे समझने का प्रयास
किया गया है. मेजबान समुदाय और आपेक्षित आगंतुकों सहित कई हितधारकों की ज़रूरतों, अपेक्षाओं और आकांक्षाओं को पूरा करने के लिए एक उचित निर्माण कार्यक्रम बनाया गया है जो एक समग्र रूप में एक ही परियोजना से कई
मांगों को पूरा करने का प्रयत्न करता है.
एह कार्यक्रम अनेक मुद्दों को ध्यान में रख के बनाया गया है - जैसे कि
एस विरासत बस्ती में बिगड़ती स्थिति, प्रतिकूल रूप से बनाई गयी नयी इमारतें, अमूर्त विरासत का एक प्रामाणिक
अनुभव और इस घनी बस्ती में एक खुले सार्वजनिक जगह की कमी. उचित निर्माण प्रौद्योगिकी और समकालीन वास्तु कला के रूप का भी समन्वेषण किया गया है.
इस पुस्तक के अंदर मेरी पूरी यात्रा को समझाने का मैने प्रयतना किया है - अपनी विचार प्रक्रिया और उसका
परिणाम. जहां शैक्षिक व्यायाम समाप्त होता है, वहाँ अंतरिम उत्पाद पर आगे विचार और बहस आरंभ करने की उम्मीद है, ना सिर्फ़ एक वास्तुशिल्प बिंदु से, लेकिन एक समग्र अंतर-अनुशासनात्मक दृष्टिकोण के माध्यम से.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
List of sources
List of abvs.
RESEARCH & CASE STUDIES
PROJECT SITE & ANALYSIS
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT & COMPONENTS
Areas of Research
Case Study Inferences
A piece of Portugal
110 111 118 124
Reading the program
DETERMINANTS AND DIRECTION
Ideas and Strategies
Stages of design
Social experience of living heritage
Photographs of Model 167 Cooling & Ventilation
List of Tables Page No. Description Source 58-61 Analysis of traditional technology to arrive at contemporary alternatives Author 62 Embodied energy calculations for a 200 sq.m. house slab SEP 2011 72 Sanskriti Kendra building components Author 78 Akshardham building components Author 84 Mapungubwe building components Author 88 Case Study Inferences Author 98 Analysis of previous proposals Author
List of Photographs Page No. Description Source 3 Door on blue wall Author 6 Panel of three photos Author 19 At the north-end of Rua 31 de Janeiro Author 22 Lisbon World Wanderista 22 Pondicherry Grab House 23 Humayunâ€™s Tomb The Hindu 23 Amsterdam Getty Images 25 Cultural tourists Author 25 CRZ Rally Solomon 2009 27 David painting in Fontainhas Author 31 Photo panel of 7 photos â€“ Ponda Plantation Author 32 Nizamuddin Basti Urban Renewal INTACH 2015 33 Website screen www.iamamsterdam.com 36 City Fabric Charles Correa Foundation 38 Photo panel of 3 photos of streets and alleys Author 42 Modern Incongruences Author 44 Windows in the Old Quarter Chayanika Moulik 47 Entrance room, well in courtyard Author 53 Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao Marco Sarracino 54 View of P.A.C. A+DS n.d. 55 Le Grande Louvre (Glass pyramid) Hirak Sen (Sen 2012) 56 Traditional building and modern incongruence Author 57 Wall and window & shell window Author 64 MCR Tile Roofing Knoji 64 Manufacture in rural set-up Gender and Innovation 67 Sanskriti Kendra The Hindu 67 Swaminarayan Akshardham Travel House Delhi 13
... continued 67 Mapungubwe Interpretation Centre Obie Oberholzer 70 Sanskriti Kendra Baithak Author 72-73 Photo panel of 6 photos of Sanskriti Kendra Author 76 Stark contrasts Author 78-79 Photo panel of 4 photos of Akshardham Akshardham website 82 Construction process World Architecture Festival 82 View of finished building Mapungubwe Iwan Baan 84 Night view On-site Review Report by Jean-Charles Tall 85 Photo panel of 3 photos Iwan Baan 86-87 Photo panel of 5 photos On-site Review Report by Jean-Charles Tall 89 View of Mala Lake and Maruti Temple Author 94 Man looking out his window Author 96 Existing structure on site Author 99 Views of existing structures Author 107 Photo panel of 8 photos Author 109 Confeitaria de 31 Janeiro Author 110 Modern incongruences Author 113 Fado singer All About Portugal 113 Corrindinho Sydney Alvares 113 Street food Savio Paes 113 Signage Author 129 St. Sebastian Road Author 135 Vivenda David Souza Author 136 Jesus, Krishna and a Bike Author 139 Moving through the lanes of the precinct Author 141-145 Progress models photos Author 14
List of Drawings and Illustrations Page No. Description Source 26 Way Forward Author 35 Colours of the Old Quarter Author 37 Wards in the heritage precinct Author 46 Typical house plans Nadkarni 2003 48 Components of the faรงade Nehra 2014 49 Panjim Inn & Sequeira Nazareth Beard Design 50-51 Geometric Analysis of Faรงade Dcruz 2015 54 Area Plan of Orkney A+DS n.d. 55 Plan of Louvre Museum Arch Daily 62 Filler Slab Laurie Baker 63 Bamboo Reinforced slab Ghavami 2004 65 Installation of MCR Grupo Sofonias 71 Sanskriti Kendra Site plan Author 72 Functional relationship of Sanskriti Kendra Author 79 Functional relationship of Akshardham Author 83 Plan and sections of Mapungubwe IC Peter Rich Architects 85 Functional relationship of Mapungubwe Author 93 Neighbourhood context Author 95 Data charts Author, based on data from GCA study 99 Readings of brownfield site Author 100 Zoning of site and surrounding Author 101 Exceptions in setbacks Goa Building Bye-laws 101 Volumetric Explorations Author 108 Design Inferences from Site Analysis Author 128 Design Inferences from Program Author 130 SWOT Icons Author 131-133 Design determinants Author 137-138 Concept sketches Author 15
List of Maps Page No. Description Source 34 Settlement Plan Author 39 Main spine, streets and alleys Author 40 Main and secondary open spaces Author 41 Places of symbolic significance Author 42-43 Tourist facilities Author 68-69 Satellite image of Sanskriti Kendra Google Maps 74-75 Satellite image of Swaminarayan Akshardham Google Maps 76 Akshardham Site Plan Base image: Google Maps, detail: Author 80-81 Satellite image of Mapungubwe Interpretation Centre Google Maps 90-91 Satellite view of projectsite Google Earth 92 Map of Goa in India Author 92 Map of Panaji 2011 Outline Development Plan of Panaji 92 Map of heritage settlement Author
List of Abbreviations AMC
Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation
Charles Correa Foundation (Panjim, Goa)
Corporation of City of Panaji
Goa Heritage Action Group
Goa State Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd.
International Council on Monuments and Sites
Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
Chapter 1 Introduction If we don’t change, we don’t grow. If we don’t grow, we aren’t really living. - Gail Sheehy
AT THE NORTH-END OF RUA 31 DE JANEIRO, SAO TOME
Urban Heritage In a world of increasingly universal and replicated
Above all, a city’s self-image and its recognition of
architecture, the heritage areas within cities are
identity increases civic pride and also
pockets with deep historical settings and meaning
attached to them. They provide additional dimensions to our urban space, giving them a sense of place and
Treading down the path of conservation can how-
ever be tricky if not managed well. Cities are everevolving places and freezing places in time would
However, they are under constant pressure as cities
lead to stagnancy. This idea is best put into words
continue to grow at an ever increasing rate. The
by renowned author and urban designer Kevin Lynch
in his book ‘What time is this place?’ when he says
continues to rise. In the process of new develop-
that the best environments which are conducive to
ments coming up, urban heritage precincts often get
human development are those which are a “collage
ignored or engulfed into the process of swift urban
of time”. Extremity of either sort – massive change
growth. The dilapidated condition of heritage areas
and inflexible preservation, results in monotonous
today can thus be attributed to reasons such as lack of
areas which lack a sense of the continuity of time.
appropriate policies, legal framework, awareness, adequate funding and technical skills. (INTACH 2015) Being the most tangible markers of the diverse cultural, religious and social activity, the safeguarding of these physical precincts and their integration into contemporary society has to be given importance. The visual historical qualities of an urbanscape can contribute to society’s need for physical and
Keeping clear distance from the idea of rigid preservation, new developments should supplement the unique character of heritage areas and enhance the quality of their physical existence and of human life in them
cultural roots and a connection to the past. Heritage conservation has also been linked to increase in city liveability and giving cities the opportunity
Change is inevitable, change for the better.
to develop strong branding to attract investors, especially
How can an architectural intervention become
World View Examples from all over the world, like the inner cities
On the other hand, city management authorities
of Paris, Vienna, Amsterdam, Chongging and Lisbon
of the 600-year old walled city Ahmedabad and
exemplify how revival of heritage precincts, if done
400-year old Jaipur have implemented extremely
properly, can prove to be beneficial both to the local
successful programmes at the institutional level by the
residents and to the economy of the city.
setting up of a Heritage Cell and the integration of a Heritage Management Plan into the cityâ€™s Masterplan
Within India, many case examples have emerged
respectively. Such initiatives ensure that heritage is
which inspire possibilities for effective revitalisation
seen as an asset by the people and the city, instead of
and management of the rich and diverse heritage
a liability which slows down their growth.
that our country has to offer. The Nizamuddin Basti project by the Aga Khan Trust in New Delhi and the Asia Urbs Programme in Pondicherry focus mainly on addressing urban issues faced by the community through revival of urban heritage. These have led to an improved quality of life for the community and thus
THE FACES OF HERITAGE REVITALISATION
revived interest in the heritage and its conservation
RIGHT: LISBON, PONDICHERRY
at the grassroots level, where it matters the most.
ACROSS: HUMAYUNâ€™S TOMB (NIZAMUDDIN, DELHI), AMSTERDAM
the catalyst to revitalisation of heritage areas?
INTACH (2015) suggests that efforts be made to utilise
(1976) also take into account not just technical
heritage resources towards the purpose of urban
but also economic, social, legal & administrative
development in order to ensure the continuity of
measures. It recognises that safeguarding historic
urban heritage. Five varied approaches have been
areas would contribute to the development of
documented and discussed in a compendium of good
cultural and social values of different nations and
practices, which include:
states and finally be conducive to architectural enrichment of the world cultural heritage.
1. Development of institutional infrastructure for urban heritage 2. Integration of heritage in the urban planning framework 3. Revitalisation of urban heritage through urban renewal 4. Participation of the community and stakeholders 5. Awareness generation
The tangible and intangible components of heritage complement each other and an intervention which impacts only one of these in isolation cannot be considered a successful attempt
The safeguarding measures recommended by UNESCO 23
Proposition In order to be able to make conservation a high
of different traditions. Increased possibility of
priority interest, a development model is required
tourism in heritage areas will benefit both the
which would provide the benefits of development
visitors and local communities in many ways.
through the process of conservation. Conservation purists
conservation as a topic too demeaning to be discussed
The proposition for this project is to attempt an integrated approach to urban heritage revitalisation, using heritage tourism as a means for facilitating conservation.
(Rypkema 2008) as it does not hold any significance compared to the other benefits in the long run. But... “In the long run, we are all dead.” British economist John Maynard Keynes To provide an immediate catalyst to the process of
It is based on trying to achieve the sensitive
conservation, the economic aspect is extremely
balance between the means adopted for generating
significant as it will affect all primary stakeholders
revenue and the impact it has on the lives of
such as property owners and the city authorities
people residing within these areas for whom the
and a positive economic impact will provide
space is about much more than beautiful facades and
encouragement for increased participation than
before. A site-specific enquiry ensues to find out how Coupling the need for revenue generation with the fact
the aspirations of the people can be catered to
that heritage areas are of great interest to travellers
through a program inherently based around revenue
seeking an experience of cultural learning indicates
at the possibility of cultural heritage tourism as a base for development model. It is a well acknowledged fact that tourism promotes “authentic human and social development” (Solomon 2009) through opportunities for sharing of good, cultural exchanges, access to natural and artistic beauty & understanding 24
A Piece of Portugal in Panaji The long reign of the Portuguese in Goa has left
This precinct in Goa was a source of curiosity to me throughout the months I spent there and an academic exercise here helps me continue my discovery of a new people and a new place.
behind an architectural legacy of not just great monuments but also typologies of a more humble nature. The four wards of Sao Tome, Fontainhas, Mala and Portais in the city of Panaji stand testimony to this fact. Here on referred to in this book as the Old Quarter, they stand apart from the rest of the city because of a visible Mediterranean influence on the architecture, streets and signage of the area. Though
declared a Heritage City under the JNNURM for urban renewal scheme (Ahmed & Shankar 2012), the Old Quarter has been declared as one of the five conservation zones under the Outline Development Plan 2011 of Panaji. The distinct character of this area adds to the diversity of not just the state of Goa but to the multiple layers of history and culture that the country of India possesses. As an example of living urban heritage, it is an
people while allowing the identity of cultural heritage to be retained. Furthermore, a sensitive approach to heritage tourism becomes even more crucial in a state like Goa which is already a case of tourism gone wrong (Solomon 2009) where mass tourism started in the mid-eighties. Many fishing villages have â€˜developedâ€™ into top tourist
squeezed out of the hands of the locals and pumped into resorts and hotels. The beneficiaries who profit from this tourism are unfortunately not the local people who have to suffer the negative consequences.
ideal laboratory to develop a sensitive approach to the ideas of conservation and revitalisation of heritage which is not just concerned with the existing structures of historic value but also with the lives of people who dwell in them. The needs of people are constantly evolving and change is thus inevitable and necessary. A resolution must thus be reached
ABOVE: THERE IS AN EXISTING INFLUX OF CULTURAL TOURISTS IN FONTAINHAS - MAINLY ARTISTS AND INTELLECTUALS ON A SABBATICAL
which caters to the contemporary needs of the
WHO ENJOY THE QUIET LIFESTYLE THIS PLACE PROVIDES; BELOW: FROM THE CRZ RALLY IN 2007
Way Forward Current trends and suggested practices from across the world indicate that a multi-faceed approach is required to address the concern of urban heritage revitalisation. An architectural intervention may be integrated with several other possible solutions which may include the everything from physical upgradation of urban infrastructure, heritage mapping and identification, building restoration, signage system and adaptive reuse of existing structures to non-spatial means such as heritage walks, cultural festivals, community welfare schemes, skilltraining, heritage policies, informative publications and place-branding. All of this will be made possible by increased funding, again indicating at the economic aspect of heritage revitalisation. In light of these many solutions which complement one another, an architectural intervention would be part of a network of solutions where many ideas would work in symbiosis.
The idea is thus to create Architecture which would facilitate an integrated conservation process and be the catalyst to revitalisation of the urban heritage.
Chapter 2 Research & Case Studies Tourism is like fire â€” it can cook your food but also burn down your house. - Robbin Fox
DAVID DOES A WATER COLOUR PAINTING OF THE WELL IN FONTAINHAS
Areas of Research
INTEGRATED APPROACH TO HERITAGE TOURISM
The key areas of research arising
For programme development based on a sensitive approach to the needs of the site-specific issue
from the theoretical proposition and
• Based on framework of 6 guiding principles proposed by ICOMOS in the International cultural tourism charter
site-specific nature of the project
• Case example of Spice Farm in Ponda, Goa
are as follows:
URBAN STUDY OF THE OLD QUARTER Study of the history, socio-cultural fabric and morphology of the Old Quarter, with primary survey and mapping of the components of the physical structure of the settlement as well as tourist facilities.
INDO-PORTUGUESE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE Study of the architectural characteristics of the heritage settlement in terms of the arrangement of spaces within residences, the architectural elements and the proportions of the facade.
CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE IN A HISTORIC FABRIC Theoretical opinions and arguments relating to the issue of appropriate design response in a historic setting • The Vienna Memorandum & other general principles • Issue of pastiche vs. modernity • Relevance of starchitecture • Case examples of Le Grande Louvre, Paris and the Piers Art Centre, Orkney
TRADITIONAL & ALTERNATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGY • Current issues relating to construction technology in the Old Quarter • Analysis of traditional technology to arrive at contemporary alternatives • Research on specific materials and building technology
INTEGRATED APPROACH TO HERITAGE TOURISM A rather dynamic interaction exists between heritage
where unplanned tourism lacking a holistic approach
& tourism. Domestic & international tourism is being
has disrupted the experience of places of interest.
increasingly appreciated for being a positive force towards the conservation of natural and cultural
The differing expectations and aspirations of the
heritage. As discussed by Mascarenhas (2001), the
local communities vs. those of tourists can pose
tourism industry can have a significant role to play in
to be a major threat to any tourism initiative. It is
conservation of heritage by providing contributions
therefore important to understand how a beneficial
to conservation initiatives, partnerships, technical
interaction can be maintained between all the various
assistance, education programmes, publicity and
stakeholders involved. In the International Cultur-
direct staff involvement. However, poorly planned
al Tourism charter, ICOMOS (1999) puts forward six
tourism initiatives can end up damaging the physical
guiding principles in order to facilitate & encourage
and social fabric of the host culture, as has been the
a sustainable interaction between heritage and
situation in many cases around us, including Goa,
Six Principles for Cultural Tourism by ICOMOS
Experience and Understand that communityâ€™s heritage and culture first hand
Sustainable management of heritage tourism and places to avoid conflict
Satisfying and enjoyable visitor experience
Involvement of host communities and indigenous peoples
Benefit host community
Protect and enhance natural and cultural characteristics 29
Principle #1 Since domestic & international tourism is among the foremost vehicles for cultural
media to artwork, signages, displays & brochures. An
exchange, conservation should provide responsible & well managed opportunities
interpretative planning process can help develop a
for members of the host community & visitors to experience & understand that communityâ€™s heritage & culture at first hand.
structured approach for presenting information & stories to visitors (Tilden 1977). Freeman Tilden, considered
interpretation, wrote the first book focussing on This is the basic premise upon which the argument
effective means of interpretation. The crux of his
for promotion of tourism in heritage zones is based,
principles was that successful interpretation must
stating that since natural and cultural heritage is
not simply present facts, but also reflect the fact
a resource â€“ both materially and spiritually, which
experientially to the visitor. A good experience
provides a narrative of historical development, it
should then stimulate them into some form of
should be made accessible to the general public.
action, as simple reception of information leading
Understanding their roots is important to all modern
to no action would be a sterile attempt at interpre-
societies. Interpretation programmes are required
tation. The key understanding that emerges from
to help people understand the significance of the
this is that relation between information and the
experience of it. This process of interpretative
Heritage interpretation uses a variety of methods,
planning must reflect in the architectural design
ranging from guided walks to expert talks, audio-visual
process as well.
Principle #2 The relationship between Heritage Places and Tourism is dynamic and may involve
process of balancing the needs and aspirations of
conflicting values. It should be managed in a sustainable way for present and future
the community and the expectations of visitors. The
local ecology must be given respect and building materials used should also be used accordingly. Periodic evaluation can assess the progressive
Tourism projects for heritage places must consider
impact of tourism on the place & community;
their sustainability in all realms - cultural, physical,
proper management can help minimise visitor impact
ecological and social. Apart from opportunities and
(Mascarenhas 2001) by briefing visitors on local reg-
challenges, many conflicts may also arise in the
ulations, guidelines and the appropriate behaviour.
CASE EXAMPLE: SAHAKARI SPICE FARM, PONDA, GOA Apart from providing interesting information about the species of plants & spices growing in this plantation, it creates an enjoyable experience for the visitors. It begins with a traditional welcome with garlands, herbal tea and snacks made using the harvest from the plantation. Visitors are briefed on etiquette to be maintained while walking around. Traditional remedies using spices for “modern ailments” such as obesity, migraines, high blood pressure, acne and depression appeal to their sensibilities. All the employees on this farm are the workers and other locals from around who have been trained to become a part of this interpretation space. The farm generates interest in the use of natural produce in daily urban living and thus promotes the natural heritage. This experience comes for a price, ofcourse. With a ticket of Rs. 400 per visitor, coupled with revenue from sale of spices and souvenirs and additionally charged activities like elephant ride and elephant bathing, this farm surely has turned their traditional activity into a profitable
Knowingly or unkowingly, it follows all of the six principles proposed by ICOMOS and proves to be a successful relationship between tourism and the natural heritage of the plantation.
CLOCKWISE FROM LEFT: TRADITIONAL WELCOME, BROCHURE TALKING ABOUT BENEFICIAL USES OF SPICES IN MODERN LIVING, GUIDE TALKS ABOUT EACH PLANT IN DETAIL, OUR GROUP WALKING THROUGH THE PLANTATION, TREE CLIMBER SHOWCASING HIS SKILLS & TECHNIQUE, FENI TASTING, TRADITIONAL LUNCH TO END WITH.
heritage at their own pace is very important. Appro-
Conservation and Tourism Planning for Heritage Places should ensure that the Visitor Experience will be worthwhile, satisfying and enjoyable.
priate facilities for safety and comfort need to be provided while planning tourist activity. They should feel like welcomed guests and also be encouraged to behave as such. These basics will ensure a pleasant interaction between the hosts and the visitors.
Circulation routes are necessary to guide visitors
Innovative elements can be incorporated to make the
through a space, but being able to experiencing the
Principle #4 Host communities and indigenous peoples should be involved in planning for conservation and tourism. Despite the right of all travellers to access heritage, the local communities may have certain desires regarding the management of these which must be respected. Their opinions and aspirations must be taken into account. The development process should try to integrate their aspirations apart from focussing on the visitors.
A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH WAS ADOPTED BY AKTC FOR THE NIZAMUDDIN BASTI URBAN RENEWAL.
benefits are also reaped when increased number
Tourism and conservation activities should benefit the host community.
of visitors affects the local economy positively. Studies evaulating the spending patterns of heritage
Social, economic and cultural benefits to the host
visitors have shown that they generally stay longer
community should be provided through training &
and thus spend more, not just on the heritage site
education leading to employment, perhaps in the
but in places around it, ranging from hotels to gas
heritage sector itself where they can be trained
stations. (Rypkema 2008) Benefits to the community
to present their cultural values to the visitors at
are also possible in the form of renewed appreciation
various levels. Apart from direct involvement,
and pride for their own culture and heritage.
Principle #6 Tourism promotion programmes should protect and enhance Natural and Cultural Heritage characteristics. The ethical responsibilities of any promotion programme include authentic portrayal of the heritage to create realistic expectations from the visitors. They should be encouraged to experience a greater number of locations and wider cultural characteristics to relieve pressure on the more popular spots and distribute benefits of tourism. A reasonable social and economic return may be gained from sale of local crafts and products but not at the cost of degradation of cultural integrity.
RIGHT: IAMAMSTERDAM.COM IS THE CITY WEBSITE WITH A â€˜IAMVISITINGâ€™ SECTION FOR TOURISTS
URBAN STUDY OF THE OLD QUARTER
LOCATION The Old Quarter, consisting of the wards of Sao Tome, Fontainhas, Mala and Portais, is a linear settlement bound by the Ourem creek on the east, the Altinho hill on the west and the Mandovi river on the north.
Panjim City (Grid-iron plan)
HISTORY AND ETYMOLOGY Ourem Creek
In the late 18th century, the locality belonged to Antonio Joao de Sequeira, also known as ‘Mossmikar’ because of the fortune he had made in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique in east Africa before coming back to Goa. De Sequeira used this area, which was nothing more than a neglected ward of Taleigao village at the time, for coconut plantation and the residents of this area were mainly sailors, fishermen and locals engaged in the process of oil extraction. After the death of Antonio Joao de Sequeira, the land was handed over to the Convent of
Our Lady of Carmo at Chimbel. (Kalra 2015) However, in the beginning of the 19th century, epidemic struck Old Goa & the erstwhile capital of Portuguese rule was slowly abandoned. Numerous headquarters of the Portuguese government were shifted to Panjim and, therefore, this developed into a residential area for rulers and administrators. Soon, small plots in this precinct were sold to the populace without any appropriate town plans. Fontainhas gets its name from the Fonte (Fonte) Pheonix which stands near the Maruti Temple at the foothill of the Altinho.
RIGHT: THE OLD QUARTER NESTLED IN BETWEEN ALTINHO HILL AND THE OUREM CREEK (REFER CHAPTER ‘PROJECT SITE’ FOR DETAILED COUNTRY & CITY LEVEL LOCATION MAPS)
CBD Patto Plaza
MORPHOLOGY The medieval settlement developed organically, in contrast to the grid-iron plan of the rest of Panjim city. (Ahmed & Shankar 2012) The larger houses were first built on the flat portions of land and the slopes ended up getting constructed upon with much smaller houses by the poorer populace. (Rebeiro 2016) This has resulted in a fine grain urban pattern and an entire ribbon development came into being. The land use pattern is predominantly mixed commercial (especially in Sao Tome) and residential, and have a similar built scale, though variations in size do exist. Comparatively larger massing can be observed while moving along the Rue de Ourem (road along the creek) maintaining a built-to-edge street character whereas the scale is a smaller humble grain in the interiors. CONSERVATION ZONE In 1974, it was declared a conservation zone. It is part of the numerous indo-portuguese heritage precicnts of significant importance which dot the city of Panaji. According to the The Goa Land Development and Building Construction Regulations, 2010: “Conservation Zone” means an area indicated on the Outline Development Plan or any other plan as an area having
‘COLOURS OF THE OLD QUARTER’ ARE THE TYPICAL HUES WHICH ONE CAN SEE WHILE EXPERIENCING THE AREA
Architectural/Historic/Archaeological/Heritage importance of Man Made or Natural Origin within which development is governed
COLOURS OF THE OLD QUARTER
by special Regulations and is subject to approval of the Conservation Committee constituted by the Government under this regulations
The traditional colour tones give this area its distinct Mediterranean ambience & transport the visitor to another world. Since the built spaces are close to each other,
As a result, there are special bye-laws controlling construction and
often sharing walls, each house is a different colour from the next one. The St. Sebastian
thus governing design of new buildings in this area.
Chapel is the only white building here. 35
AERIAL VIEW OF PANJIM CITY SHOWING THE CITY FABRIC AND ROOFTOPS
THE FOUR WARDS OF THE HERITAGE PRECINCT Sao Tome, Fontainhas, Mala and Portais have slight differences in built character, use and demographic but are essentially read together as a coherent settlement which runs along a common spine because of the common architectural expression of the Portuguese era. Sao Tome has a mixed use character with almost all of the collonaded structures housing commercial, often trade, activity on the ground floor and residential space on the upper floors. Historically, this area was occupied by artisans, bakers, candle-makers, petty tradesmen and wine merchants. (Go Goa n.d.) Today, traders of all kinds can be seen here, giving the precinct a character of its own. Fontainhas is the face of this entire heritage precinct as it is host to the international and national tourists coming here because of the large number of guest houses, restaurants and art galleries in this area. Mostly occupied by Catholic families, this ward has been fast to accept interaction with outsiders (Rebeiro 2016) and is open to displaying their culture and lifestyle to the world. They have thus adapted their houses for reuse accordingly.
Mala is a predominantly Hindu area with quiet lanes and inward looking houses. They are conservative when it comes to opneing up to outsiders and displaying their lifestyle. The houses that are located on the slopes are much smaller in size and occupied by the urban poor, and also has many tenants from outside Goa.
Portais displays a mix of Catholic, Hindu and Muslim residences, which is evident from the kind of adornment that each house has at the main entrance. Stepped streets can be seen going up the hill in every alley off the main spine and larger houses have been built here even on the slopes, showcasing grand architectural expression which has also been maintained well in most cases.
ILLUSTRATION OF THE FOUR WARDS IN THE HERITAGE PRECINCT
PHYSICAL STRUCTURE The physical structure of the area is defined by the following elements:
Main spine The spine cutting across has different names through different parts of the settlement
Secondary open spaces
â€“ Rua 31 de Janeiro becomes Ramachandra Naik Road as it enters Mala from
Smaller streets and alleys
Places of symbolic significance
expands and contracts organically as it moves through the settlement. The irregular
Main open spaces
Fontainhas and Nanu Tarkar Pednekar Road as it further moves through Portais. It width adds an element of surprise to the experience of walking through these spaces, giving them characteristic appeal which all enthuses all visitors. The houses are lined up and mostly open directly onto the main spine, if not onto the alleys which lead to this spine.
THE VARYING SCALES OF STREETS AND ALLEYS
At points where the road becomes very narrow, there is a severe conflict between the vehicles and the pedestrians contest for space along the small width. In the absence of automobiles back in the day, these roads were originally designed to be pedestrian pathways without any specially designated footpaths. This aspect is a huge bane to the street life today.
Streets and alleys The smaller streets and alleys have relatively less vehicular congestion and are thus the hub of activity during evenings and at other times when the weather is not too hot. The streets are not just circulation space but extended living areas, specially for the smaller households whose life extends beyond the walls of the house onto the street. There are intermediate open spaces when a row of houses receds to reveal a small open space. Today, many of the these open spaces have been appropriated at parking sheds, adding to the scarcity of open space in the settlements.
Rua 31 de Janeiro
Ramchandra Naik Rd.
Nanu Tarkar Pednekar Road
MAIN SPINE STREETS
Main open space The Hedgewar School playground is the only large public open space which isused by students during the day but turns into a public park in evenings when people of all ages can come and spend time here. The Mala lakefront has potential to be another large public open space, but is currently barricaded into an abandoned backyard. Secondary open space Apart from the streets which serve as the open space for the community, there are small niches of open space carved out along the streets. These are mostly around places of significance. These are also scarce in number, are used for congregation when needed and are thoroughfare at other times. Other private open spaces exist in the form of courtyards within the houses and in front.
Square infront of Chapel
MAIN OPEN SPACE
Under a large tree
SECONDARY OPEN SPACES
Places of symbolic significance Along the spine, certain places of significance act as nodes of activity and are landmarks with reference to which other spaces can be located. The most prominent ones are places of religious significance,
significance such as a well or a flights of stairs cut into the rock. These may serve specific functions on special occassions and be used as common facility or meeting point at other times.
LEFT: MARUTI TEMPLE, MALA ON ALTINHO HILL; RIGHT: THE FONTE PHEONIX WHERE WATER IS REVERED AS A SOURCE OF LIFE
Casa de Moeda
Post Office Sao Tome Chapel
Chapel of St. Francis Xavier
St. Sebastian Chapel
Houses and other builldings The houses form the tangible volumes which give
It is quite apparent that the number of tourist
shape and scale to the open spaces discussed so
facilities is highly concentrated in the Sao Tome
far, apart from being the most intimate parts of the
and Fontainhas area, as compared to the quieter
settlementwhere residents dwell.
residential areas of Mala and Portais, where only
When viewed from the street level, all houses have
a few eateries and accomodation facilities are
an apaprent height range of one to two and a half
present, apart from the Chapel.
storeys (two floors + attics). There is wide variation in the form of the sloping roof but a consistent fabric is maintained. Modern Incongruences Because of many reasons such as growth of families, disputes over ownership & difficulty in maintenance, some house owners have opted to demolish the heritage homes and construct ubiquitous buildings. These houses which range from two to five storeys not only seems alien to the setting but also shows complete disregard for the order which has been set over centuries of living.
TOURIST FACILITIES It is worthwhile to map the facilities available for the visitors in this area before initiating a project on heritage tourism, at it will reveal the existing as well as required infrastructure in the area. These facilities have been mapped by surveying the area on foot and the listing has been done by categorising all the places into four broad categories: 1. History and religion 2. Art and Design 3. Accomodation facilities 4. Eateries 42
HISTORY & RELIGION
ART & DESIGN
1. CASA DE MOEDA
4. ORCHID BOUTIQUE
7, 12. THE CARAVELA HOMESTAY
34. HOSPEDARIA GUEST HOUSE
EATERIES 5. SUBWAY
2. POST OFFICE
15. CARLO MENZE ART GALLERY
13. HOTEL VENITE
35. PARK LANE LODGE
6. VIHAR ANMOL RESTAURANT
3. CHAPEL OF ST. THOMAS
24. WELFIT SILHUOETTES
16. BHARAT LODGE
39. ALFONSO GUEST HOUSE
8. CARAVELA CAFE AND BISTRO
32. CONFEITARIA 31 DE JANEIRO
33. SHREE MAHALAXMI MANDIR
25. SOSA’S BOUTIQUE
18. HOTEL SONA ROYALE
44. LA MAISON
37. CASA FONTAINHAS
41. WELL IN FONTAINHAS
36. MARCOU ARTEFACTS
19. HOTEL AVANTI
45. PARADISE INN
10. ANAND ASHRAM
38. VIVA PANJIM
42. CHAPEL OF ST. SEBASTIAN
40. CHARLES CORREA FOUNDATION
20. A POUSADA GUEST HOUSE
47. PANJIM INN
52. FUNDACAO ORIENTE
43.ARMINIO REBEIRO ARCHITECTS
21. HOTEL BARETTA
48. PANJIM POUSADA
13. VENITE RESTAURANT
57. BARRELS AND BONES BBQ
54. FONTE PHEONIX
46. VELHA GOA ART GALLERY
22. ELITE LODGE
49. RIA RESIDENCY
14. UDIPI HOTEL
55. MARUTI TEMPLE
50. GITANJALI GALLERY
26. RELAX INN
51. OLD QUARTER HOSTEL
17. DOWN THE ROAD
60. FOUR PILLARS
61. CHAPEL OF ST. FRANCIS XAVIER
58. PUNIMA PILINJA BOUTIQUE
27. ZARINA GUEST HOUSE
53. ROYAL PHEONIX INN
19. ROUTE 66
59. RAYA SHANKHWALKER ARCHITECTS
28. SOMIA GUESTHOUSE
56. JOEL GUEST HOUSE
23. ASHOK RESTAURANT
29. ORAV’S GUEST HOUSE
60. OYO FOUR PILLARS
25. HORSESHOE A FERRADURA
INDO-PORTUGUESE ARCHITECTURAL STYLE When the Portuguese first came to Indian shores and started religious conversions forcibly, they were looked at by the natives in a negative attitude. However, by the early 19th century, religious freedom was granted to the citizens of Goa, which led to a change in the way of life. This change got reflected in the built form as well. When the local masons started experimenting with the European form and adapted them into local materials, it gave rise to what we today see as the Indo-Portuguese style of architecture. (Nadkarni 2003) The houses which earlier had small windows in thick walls and bare facades devoid of any ornamentation now adopted much larger windows opening out into the now secure environment. Decorative elements like pilasters, cornices, mouldings were inspired by the Portuguese styles. The houses responded to the street through the verandahs, balcaos or even the windows. PROMINENT ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES: 1. Entrance porches protrude out of the main body of the house roofed in tiled gable with simple columns supporting the eaves. 2. The balcony on the first floor is yet another distinctive feature, with delicately carved railings and thriving greenery in many cases. 3. The windows are invariably rectangular, and though they are all different in shape, a certain order can be perceived. Some windows have wrought iron grill from the floor upto 75cm while others have windows which start from a 75cm cill level. 4. The majority of the community being either Hindu or Christian, the difference in the house can be observed in the form of a tulsi plant which marks the Hindu household, whereas the holy cross or the image of Jesus would be visible at the entrance of the Christian familyâ€™s house. 5. Awnings made of asbestos cement sheet or GI sheet are quite common, especially during the monsoon season. 6. Wrought iron work in the form of balcony railings, french window parapets, brackets under cantilevered verandahs and trivial decorations can be seen quite frequently in varied designs. 7. The whole landscape is composed of a palette of colours consisting of reds, greens, yellows, blues and orange among others. ACROSS: COLLAGE OF SOME OF THE WINDOWS OF THE INDO-PORTUGUESE HOUSES IN THE OLD QUARTER
8. Azulejo panels announce the name of each house near the entrance. Because of all these, the whole area forms a coherent image in the minds of visitors. 45
TYPICAL HOUSE PLANS SHOWING SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT
The balcao (or alternatively the entrance/living room) established comunication with the street for the houses. Entrance to the house was staggered so that no private spaces were visible even with an open main door. Unbuilt private space (open yet enclosed) was always present at the back of the house in the form of a court. In the bigger houses, there was often a well in this court. 46
TYPOLOGY The basic typologies that exist in the settlement are: linear house, rectaingular house, square house, L-shaped house, etc. The only variation between Hindu and Catholic houses is that Hindu houses have a courtyard while the Catholic houses had verandahs, galleries or porticos. In other terms, the former was inward looking, opening into the courtyard, whereas the latter was outward looking, opening onto the street. ARRANGEMENT OF SPACES Sacred Core: The Puja area in the Hindu house and the altar/prayer space in the Catholic household are the sacred cores. Private Spaces: Apart from the bedrooms, the dining room is considered private if a place of worship was present there. Semi-private space: The hall in the front portion of the house is the semi-private space in which guests were entertained. This is entered either through the entrance lobby or the living room. COMMUNICATION WITH THE STREET Privacy is important for all residences but achieved in different ways. The main entrance may be staggered from the next door into the house. If the interiors are well-lit, upholstery is used. The first floor mostly had French windows, whereas the balcao on the ground floor helped in interacting with the street and neighbourhood.
TOP: ENTRANCE ROOM WITH STAIRCASE LEADING TO THE UPPER FLOOR; AND (LEFT): COURTYARD WITH WELL, OF THE HOSPEDARIA, FONTAINHAS
PILLARS AND COLUMNS From plane wooden ones to elaborate display of Rococo features, the pillars give support and beautify the Goan home. RAILINGS Decorated intricate woodwork used extensively
CORNICE A molded projection that supports the roof.
VERTICAL BAYS Vertical emphasis was achieved with the use of pilasters that divide the facade into bays
DOORS Entrance door occupying the honor at the centre of the facade.
BALCAO A colonnaded porch with seats built into the sides, a kind of open hall accordant.
COMPONENTS OF THE FACADE OF THE TYPICAL INDO-PORTUGUESE RESIDENCE
EAVESBOARDS They are the gable ends and the eaves of the timber roofs decorated with carved timber fascias.
PLINTH The base on which the main building rests is also ornamented.
ILLUSTRATIONS OF PANJIM INN (LEFT) AND SEQUEIRA NAZARETH (BELOW) FROM THE PROJECT ‘HOUSES OF GOA’ SHOWCASE THE INTRICACIES OF THE FACADES
FACADE COMPOSITION The facade is one of the visible highlights of the architecture of the Old Quarter. It is important to understand facades because they are the urban face of the city that people engage with. The front facade was generally all in one plane and to balance this horizontal effect, a vertical emphasis was created with the help of pilasters that divided the facade into bays. The ornament above each pilaster further exaggerated this verticality. The central bay was specially treated to draw attention to the main door. (Nehra 2014) The architectural character of these facades is not only because of the use of certain stylistic elements. Dcruz (2015) discusses the system of proportions found in the composition of the facades, specifically in the Sao Tome area. This system is called the Quadrature, which is found in Renaissance architecture. This idea of proportion is not such that it follows a fixed universal proportion such as a golden ratio or any other ‘ideal proportion’. In this case the idea being referred to is of the “parts being in proportion to one another”, that is, the whole can be expressed in terms of its parts. In almost all cases this relationship is seen with the facade height which can be expressed as a multiple of opening bays. Within this relationship of parts, there is a more or less constant system of relationship: The compositional relationship of the Quadrature, that is proportioning using the square. 49
PROPORTIONS OF THE SINGLE STOREY-FIVE BAY TYPE (Dcruz 2015) The first one displays a relationship between its height from the ground and
The second one breaks away from the conventional equidistant arrangement of
the width of a window bay, such that two window bays put together form an
openings, while still displaying the geometry of the quadrature in its composition.
exact square. If a circle is drawn with its centre at the centre of the doorstep,
We find that if a circle is constructed with its centre at the centre of the opening
and its radius extending till the window axes on either side, it is found that
entrance, with its radius extending till the bottom of the cornice, its circumfer-
the circumference of this circle passes through the upper edge of the doorâ€™s
ence passes through the vertical axes of the outer openings on either side. If this
architrave. If the radius of this circle is extended till theheight of the band, it
radius is reduced to the height of the door, then its circumference is found to pass
is found that the circumference passes through the vertical bay division lines.
through the bay axes of the two pairs of openings on either side. These double openings themselves, seen together, describe a perfect square.
GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FACADE OF DE MELLO HOUSE
GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FACADE OF ABREAU HOUSE
PROPORTIONS OF THE ALTERNATING PILASTER TYPE (Dcruz 2015) The following facade is composed of five bays at the upper storey while the lower storey is made up of eight openings whose arrangement does not harmonize with the openings above. Although, as a whole, the facade does exhibit a strong bilateral symmetry. The geometrical composition of the quadrature is seen across one and a half bay. We find that, if we draw a circle with its centre at the intersection of a window axis and the regulating line drawn across the first floor level, with its radius extending till the lintel of the openings on the upper storey, it is seen that the circumference of the circle passed through the window axes on either side. The segmented arch of the central opening on the upper storey seems to be traced out using the same radius. If the radius of this circle is extended till the height of the eaves, the radius id found to be equal to the width of two and a half bays. If half the width of a bay is regarded as one unit, then the entire facade can be expressed in proportion to this unit, that is the height of the uppwe storey as three units, that of the lower a 2.5, the ratio between the two being 6 : 5 and the width if a bay as two units.
GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF FACADE OF MENEZES HOUSE
CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE IN A HSTORIC FABRIC The design process of adding a new architectural layer in an existing historic fabric, especially one with an aesthetic identity as strong as the Old Quarter, is a complicated task. It is essential that the design quality of the new insert should recognise, interpret and sustain the heritage values of the area (Macdonald 2011), without restraining the possibility of contemporary expression.
The Vienna Memorandum (UNESCO 2005)
comments on contemporary architecture in historic urban landscapes. Referring to all planned interventions, it states that a key concern is to respond to development dynamics and growth on one hand while also acknowledging the inherited urban setting. There must not be a compro-
Architecture of quality in historic areas should give proper consideration to the given scales, particularly with reference to building volumes and heights.....
Preservation of World Heritage sites also involves the design of public space:.....
Townscapes, roofscapes, main visual axes, building plots and types are integral parts of the identity of the historic urban landscape......
As a general principle, proportion and design must fit into the particular type of historic pattern and architecture......
mise with the authenticity and integrity of the historic precinct. There are certain guidelines for
Economic aspects of urban development......
development and heritage management which have
Historic buildings, open spaces and contemporary architecture contribute significantly to the value of the city
been provided. (Excerpts on right)
by branding the city’s character.......
A set of general principles has been suggested for new design in historic settings by A+DS (n.d.)in the context
of Scotland, but are general guidelines which may be universally implemented as part of the design process
anywhere across the world. It can be observed that this formalised check-list encompasses various recommen-
Density and mix
dations made by several documents as well as general discussions in the realm of urban and architectural design as a response to historic settings. These eight principles talk about the sensitive response of a new development to the key elements which would exist in any historic settlement.
4. Scale 5.
Materials and detailing
6. Landscape 7.
Views and landmarks
THE ICONIC GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM BY FRANK GEHRY HAS BECOME THE FACE OF THE PORT TOWN OF BILBAO IN SPAIN AND GIVEN IT A RENEWED IDENTITY GLOBALLY.
The role of contemporary architecture should then
relationship that is created between the old and the
be to contribute to the inevitable process of change
new. She also discusses the idea of ‘starchitecture’
in a manner that it allows one to honour the special
in the historic city. The aim of creating ‘starchitec-
character of the historic fabric.
ture’ is to consciously create an icon for an aspiring city.
There are two sides to this debate. While one set of architects choose to use modern material but replicate the visual style of historic architecture, the other considers pastiche a dirty word and
However, historic cities are already iconic in themselves by virtue of their built and unbuilt heritage.
feel that new layers must always highlight the modern materials, technology, ideas & architectural language. Macdonald (2011) comments that given the vast
In a historic city, a new iconic building may (or may
variety of interpretations of the historic setting which
not) diminish the built environment. It is possible to
are possible, either of the two responses may be equally
derive unique forms and expressive styles out of the
valid. The important aspect of the insert is the
principles of conservation. 53
A look at case examples from European cities can provide some helpful insights into the design process for contemporary architecture in the historic fabric. Scotland and France are two countries with very rich built heritage featuring classical styles ranging from the Medieval to Gothic and Baroque. Apart from successful conservation of the historic buildings, both the nations have consciously accepted modern architectural inserts in juxtaposition with this historic fabric. The design guidebook ‘New design in historic settings’ published by The Scottish Government after thorough design evaluation and books like ‘Modern architecture in historic cities: Policy planning and building in contemporary France’ by Sebastian Loew bear testimony to the fact that discourse on this topic has reached a mature level and can thus be looked at to gain inferences about the project at hand.
CASE EXAMPLES: PIER ARTS CENTRE, ORKNEY, SCOTLAND LE GRANDE LOUVRE, PARIS, FRANCE PIER ARTS CENTRE, ORKNEY AN ODE TO THE HISORIC FABRIC OF ORKNEY Pier Arts Centre (PAC) in the conservation area of Orkney, an archipelago off the northeast coast of Scotland, was designed by Reiach and Hall Architects and completed in the year 2007. (A+DS n.d.) It is a strategically located building on shore which is visible on the approach from the ferry. Following the pattern of the settlement in which buildings tend to be formed perpendicular to each other, to shelter and enclose space, often with the first gable set to the wind, the architect created a form very similar in massing to the original, with the introduction of a new element. This led to an insert that was familiar in form yet strange and interesting in aspect and detail. LEFT: AN AREA PLAN FROM 1880 SHOWING HISTORIC URBAN FORM; RIGHT: VIEW OF THE P.A.C. FROM THE FERRY
PHOTO AND PLAN SHOWING THE GRANDE LOUVRE IN COUR NAPOLEON
LE GRANDE LOUVRE, PARIS JUXTAPOSITION OF THE MODERN AND THE CLASSICAL In sharp contrast to the PAC, the world famous Grande Louvre is a complete departure from the aesthetics of its surroundings. This glass pyramid by IM Pei, completed in the year 1989, was part of the redesign of Cour Napoleon, the main court of the Louvre, in order to improve movement and functioning of the museum. (Souza 2010) The insert functions impeccably as a grand entry space with a central lobby below, but faced severe criticism when it was first constructed as it was considered an attack of modern design on the Classical style of Parisâ€™ beloved Louvre. However, today the image of this pyramid has become
Louvre. Sen (2012) gives a crisp analysis of why the pyramid has been a rewarding intervention. It is because
building or compete with it. The transparent and visually light structure indeed complements it balancing out the heavy opaque faĂ§ade of the building. By providing a focal point in this vast plaza, it also breaks the monotony of the original architecture, which is perhaps monotonous because of the long stretch of repeated elements. The fact that this small insertion has drastically improved the functionality of the entire space is commendable. 55
TRADITIONAL & ALTERNATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGY BUILT HERITAGE OF THE OLD QUARTER
The houses in the heritage precinct date back to the early 19th century, making them about 200 years old. They were constructed using materials that were naturally available in abundance at that time. The architectural character and the appearance are what give the settlement its distinct character.
Because of this apparent difficulty, there is a lack of will on behalf of people constructing new buildings to create architecture which responds to the historic buildings. Convenient and inexpensive construction triumphs over the need for conserving the character of the heritage precinct as the intangible value of conservation is overshadowed by it.
DOWNFALL AND REASONS However, over the centuries, the structures face physical deterioration. Many of the houses can today be seen to be crumbling, with no proper action taken to restore them to their original glory. The reasons for this can broadly be categorised into two umbrella concerns: 1. Issues of ownership Ancestral homes are today divided between many owners resulting in a lack of sense of complete ownership and responsibility. When the residents are not the sole owners, there is no wish to invest in maintenance on behalf of the others (Sukhija 2016). In other cases, the houses have been abandoned completely. 2. Issues of expenditure For families with lower income struggling with basic amenities like sewage and electricity, home maintenance is not a priority at all. Provision of ingenuous design solutions which are easily and cost-effectively applicable would encourage them to consider this as a do-able priority. 56
CATALYST TO CHANGE Though one would like to honour the character of these old structures, it is impractical to use the same construction technology as them because the drawbacks of those materials and structural systems. Thus new technologies and materials must be looked at, which become feasible alternatives to the current materials in use in the houses which have become redundant now. The choice needs to be a sensitive one which does not negatively impact the unique heritage character of the settlement in the process of upgrading the structure. Visual aesthetics and principles of design must be acknowledged. The choice of construction technique is thus based on the following three principles: 1. Replicability in local houses A feasible solution, in terms of cost and the ease of availability of material, must be offered. Skills, if not available, can be developed amongst the locals through appropriate training. 2. Relevance in historic fabric The alternate should not look alien to the aettlement and respects its character and ethos. 3. Improved performance wrt. traditional systems This is a given, since alternatives must not be inferior to the current technology in any sense. ACROSS: TRADITIONAL BUILDING AND A MODERN INCONGRUENCE; ABOVE: WALL AND WINDOW OF A HOUSE IN FONTAINHAS IN POOR PHYSICAL CONDITION; LEFT: CLOSE-UP OF BROKEN SHELL WINDOW IN WHICH THE FRESHLY BROKEN PART IS STILL SHINING.
ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL TECHNOLOGY TO ARRIVE AT CONTEMPORARY ALTERNATIVES S.NO. BUILDING COMPONENT
Unknown, possibly laterite
Water resistant stone, locally available
None for the scale of buildings existing here, but new building will have different requirements
Taipa technique (rammed earth) with bamboo netting and coconut husk
• Uses mud which can be found on the construction site itself – local traditional material • Thickness of mud walls make them a good thermal insulator
• Slow process of construction • Difficult to withstand seismic activity • Thick walls are not desirable when area is already small • Stabilisers need to be added • Mud construction not compatible with framed structural system
• Ideal for mud wall as It becomes as hard as stone and is hydrophobic • Easily available in this area because of limestone and shell lime • Can be maintained by simple lime wash • Replenish-able, as compared to cement
Lime plaster mixed with jaggery
Wooden frame with translucent • Aesthetic appeal panels made of mother-of• Locally available material pearl shells • Provides light along with privacy
Intermediate floor slab
• Can be made easily on site • Material used to be available • Provides insulation to lower floors
• Hydrophobic, hence not needed if plaster is being done on stone • Curing process takes a long time to achieve strength
Time consuming and expensive
• Prone to fire • Wood is a depleting resource • Teak and other popular woods are expensive today.
CRITERIA FOR ALTERNATIVE
Laterite stone foundation
Forms adequate support for small structures
RCC Foundation for stilted parking
Will allow sufficient parking on site, since the settlement is already facing a parking menace.
Laterite walls in case of framed construction, mud walls in places
An appropriate combination of these technologies, with and without plaster, will help show the skeleton of the building to locals who come to the building centre
Stone is a good material for foundations and doesn’t need waterproofing if it is porous
Should allow for stilted parking on the site
• Locally available materials should be used • Traditional material responds to climatic requirements of thermal insulation
• Should be a locally available material • Should be compatible with framed structure when required
Easy to maintain, long lasting, natural material
Perhaps cure faster... But none of the known alternatives perform better than time except in terms of curing time which is not a priority for this project
Lime plaster of appropriate composition
Local material effectively used
• Should function well in terms of privacy and lighting • Easy to procure and make
• Shell windows where privacy is a concern. • Glass panel in wooden frame at other places.
The best of both materials, one traditional and one easily available contemporary material, can be employed.
System of discrete components, thus easily replaceable modules = efficient long-term maintenance
• Should be light and easy to construct with easily available material • Should be cost-effective
RCC Filler slab using bamboo as reinforcement
A variety of waste materials like Mangalore tiles, coconut shells, thermocole boards, earthen pots etc can be used as filler to achieve a very light slab
• Will revive a lost technique • Labour trained in the process of construction can later be employed in conservation works throughout the settlement and beyond.
ANALYSIS.... CONTINUED S.NO. BUILDING COMPONENT
• Can be made easily on site • Material used to be available
• Prone to fire • Wood is a depleting resource • Teak and other popular woods are expensive today.
Urban conditions such a sulphur and • High quality tiles were made from soil, a nitrogen pollutants in the air make the tiles natural resource and lasted for centuries disintegrate. They become porous and lead • Aesthetically pleasing to leakage
Wood or cast iron
Historically suitable material
Wood is a depleting material required in large quantity and sizes
Building elements like railings, pillars, eavesboard etc.
Cast iron and wood
Rarely made these days, can be revived
Collapsible iron frame with GI sheet covering
• Dynamic building component which can be used seasonally when required • Can be maintained because of discreet elements
Requires annual effort in removing and putting back every year
• Made from waste material • Non-combustible • Truss members can be made by plying multiple veneers together
• Should follow visual language of the traditional tiles • Should be long-lasting
Micro-concrete roofing tiles
• Resistant to urban conditions, match the visual texture & colour of traditional style • Can be manufactured in small set-ups and provide employment to many
Locally available and contextually relevant material should be used
Should support structural loads in the column while being native to the context
High density coconut timber
Easily available local material of the required dimensions
Small-scale elements which use less amount of material, but add more character to the buildings
Same material can be used
Cast iron and wooden building elements
Craftsmen trained in the process of construction can later be employed in conservation works throughout the settlement and beyond.
Climatologically relevant building elements need not be permanent as weather also changes throughout the year
Same material can be used
Iron frame with GI sheet on top
Common technique in this area
System of discrete components, thus easily replaceable modules = efficient long-term maintenance
CRITERIA FOR ALTERNATIVE • Should be structurally sound as a truss member • Material should be available with minimal environmental impact
RCC FILLER SLAB In the orthodox reinforced concrete slab, the dead wight of the concrete is heavy. This weight can be lessened by putting light weight materials between the steel rods. The simplest filler slab is of two fifth grade Mangalore tiles. These have no structural strength - they are mere â€˜fillersâ€™. Using them saves 30% dead weight of the slab - so less steel is needed and thus material and cost is saved. (Baker 1999) The air gap in the filler also provides better thermal insulation. A study done by SEP (2011) shows how the use of filler slab can lead to significant savings in both both cost as well as embodied energy. The cost savings can be as much as Rs. 1102 for 1 cu.m. of slab. The calculations done for embodied energy are as follows:
BAMBOO REINFORCEMENT IN RCC SLAB The utilization of bamboo reinforcement as replacement of steel reinforcement is gaining immense importance today, mainly on account of the improvement in the economical aspect combined with ecological benefits. Bamboo is a versatile material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio, easy workability and availability. It needs to be chemically treated due to their low natural durability. At an average tensile strength of 12,500 kg/ sq. inch, it is 2,000 kg units more than that of steel. (Varanashi 2013) While lime concrete bamboo reinforced beams have been attempted since the late 1990s and in regular use since then at the Laurie Baker Centre, research (Brink & Rush 1966) has shown that bamboo is capable of replacing steel as reinforcement in slabs too while maintaining the same slab thickness. This research, however, is for ground supported slabs.
LEFT: DIMENSIONS OF THE CONCRETE SLABS REINFORCED WITH BAMBOO PERMANENT SHUTTER FORMS; ABOVE LEFT: SCHEMATIC SETUP OF SLAB; ABOVE RIGHT: BAMBOO OF SLAB DURING TREATMENT
Bamboo finds an efficient application in concrete slabs reinforced with half bamboo sections, which work as permanent shutter forms. Ghavami (2004) executed research and experimentation on this usage of the bamboo as part of the slab. However, at this stage, it is unclear to the author about the means of providing services within this slab, long term maintenance and possibility of the acceptance of exposed bamboo surface within living areas. Available research has not established the success of these structural components. For these reasons, this technology will not be applied throughout the design. 63
MICRO CONCRETE ROOF TILES In India there is an acute shortage of locally available cheap roofing materials. Conventionally available materials do not offer acceptable solutions. Prices of corrugated G.I. sheets are continuously escalating, and their use in not preferred because of thermal discomfort. Use of cement sheets is not recommended because of health hazards associated with asbestos. The cost of fired clay tiles is increasing rapidly due to rising costs of clay and energy used for firing. (Vigyan Prasar 2006) Much attention has been paid worldwide to developing the small-scale production of micro-concrete roofing (MCR) tiles. These tiles are relatively low in cost, durable (with a life span expected to exceed 20 years in most areas), aesthetically acceptable, able to offer adequate security and comfort, and provide protection from both the heavy rain and the hot sun. (Ruskulis 1996)
The materials needed to make MCR tiles are: • sand of suitable grading • cement (Ordinary Portland Cement) • water • pigments (optional) The essential equipment is: • a tile vibrator • moulds • plastic sheets • batching boxes • a water curing tank • a table to work on
These can be manually produced in small set-ups and can be produced by micro-enterprises in rural areas. These tiles are relatively low in cost, durable (with a life span expected to exceed 20 years in most areas), aesthetically acceptable, able to offer adequate security and comfort, and provide protection from both the heavy rain and the hot sun.
FAR LEFT: MCR TILE ROOFING WHICH HAS A RED PIGMENT LEFT: PROCESS OF MANUFACTURE OF THE MCR TILE IN SMALL SCALE RURAL SET-UP
Instructions for installation of the MCR Tiles
1 The balance between the needs of the host community and the expectations of the visitors is the key
determinant which will affect the process of development of a sensitive building programme. This approach now needs further study and understanding of the stakeholders in this project.
2 The narrow roads and buildings with similar architectural character make a distinct homogenous group creating a human and warm scale demands a compassionate approach. In order for the new development to be a natural extension to the settlement, this scale of space must be maintained.
3 The distinct architectural character is not simply because of the colours and the ornamentation, as it may
seem at the first glance. There is a predominant system of spatial arrangement and facade proportions of which the architectural style is a product.
4 It is not necessary to create exact replicas of the existing architectural style. The response to historic architecture must be sensitive to the idea it embodies and complement it, either by matching the style in some way or even by being a complete departure from the architectural language of the past.
5 Alternative technology can help create a more sustainable built form and also encourage residents in the area
to take up renovation work which would create more liveable spaces while being ecologically & economically sensible at the same time.
Case Studies Case studies have been chosen based on the varied approaches towards establishment of the relationship between heritage and tourism.
SANSKRITI KENDRA, ANANDGRAM, DELHI Methodology: Primary Case Study Heritage character: Intangible cultural heritage
SWAMINARAYAN AKSHARDHAM, DELHI Methodology: Primary Case Study Heritage character: Religious and cultural heritage
MAPUNGUBWE INTERPRETATION CENTRE, SOUTH AFRICA Methodology: Secondary Case Study Heritage character: Natural heritage 67
SANSKRITI KALA KENDRA
SANSKRITI KENDRA, ANANDGRAM, DELHI towards vitality of indian art and cultural heritage The Kendra has been conceived as a space where creative persons devoted to diverse disciplines can stay, study and interact with one another as well as with the craftsmen. It contributes towards the activation of cultural heritage by not only showcasing Indian artforms through museum space but also by providing space for an interactive experience with the arts and crafts of India.
Location: Ghitorni, Delhi Site Area: 5 Acres Built up area: 3500 sq.m. Architect: Upal Ghosh, landscape by Mohd. Shaheer Completed in: 1993 Client: Sanskriti Foundation Connectivity & Access: Lies along the fast moving Mehrauli-Gurgaon road Public transport - Arjangarh Metro station (yellow line) is 1.3km and DTC bus stop is 700m away Entry fee: Free
Architectural Vision and Implementation The Kendra is a symbol of Sanskriti’s involvement in activities relating to art, craft, literature, performing arts and social work. For this Kendra, Upal Ghosh proposed ‘bringing Shanti Niketan to Delhi’ creating an idyllic village that would have flowing river and trees for the artists to work under, just as Tagore had envisaged years ago. The complex is a man-made yet natural feeling rural environment where the architectural expression emphasizes restraint over exuberance.
“The complex manifestation of built form in a warm climate, where between closed-box and open to sky, there lies in a whole continuum of zones, THE SANSKRITI KENDRA ‘BAITHAK’
with varying definitions and varying degrees of protection. One steps out of the box to lend oneself in a verandah from which one moves into a courtyard and then under a tree, and beyond onto a terrace covered by a bamboo pergola, and then perhaps back onto a balcony and so on. The boundaries between these zones are not formal and sharply demarcated, but easy and amorphous. Subtle modulations of light, of the quality of ambient air, register each transitions on our senses.”
Building style and material The buildings are semi-rustic in appearance, with ample space between them for strolling – but not so far apart as to engender a sense of isolation. The architect took visual cues from rural architecture but wanted the buildings to be practical and long lasting. Thus the finish is actually cement which was made to look like mud bricks, with pyramidal terracotta tiled roofs. This makes the design that could be easily replicated as the complex grows. Relation of built form to surroundings The scale of the built blocks is similar to those in the surroundings – which are low rise farmhouses
- Upal Ghosh
with expansive open space around them.
Spatial Organisation A living, creative complex, the Kendra is intended to provide temporary residential and working space to both traditional and contemporary artists & craftspersons and in doing so, it aims to promote interaction between the two. The entire campus is completely vehicle free. However, it does not accomodate the parking of cars and buses in which visitors arrive. These get parked on the road outside the complex. The blue path marks the movement of a typical visitor, who mainly sees the three museums, while also being allowed a view of the Amphitheatre. Residential areas are located at the back, away from general movement. 71
Building Components S.no. 1 2
Type of access
Name of Component
Entrance, guard room & Banyan tree
All arrivees to complex
Provides a sense of entry to this place of cultural celebration
Baithak & Library
Adminstration & members
Central point of control
Museum of Indian Terracotta
Museum of Everyday Art
Sculpture Terrace Museum of Indian Textiles
All day-visitors to the complex
Displays various traditional art forms to visitors and spreads knowledge about them
Space for contemporay artists to display their works
A space for contemplation and discussion
Gaon - Dormitories Studios
Artists in residence
Residential facilities to allow people to stay in the complex and engage with the art forms
For display of the performing arts
To organise varied kinds of events on cultural dissemination
To restore art pieces before putting them in the museums
To provide a breather space
LEFT TO RIGHT: THE AMPHITHEATRE WITH ENTRANCE TO THE ‘GAON’ AT THE BACK; A SHADED WORKSPACE IN THE GAON, INSIDE THE COURTYARD OF THE DORMITORIES
Users and Stakeholders The Sanskriti Foundation is a board of trustees that run the Kendra and are the DORMS & STUDIOS
main stakeholders concerned with the promotion of art & culture. The other users are the day visitors who come to visit the museums, the people GENERAL VISITORS
GALLERY MULTI-PURPOSE HALL
enrolled in hobby activities such as pottery and the artists in residence who spend a longer amount of time here. Revenue Generation The only sources of revenue generation are the rent for the residences and from renting out space for other organisations to conduct hobby workshops here. The
space feel like a grossly under-utilised one. It is still funded by the trustees for maintenance purposes and has not managed to cover up the initial expenditure.
LEFT TO RIGHT: LUNCH IN THE LAWN OF THE MUSEUM OF INDIAN TERRACOTTA; POTTERY CLASS IN PROGRESS,THE ‘BAITHAK’ AS VIEWED FROM THE NEAR THE AMPHITHEATRE
AKSHARDHAM METRO STATION
COMMONWEALTH GAMES VILLAGE
SWAMINARAYAN AKSHARDHAM, NEW DELHI a theme park for religious heritage
One would refrain from calling it a temple in the true sense of the word. Akshardham is a spiritual-cultural complex themed as a Hindu temple which uses technologies such as animatronix, IMAX theatres and entertainment rides to communicate ancient Indian traditional culture and values to the current generation in an appealing manner. It showcases the life and work of Bhagwan Swaminarayan, the founding father of the organisation. This case study has proven to be a very successful example of religious heritage tourism in the Indian context and thus can prove to be helpful in understanding the strategies involved in creating an enjoyable user experience and communicating knowledge to tourists.
Location: Noida Mor (Intersection of NH-24 and Noida Link Road), Delhi Site Area: 40 hectares Built up area: 32,300 sq.m. Architect: (unknown) claimed to be designed by Sanstha top members Completed in: November 2005
MAYUR VIHAR PHASE - 1
Client: BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha Connectivity & Access: Easily accessible from most parts of the city because of its location at a major intersection Public transport: Akshardham Metro station (blue line) and DTC bus stop are 350m away Entry fee: Free, ticketed for exhibition galleries and water show
Architectural Vision and Implementation The objective is to showcase traditional Indian art, wisdom, heritage and values as a tribute to Bhagwaan Swaminarayan. This aspiration takes architectural form through the creation of a temple-style complex which showcases traditional sculptural skills in each of its buildings. Building style and material It uses the same construction style and material as the older temples of the Nagara style in which it has been built. The use of stone, which is considered an eternal material, has been done to make the temple last for several thousands of years. The stones were quarried in Bansipahadpur (400km away) and carved in Pindava (600km), Sikandra (250m) and 24 other rural workshops in Rajasthan. After being transported to Delhi, each stone was assembled like a jigsaw puzzle.
STARK CONTRASTS: THE PANDAV NAGAR HOUSING AND SWAMINARAYAN AKSHARDHAM FACE EACH OTHER ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE NOIDA LINK ROAD. THIS â€œTEMPLEâ€? STANDS LIKE AN ISOLATED SELF-CONTAINED DESTINATION
A thousand skilled craftsmen were selected and training schools were set up for the artisans in different parts of the country, particularly Rajasthan.
Relation of built form to surroundings
Almost 7000 craftsmen were trained in this manner.
The site where Akshardham today stands was the site of the Pushta slums which were cleared out right before
The entire carvings were divided like a jigsaw puzzle
the Commonwealth Games 2010 in the process of gentrification and cleaning up of the city.
and allotted to different groups of artisans to be completed within a given amount of time. There was
The complex has no relation whatsoever with its surroundings, which is the farmlands and the proximity to the
a lot of pressure on them, whoever did not complete
River Yamuna on one side and the Pandav Nagar residential area on another side. As intended, the complex is
the carving in the given amount of time was replaced
a monument, a landmark and a popular tourist destination, in contrast to the stark reality of the people living
by another one. (Shamsu 2014)
in its surrounding areas.
Spatial Organisation 1 – Parking for cars and buses 2 – Cloak Room and Queue area 3 – Security check 4 – Complex entry 5 – Ten Gates 6 – Visitor Centre 7 – Bharat Upvan 8 – Mandir 9 – Ticketing area
10 – Office/Conference Hall
11 – Queues 12 – Sahajanand Darshan 13 – Neelkanth Yatra 14 – Sanskruti Darshan
15 – Yagnapurush Kund 16 – Abhishek Mandap 17 – Premvati Food Court
18 – Akshardham Books and gift shop
19 – Exit
The key attractions are the main monument and the gardens which are open to all, though after crossing fortress-like security. This public space is
accompanied by visitor facilities such as food court and book shop.
1 The entertainment spaces are ticketed and located in a closed circuit on another part of the site. Even here, the cars are restricted at the entry of the site allowing for an absolute pedestrian experience.. The entire complex is wheelchair-friendly. 77
Building Components S.no.
Type of access
Name of Component
Ample parking accomodates the cars, bikes and buses
Visitors and employees
Strict security prohibits people from taking many things which may be deposited here before queueing up to enter
Cloak Room and Queue area
Strict security to safeguard the area
These spaces add to the sense of arrival at the complex as large crowds move through them together
Visitors Bharat Upvan
Depicts stories of freedom fighters and national figures through bronze statues
An ornately carved interior add to visitor experience
A check point to give access to the ticketed places
Premvati Food Court Akshardham Books and gift shop
IMAX SCREEN SHOWING ‘NEELKANTH DARSHAN’
Used to organise events Organise people into groups before sending them in Exhibitions include nimatronix show, IMAX movie and a boat ride through the Vedic era
Introduces the various components of complex accessible to visitors.
Music and light show held at the fountain Visitors can perform ‘abhishek’ of the murti, after donation Visitor facilities
SOUND & LIGHT SHOW IN THE YAGNAPURUSH KUND
Users and Stakeholders The BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha, the patron of the project, benefits by achieving their vision of spreading the cultures and values they deem fit to be prop-
agated. The volunteers for the Sanstha engage in emotional labour where they ABHISHEK MANDAP
ly and 15000 more indirectly, besides providing financial support to people in Gujarat by rebuilding 20 villages from scratch and building many houses in Tsunami affected areas. (Shamsu 2014)
the complex. The construction of Akshardham gave job opportunities to 9000 people direct-
contribute their time and effort in order to facilitate the smooth functioning of
BOOKS, GIFT SHOP VISITOR CENTRE
OPEN TO ALL BUT PAID ACTIVITIES
The visitors to the complex gain knowledge and also engage in a unique experience of religious-entertainment in the city.
Revenue Generation Even though entry to the Akshardham Temple complex is free, entry to many of
the entertaining attractions is ticketed. The souvenir shop and the food court are the commercial aspects of the complex. Apart from this, many events such as conferences are also organised and these lead to generation of income for the organ-
ENTRY FREE AND OPEN TO ALL
isation. This amount possibly goes into the maintenance of this large complex and compensating the employees of the Sansthan, as no other direct beneficiaries are evident.
SOUND & LIGHT SHOW IN THE YAGNAPURUSH KUND
MUSEUM AND INTERPRETATION CENTRE
MAPUNGUBWE INTERPRETATION CENTRE, SOUTH AFRICA an amalgamation of building within the ecological heritage
The interpretation centre is located within the Mapungubwe National Park which was declared a World Heritage Site in 2003, as a cultural landscape. This building not only provides imaginative exhibition space but also raises awareness about the fragile natural ecology of the savannah landscape. It was declared the Building of the Year 2009 at the World Architecture Festival that year, along with the many other awards it received. A study of an internationally recognised project such as this one can give clues on how the process of sensitive architectural response to heritage has been explored the world over.
Location: Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa Site Area: 2750 sq.m. Built up area: 1130 sq.m. Architect: Peter Rich Architects Completed in: June 2009 Client: South African National Parks Connectivity & Access: Connectivity is via the R572 passing through the National Park Entry fee: R50 per person / R15 per person for school tour
Architectural Vision and Implementation The requirements of the competition demanded an extensive programme of exhibition spaces that would accommodate the historical artefacts of the Mapungubwe Kingdom, interpretive areas for the cultural and natural significance of the park, headquarters for the park staff, and amenities for visiting tourists. But the agenda of the competition took a step further, to engage the local population with the realisation of the project, in an effort to create employment positions and inject money and skills to the local community. The winning proposal by Peter Rich Architects, Michael Ramage and John Ochsendorf responded to these requirements with a labourintensive design that employed local people for a year making tiles on site from the surrounding earth.
LEFT: CONSTRUCTION PROCESS, FOR WHICH LOCALS WERE TRAINED; RIGHT: VIEW OF THE FINISHED BUILDING USING LOCAL MATERIALS.
Building style and material The typical constraints of time and budget were multiplied with the high price of steel, making the architects
“we turned to nature for inspiration, for reasons of economy, certainly not for aesthetics”. But this project reveals much more than a struggle to create Architecture that respects the genius loci. It reveals an architect that is also a thinker and sends a message that the role of the architect has always been and should be multiple; to serve those in need, to respect the environment and to be an activist, if one wants to regain the lost ground. - Peter Rich
almost eliminate this material when possible. This led to the choice of local materials and the active participation and training of local people to work under the poverty relief program. As a result, the design took these limitations into account. Therefore, minimal formwork and no steel reinforcement were used for the vault shaped roofs. At the same time a sustainable solution is achieved, not only because of the low impact that the construction of the building had on the environment, but also in a social level. This action gave the opportunity to the local workers to familiarize with that traditional method since they were used to working with more contemporary construction techniques. Common and cheap materials were used with a simple but sophisticated way, as Paul Finch successfully noted in his interview about the jury who awarded the building in the WAF in 2009. The majority of the materials come also from the local environment and enhance the identity of the building. Soil cement tiles were locally produced by the indigenous people, roughly shaped stones for the cladding of the domes and the construction of walls, and finally reeds to cover the semi-open spaces and provide the necessary shade in the hot climate of Mapungubwe.
LONG SECTION THROUGH EXHIBITION SPACES
Spatial Organisation 1 – Pedestrian arrival/departure
10 – Main vaulted exhibition space
2 – Arrival landing
11 – East cairn
3 – Bridge
12 – West cairn
4 – Reception cairn
13 – Teaching and learning
5 – Outdoor court
14 – Mesa walkway access
6 – WCs
15 – Return route
7 – Restaurant
16 – External teaching
8 – Craft shop
17 – Game drive drop-off
9 – Floating walkway
18 – SANS headquarters
The SANParks administration offices are located at the beginning of the scheme. Then a first bridge leads SITE PLAN - MAPUNGUBWE INTERPRETATION CENTRE
the visitor to the Interpretation Centre itself. A series of outdoor spaces is the first impression he gets, while these spaces connect different vaults to create a combination of patios. The entrance to the interpretation rooms is unique because of the indoor/outdoor feeling created by the second bridge towards the first hall. The different rooms are then organised as a series, letting the visitor circulate smoothly from one area to another and experience different degrees of the sacred environments while moving further into the Centre. 83
Building Components S.no.
Type of access
Exhibition space Semi-public
Visitor facilities Visitors to the National Park
Teaching and learning SANP Headquarters
Retail space to promote sale of local crafts Main space which gives information about the place For special discussion groups and classes on natural heritage
External teaching Restricted
Purpose Arrival point for all visitors
Name of Component
Control point for all activity
Users and Stakeholders SANPArks was able to draw increased tourism to the National Park as people came not only to see the park but the interpretation centre as well for its architectural marvel and informative nature.
Sixty unemployed low-skill people hired on the site worked through the government-funded poverty reduction programme received training in how to manufacture bricks. A hundred people were trained for the construction works, while the site works continuously used an average
of 10 to 40 people at the same time during the eight months of construction. They were able to find a job on
the site from this training. After completion of the project, six small-size companies were created by the workEXT. TEACHING
ers. The architect Peter Rich has just been commissioned for the entrance gate of the relatively nearby Kruger National Park and he is going to use these now-skilled workers for the project since they are already active in the region. Visitors to the National Park have an enhanced experience of the place, getting to know the history which is no longer visible.
RECEPTION OUTDOOR COURT
Apart from entry fee, there is a rentable autditorium (Golden Rhino Auditorium) which accommodates 52 peoSANP OFFICE
ple and can be rented for R720 The revenue goes into maintenance of the complex and payment of employees.
ACROSS: THE INTERPRETATION CENTRE AT NIGHT; FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: AUTHENTICITY OF THE BUILDING COMES FROM THE USE OF LOCAL MATERIALS; APPROACH TO CENTRE; BRICKS & TILES FROM LOCAL SOIL
In my opinion, the biggest strength of this project lies in its involvement of the local community and local materials. It drives home the point that the balance between catering to the local community and the visitors both is the essential aspect of a sustainable heritage tourism programme.
Case Study Inferences Inferences have been drawn by evaluating each of these case studies against the six principles of heritage tourism as proposed by ICOMOS (International Council of Monuments and Sites) and analysing their possible contribution towards the author’s project. The inferences are in the realm of programme development, design and building construction as all three are equally important challenges to be undertaken in the way ahead in this project.
Learnings for project
Sanskriti Kendra, Anandagram
Old Quarter Heritage Nexus
Intangible cultural heritage
Intangible cultural heritage
Social experience of living heritage
Apart from museums showcasing antique pieces, the hobby classes and seminar engage people in the learning process.
Animatronics show, IMAX movie, artificial boat ride and sculpture garden inform visitors about the glories of the ancient culture.
Interpretation centre is a resource house for information on the lost Mapungbwe Kingdom, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
The Nexus shall not only give information but engage visitors in a social experience of the living heritage.
Sustaining heritage characteristics
Architectural finishes visually reflect the village ambience part of the vision, but materials and construction technology is modern.
Building material has been transported over hundreds of kilometres to give the “authentic” look.
The natural landscape has been left undisturbed; the building also draws inspiration and building material from it.
The building process should be sustainable in terms of ecology, economy and social response to the settlement.
Quality of visitor experience
Interesting built and landscape elements, with ample seating and a good navigability.
Technology and architectural expertise engage the visitor in an entertaining themed experience
The quality of architectural space as well as the content of the exhibition are enjoyed by all.
An active and engaging visitor experience will be based on the idea of experiences and not just information.
Involvement of host community
The intended interaction between traditional craftsmen & contemporary artists was not visible
There is no involvement of the local communities, this is more of a destination than a part of city fabric.
The labour intensive design of the building ensured locals were involved in construction.
The program should incorporate the requirements of the host community and involve them in the management.
Benefit to host community
Due to lack of involvement currently, very little could be observed about the benefits to host community.
The self-appointed guardians of culture benefit from the revenue but no locals who were displaced for its construction receive any benefits.
The host community was provided with employment and learnt skills beneficial to them in the long run.
Host communities should benefit directly and indirectly from the services of the complex and also be able to gain employment here.
The promotion programme is clear about the objectives of the institutions, activities and visitor expectations.
Akshardham complex adds to the image of the city as a “temple” when advertised as such by Delhi Tourism.
The promotion is of the National Park and the interpretation centre becomes a part of the many attractions there.
The promotion shall be based on the expectation of a social experience of the living heritage.
Responsible promotion programme
Chapter 3 Project Site & Analysis (Fontainhas is)... a small chunk of Portugal washed up on the shores of the Indian Ocean - William Dalrymple
VIEW OF MALA LAKE AND THE MARUTI TEMPLE OF MALA ON THE SOUTH WEST OF SITE
Project Site The selected site for this project is a plot of land currently marked for commercial development on the edge of Mala Lake. This parcel of land is an intrinsic part of the historic settlement, fitting in almost like a puzzle piece. Yet, it has frontageon the outside of the settlement, thus making it the perfect point to create an interface between the old and the new. Historic Settlement
It is a precious piece of open land, being the only such space available in this dense settlement. Not only is it relevant to the people New CBD Patto Plaza
within the settlement, it has the potential to act as a landmark at the city level because of being located at an upcoming urban node, once a bridge connects Patto Plaza to Panjim city at this point.
Physical Context LOCATION Maharashtra
Map of Panaji
PANAJI Goa Karnataka
Country: India State: Goa
The figure ground shows the urban pattern of the heritage settlement, lying in between the Altinho hill and the Ourem creek.
Map of Heritage Settlement
Taluka: Tiswadi City: Panaji
The heritage precinct is located within the city of Panaji, Goaâ€™s state capital. Apart from a large number of
Wards: Sao Tome, Fontainhas, Mala, Portais
tourists coming in for vacations on the beaches, Panaji is slowly developing as a hub of cultural activity with many events such as film festivals, academic conferences and food festivals taking place here.
NEIGHBOURHOOD The settlement is bound by the Altinho on the west and the Rue de Ourem (effectively Ourem creek) on the east, resulting in a linear settlement. Important built landmarks in the immediate surrounding are as follows: 1. Pay Toilet 2. KB Hegdewar School & Planning and Development Authority office 3. Petrol Pump 4. Institute of Public Assistance 5. Directorate of Archives & Archaeology 6. Goa State Central Library 7. Goa State Museum 8. Goa State Crafts Complex 9. Jairam Commercial Complex 10. Tata Motors Showroom Several small residences are present along the west of the site, all along the foothills of the Altinho hill.
Social Context A heterogenous around
religious celebrations, & does not interrupt those of another. A discussion of the various religions and their presence across various zones in the settlement has been covered under the heading ‘Urban study of the Old Quarter’ in the research chapter. Immediately around the perepheries of the site are low-income groups with very small houses facing the back lanes. This side of the side has a very intimate private scale. The other side of the site has a very public image because of it being part of a commercial-institutional stretch. Maintenance of the physical structure is low on the priority list of the low-income group because of the many basic issues water suppply and drainage that they deal with. MAN LOOKING OUT THE WINDOW OF HIS HOUSE IN SAO TOME
Religion, economic class and the resulting lifestyle are determinants of people’s attitudes towards the built heritage. A discussion of the relationship between religion & house design has been included in the research chapter
architectural style’. 94
PRIORITY TRIANGLE Needs and priorities of the low-income group based on field work in Mala area (Preethi 2016)
Old Youth 25% 15%
DRAINAGE AND SEWAGE SYSTEM STAIRS
Category 1 4081
TULSI PLANT (RELIGION) WATER Adult 50%
Adult 50% Females
USE OF HOUSES THE NUMBERS IN FONTAINHAS & MALA
14 10 9
40% Second homes
60% Guest homes
The reasons for abandonment of homes are many. Many generations have passed since they were first occupied and the ownership is now divided between many relatives. This leads to entitlement issues which have not reached any legal solution yet. The occupants of the house are not the only owners, thus often finding it difficult to maintain the house and might choose to abandon it. Some move overseas. Locals feel that ‘Tranfer of Development Rights’ is the solution to this issue, which would sort out the core problem & those arising from it. (Sukhija 2016) STATISTICAL INFORMATION BASED ON STUDY OF FONTAINHAS BY STUDENTS OF GOA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE, PANAJI - DATA USED WITH PERMISISSION.
THE EXISTING CONCRETE STRUCTURE ON THE SITE WITH THE MALA LAKE IN FOREGROUND AND THE NEWLY BUILT GOA CENTRAL LIBRARY IN THE BACKGROUND
Site History PREVIOUS PROPOSALS FOR THIS SITE
MALA MARKETPLACE: Need for a city-level market place was identified and 44,800 sq.m. of prime land was acquired by the government “for the benefit, use and social needs of the people”. (Source: The Hindu 11 July 2011 & Target Goa 24 July 2011)
SHOPPING MALL AND HOTEL COMPLEX: This land was then given to a Mumbai developer at Re.1/ sq.m. instead of Rs. 2 Lakh/sq.m. market rate, who proposed a lavish mall and hotel project where, in which the lake would also get privatised and become part of the leisure complex. This was opposed by local activists and the project was halted by court order. The incomplete concrete structure on site today & the barricading around it and the lake are remnants of this project. (Source: Times of India 26 June 2015, Target Goa 24July 2011 & Navhind Times 4 December 2014)
CULTURAL HERITAGE CENTRE: Spain-based LKS India Pvt. Ltd. was awarded the project of ‘Draft Masterplan for the holistic development of Panaji city’ as part of which they proposed the use of this site for a Cultural Heritage Centre. Unveiled by then Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar, but discounted by CCP as they are now focussing instead on multiple plans which include all the facilities and services needed in the city. (Source: Times News Network 2013, Times of India City, ‘Draft masterplan unveiled for Panaji city’, 19 July 2013)
REVITALISATION OF MALA LAKE: has been proposed by the Corporation of City of Panjim. Meanwhile, ‘Redevelopment of Mala’ has started, with the Lane Redevelopment being the first aspect. (Source: Panaji Smart City Draft Proposal for Citizen’s Review, by Corporation of City of Panaji, 10 December 2015, <http://www.smartcitieschallenge.in/files/dmfile/Draft-Smart-Cities-Proposal-panaji1.pdf>)
ANALYSIS OF THE PREVIOUS PROPOSALS Proposal Name
Marketplace similar to existing Panjim Municipal Market
Would ease pressure on cityâ€™s centralised market & cater to residents of Mala, Bathlem, Santa Cruz and Taleigao
A well-intentioned project, but it did not look at the heritage character and an unresponsive program was imposed.
2600 sq.m. Shopping mall
2 and Hotel Complex
Cultural Heritage Centre
4 of Mala Lake
17000 sq.m. Five-star hotel + 92 Serviced apartments + Spa Lake promenade, paving, lake lining, cable stayed deck, food court, boat club, LED streetlighting, band stand
Facility to promote the cultural heritage, though components have not been revealed.
Lake beautification, pedestrian zone along lake, artist zones, nature trail and skill centre
Mall and hotel would have caused traffic congestion in an already cramped settlement & would not benefit the locals around the site
Facilities like hawkersâ€™ market, Sulabh complex, department store, bank were part Lake would have been of Mall privatised Lake would have been cleaned and activated.
It would put pressure on existing water and electricity supply for residents
Recognition of the need for None so far, since no detailed prohighlighting heritage value of gram was proposed. the site.
Proposed activities would create a healthy public open space Opportunities for people to learn skills
Revenue generated will not be enough to maintain the complex, let alone provide additional funds towards the local economy & conservation. (Based on S.K. case study)
Inferences City-level facilities can be located at many other points in the urban fabric, special tissues need a sensitively planned program which would enhance its character, not dilute it.
A sustainable solution can be reached only by catering to the requirements of the people who will be affected by it the most. The project must function within the limited resource constraints & possibly generate more for sustaining itself, if not put energy back into the grid.
A major shift in the outlook towards the use of this site and a step towards change in land-use on the basis of its heritage value.
A healthy open space is required by the citizens, but certain components must create opportunities for revenue generation to aid the process of revitalisation.
LEFT: VIEW OF THE EXISTING STRUCTURE BEYOND THE BARRICADES; RIGHT: ARTIFICIAL WATER BODY STRUCTURE
READING OF A BROWNFIELD SITE Cracks in structure
Modern Incongruence: This structure does not
backyard of the community.
follow the pedominant urban pattern
Condition of the structure: Considerable number
buildings, it creates a negative puncture in the street
of cracks have appeared in the structure which is
character along the Rue-de-Ourem.
otherwise 85% complete. Remedial measures would
not be feasible. Apart from its urban interface, there is no response Brownfield Landscape
to the historic context in terms of architectural
expression. Apart from the sloping roof which is a
demolished & the project will be constructed
climatic requirement, that too in concrete, the
afresh by GSIDC. (Source: Times of India 26 June 2015
proportions of the building elements and the
& Navhind Times 4 December 2014)
relationship between the built & open do not What it leaves behind: A brownfield site which is
devoid of much plantation apart from shrubs and tall grass. The contours on site have been flattened out,
Visual Disconnect 0
acknowledge the positive features of the existing
and a very high level difference exists in the open
barricading of the site and lake, a potential
space where a concrete water body has been made
urban public space has today become the abandoned
but never used. 99
Site Data SIZE AND ZONING
The site lies at the edge of the heritage precinct next to the Mala Lake. As per Masterplan 2011, the chosen project site has two parcels of land: 1 - Commercial plot at road corner 2 - Recreational plot around the lake SITE
Area of commercial plot = 1.27 hA Area of recreational plot = 3.03 hA Area of Lake = 1.9 hA
However, the programs which have proposed by govt. authorities over the last few years indicates an acknowledgement of the need for change in land use here, from commercial to a socio-cultural landuse The activity allowed on a commercial plot by the building bye-laws includes any â€œbuilding or part thereof used principally for transaction of business and/or keeping of accounts and records including offices, banks, professional establishment, court houses etc.â€? None of these, in their conventional form, would be appropriate for this site.
A change in land-use is thus proposed, from purely commercial to mixed use.
Ground coverage = 60% Plinth area = 7315 sq.m.
Height = 9m (G+2) Almost identical to Panjim Municipal Market
Client: Corporation of City of Panjim The applicable building development controls and building byelaws for this site located in the heritage conservation zone (as per the Goa Land Development and building construction regulations 2010 from the Official Gazette, Govt. of Goa - 9 September 2010) Commercial Zone in Conservation Area in Panaji (Plot>1000sq.m.) Ground coverage = 60%
Ground coverage = 49%
Plinth area = 7315 sq.m.
Plinth area = 5486 sq.m.
Height = 9m (G+2)
Height = 12m (G+3)
Permissible Ground Coverage
9m (12m in case of stepped formation) UPDATED AFTER PUBLISHING Almost identical to Panjim Municipal Market OF THIS EDITION
3m â€“ Front 1.5m â€“ Side Angle of 63 1/3 degrees from rear boundary for Rear.
Exceptions in Setbacks
Ground coverage = 60%
(In order to maintain streetscapes and old facades to be retained)Ground coverage = 49%
Ground coverage = 39.9%
Plinth area = 7315 sq.m.
Plinth area = 5486 sq.m.
Plinth area = 4876 sq.m.
Buildings located at intersections Heightand = 12m (G+3) Almost identical to Panjim Municipal Market junctions, desirable minimum front setback up to 3.00 meters will be applicable. Height = 9m (G+2)
Height = 15m (G+4)
Side setback 1.50 meters may be relaxed if building is taken upto boundary & blank walls are not visible. Minimum rear setback of 3m for structures upto G+1 (7.60m) VOLUMETRIC EXPLORATIONS BASED ON GIVEN BYELAWS 101
Site Conditions NATURAL & MANMADE FEATURES Key natural features of the site are: 1. Contours steeply rising up beyond the site boundary 2. Mala Lake
3. Trees along Rue de Ourem 4. Shrubs and tall grass inside the site The key manmade features of the site are: 1. Existing concrete structure (to be demolished)
Shrubs all over site
2. Artificial water body basin (to be demolished, land reclaimed for playground) 3. Christian shrine built over the years by residents around the site 4. Laterite parapet wall all around the lake 5. Public Pay toilet adjacent to site
Mala Lake DESIGN RESPONSE
CONNECTIVITY & MOVEMENT SYSTEMS The available modes of transport in Panjim city are: OTHER PUBLIC MODES Pilot Taxi Auto-Rickshaw Car Taxi
PRIVATE MODES Two-wheelers Cars Pedestrian
MASS PUBLIC MODES KTC Buses Private Buses Ferry Service
To Panjim Bus Stand
With a 70x70m grid and wide footpaths at most places, the planned part of the city is highly walkable. Pedestrian Movement Vehicular Movement
Climate of Panaji, Goa
Climatological Table for Panaji (1951-1980) PANAJI PERIOD: 1951‐1980 (Source: Meteorological Centre, Panaji - IMD, Govt. of India)
Wind Direction Distribution (%) (Source: www.windfinder.com)
Temperature (oC )
Mean Mean Total Rainfall Number of Rainy Days (mm)
Mean Number of days with
Click Here For Local Weather & Forecast
Wind Statistics (01/2008 - 02/2016) (Source: www.windfinder.com)
Key data from climatological table
There is a variation of 10.7 degrees between highest mean temperature. izational Structure |and Placeslowest of Interest | INTRA IMD Portal | RTI | Disclaimer | Contact Us | Feedback Copyright © 2016 India Meteorological Goa of July, 994.8mm Highest rainfall is in Department the month over a period of 27 days.
SITE MICROCLIMATE The siteâ€™s adjacency to the Mala Lake and the Altinho hill will also have an effect on the local climatic conditions. Katabatic Winds
Downslope winds flow from the Altinho hill down the leeward slope to this area at the foot of the hills. This accelerated flow of the mas of air generally has a cooling effect. The impact in this case might be marginal because of the low slope.
Humidity Due to the presence of the lake, rate of evaporation & thus the absolute humidity (AH) increases because of water being available to be evaporated.
Precipitation Monsoon laden clouds approach Panjim from due west. The site thus receives most from its precipitation from across the Altinho hill. Being on the leeward side, the angle of the driving rain will be less than on the windward side.
Air Movement The primary air movement is from the the sea to land and vice-versa. However, the Altinho hill reduces velocity, so land breeze will have greater velocity. Thus, stronger winds will be from east to west at night time. 105
SENSORY EXPERIENCE Currently, the entire site is physically inaccessible and experientially cut-off from the rest of the Old Quarter because of the barricading put up after the previous construction was stopped. Once the site is opened up to public, it is expected that a multitude of views into and from the site would be established. 1. Lake: The most desirable view is of this vast water body adjacent to the site, with local foliage beyond. 2. Tree foliage and small houses: on the west of the site would be visible from the edge, giving a semirural appeal to this view. 3. Public Pay Toilet: which is being constructed for residents of Mala would be visible and accessible to everyone. 4. PDA Building & Hegdewar School: is a dilapidated looking building on the north-west of the site. 5. School playground: large green open space 6. Petrol Pump: Typical looking structure at corner 7. Crafts Complex: will have a symbiotic relationship with site & visual connection must be maintained. 8. Christian shrine: stands next to the lake and needs to be given some secluded quiet space. 9. Jairam Commercial Complex: is a multi-storey modern incongruence. Auditory Experience: The main road is expected to have some vehicular noise, but other sides of the site are calm and quiet. 106
Design Inferences An analysis of the immediate site context and site conditions reveals key inferences which give a direction on the qualitative aspects of all portions of the site. These can be utilised in the best possible way to place functions which require those specific character of space. The qualities inferred from the analysis include: levels of privacy, vantage points of site, spatial character due to existing elements on site and potential points of entry to the site.
Chapter 4 Program Development & Components Design doesn’t start with the space (product), it starts with the user (customer). - Demian Farnworth
THE FAMOUS ‘CONFEITARIA 31 DE JANEIRO’ IS ONE OF THE OLDEST BAKERIES TUCKED AWAY INTO A CORNER IN FONTAINHAS
Project Vision The Old Quarter has a plethora of built and unbuilt
heritage can be made accessible to the visitors
heritage waiting to be explored.
but also profitable for the locals, who consider the
However, a deteriorating built environment and
heritage status a bane at the moment. All of this shall
lack of awareness about the precinct are some of
be done with an attempt to revitalise the heritage
the major hinderances to this process. The vision of
this project is to facilitate the various ways in which
MODERN INCONGRUENCES HAVE COME UP IN PARTS OF THE PRECINCT, DAMAGING ITS URBAN FABRIC AND AESTHETIC
EXCERPTS FROM INTERVIEWS
One of the key understandings from research was that a startegically developed program is required in order
“.....need for an interpretation space, which will hold
“.....a building centre it will benefit the whole of Goa,
to create a holistic model for heritage tourism. The
people for a while, instead of them walking through
not just this area, can give guidance to locals on how
process adopted for the programme development
the place and leaving.....”
to maintain their houses and be a place for innova-
therefore focusses on catering to the needs of the host community while also creating an enjoyable & informative environment for the visitors.
AR. ARMINIO REBEIRO FONTAINHAS RESIDENT, ARCHITECT & MEMBER OF PANJIM’S CONSERVATION COMMITTEE
tion.....” AR. GERARD DA CUHNA PRINCIPLE ARCHITECT, ARCHITECTURE AUTONOMOUS
“.....Better research will help people construct in
“.....This is an especially sensitive area ecologically
forgotten local materials like mud.. The landscape
and the design must take that into account...The
Step #1: Analysing opinions of residents, tourists &
should also be integrated with the traditional theme
crafts need to be highlighted, but also a space for
local experts in the field of conservation, heritage
of the place....”
the people is needed.....” AR. DEAN D’CRUZ PRINCIPLE ARCHITECT, MOZAIC
management and spatial design with respect to the
PROF. DR. ASHISH REGE PRINCIPLE, GOA COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE
community & site. Step #2: Understanding the heritage under focus through as many lenses as possible in order to allow for authentic representation of the heritage to the visitor.
“.....Heritage and its maintenance is not a priority for
“.....more than creating a new attraction, there should
the people right now because they are struggling
be something to help manage what is existing here,
with basic amenities in life like water and drain-
that is very important.....”
AR. SUDHARSHA PREETHI CORE TEAM MEMBER OF MALA LANE REDEVELOPMENT
MR. JACK SUKHIJA OWNER OF THE PANJIM INN & MEMBER OF G.H.A.G.
“.....proposals till date overlook the needs of the peo-
“.....We got to know about this beautiful place
Step #3: Understanding the needs, aspirations and
ple and lacks thorough understanding of the area...
through Nat Geo... Lonely Planet... There is not much
expectations of all the users & stakeholders of this
residents need a recreational space.....”
to guide us once we are here... Wish we got to know
AR. POONAM VERMA MASCARENHAS CONSERVATION ARCHITECT & MEMBER OF G.H.A.G.
more about the place.....” VARIOUS INDIAN AND INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS IN FONTAINHAS
The ‘programme’ will be derived out of an understanding of what the people need and what the site demands. Critical analysis of the observations from all three steps will be put together to arrive at the spatial requirements for the project. 111
EXPLORATION OF HERITAGE A holistic experience of the various layers of culture that exist in the Old Quarter is one of the important goals to be achieved as part of the process of design strategy. Here, heritage is studied through as many possible lenses as there could be.
Built heritage • • • •
Most apparent USP for the area Largely residential character Deteriorating condition Some has been repurposed
Legal issues of entitlement
Houses get abandoned No interest in investing in shared property “Transfer of Development Rights” should be allowed
Lack of funds
City corporation should fund it Generate for self — perhaps tourism will help
Lack of technical knowledge
For integrating modern amenities Regarding materials and design detailing
Low pride in their own heritage
Ready to transition to concrete buildings for practical purposes
Guest houses, art galleries
Crafts • Building crafts as well as handicrafts Building crafts like woodwork, metalwork, shellwork, cane craft, tile craft, mosaic work, grafitto and signages.
• The state of the Crafts Complex Few visitors and even fewer buyers No workspace or govt. assistance to craftpersons
Low visibility Poor marketing Low sales
Food Performing Arts • Region is traditionally rich in Indian & classical western music, dance and theatre • Slowly losing prevalence • “Music in the Garden” Attempt to bring music back to the city All local attendees Organised by locals Food, snacks and socialising accompany music :: A social binder
Music styles such as Fado, Manto, Dulpod & Goa Trance. Tiatr theatrical performances. Folk dances like Dhalo, Fugdi, Shigmo & Corridinho. Bollywood music & Honey Singh Spreading from night clubs to the local streets Space to encourage young performers.
• Rich culinary heritage with interesting history behind it • Varied agricultural produces, Feni • FOOD is effective in getting people together. Eating is a social activity!! People love the experience of eating. • Various types of food cultures exist in Goa Fine dining speciality restaurants Risky business for small investors to start up because no assurance for visitor interest Typical Tourist - might not appreciate the cuisine Locals - eat the same food at home
Local family bar restaurants Frequented by most local families, specially on Sundays Great food at reasonable price - explored by experiemental visitors
Roadside eating Ros-omlette, vada pao, omlette pao, local bread and so on.... many options available apart from pao bhaji - not so popular yet
Talented home cooks Can be integrated into a well managed community-run restaurant
Since this is a living piece of heritage and not an abandoned one (like Old Goa, for example), the lives, needs and aspiration of the people residing here are more important than anything else.
Christians, Hindus, Muslims co-exist Expression of religion : Houses have some indicator
• Music & Dance
Not just a talent limited to few, it is a way of life
Apart from specialised skills, crochet etc. is common.
Dresses and saris are traditional wear, based on religion Older women continue to wear them Younger generation has shifted to more practical & convenient “modern” dressing
• Street life
Threatened by the presence of cars on the already narrow streets. Streets used to be the social space for all neighbours. Traditional children’s games are losing popularity, specially with no space to play
Interest • RESIDENTS Maintenance of buildings low on priority list of many who are dealing with many struggles of daily life, little pride. Space constraint - already many houses are at 100% ground coverage Issues of flooding, sewage, electricity, water supply, infrastructure like stairs in this hilly areas. Many of these issues lead to communal tension also.
• TOURISTS Very few know about this place Through Lonely Planet, National Geographic, or word of mouth. Few websites talk about a heritage walk
Meant for a certain target group History, architecture enthusiasts who appreciates this as it is, not meant for typical tourist who comes for the beaches & parties.
What to do here • LOCALS AROUND THIS PRECINCT (REST OF PANJIM) No city level attraction/facility Leading to : No reason to visit this area Thus: No interaction ‘Out of sight, out of mind’ for many.
Right now, just walk around and visually soak in the atmosphere that there is.
• FONTAINHAS FESTIVAL OF ARTS Generated a lot of interest in this area But poor sales, not a succesful model Ran for short duration, no purchase decisions were made in that time
TOP TO BOTTOM: FADO SINGER, THE CORRINDINHO DANCE, STREET FOOD ROS OMLETTE, SIGNAGE ART
UNDERSTANDING USERS & STAKEHOLDERS Empathy mapping can help develop the design in a manner which is acceptable to all the users and stakeholders of the product & process. The two kinds of stakeholders in this heritage tourism project will be: (1) Members of the host community - including residents, the city corporation and heritage activists, and (2) Different kinds of visitors - including casual local visitors, day tourists, technical persons & the residing artists.
Members of the host community Modern incongruences in built
Lack of modern amenities
Land is involved in court case
(Toilets, electricity, sewage)
Incorporation of modern
Need to regain the lost
Loss of cultural values and
revenue from this land
RESIDENTS LOW INCOME
RESIDENTS HIGH INCOME
Maintenance of heritage
Better, more diverse city
No public open
promotion of built, tangible
Management of large
and intangible heritage
Children play on streets
Benefit to cityâ€™s heritage
environment are an attack
Different types of visitors Access into heritage
Access to supplies is difficult in the
Lack of information
absence of specialised stationery
No resting places while
(Rely on few website/
Area within the settlement for
Space to allow work to
No public amenities
Peer community interaction
develop/dry, as needed
ARTISTS IN RESIDENCE
No activity to hold interest
Experience is only visual
Casual dining options are needed
No casual dining options
One stop resource centre
options in inspirational
Leisure activities will
Show off their experience
More activities of interest
Interaction with like minded people
INFERENCES FROM PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: ACTIVITY BASED PROVISION OF SPACES
3 4 5
Provide basic technical knowledge & specialised assistance to residents
Setting up of building centre, where research and improvisation is directly
for maintaining heritage property
beneficial to the community
Opportunity for revenue generation to the locals & subsidised assistance
Community-run facilities on the complex which will generate revenue but also
for repair & enovation works
create a social heritage experience for visitors.
Issues of entitlement and other institutional issues needs establishment of
The administrative centre must function not only to supervise this complex but
Heritage Cell, like AMC.
assist the entire settlement.
Performances and street food options go well together.
Interface between performance area and street food activities
Home cooks can become stakeholders of the complex by cooking for the
Community run culinary centre can be incorporated, will allow people to work
shifts convenient to them.
Watching building crafts being made would be an interesting and
Building craft workshops can have viewing galleries attached to them so that
informative visitor experience.
visitors can take a tour without disturbing the work.
People from all across the city can come and place orders directly at this workshop. Children need a safe space to play since the streets are occupied by the calls.
An exhibition and retail space needs to be present in the workshops.
Childrenâ€™s park including both swings as well as space for other games.
Tourists coming here should receive more information about the place
An interpretation centre will hep people understand the various layers of
than they already know from the internet and books.
heritage - history, ecology, built heritage, lifestyle, etc.
If artwork is displayed for longer period of time, there are higher chances
Display area for artwork by local artists where it can be kept for longer
of it being bought.
durations and contact details can be provided later also.
People should be able to stay in the space for longer periods of time, relax Plazas and other open areas should be active and enjoyable with many and soak in the atmosphere.
elements of interest.
FORMULATING THE BUILDING PROGRAMME: PROVIDING FOR ALL USER GROUPS
LOW INCOME RESIDENTS
Visitor Centre Interpretation centre
HIGH INCOME RESIDENTS
Building Centre CASUAL VISITOR
Artist Residences Speciality Restaurant Cafe & Bakery and Tavern
ARTIST IN RESIDENCE
Convenience Stores Street food kiosks Gym
Administration Centre HERITAGE ACTIVIST
Retail Space 117
Component Research INTERPRETATION CENTRE TO CONVEY INFORMATION ABOUT THE LOCAL HERITAGE TO NEW VISITORS An interpretation centre, is an institution for dissemination of knowledge of natural or cultural heritage. Interpretation centres are a kind of new-style museum, often associated with visitor centres or ecomuseums, and located in connection to cultural, historic or natural sites. Interpretation centres use different means of communication
the understanding of heritage. To aid and stimulate the discovery process and the visitor’s intellectual and emo-
INTERPRETATIVE BUILDING DESIGN CONCEPT
tional connection to heritage, the main presentation strategy tends to be user-friendly and interactive, and often use scenographic exhibitions and multimedia programs. Many interpretation centres have temporary exhibitions re-
scale museum and where heritage can be an important
lated to a specific aspect of the site.
factor for tourism development.
An interpretation centre can be a viable
Unlike traditional museums, interpretation centres do
solution for effective communication of
not usually aim to collect, conserve and study objects;
heritage information in municipalities
they are specialized institutions for communicating
and rural areas where resources may
the significance and meaning of heritage. They work
not exist to establish a traditional, full-
to educate and raise awareness.
CASE EXAMPLE: MAPUNGUBWE INTERPRETATION CENTRE (SEE CASE STUDIES)
VISITOR CENTRE A CENTRAL POINT IN THE COMPLEX WHICH GIVES INFORMATION ABOUT ALL THE ACTIVITIES A visitor center or visitor information center, tourist information center, is a physical location that provides tourist information to the visitors who tour the place or area locally. It may be: A visitor center at a specific attraction or place of interest, such as a landmark, national park, forest or state park, providing information (such as trail maps, and about camp sites, staff contact, restrooms, etc.) and in-depth educational exhibits and artefact displays (for example, about natural or cultural history). Often a film or other media display is used. If the site has permit requirements or guided tours, the visitor center is often the place where these are coordinated. A tourist information center, providing visitors to a location with information on the area’s attractions, lodgings, and other items relevant to tourism.
VISITOR CENTRE AT COPENHAGEN
RESTAURANT WITH LIVE KITCHEN WHERE VISITORS CAN INTERACT WITH LOCAL COOKS AND BE A PART OF THE WHOLE PROCESS OF PREPARING A TRADITIONAL MEAL - FROM BUYING THE INGREDIENTS TO COOKING IT IN THE RESTAURANT’S SPECIAL KITCHENS
In primary space planning, the general rule of thumb
CASE EXAMPLE: BENIHANA RESTAURANT
for determining the area allotted is that the dining area should comprise of most of total area and the kitchen, storage and preparation area should take up the remaining the space. These dimensions will have to be adjusted if you plan on having a waiting area or a bar, but those should be the approximate percentages for the total area. Dining Room: 60% of Total Area Kitchen, Cooking, Storage, Preparation, etc: 40% of Total Area The area of square footage allotted for each patron depends on what type of dining establishment you intend to have, depending on whether or not you have
As part of the live kitchen and cooking experience, guests
a fine dining establishment, full service restaurant,
will be allotted one cook for the meal who will take them
counter service, fast food restaurant, a hotel/club or
to Panjim market during the day while talking about
a banquet hall. The general seating guidelines that
the speciality of each ingredient. Later, for lunch or in
should be observed are:
the evenings for dinner, food will be cooked in specially
Fine Dining: 18 – 20 Square Feet Full Service Restaurant Dining: 12 – 15 Square Feet
FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM OF A RESTAURANT
designed furniture modules which have the cooking and dining area integrated.
CAFE AND BAKERY WHICH PREPARES AND SELLS LOCAL BREADS, PASTRIES AND SNACKS CafĂŠ and bakery settings may vary according to
proper equipment to deliver orders quickly to the
coffee shop concept, menu and space. Essential
customers. This equipment includes coffee brewers,
pieces of equipment ranging from dry storage,
refrigerated storage, food prep and ware washing
machines and espresso grinders, as well as the dis-
are designed into the cafe first. The front and back
play case, cash register and the cold drink smoothie
service counters are then incorporated into the plan
so that employees have efficient work space and the
In addition are the customer areas in the coffee shop.
These may include various seating arrangements, retail
possibly a coffee roaster or fireplace.
BUILDING CENTRE A RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTATION SPACE WHICH LOOKS FOR INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO THE OLD QUARTERâ€™S PROBLEM OF PHYSICAL DEGRADATION
Building Centres are set up with a view to provide
The facilities to be provided as
a mechanism for technology transfer for propagating
part of the building centre are:
cost effective and environment friendly building technologies.
MATERIAL TESTING AREAS - Building yard
Case Example: The Auroville Building Centre (AVBC)
- Material testing labs
has taken the opportunity to demonstrate and pro-
- Material stores
mote the rich potential of alternative technologies
- Tool stores
in its construction, with particular emphasis on the use of mud as a building material. An information of-
ACADEMIC & ADMIN AREAS
fice, conference room, exhibition space, video room,
restaurant, handicrafts shop and toilets were accom-
modated in a structure specifically designed for vis-
- Meeting Room
itors from all over the world, with the local climate
materials and building skills influencing the design.
- Library - Exhibition Room - Conference room RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES - Dormitories - Guest House
ARTIST RESIDENCES CAN BE LEASED OUT TO CREATIVE PERSONS WORKING ON THIS AREA ON A MONTHLY BASIS.
Artists and other creative professionals can stay
Apart from being tranquil spaces conducive to cre-
and work elsewhere temporarily by participating in
ativity, these also have to be attached to certain
artist-in-residence programs and other residency
facilities like display area where they can interact
opportunities. These opportunities offer conditions
with audience, supply stores, daily living utilities etc.
that are conducive to creativity and provide their guests with context, such as working facilities,
Sanskriti Kendra provides three types of
connections, audience, etc..
accommodation: 4 Studios - Type I
Case Example: Sanskriti Kendra, New Delhi is an
Living Space Mezzanine – 125 sqft Work Space – 415
artists’residnece centre which is designed based on
a village layout. The design focuses on providing a
4 Studios - Type II
natural and tranquil environment for the artists to
Living Space – 270 sqft Work Space – 370sq ft
All eight studios are double-storeyed apartments. A staircase leads up from the studio to the mezzanine to a comfortable bedroom and bathroom. All studios open into a courtyard.These are available for individual artist residents. 4 Dormitories – Type III Space a – 600 sq ft; b – 400 sq ft There are four ground floor general studios. All open into a courtyard. The dormitories have a boarding capacity of 4 to 5 adults. DORMITORY COURTYARD
FLOOR PLAN OF ARTIST RESIDENCES AT SANSKRITI KENDRA
• All studios are equipped with worktables, work counters, easels, storage space and kitchenettes. 123
Reading of Program AN INTEGRATED NETWORK - COMPONENTS ON SITE WORK IN RESONANCE WITH THE SOCIO-PHYSICAL CONTEXT The complex does not claim to be self sustaining in terms of its functioning and will work in collaboration with the many existing stakeholders and organisations to achieve the intended vision. The collaborations and tie-upswould be with architects, residents, city corporation and heritage activists and the other places with which the complex would have a symbiotic relationship include the Crafts Complex, local art galleries, existing tourist infrastructure and the Market.
Lake Tavern PANJIM MUNICIPAL MARKET
Retail CRAFTS COMPLEX
LOCAL ART GALLERIES
Cafe EXISTING GUEST HOUSES AND HOMESTAYS
CHARLES CORREA FOUNDATION
Gym CORPORATION OF CITY OF PANAJI
Visitor Centre Admin
A walk through the Story Centre EXPERIENCE NARRATIVE
The following experience narrative was written prior to the architectural design
took a quick selfie and walked on. I was in for a big surprise when I realised that
of any of the spaces, to create a vision of what the user of this space would
along the course of this leisurely walk we had all ascended up to the second
experience. This has greatly affected the design of the space, though the ideal
level. The floor must have been ever so gently sloped up, I guess. From this high
environment has not been achieved due to multiple constraints.
vantage point there was a stunning view of the Altinho hill, the Mala Lake and the greenery around, all in one frame. This made for the perfect gallery to talk about
The reception block of Story Centre was sitting quietly at the busy city crossing,
the natural ecological heritage this area possesses as we could simultaneosly see
welcoming people from all directions. It was easy to spot from the bridge as I
in front of our eyes most of what the information panels and models spoke about.
walked towards it from the patto plaza across the creek, where I had gotten off at the Panaji Bus Stand. Many others, very clearly touristy looking, were also
The whole crowd moved on into the building heritage gallery, after crossing a
accompanying me on this short walk after having parked their rent-a-car Jeeps
glass bridge which connected two blocks. At the end of the bridge, our guided
and Marutis in the luxuriously provided parking lots of the Patto Business District.
tour began. We were briefed about certain etiquettes to be maintained while walking through workspaces of various designers and crafts persons. After get-
The insides of this welcome block seemed to be a beautiful trailer of the expe-
ting sorted into groups of 12-15 people based on language - Konkani, Hindi and
rience that would await us. It was true to the experience of being inside a tra-
English. Many people were picking up pamphlets in Russian, German, Malayalam,
ditional living room, but was modern in its usage. I bought my pass for the Story
Telugu and Kannada amongst many other languages. Our tour was through the
Centre and stepped out to head towards the first gallery. Thankfully I was able to
workshops of the craftspersons working on different crafts of the area. We were
drop off my bagpack at the cloak room after showing my ticket. The starting point
told that these crafts were those which get incorporated into the streetscapes
of my ticketed tour was the history gallery, which was a short walk away from the
as building elements of varying scales. From the shell windows to signages cast
visitor centre. As I walked through the narrow lane, I felt like I was back into the
out of iron - all of it was being made right infront of us. It was interesting to see
settlement, with residences on either side. The gallery was right in front of me,
that these workshops also took orders for wholesale and retail production, and
and after checking my ticket, a guard let me in. Two friendly hosts welcomed us
many customers could be seen accessing the workshops from the other side to
with a glass of kokum sherbet each and a garland of jasmine flowers. The tour
inspect the products before placing their order. After the seven workshops, we
then began with a look at the history of this area and the socio-political scenar-
came to the exhibition hall, which gave us a glimpse into the technical side of
ios which led to its creation. The stories of the Portuguese and the Indians were
things - some basic information about the other fields of research and material
depicted through larger than life paintings and videos playing on loop. Sometime
innovation taking place at the building centre. This was the end of our guided
in the middle of the long stroll through the various stories talking about the
tour and we came back to the same spot where we had started. I was a little
history, there was a large installation of a Portuguese ship arriving on the Indian
tired after that intensive walk through the workshops. The refreshments on sale
coasts. This made for a fun photo point for the children and grown-ups alike. I
at the snack bar were a treat for the hungry grumbling stomach. For many, for
than the food, it was the restroom which was like an oasis. As for me, it was good to be leaving the guide behind now and moving at my own pace once again. The canteen also had a terrace where one was able to sit and enjoy the quick bites. Ambient music, the sound of a woman crooning in the style of Fado, filled the air. I noticed that the music grew louder everytime a group of people opened the heavy looking wooden door at the other end of the terrace. I finished off the last bits of my Bibinca cake and entered the world of overpowering sound and digital graphic which lay behind that door. A spiral ramp moved from this level to the lower one and the strong notes of the melodious western classical music from the era of the Portuguese surrounded us from all sides. Light projections and graphics added to the atmosphere, I moved at a very slow pace to allow this whole experience to sink in. As I reached the lower level, the music changed pace and the men and women were singing in the traditional Hindu style native to Goa. Here, many people where sitting on the in-built seating which ran along the length of the ramp, to look at all the projections and listen to complete songs. The next room was a continuation of this overwhelming sensory experience, with dance styles
STREET ACTIVITY IN LISBON
bein portrayed through digital media and accompanying music. In this oval room, with the video surrounding me, I sat down on the free-standing stools for a while. I could only imagine what a live performance would be like! I made it a point to search online for shows happening around the city and attend atleast one for sure. However, I was in for a pleasant surprise when I came across the brochures listing all the music, dance and theatre performances in the city for that week. Someone had read my mind! In sudden contrast to the dark insides, we stepped out into a courtyard. All throughout the winding corridors were displays talking about the cuisine and lifestyle, both traditional and contemporary. Separated from the corridors by glass shutters, the courtyard was an activity area for the children. Smaller pavillions were hosting hobby workshops. Space was allotted for traditional games and swings alike. Parents were here with their kids and there was a warm pleasant atmosphere all around. This glimpse into the life of the people enthused me more to go out and explore the the rest of the settlement.
TILE PAINTING HOBBY CLASS 129
Design Inferences The understandings of this chapter can be appended to those from the previous chapter to arrive at design inferences inclusive of the two. Each building component in the programme has an inherent spatial quality attached to it and it can be evaluated against site conditions to locate the components apprpriately. This gives a basic zoning of functions on site.
Chapter 5 Determinants & Direction
AN AZULEJO SIGNAGE ON A CORNER HOUSEâ€™S WALL SHOWS THE NAME OF THE STREET - ST. SEBASTIAN ROAD, ONE OF THE ARTERIAL ROADS CONNECTING RUA DE OUREM AND RUA DE 31 JANIER
This brownfield site next to the lake is
There is pressure on the site to earn
Strong traditional architectural
Project would fail if it does not gain
an important tissue in the urban
back the revenue GSIDC lost in the
language provides indicators for the
the confidence of the community
fabric which will be utilised to
promote the heritage. New infill could activate and Crafts complex is located across the
strengthen character of Rue de
road, a symbiotic relation is possible.
Ourem once again. Large tourist footfall already exists around the area which can be attracted. Proper planning and management of the project could lead to revitalisation of the whole heritage precinct.
Design Determinants FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM
• Heirarchy of space
• Predominant grain of the settlement and main road
• Inter-relation between functional zines
• View to the lake
• Nature of connection between them
• Nature of existing street patterns
• Convenient transition from main road into site
• Connection between important nodes, both open and built
• Servicing requirements
HEIRACHY OF OPEN SPACE
• Nature of existing morphology
• Urban conditions
• Relevant pause points
• Volumetric disposition
• Vantage points of the site
• Natural form of the site
Chapter 6 Concept Design
‘VIVENDA DAVID SOUZA’, ONE OF THE WELL MAINTAINED HERITAGE PROPERTIES IN FONTAINHAS, HAS A DIALOGUE WITH THE STREET LIKE ALL OTHER HOUSES
“JESUS, KRISHNA & A BIKE” ALMOST ALL HOUSEHOLDS ALWAYS KEEP THEIR DOORS OPEN, VISUALLY ALLOWING ACCESS TO ANYONE ON THE STREET & GIVING AWAY PERSONAL DETAILS IN A MERE GLANCE
Concept Evolution connecting across realms
communication with the street
Keeping in mind the vision of the project, the space acts as a â€œNexusâ€? A connector between People // the visitors and the host community Places // as an interface between the heritage precinct and the rest of the city Skills // as the specialists from various backgrounds come together and get a chance to interact This also draws inspiration from the existing urban character where even intimate dwelling units always maintain communication with the public street through a verandah, balcao or an open door.
Ideas & Strategies FOR THE WAY FORWARD
shared open space Given the many different kinds of users of the site with different interests, shared open spaces will give them a peek into the lives of one another. Exclusivity of space can lead to a sense of disconnect on behalf of one user group or the other, and thus needs to be avoided.
architectural strategy site & city fabric The site needs to respond to all possibilities of connection with the physical and social context and not be developed as an island destination.
To keep the site active and lively, essential architectural features like collonaded verandahs, balcaos and large openings which are frequently seen in the heritage settlement will be employed. These will also help in continuity of spatial character from the settlement into the site.
Social Experience of Living Heritage VISITOR EXPERIENCE To carry forward the idea of ‘shared spaces’, the building programme also gets refined to incorporate elements which would bring the local host community and the visitors closer to each other in a symbiotic relationship. The interpretation of this heritage would be based on a live experience at every step which engages you, instead of just viewing panels of information. Activities and spaces are thus aimed at interaction and live experiences which would allow one to fully soak in the atmosphere, depending on
Conceptual Poster Series
their interests. Key highlights of the building programme which exemplify this idea are:
The poster series in the following pages was attempted prior to • Live kitchen restaurant where visitors can be a part of the whole process of cooking a traditional meal - from a visit to the Panjim
architectural design to determine the ambience and foresee what possiblities lie ahead for visitor experience.
market with their assigned cook to buy the ingredients to watching
Tone of Voice
them cook and trying their hand at it in the kitchen. • Story Centre designed as part of the setting instead of an isolated place for providing information • Building Centre gives architects and other designers a chance to
A warm and welcoming tone of voice, based around activities and experiences, not just empty places and advertisement of facilities.
engage with the local community and attempt innovative solutions for their problems, a relationship which is missing at the moment.
So each invitation for engagement would highlight the possibilities
• Community run artist residences allow you to live like a local
of what all one can do here. For example, it will not just advertise
family’s guest, but in your own comfortable space where one can
the restaurant, it will tell you that you can come and be a part of a
create art or simply stay during their tenure at the building centre.
live cooking experience and then experience the delicious cuisine
• Shared everyday facilities like the bakery, laundromat, gym, conve-
nience stores, etc. create a natural setting for sharing of the simpler moments of life. 141
CONCEPTUAL POSTER SERIES, POSTER #1 LIVE KITCHEN RESTAURANT 142
CONCEPTUAL POSTER SERIES, POSTER #2 STORY CENTRE 143
CONCEPTUAL POSTER SERIES, POSTER #3 BUILDING CENTRE 144
CONCEPTUAL POSTER SERIES, POSTER #4 TO SHOW GENERAL AMBIENCE 145
CONCEPTUAL POSTER SERIES, POSTER #5 ARTIST RESIDENCES 146
Chapter 7 Design Development
MOVING THROUGH THE LANES OF THE PRECINCT
Key Parameters The following are the key parameters based on which the design development takes place - from a basic massing to a resolved product. There are sub-parameters to each,which have been discussed with the relevant stage of development.
BUILT AND OPEN CONTEXT
CONTOURS AND LEVELS
RELATIONSHIP OF BUILT AND OPEN WITHIN SITE
Stages of Development
Stage 1 Conceptualising the mass
Settlement on the Altinho hill
Jairam Commercial Complex
This was the first attempt at what the visualising how the building mass would respond to the urban characters in terms of massing. There is a larger mass along the main road and a smaller grain towards the settlement. STRENGTHS • Clear response to urban morphology
• Volume gave directions for possible functional uses of the mass • Connection between playground on right Hegdewar School Petrol Pump
side and upcoming open space near lake has been established. DRAWBACKS • Without functions involved, this is a
very basic level of sketch design and no further analysis is possible. 149
Stage 2 Functional zoning
STRENGTHS Building Yard Cafe
• Usable open spaces start taking shape after functions have been assigned. • Zoning is responsive to the surroundings. • Level drop has been acknowledged and designed for. • Diagonal access from corner of road on top left responds to the important urban node by providing a connection to it. DRAWBACKS • Very large masses for housing do not give good livable spaces and also do not follow the character of the settlement. • There is little variation in the massing, which could have been the strength in case of sloping roofs. • The broken corner has a poor impact on the experience of the street corner. • Relationship between built & landscape is weak
Stage 3 Resolution of movement pattern
• A sense of entry emerges by receding the built mass at the point of entry. • Serial vision instead of direct axis while moving through the main axis adds an element of surprise & discovery to the walk. • Site opens up to form a relation with the community greens, though the connect is not so strong. • Residences are in smaller feasible built mass with street connecting them all. DRAWBACKS
• The built needs to respond to the lake edge
as right now only a single axis is leading to it, not taking advantage of its expanse. • The footprint of many of these buildings will not allow for traditional sloping roofs, as
intended. • Poor sense of navigability as one enters the place through the visitor centre. 151
Stage 4 Open space and landscape Interpretation centre
• Visitor centre becomes a marker in space by virtue of Building Centre
having a different architectural character (like Pei’s Pyramid at the Louvre) • The variation in mass creates interest which will be legible in the street experience. • Building forms are coherent and allow for sloping roofs. • Landscape design around the lake edge allows for various possibilities of use with respect to the individual functions adjacent to it as well as a whole promenade. DRAWBACKS • The intention of serial vision is leading to a jagged built form as the site is too small to incorporate that idea.
Restaurant Community Playground
• The interpretation centre is a large impenetrable mass Active landscape
almost a black box. • Disconnect between the built and the community landscape. • There is very little open public space apart from the streets and the playground which will be occupied by people engaged in activities. • Lake view has not been utilised well.
KEY HIGHLIGHTS • An attempt at structural resolution led to re-organisation of spaces on site as well as within the buildings to accomodate small span spaces on the lower floor of the load bearing
Stage 5: Final form Response to lake edge & structural resolution
structure. • Response of the built to the lake
and community greens has been
strengthened through change in built form and an integrated landscape. • A much required precinct level public space emerges by opening up the design on the lake-side. • A direct connect has been established to acknowledge the small scale of the site. Interest in the walk is generated by rise and fall of street level.
axis opens up to the view Lake side public space Restaurant
Integrated Landscape Community Playground
• One large plaza replaces to smaller ones since the two were very close by and not enough activity opened out onto them. • The Story Centre changes character from a black box to almost a light well. With a porous ground floor, it now acts as a site-level connector . 153
Chapter 8 Design Outcomes
VIEW ALONG MAIN SPINE IN FINAL MODEL AT SCALE 1:200
Site Section Movement of visitors along the central axis - the ascent along the ramp after the dropoff, a lively walk along the main street and gradual descent to the lake once again.
162 Appropriate construction materials have been used, as per the analysis and conclusions in the Research chapter.
Facade Derivation REINTERPRETING THE QUADRATURE While all the buildings in the complex purposefully merge into the predominant architectural style of the settlement, the Interpretation centre stands as a centre-piece and has a dinstinct architectural character. As opposed to the heavy opaque visual quality of the other buildings, this building is a light open building in which diffused light enters through plenty of louvred openings and mud walls on the facade remind one of the original local material of the area. The proportions of the quadrature are maintained in terms of the relation between the various parts of the building.
Cooling & Ventilation The complex relies on natural ventilation for thermal comfort and this gets reflected in the design at the site as well as the building level. The traditional of shaded open spaces is climatologically appropriate and has been replicated in various forms and scales to give people the benefit of the local weather to the visitors.
Energy Generation It is important for the site to generate as much energy as possible in order to attempt sustainability. Wind, solar and hydro energy are not feasible options for a project of this nature. However, there is great potential to utilise the footfall to generate energy using pedal-generators. This is a technoogy already available in our country on a trial basis and this possiblity can be explored further. All the buildings on the site have been divided into clusters on the basis of the building users and the potential incentives that can be offered to them in exchange for spendinga fixed aount of time generating electricity for the complex to use. (Schematic diagram on the right shows clusters, users and incentives)
The Free Electric machine gives people the power to generate electricity themselves â€“ pollution free. The machine is small, light and simple. Hereâ€™s how it works: A person pedals a hybrid bicycle. The bicycle wheel drives a flywheel, which turns a generator, which charges a battery. Pedaling for one hour yields electricity for 24 hours with no utility bill, and no exhaust, no waste. Each machine = 2.5m x 1.5m ; Requires clear width of 1.2m all around it. Attached with battery room of 5m x 5m
Bibliography 1. Ahmed, SA & Shankar, B 2012, ‘Conservation of heritage areas in the city of Panaji: a case study of Fontainhas area’, International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp 442-446, ISSN: 2249-6645, <http://www.ijmer.com/papers/vol2_issue2/CA22442446.pdf> 2. Architecture+DesignScotland n.d., New design in historic settings, The Scottish Government, viewed on 22 March 2016, <http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/ new-design-in-historic-settings.pdf> 3. Baker, L 1999, A manual of cost cuts for strong acceptable housing, COSTFORD, Thrissur, Kerala 4. Brink, FE & Rush, PJ 1966, ‘Bamboo reinforced concrete construction’, US Naval Engineering Laboratory (California), viewed online on 22 April 2016, < http://www. romanconcrete.com/docs/bamboo1966/BambooReinforcedConcreteFeb1966.htm#_Toc501122837> 5. Dcruz, CAB 2015, Composition and proportion in the Indo-Portuguese façades of São Tomé, Research Paper, Goa College of Architecture, Panaji, Goa 6. Ebbe, K 2011, ‘Infrastructure and heritage conservation: opportunities for urban revitalization and economic development’, The World Bank, viewed on 22 March 2016, http://go.worldbank.org/8I5UVZPU60 7. ICOMOS 1999, International cultural tourism charter: managing tourism at places of heritage significance, Adopted by ICOMOS at the 12th General Assembly in Mexico, October 1999 8. INTACH 2015, Compendium of good practices: urban heritage in Indian cities, National Institute of Urban Affairs, Delhi 9. Kalra, S 2015, A walk through Fontainhas, Outlook Traveller, viewed on 17 March 2016, <http://www.outlooktraveller.com/trips/a-walk-through-fontainhas-1005952> 10. Macdonald,S 2011, Contemporary architecture in historic urban environments, The Getty Conservation Institute, viewed on 18 January 2016, < http://www.getty. edu/conservation/publications_resources/newsletters/26_2/contemporary.html> 11. Mascarenhas, PV 2001, ‘Sustainable tourism and integrated conservation for safeguarding cultural heritage’, Goa Heritage Festival, Goa Heritage Action Group, Panaji 12. Moulik, P 2015, Fontainhas state of mind, Live Mint, viewed on 17 March 2016, <http://www.livemint.com/Leisure/bUqHzmDBlP0QDiJWf7k3OO/Fountainhas-stateof-mind.html> 13. Nehra, L 2014, Houses of Goa, Diploma project, National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 14. Nadkarni, R 2003, Investigation of built form of Fontainhas based on socio-cultural aspects, Dissertation, Goa College of Architecture, Panaji, Goa 15. Ruskulis, O 1996, ‘Technical brief’, Appropriate Technology, vol.23, no.1, June 1996, SKAT Foundation, Switzerland 16. Rypkema, DD 2008, ‘Heritage conservation and the local economy’, Global Urban Development Magazine, vol. 4, no. 1, viewed online on 22 March 2016, <http:// www.globalurban.org/GUDMag08Vol4Iss1/Rypkema.htm> 17. Sakhardande, P 2012, History and heritage of Mala, Fontainhas, Goan journey, viewed on 17 March 2016, <http://www.goanjourney.com/History-and-heritage-ofMala--Fontainhas-Goa-ART-35-0.html> 18. Sen, H 2012, ‘Louvre Pyramid: the initial controversy and two decades later’, Hirak Sen’s blog, viewed on 22 March 2016, <http://hiraksen.blogspot.in/2012/10/ louvre-pyramid-initial-controversy-and.html> 176
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Appendix: Interviews Interviews with the following persons have been included in the Appendix, in the order in which they were conducted. 1. Prof. Dr. Ashish Rege, Principle, Goa College of Architecture & Member of Goa Heritage Action Group 2. Ar. Dean D’Cruz, Principle Architect, Mosaic 3. Ar. Gerard Da Cuhna, Principle Architect, Architecture Autonomous 4. Mr. Roy Botelho, Owner, The Hospedaria 5. Ar. Arminio Rebeiro. Architect & Member of the Conservation Committee of Panjim 6. Mr. Jack Sukhija, Owner, Panjim Inn & Member of Goa Heritage Action Group
In conversation with 27 January 2016 PROF. DR. ASHISH REGE N: (brief description of project and progress so far) So I was hoping you could tell me a little bit more about the area, specially the lake ecology which you had mentioned earlier (during telephonic discussion) A: What I was suggesting was… We have taken up this issue. There is a hill here and there is the surface runoff. Part of the water percolates down and comes out in the form of a spring here. It is the Fonte Pheonix. On the other side of the hill too there is a spring. It’s called Boca da Vaca. Boca means mouth, of the cow. They have put the mouth of a cow (out of which the spring water comes out) so that, you know, people don’t go and spoil the water. But the phenomena is that this water, falling onto the hill, gets percolated down, and comes out in the form of a spring – one on this side (the Fontainhas side) and one on that side. Good spring, which is almost potable water. Now this is probably 30-40% of water which goes down and comes out here. Almost 60% just runs off, here it is accumulating in the lake and then it overflows into the creek. Now the creek, when you say, is subjected to the action of high tide and low tide. Creek is connected to the river, river is connected to the sea. So this phenomenon of high tide and low tide happens every fifteen days. When the water rises every fifteen days and it comes to high level, that sea water gets into the river and gets into the creek here. There’s a backflow. And earlier, all these (pointing towards the city map) were low lying areas which were used as salt pans because this is salty water that comes from the river and then it is used for pisciculture. So what happens is that the level of the water goes up in fifteen days, that water has to run into some area and get accumulated into the salt pans. This environmental balance is something that we don’t respect now. That is when all the disasters happen. (Reference to Chennai floods which happened recently) So one is this system, which is the salt water system. So the water comes here and it used to go here. (again explaining on the map) You can go and study that. When there is water coming in, there are systems of sluice gates. In high tide, the water comes here and enters here (into salt pans) then you close the gate. Then the water recedes, but this water is retained here because of the sluice gates system. So there are two ecological systems happening. One is the water coming in and going back which used to clean up the channels. Coming in and going back, every month this happens. Fifteen days the water is coming in and then the next fifteen days the water 178
is going back. So that was a cleansing action. The moment you block it somewhere, silting and other things happen. People are throwing garbage in the creek and that is a big issue. The Second thing is that in high tide you get that water in, it is retained for the rest of the month and it can be used for some economic activities like pisciculture or salt pans. You retain that water, you let it dry and you generate salt there. Traditionally these were there. N: Is this the khazan land that you are talking about? A: Yes, khazan land. It can be used of salt pans or for other activities like prawns-culture, pisciculture and it can be used for many other things. So this was the khazan land system that you let the water come in, close the sluice gates and use that water for economic activities. So that is one system. The other ecological system is the surface runoff. So whatever water falls, it is coming down here. This is sweet water. N: Do these two mix here? (In the creek) A: It gets accumulated (in the lake). It is still not mixing. So this can be used for domestic purposes. And most of our cities, towns, villages, they used to have this pond, a ‘talaab’. So how was the talaab formed? You take out the earth from there, it is used for making bricks and building houses. And the depression that is created is used for accumulating water. So that is the phenomena here. So there is the runoff which you can collect. This is a good solution to all the water shortage that is happening, which was much in use earlier. Now what the builders are doing, they come and build something across the runoff and they block the flow. So, water is not accumulating at the right spot, causing the problem of water shortage. And it is going to many other areas and creates flooding problems. Another problem is that they (builders) start filling this up because this is a very prime piece of land and they want to use it. So this water, which is the runoff, it will come and flood your settlement. This is what is happening in many places. It happened in Chennai, this was one of the big reasons. There was mismanagement too. So when you are doing a project here, you should be sensitive to all this. Goa is known for all this. Why is Goa green? N: Because people are conscious about these systems. A: Yeah, I use this sentence. “The psyche of people is green”. They have the green psyche in their mind. They want to see greenery around. They will plant trees and this climate allows that. N: It is very sad, what is happening with the coconut tree. A: That is another issue. We will not go into that. But the thing is that if you cut one tree, you have to plant five more. You have to file an application, you have to make an affidavit that I am going to plant these five trees. Then the Forest Department is supposed to come and see that you have planted these five saplings, and you will take care of it. Then they will allow you to cut that tree. It is an elaborate process that is there. So its not that you can’t cut a coconut tree. Some people are using it for political purposes or to malign the government. What has been done is that they have declassified the coconut tree. 179
N: So now you can easily cut it and not replant, which is what developers will benefit from. A: Not only developers, even otherwise. Now suppose someone in the village has some problem, even if he wants to do a compound wall. Now because you need permission to cut the tree, some departments will be corrupt in the process. It’s happening everywhere. Then they have less respect for the law. They will just break the law and do it. Why does illegal construction happen? Because legalities are so cumbersome. These things only weaken the legal system. People should be able to respect the legal system. Now, the cutting of the tree is linked to that. It is not like there is some sanctity, that you cannot cut the tree. If the tree is old and it is anyway going to fall on you or something else, you need to cut the tree. N: I think it’s just a consciousness that should come from within, you really can’t have a fixed law in such a case. A: You cut one tree so you should automatically plant some more. It has been politicized, you don’t get into that. So anyway, in your project these are the sensitive issues. There is the lake, the runoff, the spring here, then there the creek here. N: Are these two connected at some point, the sweet water lake and the salty creek? A: No, the overflow can go into this (the creek), but the reverse should not happen. N: So there should be no backflow. A: Yes, you got that right. Because if this salty water goes back, it will spoil the lake. That becomes an irreversible process. So when you’re doing a design here, the water table will be high and you have to take care of that. Earlier we used to have the septic tank systems in some of the villages. Now they are working against that because septic tanks have a soak pit and soak pit means all that grey water is going into the soak pit. It goes and gets mixed into the well water system. I have done a lot of research on Margao in my doctorate research on the heritage houses there. Now what happens there is that most of the heritage houses have a well. Like you have underground water here, similar thing happens in wells. There are underground water channels passing here also. They tap that water by making a well. The well system works dig into the ground and you hit a channel of sweet water, which comes into your well. That channel of water is replenishing your well. What happened in Margao was that because grey water was going into the soak pit and then getting into the ground water, the water gets polluted and that water is coming to the well. So now they have discontinued that. In Margao I have recommended a sewer system long back, now they have done it. N: So a piped system? A: Yes, so that there is no pollution of the well system. Now this ground water is at a level of within 10-20 feet. Now another level of ground water is, which the borewells tap, is around 80 metres down or 100 metres down. (starts sketching) So there is this level of water, then there is a rock strata which holds the sweet water which you tap through wells. When you puncture that layer, inside also there is a layer where there is an accumulation of oil and water. So the borewell, what the 180
megaschemes by builders use, it pulls out this water. In this process, the ground water also dries up. It is anyway depleting. So these are the systems which you have to understand. This is a very sensitive intervention. So it is not just the architectural intervention, but your project should reflect your attitude and all these understandings of these systems and how you take care of them. N: So it’s not just an intervention in the architectural fabric but also in the ecology. A: Another point is – you have a traditional settlement here which was constructed more than 200-250 years back. At that time, there were no vehicles, the lifestyle was different. Toilets, for example, they had common toilets, or less toilets. Sanitation system was not that advanced. In Margao, I found out that they had pig toilets where pigs would scavenge the waste. But you have to have that area for pigs at the back and it would always be stinking. So that system is old and it’s redundant. Here, you have to deal with the redundancy. This is a tight situation. They don’t have modern infrastructure, so you have to introduce that in the area. You also don’t have many recreational areas here, except for the squares. N: And even those are very small. A: Yes, very small, it was okay at that time. Today it is insufficient. So when you are providing something here, you could provide something which benefits the people also here. There is the crafts complex here. One of the arguments I had was – there was a festival held recently, at the Kala Academy, where they were showcasing handicrafts. It was there for one week. Now this crafts complex also deals with the handicrafts of Goa. It is along the creek also. The creek-front can also become a recreational space, use it for exhibition also. N: So instead of having the festival at Kala Academy, they could have had it here. A: Yes. And it will activate the area. You could also have some food and eating places. Residents can come in the evening. They can have stalls which can be put up once in a few months. All this will also generate revenue for them to develop the building. As part of the GHAH, I was involved in bringing out three publications. We called them Parmal, a Konkani word which is the same as ‘parimal’ in hindi. We coined the term Parmal – the eternal fragrance of Goan heritage. I edited the first three issues; you will find them in the library. One of the activities GHAH also organized was the Fontainhas Festival of Arts. Something like that can also benefit the locals as it brings in business for them. But it needs to be done in a sensitive manner, so that their day to day life is not disturbed. What is happening in the European cities is that they maintain their heritage well. So there is heritage tourism. N: That is what I also had in mind for this project. A: Yes, so that kind of a festival could happen maybe along some street and comes and extends into the crafts complex. So it becomes the culmination point. That way you also activate the creek area. Right now it is a run-down sort of area, the backyard of this building. If it is activated, locals can also come here, meet, discuss, have tea coffee in the evening, just any sort of recreation. The space will be utilized in their day routine. In the open space, you give a base on which stalls can be erect181
ed whenever a festival happens. So that way, it is used every day, but it is used extensively in a festival. So it is economically beneficial for the campus as well as the people. Maybe you would like to take up this complex for your project. N: Apart from craft, I also had this idea of integrating the building technology. I feel that is the real attraction of this area. So I was thinking of doing an interpretation centre, for the whole of the heritage area… A: The other point that you talked about, the technology, that could be a good point because… Interpretation centre is for whom. It is for the outside people who come and need to understand the area and then go experience. For the inside population, they have problems. That also came forward in my Margao research. There are a lot of issues with old houses. Inheritance is one. N: I think entitlement is one of the biggest issues that came forward when I was talking to people there. Which is why people are also not willing to invest in the heritage structures, since each house belongs to so many more people than just those living in it. A: There is redundancy, there is deteriorating, and modernization is needed. Suppose a family is staying there, and they have younger children. So need certain infrastructure. Because lifestyles are different today. You need it. Now that sort of infrastructure is not present. So if there is a kind of centre which can provide them expertise, that will be good. Redundancy is one thing, maintenance of houses is another big thing. I have also talked about this in my article. I can give it to you if you are around for some time. Someone really needs to guide them. Earlier they were using wood, they were using certain materials which have become expensive, labour has become expensive. We talk very romantically about the shell windows. How many people are there to even make those windows? N: Sir, are those windows banned now, because they were made of oysters? A: No they are not banned, they are still there. Oyster chandeliers are also there. We may not be able to go back to each technology but the important part is to know what is the alternative for it, how to improvise on that design. Shell is one example, but let me take wood as another example. Wood has been used extensively in the houses, there are big 20 feet long beams of wood in the older houses. They used those because those days it was available, not it is not available. So what do you do. And it is a very heavy material. Already, people have started putting steel frames and putting mangalore tiles on top of that. I’m not saying you do that, but you need to improvise in the light of present day – the kind of availability of material, techniques, less labour intensive. Earlier all these things were labour intensive. My father would tell me that in my grandfather’s time, there were all these people available in the settlement. Somebody who could do roofs, somebody who could do tiles, somebody who was a carpenter. Then they would just give them basic minimum wage and they would also give them all lunch. He used to tell me that so many people would come and work for us. Now that kind of a system, which is partly barter, is not there. Second problem is that all those people who were skilled are also less in number. There is a book that’s available ‘Traditional Occupations of Goa’. N: Yes, I did write down that name. It is by Pantaleo Fernandes, right? 182
A: Yes, it’s just for your reference. He’s taken out this book on traditional professions. Simple things like, this coconut which we use so much. We extract the oil also. This taking out of oil was done in the rural places. They were called ‘ghanas’ where this happened. Now those kind of things made a village or a settlement self sufficient since all these people were there. Those professions are also dying. N: So do you feel there is a need to revive these? A: Now you have to make a statement on that. Everyone wants to romanticize about the settlement, but there are all these problems also of decay and things falling down. If you can create some facility where some expert can guide them, and connects them with skilled crafts persons, that will be good. You can go to the library, there is a directory of various skilled persons. Now this centre, could have that also. N: I was wondering if this centre, apart from design and construction consultancy, could extend into the realm of knowledge dissemination. Like the Laurie Baker Centre, it invites students to come and learn the techniques. A: Yes so one angle is the handicrafts, the other is this. N: The building technology.. A: Yes, something like a building centre. N: Like the Nirmithi Kendras? A: Yes, there could be something on those lines. N: There doesn’t exist one in Goa at the moment, does it? A: You can meet Gerard (da Cuhna), I think he was trying to get one. Actually HUDCO had a scheme to get that. And Gerard was trying to establish that. I think you can go to the library once, see the three issues. The librarian may leave after some time. I will call them right now to give you the Fontainhas report and the Parmal issues. We can discuss again after that. N: Yes, that will be very helpful. Thank you.
In conversation with 27 January 2016 PROF. DR. ASHISH REGE & AR. DEAN D’CRUZ
N, to D: (after initial greetings) I have already explained a bit of my project to Rege sir. My site is near the Mala Lake and I chose this bit of area. Initially I was interested in revitalizing the existing structure there but news paper reports said that it needs to be demolished as it is developing cracks. So I dropped that idea, but went ahead with the site because it’s a very exciting upcoming urban node… A: Funnily enough, it was constructed just some 5-7 years ago. But the design is quite a misfit, with such a strong context they have designed something like this. We had this discussion with our students also, since they also studied that area. We were discussing the possibility of adaptive reuse of it. N: That is the idea I began with. But since there have been reports against it, I don’t think I want to go in that direction. It’s a concrete building whose structure and aesthetic is completely alien to the area. My thesis is actually, at one level, a statement against such construction in the heritage area. D: Since it is nearly complete, can we save it? It is not a building I would like to build, but since it is already there, can we use it, if it is structurally sound? N: But apparently it’s not. After reading reports, I would like to start with a fresh site. What I am planning to do now is to create an interface for the people who come to this heritage area. It is like a touchdown point to the community, to understand it and then move ahead to experience it themselves. So in a way it is an interpretation centre, where you get to understand the various layers of the culture. A: I also gave her the idea of using the crafts complex. You know, when GHAH organized the Fontainhas Festival of Arts, this has the potential of becoming a place where those sort of activities can be organized. D: (pointing towards open area on site plan) What would you use this for? N: This would be developed as open area for the community. It is precious in the sense that it is an upcoming urban node but it is also the only piece of open public land available in this dense settlement. So the program would actually work at two levels. It needs to benefit the community but also generate revenue and interest in the heritage area. I thought of extending the idea of an interpretation centre beyond the general static museum sort-of space that is seen. It needs to be a place for people to understand the past, engage with the present, since it is a living heritage, and finally evolve for a better future. The past would typically be galleries giving information to tourists who come there. I interviewed a few tourist and most of them said that they got to know about Fontainhas through the internet, or Nat Geo or Lonely Planet. So maybe there needs to be an actual information centre. Moving ahead to the living present, there is a lot of scope in making people aware about the crafts present in the area, the cuisine maybe through a community run culinary centre where home cooks in the area can contribute to the kitchens. Music, dance and theatre performances could also be held. However, more than all this, the most important component is a building centre, where I envision that innovation would be 184
happening in laterite and in other materials which are present today so that you can find alternatives to materials that are no longer feasible for use today. It is somewhat based on my experience at COSTFORD, because I worked there for a month. The kind of work that they are doing there in brick, I think that can be done here for laterite. So this place would have research spaces, material testing and innovation, also design consultancy teams for the people of the area because they need specialists who can help them integrate the modern facilities that are much needed today. The larger houses have managed to do that but the smaller ones still struggle for integration of basic amenities. And finally a training and lecture area for locals to keep them updated with what all is possible. It would also be for students to come and learn, like what the Earth Institute of COSTFORD do. So that is broadly what my program is like. So now, I would certainly like your opinion on what you think of the overall idea. But more specifically what I wanted to know from you was mostly about the materials, since you have been doing a lot of experimentation I believe. D: See traditionally in Goa we built in mud, laterite is actually more recent compared to mud. Most of the older residential buildings used to be mud, and there are a lot of other natural materials like thatch, specially paddy thatch, wood roofing systems etc. But we have lost the ability to build in mud. If you are establishing a thing for building in mud, it would be good. N: So it would be good to revive mud as a building material? D: Yes it could be good. Where you teach people how to build in mud. There is a history of pottery in Goa, so you could add the craft of pottery to the institute. We’ve designed a factory actually in Bicholim industrial estate, for Zilu Harmalkar, he is a potter, an old traditional potter family. You can see the factory over there. So since your focus is more on the crafts… N: Building crafts more than handicrafts… D: Yes so you can actually use natural materials are present. So maybe you can take the whole site, the whole place can be about how the building and landscape were actually part of the whole thing. Coconut, bamboo… How these also came into use because anything that’s around your house can be used in making it. So you can actually create like a microcosm of Goa on the site, in terms of the geography… A: As I said earlier, the materials we had were different and there is a need to innovate. We have already started replacing wood. She had the idea of a Nirmithi Kendra, but something that will also give them the idea and technical know-how if they want to renovate something. D: A help centre… But it is also part of the whole tourist circle… A: So this also acts as an interpretation centre… N: Right. Plus, all of this including the making of the crafts and the work happening there, you open it up for tourists to see because today tourists want more than just 185
sight-seeing, they want to see things actually happening. This is what’s happening at, say the Ponda Spice Plantation. They’re learning new things while on a tourist experience… D: Yes, right. Close by you also have the Goa Vehla, the gallery. All that is a part of this. So you are calling it an integrated building centre, where there is a bit of crafts but it is the building crafts like terracotta jaalis, nameplates… It is all an intricate part of the building… A: The azulejos also… D: So ranging from the very basic rural thing to a more sophisticated urban interpretation like the azulejos is a good way of doing it. But I’m saying claim the whole site, take the whole thing. So you can create zones for different things. N: Maybe this could have open zones (area marked as recreational on the plan) D: Yeah so you immediately set a theme rather than having an empty park with no meaning. N: So it is like a themed open space then… D: So accordingly design your landscape as well so that you are mimicking your natural landscape. Coconut plantations, bamboo plantations, natural soil which if you mix with other stabilizers you can create mud buildings. Like Bicholim, it’s close to the water bed so it was a natural place for pottery to happen. If you just dig around, you don’t have to import clay. The silt and clay from the river bed was used. So you are localizing the demonstration of the craft. And so that buildings don’t clash, you have wood somewhere and mud somewhere… You can somehow create zones, almost like an amalgamation of different crafts where each has its own space. N: So another thing that I wanted to know was… Since I myself have not spent much time doing research of this kind, I am unsure of what kind of spatial requirements are there. Do you just have a design studio kind of atmosphere where you are doing your research with some archives? I am asking this from a building program point of view. D: A lot of it has to do with the hands-on experience… N: So lots of open space D: Yeah, with your laptop you can sit anywhere… So yes open space workshops, and library… You can have a personal workspace area. Maybe a place where you can hold workshops... You know about Permaculture? So that is not just about plants, its concepts can also be taken into architecture. It is about creating passive energy systems such as shading, cooling using part architecture and part planting. The buildings in the old days had some permaculture, unintentionally. They grew pumpkins 186
on the roof so that it helped cool things. They used thatch in the monsoon. It was never about permanent building, it kept evolving. So in summer, you’d have little screens that you put, in monsoons you changed the screen. So you’re adapting to the building and you’re adapting to the season. N: The GI sheets are such a typical example, so visible. D: Yeah, that sort of thing. So if you can create that, show that there were these climatic responses, so have these temporary additions to your building that respond to this change in your climate. When we do jungle lodges, we have done a few across the country, we always build in natural material and we appreciate buildings that are not permanent. N: Since this is going to be a contemporary building sitting in such a historic fabric, it is meant to make a statement (in support of historic styles) specially as a response to the buildings that have come up all around it, what do you think should be the design language for it? D: Let these buildings be in the backdrop, I wouldn’t make a statement building here. N: A statement in the sense… would it completely match the heritage character of the older buildings? Since construction technology will certainly be new, should there be a strong effort to make the external appearance match that of the old ones? D: I would actually put something that disappears. Maybe it’s just a wall. You could just see the compound wall but actually it’s a building inside. All your functional components – your storage facilities, your administration areas sit here. And all your demonstration areas are then with natural materials. So you make a distinct separation between what is your purely functional aspect, which you can design efficiently, hide it completely, and what is your demonstration area where you are showing crafts, or building with laterite, or mud, or bamboo, or thatch, is a free flowing thing. So that you don’t compromise your design for other requirements… In a mud building, how do I do ventilation, how do I aircondition, how do I put toilets… The new uses today are very different. That’s more regular rather than the demonstration area. N: When you’re doing a mud building, it would obviously not look like a regular house from Fontainhas or Mala, where it has that coloured façade and detailing. It would not merge into the context… D: I don’t think you need to respond to it because I would say this is for Goa. It happens to be in a traditional settlement, but it is for the whole of Goa. So it can reflect the styles from across. And the styles have changed also. The new roofing systems are actually valid in a way. Using sheeting for the roof which one has developed… N: Like the ferrocement ones? 187
D: Yes, these are actually a valid interpretation of tradition. A: So yes, it’s not necessary to use the same material, but if you can understand the design principles that have been used there... If that can be used then, you need not replicate an old building. D: I think the most recognizable is the roofing. Then the higher plinths, and the banding on windows. All this you will gain by just walking through the place. The balcao is unique to Goa. It is this interactive space where you can sit outside. So it need not look like a balcao, but this recognition that it is your land but it is visible from outside. So it is the place of interface between the inside and the outside. So, it the semi-public kind of space. So you can re-interpret concepts, like we did in our early buildings. Similarly, the thickness of walls. We do a lot of thin walls today but visually we give them that appearace by providing niches and so on. N: So basically work with design details that serve our purpose but also help visually connect with the older traditional styles. D: Yeah so you don’t have to very directly follow traditional architecture. You have the freedom to reinterpret the styles. I guess that’s about it. N: Okay, thank you so much.
In conversation with 28 January 2016 AR. GERARD DA CUHNA N: My site is right next to Mala Lake, in between Fontainhas, Mala, Portais, that area… G: This is that area where something is built and it is stopped, is it? N: Yes, it’s stopped and as per newspaper reports it’s deemed to be demolished now. I’ve picked up the site and I want to build afresh on it. The program I have been trying to generate is based on what I see at the site. G: Now why is it being demolished? What is the problem? N: Because there are cracks that are starting to appear in the structure. My original idea for the thesis was actually to do an adaptive reuse for this building but when I read the news paper reports which talked about the condition of the structure, I decided against it.
G: What’s the area of the site? N: My site includes the lake, but the buildable area is about 1.5 hectares, which is a commercial plot right next to the lake. The rest will be open space. (discussion on printed plan) I have been trying to build the program based on what the site demands. I am keep on creating an interpretative space for the heritage. I see a lot of people come here and they generally walk around for the experience but they don’t have a sense of direction here or a sense of the history about this area. So my building would become a starting point for the tourists. However, this is not a space dedicated to tourists. What I am planning to make is much beyond a static museum space. It brings together the past, the present and the future of this precinct. The past gets depicted in galleries, which is very similar to a museum sort of situation. The present… since it is living heritage, it is meant to be experienced. But I want to add facilities which add t a social experience – say community run culinary experiences and accommodation facilities. But the third most important thing, for the future, is a building centre. It would help in the physical upkeep of the precinct, which is an urgent need. Secondly, it is a kind of response to the construction that has started happening in the area. The structure that stands on the site today, the PDA building, the Jairam complex, and so many others… Not only as these concrete structures aesthetically alien to the place but also do not utilize local materials, as is preferable. Now my personal experience of building centers is limited to COSTFORD, where I worked for a month, and I have only read about the Earth Institute. Since you are the link between COSTFORD and Goa, I think your inputs would be quite helpful. G: (Discussing on printed plan, again) What is ‘CC’ here? N: That is the crafts complex, it has a very small footprint on the large site and its redevelopment has also been proposed. G: And is this the pedestrian bridge? N: No, this is the upcoming bridge from Patto Plaza, the pedestrian bridge is much ahead, in that direction. This is where the library is (State Library designed by Gerard), so my site is actually right across the library also. G: I see. So what all have you thought of till now? N: My idea of a building centre right now consists of research spaces, material testing and innovation lab, and space for a design consultancy team who will help locals resolve issues within their houses. And then some training and lecture areas – for the locals so that they can be updated about what all is possible within their houses, but also for students and architects from across the country. So I was hoping that you could tell me a little more about this… If we were to set up a space where we would be researching and experimenting with building technology, what would be the typical kind of activity that would be happening there? G: Well I suppose if this is like COSTFORD then you have a design area, you have a workshop area, you have an exhibition area, you have a place where people can come in to see and learn about the area. And that’s people in general and then there will always be the residents who come there for specific problems – they want to 189
put in a toilet, how does one do it… so it’s a kind of service that one offers, so there will be meeting rooms, and it’s got a sort of workshop where things can be made, wood work can be restored. Maybe it’s got a section that has got old pulled down building material, kind of antiques that people can come and buy… The kind of stuff that you see out on the terrace there… (pointing towards office terrace). That would be helpful for the community. Now if you want to make it more of a centre, you’d obviously want theatre, like an amphitheatre where you have larger groups coming in and talking to them, you know. Then a conference room and meeting room, that is if you want outside people to come to this place. I mentioned exhibition space, no? Now exhibition space is of two kinds – one is meant as a design space, for people to know how to solve things, you know. People who want to solve their housing problem. And then one is a general exhibition space which is meant for the outside people, the casual visitor. The first one gives an idea to the people of what can happen to their own house. Here in the museum (the Houses of Goa museum which Gerard has set up) people look for ideas to solve their own problems – where to put a toilet in, which tiles to use, where it is all available, stuff like that. This is what I can see as a requirement. N: I was wondering if there areas around your office where you are keeping building materials and testing them? Are you generally into the area of research? G: Only when it concerns my work. Say, if I have to build a space frame that I will build in bamboo then I will test it out. So, then I do things. If I am making a bottle wall, I make samples and I go to the lab. I have enough space to do what I want to do. N: So where is this lab that you just mentioned? G: The polytechnic lab right here. N: Oh so like an engineering college lab. G: Yeah I take things there. So if I have to test bamboo junctions on a space frame, I take things there and I do the tests, like compression tests. So I don’t need my own lab. Its only when I am working on something a bit different. For example, a suspension structure – I set it up here and see how it works. My research is only to do with what I’m working on. N: Also, since I am designing a building centre, the architecture of it should also represent the kind of innovation in construction technology that is possible. For example, Dean sir suggested that I look into the use of mud, which has been a traditional material. That is something that I did not know about. So similarly, do you think there are other materials and technologies, apart from laterite, that I should look into? G: Well traditionally it is laterite. Then, mud is there but you have to be very careful with that because it rains a lot here. So there are lots of mud houses, but less and less people are building mud houses, it’s all just disappeared. There are other materials like basalt, but in very limited quantities. There’s river pebbles, which is very exciting. But if you start building in river pebbles, if the whole of Goa starts building in river pebbles, then the rivers will completely be devoid of them. 190
N: So it’s a limited resource… G: I suppose innovation is more design oriented. I don’t think there is so much scope for materials. N: Also, what is your opinion on wooden rafters? Wood is a depleting resource. Do you continue to use wood in your buildings or are you beginning to replace it with something? G: I am not using much wood in my buildings… N: …You use filler slabs? (Reference to COSTFORD technique) G: Yes, I use slabs, I use filler slabs, I use modern stuff. Nobody wants wooden buildings. They are scared people will come and take out the tiles, rob the house. And you know, in the modern days it is so difficult to get somebody to repair the roofs. N: And weather conditions too… G: Yeah, in the sense that... See there are 300 tiles in this roof (pointing to the office roof) So there are 300 potential spots where it can leak. Tiles break if a branch falls down and causes damage. So its not the chosen material for the present, people don’t want to use it. I’m not using too much wood here. I use a lot of recycled wood. N: Recycled, salved material.. G: Yeah, there are a lot of old houses coming down. I used to buy all the woodwork, for a lump sum. And I used to reuse it in other buildings. I used to. I don’t do it so much anymore. I’m not doing many small projects. So I’m trying to get rid of everything. All the stuff you see on the terrace, I’m trying to sell it. N: I don’t see anything at all on this terrace…. G: Not this terrace, the theatre terrace. If you go there you’ll see a hundred doors. That’s all for sale. N: Oh. Okay, I think that’s about it for now. I’m curious to know what you generally think about the project. Do you think there is something else that could be added to it, or maybe there is another way to approach this? G: I am not so familiar with the area, so you must have felt what the site needs. 191
N: Yes, and I also spoke to Arminio.. G: …Yes, he’s from the area.. N: And he was also in favour of having a facility that helps in the upkeep of the area. G: Yes yes, it sounds good. To have such a place. But it also needs to be effectively run. The problem is that many times if the place if run badly, then no one goes there. You go to other people to do the work. If it starts solving problems, then everybody will come to there. Yeah? N: Yes, that’s true. G: Okay then, best of luck. N: Thank you so much!
And thus went by another milestone in life.
This book summarises the journey undertaken as part of my academic thesis project for the degree of B.Arch at the School of Planning and Arc...
Published on Jun 2, 2016
This book summarises the journey undertaken as part of my academic thesis project for the degree of B.Arch at the School of Planning and Arc...