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DR. V. D. KARAD, Founder President, Executive Director, MAEER’s MIT CORE FACULTY Dr. L. K. Kshirsagar, Principal (MIT Pune), ONGC Chair (Additional Charge) Dr. P. B. Jadhav, Head (Petroleum Engineering Dept.) Mr. S.J. Naik Mr. M. D’Souza Mr. Samarth Patwardhan Mr. S. Joshi Mr. R. A. Joshi Mr. Somnath Nandi Mr. Mithun Chakravarthi Mr. V.S.Wadgaonkar Mr. Rahul Marathe Mr. Siraj Bhatkar EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

CONTENTS PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

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FROM THE FACULTY SPONSOR

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FROM THE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT’S DESK

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THE PRESIDENT’S PAGE

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THE EDITOR SPEAKS

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RECENT ACHIEVEMENTS

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SPE PAPER PUBLICATIONS

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SPEAKING BARREL

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INDUSTRY-INTERACTION

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SPE-AIIIP 2011

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ABSTRACTS

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PROFILE OF DEPARTMENT

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President: Abhishek Bihani Vice President: Ajit Muley Secretary: Jitin Kazhakapurayil Treasurer: Sharanya Sharma Event Manager: Vaibav Jain Function Incharge: Abhishek Punase

INTERVIEW WITH MR. LABASTIE, 2011-SPE PRESIDENT

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EOR-IMPROVING THE IMPROVED

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DR. P. K. BORTHAKUR’S (ONGC) INTERVIEW

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EDITORIAL COMMITTEE

INTERVIEW WITH MR. ANDREW WENK, CAIRN INDIA

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Editor in-chief: Rishabh Rathi Technical Editor: Kutbuddin Bhatia Sub-Editor: Nishant Panigrahi Sub-Technical Editor: Aman Arora Members: Manthan Thakkar Bilal Ghansar Anirban Banerjee Noble Koshy Susrut Bharali Raktim Borpatragohain

UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES

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CONVERSATION WITH MR. N. BHARALI, OIL INDIA LTD.

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PRICING THE BLACK-GOLD

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INTERACTION WITH MR.BHUPEN B. , ASSAM GAS

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LIFE OF A PETROLEUM ENGINEER

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DIALOGUE WITH MR. A. BANERJEE, WEATHERFORD

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WOMEN: WELCOME TO THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

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“A JOURNEY JUST BEGUN NO ROAD TO FOLLOW CULTIVATING KNOWLEDGE OUR MOTTO”

SPECIAL FEATURES

MIT-SPE STUDENT CHAPTER (NO: 5684) DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING, MIT PUNE Paud Road, Pune 411038, India Tel: +91-20-25431975/25432767 Fax: +91-20-25442770 Email: mit_spe@rediffmail.com www.Petroleum-MIT.com


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MIT PUNE, INDIA DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING Petroleum engineering deals with the exploitation of sub-surface oil and gas resources from discovery through production and includes such activities as reservoir description, estimate, reservoir management and simulation, drilling of wells, design of wells and production systems. Huge reserves of oil and gas are awaiting exploration and exploitation in various petroliferous basins of India. However, there are only a few centers imparting training in this vital discipline at the graduate level. In order to meet the present and future demand for trained manpower for efficient exploration and exploitation of oil reserves, Maharashtra Institute of Technology has been conducting a four year degree course and a two year master course in Petroleum Engineering affiliated to the University of Pune.

The Petroleum Engineering Department of the institute has the necessary infrastructure for training in this discipline. In order to give a feel of the industry, a vocational training is arranged for the students at the installations of Oil and Natural Gas Ltd. (ONGC), Oil India Ltd. and other similar organizations. The department has close interaction with the Petroleum industry. In view of increasing computer applications in the industry, special exercises involving computer applications in Petroleum exploration, formation evaluation and reservoir engineering are introduced in the curriculum. It is therefore absolutely essential to apprise the students of technological and economical developments taking place from time to time. Course in Deepwater Technology and Petroleum economics have also been introduced in the new curriculum. The faculty constantly takes feedback from the past students and experts in the industry.


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FROM THE FACULTY SPONSOR

DR. L. K. KSHIRSAGAR PRINCIPAL, MIT PUNE FACULTY SPONSOR, MIT-SPE STUDENT CHAPTER This year SPE student members have chosen an interesting theme “It will never end”, for the Industry Institute Interaction Programme. It is appropriate that the Petroleum Engineering students look at the past-present-future of petroleum industry from this perspective. On the one hand the demand for petroleum products is increasing at a rate more than that was anticipated. To meet this never ending demand, supply has to be arranged. When it appears that the demand is not being met with comfortably, prices go on increasing.

Quest for oil in different and more difficult environment will never end. Whatever research goes on to replace this most convenient source of energy and material, it is barely able to replace the produced reserves. New exploration tools, increased computational capability, lateral and out of box thinking will help the industry in adding new reserves of petroleum. It is for certain that petroleum will remain the most important energy source in this century as well. History of modern usage of oil is barely two hundred and odd years old. An important earth resource that has taken millions of years to form is not likely to be exhausted within the history of just three hundred years. Nevertheless, the rate of exploitation is alarmingly high and an alternative has to be found out. In the history of search for oil, whenever a situation came indicating a grey future, new technological advancements combined with new geological thinking and application as synergy have taken place, be it natural gas, horizontal drilling, heavy oil recovery, CBM, Deepwater resources, Shale gas etc. The time gap between discovery and production is reducing not affecting the supply. In the first phase of development of oil industry no one thought of the environmental degradation due to inefficient and excessive use of petroleum products, particularly fuels. However, effects of global warming in recent years have laid strict regulations on quality of the products. The standards are becoming more and more stringent year by year. The quest for oil, the search for new technologies and the environmental concerns will never end. Optimist Petroleum Engineers have been talking about the never ending supply of hydrocarbons to the mankind. Pessimists say that the life on earth may come to an end before the hydrocarbons get exhausted. The story of oil may never end provided we spend on research, innovation and young talent. The theme has a philosophical angle too. Hindu beliefs say that life does not end; Atman simply changes the body it currently occupies. Life gives birth to another life, the evolution continues to take place, the philosophy of earth science also says that the processes seen in operation for the present have been in operation in the past and will continue into the future. Individual life and for that matter entire humanity is only a small section of the time continuum, ‘It will never end’.


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FROM THE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

DR. P. B. JADHAV HEAD, DEPT. OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING The Department of Petroleum Engineering has produced employable quality engineers since the commencement of a Bachelors program of Petroleum Engineering. Along with the accredited program of BE Petroleum, the department also offers Master and Doctoral program in Petroleum Engineering and a Doctoral program in Geology affiliated to Pune University. The truly interdisciplinary nature of petroleum engineering demands that the faculty is drawn from a varied background in science and engineering with an attitude to understand students at personal level and motivate them to strive for excellence. This very aspect of personal relationship with students beyond classroom teaching has helped maintain an emotional bonding with students. The relationship continues even after completion of their graduation. Establishment of ONGC Chair in 2009 is one of the most important moments in the history of the department. Several student centric activities including guest lecture series, short duration courses and field visits are organized as a part of this chair. Specific mention is sited here of a program conducted on “Challenges for girl engineers in Petroleum Industry�. Eminent women professionals from ONGC, Halliburton, Weatherford, Reliance, NCL and faculty members of our institute shared their experiences in front of sixty girl students. Another salient feature of ONGC Chair Program was organization of lecture series on environmental engineering and enhanced oil recovery, and a one day workshop on HSSE by industry professionals. Our faculty members were also invited to address ONGC executives during the ONGC Chair meet conducted in October 2010. Cairn Energy India also has taken an important stride in promoting Industry Academia Collaboration by initiating Campus Connect Program, CIIIP. Thanks are particularly to Shri Santosh Chandra for taking an initiative to bridge the gap. An important step in this direction is donation of drilling and completion equipment, invited lectures by experts and visit of faculty members to Barmer facilities. Fifty six students have received summer internship in India and abroad in this academic year due to excellent support given by oil companies. This is inclusive of assessed internship promoted by SHELL Technology India. MIT SPE Student Chapter is affiliated to Mumbai SPE Section. The student chapter is very active in organizing student centric activities and promoting them for industry exposure. This has enabled students to earn more than ten awards at national and international paper presentations, and also more than twenty five publications in various SPE conferences if taken an audit of last five years. Credit for this to a large extent goes to the office bearers of Mumbai SPE Section for providing encouragement, and opportunity in the form of sponsorship for participation in various SPE events. Thanks are particularly to Shri Shantanu Hati, Shri Jayanta Mukhopadhyay and Respected Shri Borthakur.


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Memorable moment of this year was a meeting with Mr. Alain Labiste, SPE President 2011 and Mr. Vasudeva, Director, Offshore, ONGC and Director at large, SPE International during annual technical meeting of Mumbai SPE Section on January 28, 2011. Frequent visits of alumni are a common feature of this department. They are prompt in replying mails written by faculty. Their constructive suggestions are of great help in bridging the gap between industry and academia. I must add here that our students have won prizes in this academic year at almost every place they participated and continued the tradition of winning habit of their seniors. We are proud of our students. Theme of this year AIIIP is “IT WILL NEVER END�. It talks about searching for hydrocarbons in high risk areas, efficient management of reservoirs, technology innovations, increase in recovery in matured fields and also unending talent resources. Various activities have been conducted as a part of AIIP since February 1 2011, judged by alumni and industry experts. The students of final year have provided hands on software training to their juniors as a part of these activities. Most of the events are self-learning curves for junior students and during this process they develop a strong bonding with their seniors who sat with them for hours beyond routine schedule and explained them with patience. The total exercise of learning beyond curricula and selflearning was the highlight of this AIIIP. On behalf of department, I express my gratitude towards Dr. (Prof.) Vishwanath D Karad sir for his encouragement and motivation. His dream of starting unconventional engineering program has really taken an excellent shape and has earned reputation all over the globe.


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2011-PRESIDENT’S PAGE

MR. ABHISHEK BIHANI B.E (PETROLEUM), MIT PUNE

It has been a privilege and a delightful learning experience to be the President of the vibrant and passionate MIT-SPE Student Chapter. Our Student Chapter organizes a number of field-visits, guest lectures and events throughout the year but it reaches its quintessence during the Annual Industry Institute Interaction Program. This year the event was held on 19th and 20th of March 2011. The theme for this year’s event was rightfully chosen as ‘It will never End’ symbolizing the promise that petroleum will continue to fuel the world for many more decades to come… Another perception of the theme is that talent will never end and the Annual Industry Institute Interaction Program is the finest platform to showcase the students’ talent. This year nine competitions were organized under the aegis of MIT-SPE right from the traditional paper presentation competition to unique ones like Shell sponsored Darcy Business Challenge, A Stimulation Case-Study organized by BJ Services and a ‘Fishing tool’- Model-making contest. During the process the students imbibed various aspects of Petroleum Engineering and managed to use their creative potential to the fullest. At the same time it is certain that technology will never end either! This is reinforced by constant innovations taking place in the quest of extracting hydrocarbons. The MIT Students are doing their bit to energize this juggernaut by way of writing technical papers. A final year student Abhishek Punase presented his paper recently at the METS Conference in Doha, Qatar. A few other students including Kutbuddin Bhatia and Panchamlal have their papers selected at various international conferences. But behind all these achievements lies the tremendous support of the industry and we are extremely grateful to them for the same. I would especially like to thank the SPE Mumbai Section, for giving our students an opportunity to interact with various eminent industry personnel including 2011 SPE President Mr. Alain Labastie. It would be an unfinished task without acknowledging the various MIT alumni who constantly guide and encourage the current students in multiple ways. I would also like to thank the Teaching and Non-teaching staff of MIT Petroleum Department for supporting the students in every possible way in their creative endeavors. Last but not the least, all the students of the Department who went beyond the call of duty in making the event a grand success. The magazine team has put in countless hours in creating this magazine. We are sure MIT SPE Cultivating Knowledge (MIT-SPECK) will live true to its name and the expectations of its readers! After all, It will never end…


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THE EDITOR SPEAKS

MR. RISHABH RATHI TE (PETROLEUM), MIT PUNE Hardwork is always pleasurable and even more when your efforts are appreciated. MIT-SPECK in the last 10 years has received overwhelming response from the industry and it gives me intense satisfaction to continue this legacy and, so it is with great pride that I present before you the 10th edition at the Petroleum Departmental Magazine “Maharashtra Institute of Technology- Society of Petroleum Engineers Cultivating Knowledge (MIT-SPECK). MIT-SPECK has completed 10 glorious years and it is personified in our theme of this year’s magazine- “IT WILL NEVER END”. The theme suggests many things that will never end like ever growing technology, talented petroleum engineers, and least of all, experiences in the oil industry. In this issue we set forth the challenge to go the extra mile, do better, be better. Whatever it is physically, mentally, emotionally----extend yourself. “Our goal is to stimulate your thinking and challenge you.” As said by Einstein that ‘The true sign of intelligence is not knowledge but imagination.’ We have tried to showcase the imagination and knowledge In our efforts to bring forth this magazine we received help from entire Department. MIT-SPECK owes its success to the constant support and help of all the faculty members and of course the “Never Say Die Attitude” to the students. You hold in your hand, the hard work of all the students of the department and the magazine committee, and I hope reading it is a fulfilling experience.


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M.E. PETROLEUM ENGINEERING A post graduate course in Master’s of Engineering in Petroleum Engineering has been started in the Department since July 1998. This is a two-year (four semester) programme and a postgraduate degree is awarded by the University of Pune. This programme is aimed at developing expertise in Petroleum Engineering, having an aptitude towards research and development work. Professionals in the industry would find it useful to improve upon their academic qualifications for better prospects. It also helps graduates other disciplines to convert themselves into Petroleum Engineers. Some of the important points regarding this course are:    

There is no age limit for admission. Graduates of Petroleum, Petrochemical, Chemical, Mechanical, Production and Polymer Engineering are eligible for admission. Students who have qualified GATE examination will be given preference. Preference will be given to graduate students of University of Pune. Eighteen seats are sanctioned for this course, out of which three are reserved for SC and ST category and five are reserved for students sponsored by various Institutes and Industrial Organizations. COURSE CURRICULUM

The first year of this M.E. Petroleum course comprises advanced courses in Reservoir Engineering, Drilling Engineering, Production Engineering, Mathematical and Statistical Methods applicable to Petroleum Engineering, Transport phenomena in Petroleum Engineering, Natural Gas Engineering, Environment Management and Safety Measures, Computer Applications and two elective subjects related to Petroleum Engineering. The Second year of this course is devoted to seminars and dissertation. The students are required to deliver a total of three seminars (one seminar per student per semester) starting from the second semester. Every student has to undergo one-month training in the Petroleum Industry at the end of the first year. M.E. BY RESEARCH The Department also offers M.E. Degree in Petroleum Engineering by research for the candidates who are working in the oil and gas industry for more than five years after graduation. The student admitted to M.E. by research will have to appear for and pass any four papers from amongst the papers for the regular M.E. course. These four papers will be decided by the guide of the candidate and shall be approved by the concerned Board of Studies and B.U.T.R. PH.D PROGRAM IN PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND GEOLOGY The department also offers PhD program in Geology and in Petroleum Engineering affiliated to Pune University. Recently ONGC has established a Chair of Professor in Petroleum Engineering to strengthen IndustryAcademia Collaboration.


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RECENT ACHIEVEMENT Awards won by students at National and International level in last five years. 1. Mr. Deepak Kumar won second prize in National level student paper presentation contest held at ISMU Dhanbad, March 2011 2. Ms. Aaditi Jaiswal won first prize at UPES in the national level poster presentation competition. Ms Mayuri Ghodekar and Sankalp Shinde won first prize in paper presentation competition at UPES, January 2011.

LAST FIVE YEARS ARE MOST SUCCESSFUL YEARS IN THE HISTORY OF OUR DEPARTMENT ON THE INTERNATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT FRONT. FIVE OF OUR STUDENTS HAVE BAGGED PRIZES IN INTERNATIONAL STUDENT PAPER CONTESTS. MANY STUDENTS HAVE PRESENTED THEIR FINDINGS IN SPE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIUMS.

3. Mr. Avi Jakkulwar and Mr. Avinash Deore Secured First Prize in the ONGC-National Conference conducted by Delta Energy Institute, Andhra Pradesh, December 2010. Their idea will be patented by ONGC. 4. Mr. Kutbuddin Bhatia and Mr. Levin Chacko won second prize in the SPE-Sub-regional heat for SPE Middle East Region conducted by PDPU, Gandhinagar, in October 2010. Four other students participated in this event. A total three prizes were won by the students of Petroleum Engineering. Kutbuddin Bhatia will represent the department in the SPE-Regional Student Paper Contest scheduled in Doha, Qatar in May 2011. 5. Ms Nikita Kothari and Mr. Venkat Iyer represented department in the SPE sub-regional heat conducted at ISM Dhanbad in October 2009. Nikita stood third in the paper presentation contest in undergraduate category. 6. Mr. Venkat Iyer participated in the panel discussion organized as a part of SPE-OGIC, Mumbai on January 22 2010. The topic of discussion was ‘Young Professionals’ Perspective of Future E&P Industry’. 7. Ms Krupa Kannan and Mr. Joal John secured second rank at undergraduate and postgraduate level respectively in the SPE (International) organized Regional Paper Presentation contest held at Bahrain on March 13 to 15 2009. Mr. Mohit Kaul secured fourth rank in the regional heat at undergraduate level. 8. Ms Krupa Kannan and Mr. Mohit Kaul secured first and second prize SPE sub regional heat in undergraduate category Mr. Joal John received first prize in post graduate category. The SPE regional heat was organized at MIT Pune on October 2008 9. Mr. Amit Nair participated in the Gourami Business Challenge organized by Shell at Malaysia in August 2008. Ms Krupa Kannan was selected for 2008 IPTC Education Week conducted by SPE International at Malaysia in December 2008. 10. Ms. Shruti Jahagirdar participated in the annual undergraduate student contest at Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) Denver Colorado USA by the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), September 2008. She was selected for ATCE because she won first Prize (under graduate)


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at the SPE International Regional student paper contest held in Muscat, Oman on 20th April 2008 for her paper titled “Oil – Microbe detection tool using Nano optical fibers”. 11. Ms. Joshi Neeti Vishnukumar won first prize in the undergraduate student section at the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) organized Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (ATCE) held on 11-14 November 2007, at Anaheim, California, USA. Neeti presented a paper on Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery Using Nitrogenase Enzyme (SPE 113033-StU). This is the highest achievement of any student in the history of Maharashtra Institute of Technology. Neeti Joshi won 1st prize (under graduate) at The Asia Pacific Regional Student Paper Contest held in conjunction with The Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Adelaide, Australia (11 to 13 September 2006).

ACHIEVEMENTS

12. Yogesh Gupta won 1st prize (under graduate) at SPE Middle East India Sub-regional Heat, Pune, India (2006) for his paper on “Self actuated BOP & New Hydraulic Systems”. 13. Madhavi Jadhav won 2nd prize at (under graduate) Middle East India Sub-regional Heat, Pune, India (2006) for her paper on “Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery using Microorganisms”. 14. Manesh Zechariah won 1st prize at (Post graduate) SPE Middle East India Subregional Heat, Pune, India (2006) for his paper on ” Matrix Acidizing in Gas Wells”.

Ms. Shruti Jahagirdar presenting her paper in SPE Mumbai Chapter

Mr. Aman Arora presenting his paper in the 2010 SPE Sub-Regional Meet, PDPU


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SPE PUBLICATIONS 

Ni-Fe Nanoparticles : An Innovative Approach for Recov er y of Hydr ates , Kutbuddi n Bhati a, SPE, Levin Chacko ,SPE , Maharashtra Institute of T echnology, Pune, SPE-143159-PP, 2011 selected for presentation in 2011 Brazil Offshore Conference and Exhibition on 14 –17 June 2011 at Macaé, Brazil

In-situ combusti on using Sug ar dust, Panc hamlal ,SPE, Kasat sanket, SPE, Rohit Pandey, SPE, SPE -147858-PP, 2011 selected for presentation in 2 011 Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia on 20 –22 September 2011

Soy bean Sl urry - A New Effective, Economical and Envir onmental Fri endly Sol ution for Oil Companies , Abhishek D. P unase, SPE, Abhishek D. Bihani, SPE, Amol M. Patane, SPE, Ann John, SPE, Am an J. Arora, SPE, and Chaitanya M. Padalkar, SPE, Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune, SPE 142658 -MS, 2011.

Integrati on of In-Situ Combusti on with Solvent Injection - A detailed St udy, Jonathan Silva, Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune, SPE 141570 MS,2011

Gas Well Deliqui fication Usi ng Microwave Heating Mohamed kamal, SPE, Ghodke Nikhil, SPE, Patwardhan S.D., SP E, and Al -Dogail Fuad SPE, M.I.T., Pune SPE 134344 -MS 2010

Sol utions to the Dow n Hole Vibr ations During Drilling Mokhtar Yaveri, Karan Damani and Harshad Kalbhor, Maharashtra Institute of Technology, Pune (MIT) SPE 136956 -MS 2010

Applicati on Of Ferr ofluids For Enhanced Surfactant Fl ooding In IOR Author Nikita Kothari, Bhav na Raina, Krishna Chandak, Venkat Iyer & Hrishikesh Mahajan, Maharashtra Institute of Technolo gy, Pune SPE 131272-MS 2010

Oil-Microbe Detecti on Tool Using Nano Optical Fiber, Jahagirdar, SPE 113357 -MS 2008

Low Dos age, Hi gh Efficiency, and Environment Friendly Inhibitors: A New Horizon i n Gas Hy drates Mitigati on i n Production Systems , Krupa Kannan, SPE, and Aarti Punase, SPE 120904 -MS 2009

Bypassed Oil Detection Using Spectr oscopy and Nano Technology Ravindra Jahagirdar SPE 120200 -STU 2008

Chemical Recovery of Gas Hydr ates Using Fluori ne Gas and Microwav e Technology , Rachit Garg, Konark Ogra, Arpit Choudhary, and Richard Menezes. SPE 113556 -MS 2008

Shruti Ravindra

, Shruti


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 Mud Gas Isotope Log ging Using Mass Spec t rometry , Amith Nair, Irfan Kurawle, Mohit Kaul, Nakul Mahalle, Timmy Thomas, and Anand Shivanikar, SPE 121004-MS 2009  In-Situ Combusti on with Kakade, SPE 117684-MS 2008

Solvent

Inj ection ,

J.

D'Silva,

and

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 Hybrid Dril ling Rig With Rotating Coil ed Tubing , Arpit Choudhary, Richard Menezes, Konark Ogra, Rachit Garg, SPE 112888 -MS 2008  Semi-A nalytical Study of Pr oduction of Gas Hydrates and T heir Techno Economic Uses , Irfan Kurawle, Mohit Kaul, Zoaib Amin, and Nikhil Kulkarni, IPTC 12248-MS 2008

SPE PAPERS

Mono-Diameter Drillstring With Resin Spr ay Casing  Laser, Completi ons , Irfan Kurawle, Mohit Kaul, Nakul Mahalle, Vickey Carvalho, Nikhil Kulkarni, and Anand Shivanikar, SPE 123305 -MS 2009  Candidate Selec ti on for Underbalanced Drilling: An Appr oac h , Shaikh Abdul M ujeer Abdul Rehman. SPE 108230-MS 2007  Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Rec overy Using Nitrogenase Enz yme Joshi Neeti Vishnukum ar, SPE 113033 -STU 20 07

,

 New Horizons in Gas Hydrates Rec overy Using Fluorine and Microwave Technology , Rachit Garg, Konark Ogra, Arpit Choudhary, and Richard Menezes. SPE 113555-MS 2008  Bio-Genetic Engi neering, Futur e of Multi Microbi al Culture EORÂ —A Detailed Report , Irfan Kurawle, Moh it Kaul, Nakul Mahalle, Amith Nair , Nikhil Kulkarni, Zohaib Amin, and Vickey Carvalho, SPE 123303 -MS 2009  SPE 105117 , Madhavi Jadhav, Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery using Microorganisms, MEOS, Bahr ain (2007)  SPE 105122 , Sudeepto Banerjee and Yash G u pta, Innovations in drilling using replaceable bits, MEOS, Bahr ain (2007)  SPE 105517, Yash Gupta and Sudeepto Banerjee , Applications of expandable tubular in casing while drilling, Latin America and Caribbean petr oleum exhibiti on and confer ence, Argentina . (2007)  SPE 106588, Yash Gupta and Sudeepto Banerjee , Applications of expandable tubular in casing while drilling, Pr oduction and operati ons symposium, Oklahoma, USA (2007)  SPE 106582, Yash Gupta and Sudeepto Banerjee , Extendable arm drill bit: A novel idea, Production and operations symposi um, Oklahoma, USA (2007)


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IT WILL NEVER END Prof. Samarth Patwardhan Assistant Professor

COVER STORY

Someone once told me, that research is of two kinds – path-breaking and incremental. Most of the people who pursue their higher degrees in any discipline do the incremental kind of research. And, once in a while, you come across that “genius” who thinks revolutionary, who doesn’t take the beaten path, and who comes up with something, that can be called as a stepchange from the levels of thinking others get used to. I have had several of my acquaintances, who, while pursuing their higher degrees (Master’s or a Doctorate) would get utterly frustrated when in the process of wanting to think something totally new. They expect to come up with something, which would make the whole world sit up, and take a note. The problem here is not with their thinking, but with their approach. While respecting everybody’s intelligence, I would like to say that, in a way, it is inappropriate for each Master’s and Doctoral student in this world to think of doing something Einstein-ish. The sad-but-true fact is that all these students are guided by expert guides, who are unable to just tell the student, “Listen, there is a whole set of knowledge database lying around. Let’s try to pick up a problem that interests you, see what approaches other people have taken to solve it, let’s try to see if we can find some voids in the approach / solutions, and try to fill-in that gap with something new.” In short, it is like adding to the already existing knowledge database. The very first log, type curves, the “derivative” in pressure transient analysis, horizontal and multi-lateral wells, fracturing fluids and materials and many more examples exist in our industry, which have been truly path-breaking. These have, in their own way, added significant value to the way our industry looked at certain things. And then, there were the cases, where a constant pushing-the-barriers-methodology has led to incremental improvements to a certain process / methodology. One of the most clichéd statements in our industry is – “The days of easy oil are over.” Almost anybody and everybody we meet from the industry says this. Shale Gas, Tight Gas, Gas Hydrates, Heavy Oil, Coalbed Methane pretty much form the enormous lower base of the resource triangle we all are so used to seeing. All of these are being looked at, as possible “alternatives” to the depleting “easy” oil and gas reserves of the world. The industry, along with the academia is pooling in all their efforts to find the most optimal way of extracting these resources, yet few have been successful. Since the first well drilled in the Barnett Shale in 1981, scores of studies have taken place to improvise upon the techniques used to produce gas from this shale, whose productive area is about 60 square miles, with about 160 billion cubic feet of gas per square mile. From water fracs to horizontal wells, with the current number of wells in Barnett close to 14,000, it can be said that the play has indeed exploded. It took the US almost 20 years to get to “know” Barnett, and still some say.” We have only scratched the surface.” With the advent of Shale Gas in India, and ONGC spearheading the effort, there is ample to be happy about. But, it will be long before we start reaping the benefits of shale gas from Durgapur, and support the country’s energy independence. What we have in our hand, is to create the technically proficient manpower, to lead the country towards that very goal.


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“At MIT, I have been a witness to two consecutive SPE-AIIIP events. The sincerity with which students put in their efforts, to make the models (for the model making competition) or solve the case studies is simply fantastic.”

At MIT, I have been a witness to 2 consecutive SPE-AIIIP events. The sincerity with which students put in their efforts, to make the models (for the model making competition) or solve the case studies is simply fantastic. The model making and the paper presentation gave me a rare insight into the minds of these soon-to-be petroleum engineers, whose imagination runs as wild as one can think of. Attending (or not) lectures apart, the ideas that the students come up with, are purely fantastic, on a theoretical basis. Many a times, I doubt, if they would fly economically and practically, but, at least they are thinking. And, that is what matters. One of the most clichéd statements in our industry is – “The days of easy oil are over.” Almost anybody and everybody we meet from the industry say this. Shale Gas, Tight Gas, Gas Hydrates, Heavy Oil, Coalbed Methane pretty much form the enormous lower base of the resource triangle we all are so used to seeing. The same “someone” who told me about the two kinds of research, also told me that, in his career spanning almost four decades, he knows of only two people who can truly think out of the box. As long as the world is dependent on oil, The oil patch will survive – it will never end The industry will keep on pushing the scientific envelope – it will never end The academia will keep on trying to close the gap with the industry – it will never end And last but not the least, the bright minds of students will keep on thinking out-of-thebox, aiming to make the world pause, and take a note – it will never end Maybe, after a few years, I get to point to a former student of mine, and say, “I know of a person, who can truly think Einstein-ish.” Amen.

It will never END...


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Mr. ALAIN LABASTIE 2011-SPE President As Told To Abhishek Bihani

This is the kind of romance we have with the industry‌

How did you enter the petroleum industry? Looking at various options, I realized that this industry was one of the few opportunities where we can travel, work with different people, meet different cultures and visit different countries. This is the kind of romance we have with the oil industry. How do you see the petroleum industry 10 years from now? This industry will become more technologically demanding since production is becoming more difficult. So a more advanced and sophisticated technology will be required and thus there is a diversity of scopes. More brainpower will be needed to produce the hard-to-get hydrocarbons which mean the industry will become more intensive. Lot of senior workers and engineers will retire soon. Thus there is a need of young and new engineers like you. So you will have huge responsibilities.

Do you think that this industry plays a major role in determining the health of the environment? This industry is environmentally responsible. We have deployed many reliable systems to monitor our environmental performance. Overall in the last ten years, the discharge of hydrocarbons into the environment has continuously decreased. As many people say, we are the major contributors to CO2. This is incorrect. We are only minor contributors, only the end users are responsible and not the industry. Almost all the young people are concerned by the issue of global warming and climate change. This industry does offer some mitigation technology like the carbon capture sequestration which will develop rapidly over the coming years.


17 | P a g e About Mr. Labastie:

Alain Labastie is Engineering Adviser, EOR Technologies, for Total and is based in Pau, France. He began his career in 1976 at Elf and has held numerous positions in reservoir engineering, primarily in R&D and technology development. His positions have included R&D Program manager, head of R&D Operations, and head of Advanced Reservoir Techniques. Labastie served on the SPE Board as director for the South, Central and East Europe region and is a former chairperson of the JPT Editorial Committee. He has been involved in numerous SPE committees, including the Distinguished Lecturer, Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, International Petroleum Technology Conference and Exhibition, Europec Technical, and Forum Series committees.

He earned an engineering degree from Ecole des Arts et Métiers and a petroleum engineering degree from Institut Français du Pétrole.

How do you think student chapters like the MIT can contribute towards SPE? At your level as a student, you can organize a meeting with students from all universities. It will cost a lot so you need to seek sponsorship from various companies. For example, last year I attended a meeting organized by students in Poland with students coming over from UK, France, Siberia, etc. Such kind of meetings can benefit you and help you establish a network and link up with other universities. Do you mind sharing any memorable experience you had in your career? When you are performing certain operations while you are on the rig, you are entrusted to make decisions which can bring about financial consequences. You will face difficulties with what you decide in your first time but once you have the experience of going through with it, the others will eventually become easier. Just like the horizontal wells that changed the perception of the industry, what technology in your opinion will change radically the view of the industry? It is impossible to predict that because technology is a revolution. Revolution is a spontaneous process and it cannot be anticipated. But in my opinion, I believe microbial technologies, if we are successful in understanding it which we are far from, might bring substantial improvement in the recovery efficiency. How much does the EOR technology contribute to the total world production? EOR globally accounts for approximately 3.5% of the world production. And with development in EOR, I strongly believe that ten years from now, it can easily reach a value between 10- 20 percent of the world production.

How important do you think research is important at our level? In your future, you will have to deal with innovation. With research, you can train yourself and also get good exposure to the industry. Words from the president… You all are on the right track and wish you good luck in this industry and your entire life. You will have huge responsibilities where you have to provide the world with abundant energy supply and ensure good economic growth. Good luck and we count on you!

Volunteer with SPE Much of the work of the Society is accomplished through the efforts of dedicated volunteers. Thousands of volunteers around the world provide the energy that makes the Society function. SPE is grateful to these members and encourages other members to consider volunteering. When you become a volunteer, you have the opportunity to use your knowledge and experience to influence the programs and other SPE activities that drive SPE's mission. As a volunteer, you can also enhance your leadership skills while meeting and working with other SPE members from across the globe. There are a variety of opportunities to choose from! Numerous opportunities are available at both the local and international level that allows you to contribute in an area of interest. Committees vary in size and reflect geographic, corporate, and technical diversity. Most standing committee appointments are made between June and August, and program committee appointments for events are made throughout the year. Local sections typically welcome volunteers all year long to assist with various activities. For More visit: http://www.spe.org/membership/m embers/volunteering


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EOR-IMPROVING THE IMPROVED Panchamlal and Sanket Kasat Final year Today is the tomorrow we were worried about, yesterday. And if we use yesterday’s methods to solve our today’s problems then indeed we will not be in business tomorrow. Precisely that is the reason why the Oil & Gas Industry is so dynamic in nature. A large chunk of the current Indian oil production comes from mature fields. The rate of replacement of the produced reserves by new discoveries has been nominal. Further, the growing energy demand and consequent increase in oil prices (barring the brief recession period) has made the Indian Oil & Gas Industry to venture into the more challenging and rewarding territories viz. EOR technologies. The increasing number of EOR projects in India is a manifestation of the changing outlook coupled with the availability and need of the modern techniques in order to maximize the resource utilization.

TECHNICAL

The first EOR process used in India can be dated back to 1985. The reason for overlooking EOR processes can be attributed to many factors. The most important factor was the fact that oil prices (keeping in mind the inflation) were not lucrative. Also India was way behind in technical competence. Indian Oil and Gas industry was largely dominated by state owned companies and the lack of aggressive competition from private sector gave them legacy to breathe easy. Further, the energy demand was not very high as compared to the present situation. The amalgamation of these factors led to a situation where a large chunk of the resource remained untapped. This approach of the companies is very well manifested by the fact that they were reluctant in going for EOR processes although being fully aware of the consequences-improper resource utilization. Heavy oil fields (API-15-18) at Mehsana like BALOL, SANTHAL etc. were discovered as early as 1970 but the In-situ Combustion method was commercially applied only in 1997. Similarly, the commercial production from SANAND field started from May, 1969 but pilot test of polymer flooding was done in 1985 and commercial application began from 19961997. Also, the BECHRAJI field was discovered in 1987 and put on sustained production from 1989 with an initial recovery of only 10% for a considerable period of time. However, it was only after the success of In-situ combustion in SANTHAL & BALOL fields that a similar pilot was started in early 2000’s.

Although the polymer flood pilot test was started in 1985, but the turning point in the EOR application is indeed the use of In-situ combustion by ONGC for the BALOL field pilot 1991. Based on the encouraging results of the pilot test, In-situ combustion technique was implemented on commercial scale in 1997 at BALOL & SANTHAL fields. The recovery shot up from a nominal 6-12 % to a staggering 39-45%. This significant success story not only gave heart to other operators to try EOR processes but also made ONGC to try the same process for its LANWA field having similar characteristics. Simultaneously, the success of polymer flood in SANAND field (the oil production shot to 252 M3/d) Why be content changed the scenario of Oil & Gas Industry. ONGC became one of the very few with 10% companies to have operated In-situ combustion successfully on such a large scale.

recovery when even 70-80% recovery seems a reality?

Improvisation is the need of the hour. We, as students, have thought of an alternative idea-“Use of sugar dust as an alternative to Wet Combustion”. Sugar dust being highly explosive will eradicate the use of burners and provide more control over the process. Sugar dust being treated as waste in the sugar industry makes it more viable alternative. One such approach has made us highly optimistic and it overwhelms us to think about the attitude of the Industry which has seen a technological revolution. It is this attitude of the Industry which makes us believe that Enhanced Oil Recovery will reap the benefit of this and establish energy security for India and the world at large


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TECHNIQUES OF HEAVY CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION Zishaan Haindade Final year Heavy crude oil has been defined as any liquid petroleum with an API gravity less than 20째, meaning that its specific gravity is greater than 0.933. This mostly results from crude oil getting degraded by being exposed to bacteria, water or air resulting in the loss of its lighter fractions while leaving behind its heavier fractions. The largest reserves of heavy oil in the world are located north of the Orinoco river in Venezuela while The largest Canada has large reserves of tar sands, located north and northeast of Edmonton, Alberta.

reserves of heavy oil in the world are located north of the Orinoco river in Venezuela while Canada has large reserves of tar sands, located north and northeast of Edmonton, Alberta.

Although there are vast reserves of heavy oil around the world the production, transportation, and refining of heavy crude oil present special challenges compared to light crude oil. There are a number of methods for production of heavy crude oil which include Cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) technique in which sand is used as a means enhancing the productivity of the oil well in unconsolidated sandstones. Another technique is Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), it is an advanced form of steam stimulation in which a pair of horizontal wells are drilled into the oil reservoir, one a few meters above the other. Low pressure steam is continuously injected into the upper wellbore to heat the oil and reduce its viscosity, causing the heated oil to drain into the lower wellbore, where it is pumped out. Vapor Extraction Process (VAPEX) is similar to SAGD but instead of steam, hydrocarbon solvents are injected into the upper well to dilute the bitumen and allow it to flow into the lower well. It has the advantage of much better energy efficiency than steam injection and it does some partial upgrading of bitumen to oil right in the formation.

Cyclic Steam Stimulation is also used for producing heavy crude oil and consists of three stages: injection, soaking and production. Steam is first injected into a well for a certain amount of time to heat the oil in the surrounding reservoir to a temperature at which it flows. After it is decided enough steam has been injected, the steam is usually left to "soak" for some time, then oil is produced out of the same well, at first by natural flow and then by artificial lift. A recently developed technique called Toe to Heel Air Injection (THAI), is an experimental method that combines a vertical air injection well with a horizontal production well. The process ignites oil in the reservoir and creates a vertical wall of fire moving from the "toe" of the horizontal well toward the "heel", which burns the heavier oil components and upgrades some of the heavy bitumen into lighter oil right in the formation. Open-pit mining is used for extremely sandy and tar-rich deposits. Bitumen has been extracted on a commercial scale from the Athabasca Oil


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CASING WHILE DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

TECHNICAL

Ankit Kumar Singh Second year Casing While Drilling is an advanced drilling technology with advantages such as, reduced hole conditioning cost, improved operational efficiency, and minimized environmental impact. The technique is fundamentally simple in principle. In this technique the drill-string used for conventional drilling is replaced by standard oil-field casing. The casing itself transfers the mechanical energy to the drill bit attached to its bottom. A conventional drill bit or a special drill shoe can be attached to the end of casing to drill vertical wells. For additional flexibility and for those applications that require directional control, A wireline retrievable bottom hole assembly (BHA) can be used, which is locked at the bottom of casing using a Drill Lock Assembly (DLA) & can be retrieved by wireline cable. Running and retrieving this BHA through casing eliminate tripping of drillpipe into and out of wellbore and provide added protection for advanced system used in downhole measurements and directional drilling application. As the number of pipe trips is minimized the incidents of hole collapse are reduced, also wear inside the previously inside casing is minimized. As compared to conventional drilling, casing drilling minimizes rig down time and trouble time resulting from unexpected occurrences, such as stuck pipe or loss of well control from an influx, or kick of formation fluid. It has been observed that casing while drilling reduces drilling fluid loss significantly while drilling in low-pressure and highly depleted zones. This is mainly because of the plastering-effect inherent in this technique. Due to the continuous and smooth motion of the casing close to the borehole wall, the rock cuttings and drilled solids are mechanically plastered to the borehole wall. Thus, the pores in the softer and weaker formation are packed, reducing the fluid-loss. Evidences, shows that lost circulation mix (LCM) when circulated in well where casing drilling was being implemented, reduced the mud-loss to almost zero. Casing string has longer joints as compared to standard drillpipe, which means driller make about 25% lesser connection. Also, lesser time is spent on circulating the fluid, or backreaming to maintain hole stability while making pipe connection. These advantages improve drilling efficiency, and reduce overall cost and negative environmental impact. While applying casing drilling in a field, initially there may be problem in achieving acceptable rate of penetration (ROP), but it has been observed that as the drillers gain experience in an area, the ROP improve, finally matching or surpassing those achieved with conventional drilling. Analysis shows that this technique can reduce the non-productive rig time by as much as 50%, and cut drilling-time 10-35% per well. One –third of this reduction is achieved due to decreased tripping of pipe; the remaining is achieved due to reduced trouble time. Since, its introduction in 1999, this technique has been used to drill more than 500 well intervals (460,000 m). It has proved highly efficient in increasing the production and reducing the trouble time in mature oilfields. Advancement in technology have expanded the use of this technique to for soft and hard formation both offshore and onshore, and even for directional drilling also. With improved directional control it can be also used for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD).


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GEOENGINEERING – A NEW RELIGION FOR RESERVOIR ENGINEER Hemant Gurav, Cairn Energy MIT-Alumnus

“The integration of geological (static framework) with engineering (dynamic performance) data is most crucial for developing better reservoir solutions.”

Geoengineering as defined on Wikipedia involves the deliberate modification of Earth's environment on a large scale "to suit human needs and promote habitability". Typically, the term is used to describe proposals to counter the effects of human-induced climate change. That’s right. Yawn. This article is not another rambling on Climate Change and the morality of actions thereof. I am speaking of Petroleum Geoengineering here which refers to the integration of geology, petrophysics and engineering. Though the discussion on unconventional resources / renewables is a hot topic today, oil will continue to be our most efficient energy source for the foreseeable future. Boiling it down to pure economics, EROEI or the Energy Returned on Energy Invested is the single most important driving factor for our sustained dependence on oil. Exploitation of the highest available EROEI energy resources always takes place first in the society, as these provide the most energy for the least amount of effort. I always try to justify my existence as a petroleum engineer for the future and this, my friends, has been and always will be my most compelling argument for the skeptics and the environmentalists. We must realize sooner or later, and I quote Dake on this, that we have found sufficient oil and the world is awash with it. The challenge facing the industry is the amount of hydrocarbons being left behind. Our only job now is to attain a higher recovery than we have been used to achieving in the past. Again I am not making a case of enhanced oil recovery here. No, I am talking about the integration of geology and engineering which has been neglected by professionals from both disciplines in the past and which is now being looked more into by the industry in order to attain improved recovery. The integration of geological (static framework) with engineering (dynamic performance) data is most crucial for developing better reservoir solutions in the future and today, the industry is moving towards an approach that entails better interaction between these two disciplines for implementing field development plans and getting the most out of the reservoir. Geologists produce detailed geological models which end up being not suitable for simulation purposes for the engineer due to lack of hardware capabilities and time constraints. Engineers then choose to upscale the model, discarding geological detail, to save time and costs wherein crucial information gets lost in translation. But as we now move into a new era of reservoir management, complete integration of geological information is being required to generate accurate flow behavior models. Flow simulations allow production profiles to be modeled and the assessment of the impact of key uncertainties and reservoir management strategies using ‘what if’ scenarios. Hence the synergy between these two disciplines gains more significance. How to integrate these two in the best possible way will be the challenge for the new breed of geoengineers. Today’s petroleum engineering graduates need to develop a holistic perspective and work in teams with geologists and geophysicists. The ability to transfer geological perspectives into optimal engineering solutions presents considerable difficulties and challenges, which engineers of today should revel in solving. In getting the most out of the reservoir, I must say, and I quote Larry Lake on this that – ‘The engineer’s secret weapon is the geologist.’


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MATURE OIL FIELDS

TECHNICAL

Arjun Puri Second Year Considering the present scenario, in the oil and gas industry, with limited resources, this is a challenge for petroleum engineers to use their technical knowledge tailoring with economic standards and to chalk out which benefits us all on global scale. Many such initiatives have been taken up and one of the most prominent is redevelopment of mature oil fields. The world’s average hydrocarbon recovery is 35% for oil and 70% for gas, and the industry targets to achieve 50% for oil and 80% for gas. In order to have such a radical change redevelopment of mature oil fields adds another reason for it to occur. But now one may think of, what actually is a mature oil field? One may say it is a field which has a decreasing reservoir pressure, or those fields which have reached their economic limit after primary and secondary recovery methods. This is a very immense topic in itself, so we can broadly classify it in two categories- well development and reservoir development. Once the maximum number of wells that can be possibly applied are reached then well development practices like recompletion , stimulation treatments , optimization of lift, recompletion are considered , these are part of well development. While the techniques like infill drilling, horizontals, WAG tertiary oil recovery methods and other EOR are included in reservoir development techniques For a reservoir engineer it is very crucial to determine the amount of oil present and more importantly the amount of recoverable oil. This is achieved by coring analysis, well tracer techniques, acquiring field experience and then choosing which EOR can be best suited. The EOR highlighted are those which are applied after massive water injection for pressure maintenance or displacement. It is evaluated for laboratory and field aspects .In case of non fractured formations the tertiary recovery applications are studied at laboratory scale which include immiscible and miscible gas injection, chemical injection etc. While in NFR the mechanism involves matrix fracture interaction due to capillary, mass transfer etc. But in field scale application it is very important to know when is the right time to start the tertiary oil recovery , what strategies need to be followed , what is the ultimate goal is it fast accelerated recovery or higher ultimate recovery. Besides other reservoir management practices can be incorporated, to improve sweep efficiency which is related to WAG ratios besides the tertiary recovery techniques the reservoir management practices include evaluation of remaining reserves, improve volumetric sweep efficiency through the realignment of wells. Other techniques include well placement, infill drilling horizontal wells and optimized waterflooding. The Yibal field in Oman is an excellent example of mature field redevelopment through horizontal wells. After 25 years of production the wells were drilled, and it gave 60% of the total oil production. Other examples include Wilmington field which had got a drastic increase in production after implementation of waterflooding. Basically there cannot be a single universal technique, and it can be concluded that almost all giant field have reached their maturity still have considerable amount of oil. If the right technique is chosen, an optimum combination of fast and high ultimate recovery can be obtained

The Yibal field in Oman is an excellent example of mature field redevelopment through horizontal wells. After 25 years of production the wells were drilled, and it gave 60% of the total oil production.


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MINIMIZING PROPPANT FLOWBACK USING SLICKWATER FRACTURING Vinayak Bankar Final Year

SWF is hydro fracturing method, which uses mainly water with friction reducer as fracturing fluid.

Hydraulic Fracturing is nothing but artificial creation of channels in the reservoir. First hydraulic Fracturing was done at Hugoton gas field in western Kenas, in 1947, using gasoline based napalm gel fracturing fluid. Approx in 1979, ‘guar’ based cross linked fluids were developed, which simultaneously helped to develop Massive Hydraulic Fracturing (MHF). In this method, excess of proppants placed with the help of guar cross linked gel. But the article “We need no proppants” written by Mayerhofer in 1997, put foundation for emerging technology; “Slickwater fracturing (SWF)”. SWF is hydro fracturing method, which uses mainly water with friction reducer as fracturing fluid. In SWF, slicked water has tendency to keep proppants in suspended conditions, when pumping is going on. But, after pump stops, the suspended proppants are getting settled down. When slicked fluid starts flowing back towards wellbore, it carries very few amounts of proppants with it. For same conditions for crosslinked fluids, they carried noticeable amounts of proppants with them. This is happening because very small amount of proppants get settled down. High viscosity fluid has tendency to hold proppants in suspended conditions for long time. Hence to perform particular fracturing job, much excessive proppants required for crosslinked fluid fracturing as compare to that of for slick water fracturing. The primary technical advantage of SWF is it avoids damage in fracture due to no or small filter cake. Another main thing that helps to use SWF is its potential of cost saving. It requires chemicals in very small amounts, which are mainly friction reducer and surfactant and fluids, used for fracturing, can easily recycle. It also provides good fracture conductivity for reservoirs of low permeability, where effective cleaning of fracturing fluid is not possible. Mayerhofer (2006) had proved that Slickwater frac provides more complex fracture geometry than conventional fracturing and in case of shale, higher the area of simulation, more will be production. Slickwater fractures have good fracture containment (Width to length ratio) as that for conventional one. Though pumping width of fracture created by slickwater is less than that of by conventional cross linked fluid, the final propped width of slickwater fracturing is more than that of cross linked fracturing (Vincet 2007). Also, Stim-Lab has shown that the width for SWF is more as compare to that of for conventional, because of deposition of filter cake. The big concern with SWF is low proppant carrying capacity of slickwater due to low viscosity (approx. 10 ppg). To overcome this problem, it is pumped at high rates and latest innovation shows that proppant carrying capacity can also increased by using light weight proppants. This method may create problems in water sensitive formation, where it creates more formation damage due to high leak off. Also, it requires high pumping cost because of high flow rate. Finally in conclusion, due to advantages, which have been described above, now days, more than 30 % HF jobs are carried out using Slickwater fracturing (Palisch). But still, to make it more useful, innovation in this technology is required.


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MR. P K. BORTHAKUR Executive Director, ONGC As Told To Pratik Joshi & Rohini Poptani

It is a misconception that career options for women are limited in this industry.

How did you start off your journey in the oil and gas industry? I never thought that I would land up in this industry. I passed B.E (Mech) from Guwahati University in 1976. Immediately after graduation, I was selected as Graduate Trainee in Oil India Ltd., however I did not join. Later on, one of my professors advised me to try for ONGC. In that year two of my seniors in college were selected as Graduate Trainee in ONGC. Therefore, in a way it may be said that my first and last appointment is in Oil Industry. What are your responsibilities as an offshore manager? My main responsibility is to complete the target which is planned a year in advance. I have to manage the project efficiently. The entire project needs to be fit in the frame of the given budget. The activities need to be carried out in the most scientific way, making sure that no damage is done to the reservoir and offshore environment.

What are the production challenges faced? Bassein & Satellite field is the largest sour gas producing field in India and producing since last 25 years. Maintaining production from such matured old field is of major challenge. Space wise field drainage and reservoir pressure aspects are to be monitored. To arrest declining production rate, new in-fill wells are drilled for uniform drainage and time to time well interventions are done. The hydrocarbon volumes in marginal fields are estimated with the aid of few exploratory well data and with seismic attribute characters, because of smaller field size. Project viability for developments of such fields is made by clustering different adjoining small fields and with reducing platform facilities and other operating costs. However uncertainties with regard to reservoir pool size and well productivity may not be ruled out. The challenge is to exploit the marginal fields economically.


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As an employer, what are the qualities that you look for in a student? I look for three qualities in student – Sincerity, Hard Working & Eagerness to learn. Student must have at least one hobby. Sports should be a part of their life, since sports teaches us to accept defeat gracefully.

Bassein & Satellite field is the largest sour gas producing field in India and producing since last 25 years. Maintaining production from such matured old field is of major challenge.

What are the career options available for women and are they as good as those available for men? It is a misconception that career options for women are limited in this industry. In fact five years back I met large number of women workers in one of offshore platform in Gulf of Mexico. Women are capable of working off shore and I am confident that our women can also work in harsh environment. Can you tell us about one of your memorable experience in the industry? I am passionate about my work, hence everyday here is memorable. One of the marginal fields which we are developing has high H2S content. We were first thinking of mixing it with production from other fields so as to reduce the H2S content. But later on we came up with idea of sweetening it at offshore itself. The technology is very new. To my knowledge there is only one field in the world who has adopted this route in offshore. We also rationalized some systems & facilities and saved about more than hundred million dollar in the project.

How can the students of MIT improve in order to adapt in the best possible way to the oil and gas industry? First and foremost thing is that fundamentals of Engineering must be learnt thoroughly. Parallely the students must be aware of latest technological development in the industry.

How does SPE student chapter Mumbai help students in improving their skills? In SPE, recent technological development is discussed. SPE organizes guest lecturers which help students to acquire knowledge on the technological development in industry. Students can interact with industry people and increase their awareness. SPE website is very powerful knowledge management tool. Can SPE MUMBAI chapter appoint a mentor for each final year student or a group of students of MIT? Yes, surely that is possible; Professors of the college and chapter Representatives can sit together and work it out. Large numbers of people from Oil Industry are interested in guiding the students. But we need to keep in mind is that it is the student who has to visit the mentor. The first move must come from student and not from mentor. Any message that you would like to give to the students of MIT Work hard and be positive. There are a whole lot of opportunities awaiting you. The world is full of opportunities.

ONGC ranks 3rd Oil & Gas Exploration & Production (E&P) Company in the world and 23rd among leading global energy majors as per Platts 250 Global Energy Companies List for the year 2009 ONGC is the only fully–integrated petroleum company in India, operating along the entire hydrocarbon value chain. It holds largest share of hydrocarbon acreages in India and contributes over 79 per cent of Indian’s oil and gas production. The Refining capacity is of about 12 MMTPA. Source: www.ongcindia.com


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‘University is a Wenk place Andrew is the General Manager of Petroleum Operations at that Cairn India, Gurgaon teaches you He previously worked in Esso, Australia. He attained his bachelor’s degree in how to Chemical Engineering from Adelaide University, learn and Australia. not what you need to learn.’ About Mr. Wenk:

“University is a place that teaches you how to learn and not what you need to learn.”

Mr. ANDREW WENK General Manager, Cairn India As Told To Kutbuddin Bhatia

What drew your attention to the petroleum industry? I was studying Chemical Engineering at Adelaide University in Australia. In my third year and fourth year holidays, I had put in applications in few places and I was offered a job in Esso Oil Australia and when I arrived they placed me in the subsurface crew which in other words is called well services in most operating companies. Being a chemical engineer, I knew nothing about it. But it was interesting and I enjoyed working in the platforms. So I thought I should explore this profession. Ten years from now, what do you think will be the situation of the oil and gas industry in India? Seeing how it has changed in the last 15 years, (whether it will ever get there or not) it has to be that the regulations must be revamped to encourage faster investment in exploration, appraisal and development. India’s energy sufficiency is poor (as you know) especially with faster growing economy, increasing population, more number of cars, higher consumption of electricity, etc.

A more mature relationship between the operators and the government should build up where the government feels they can place more trust in the operators. Talking about the students of petroleum engineering in India, how much importance will you give to extra curriculum rather than the syllabus? Personally, I do not believe that the person who tops academically is necessarily the best candidate. It depends on the job and the individual. I rather take people who have a balance in their academic work and other things because that shows a more all round approach to their life and therefore you expect them to continue that in the company. Work hard and make sure you have a balance. What skills in a person do you look forward to while recruiting? I look for people who are prepared to get their hands steady and start building up from ground zero. What you learn in the universities is theoretical and the experience you gain by being on the rig or doing a job in the field keeps you in a


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a good state for doing technical work and to plan that activity in the future. If you don’t understand how to translate those ideas into operations in the field you can’t really execute the best plan. If I am looking for a graduate, I’m looking for people who are willing to get into the field, get their hands dirty and learn the job inside out. To be able to do that effectively, you need to have confidence in yourself and not over confidence because I don’t want to see people tell that they know everything just because they got a really good degree from ISM, MIT, UPES or anywhere else. University is a place that teaches you how to learn and not what you need to learn.

You will learn just as much from other people and their mistakes as you will from your own mistakes.

How you they thinkwill is look important for peopledohow networking and communication skills corporate with the real world. for the petroleum engineering students? Networking is one of the most important things in terms of learning. When you know people from different areas in the industry, different companies because of various meetings, conferences, workshops, etc. you will learn just as much from other people and their mistakes as you will from your own mistakes. What should the Indian petroleum students do to compete with the global counterparts? Make the most of the opportunities you come across as soon as you come out of the university. Learn everything you can. One of the big problems the industry faces are the young people. There is a huge percentage of young people with excellent knowledge but do not have a very good depth in experience with what they are working on. To be in the global market, wealth of experience is important as you progress in your career. Take all your chances and make sure whatever you do, learn it thoroughly and try and get some variety in your early years. If you are working in a big company like ONGC, spend a year in Mumbai High, try and get a transfer to Assam and do different things.

What is your message to the students of MIT? Work hard, play hard and balance your life. Get a good degree and just get out there and be prepared to do whatever it takes to get on. You will be fine and will have a great career ahead of you.

Cairn India is one of the most significant oil and gas exploration and production companies in South Asia. The successes have created a company with more than 1295 employees in India alone, and world class oil reserves in one of the fastestgrowing economies in the world.

Today, Cairn India has operations in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan. The company operates the largest producing oil field in the Indian private sector and has pioneered the use of cutting-edge technology to extend production life. Cairn India sells its oil to four major refineries across India and its gas to both public and private buyers. In Rajasthan, the Mangala field in the RJON-90/1 block is currently producing 100,000 bopd. Cairn India and its JV partner ONGC have set up the Mangala Processing Terminal in Barmer to process the crude from the Rajasthan fields. A continuously heated and insulated pipeline has also been constructed to transport the crude from Barmer to Bhogat in the coast of Gujarat. The pipeline section from Barmer to Salaya is operational and sales have commenced to Essar, RIL and IOC.In India, Cairn has made 40 oil and gas discoveries. Three out of the seven landmark discoveries in India in the last decade have been made by Cairn. In January 2004, Cairn discovered the largest onshore oilfield in India since 1985 – the Mangala field in Rajasthan. To date, 25 discoveries have been made in Rajasthan. courtesy: www.cairnindia.com


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ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM UNCONVENTIONAL RESOURCES

PERSPECTIVE

Chaitanya Padalkar and Aman Arora Final Year According to Oil & Gas Journal, India had approximately 5.6 billion barrels of proven oil reserves as of January 2010, the second-largest amount in the Asia-Pacific region after China. From the graph it can be seen that, India is heavily dependent on imports. With the current world scenario and fluctuations in Crude prices, it is imperative that it starts tapping its own rich unconventional resources. Another important point to be made is, other nations have already developed the resources for these unconventional resources and have the expertise to produce efficiently. 50 years down the line for a developing nation like India, to lag behind a new technology and be again dependent for knowledge from various countries.

Now there are 5 main types of Unconventional resources: CBM (Coal Bed Methane) United States and Canada have been exp loring methane obtained from CBM blocks since the early 1970s and 1980s. India too has paid attention to the exploration of this new resource (now being considered as an economically viable unconventional source of energy) and has initiated several research programs on different aspects of coal bed methane. Due to the high content of Methane present (90-97%), it is mainly used for domestic purposes, power generation & CNG for Vehicles. In India, CBM is initiated by Essar Oil Ltd., whose exploration activities in Damodar block, where proved reserves are in the order of 1 Tcf. It also has 4 new blocks, which have gas in place in the order of 13.74 Tcf. India has huge Gondwana and Tertiary coal deposits distributed in several basins located in peninsular regions (approx 204 billion tons) of coal reserves have been established. The main Gondwana coal basins are rifted intra - cratonic grabens having thick sequence of coal seams, and hold considerable prospects for coal bed methane. CBM extraction also potentially offers the opportunity of earning carbon credits under Clean Development Mechanism of Kyoto Protocol,


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being an environmentally friendly fuel. Coal bed methane will clearly emerge as the one of the viable and clean routes to India's energy security. Oil Shale Shale gas is a very important sector in US and Canada, with various plays like Marcellus shale and Barnett shale being the important ones. Oil shale is similar to shale gas, only oil being present. Oil Shale reserves in India are greater than 15 Billion Tons. North-East India is endowed with rich deposits of coal. The coal is found in the Barail Formation of Tertiary age. Carbonaceous shale occurs interbedded with the coal. Basins of preliminary interest identified by Indian geologists are the Cambay Basin in Gujarat, the Assam-Arakan basin in northeast India, and the Gondwana Basin in central India. OIL India has been the main leader in oil shale, where it has formed various for JVs for understanding the potential of the source in Assam and “India too has Arunachal. Recently Reliance also bought a 40% stake in Atlas Energy’s leasehold in Marcellus shale gas play. paid attention “India has enough oil trapped in shale and coal deposits in Assam and to the Arunachal Pradesh to produce 140 million tons of oil per year for 100 years”, view of C. Ratnam, Former C&MD of OIL. exploration of

this new resource and has initiated several research programs on different aspects of coal bed methane”

Tar Sands Tar sands found in over 70 countries, but three quarters of the world's reserves are in two regions; Venezuela (1.8 trillion bbl) and Alberta, Canada (1.7 trillion bbl). Digging up the tar sands is a dirty, wasteful business. Yet in their desperate scramble to cash in, the provincial government and the oil companies have downplayed the environmental risks. There has been continued talk of various Indian Companies entering this foray, with ONGC investing in Alberta Tar Sands. India’s involvement in tar sands gives its opponents a real headache. It is one thing to argue that America should not be developing this dirty, energy intensive and polluting fuel, as it has the economic capacity to invest in clean alternatives

Gas Hydrates Buried deep along India’s 7,500 km of coastline is a vast fuel reserve that can meet our needs for several centuries. Global reserves of gas hydrates — the ‘fuel’ under reference are estimated to be “twice the known oil and gas reserves of the world”, as said by Mr Harsh K Gupta, Secretary to Indian government’s Department of Ocean Development. Gas Hydrates are a main source of methane gas and used for gas turbines or fuel cells. The main potential locations for hydrates in India include K.G. and Mahanadi Basins in East Coast, Kerala-Konkan basin in the west coast & Andaman offshore. DGH has initiated exploration of Hydrates in Andaman Deep-water areas since 1997. India has also formed National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) to carry out feasibility studies. Considering India’s vast area it has a huge potential for these emerging fields. Unconventional oil production is less efficient and has more environmental impacts than conventional oil production. Oil industries and governments are investing in unconventional oil sources due to the increasing scarcity of conventional oil reserves. With these new fields coming up, many people have taken up an enthusiasm in introducing new innovative ideas. The young students have taken an interest in extraction of these resources, rather than conventional practices. Various companies have also taken up steps to be market leaders in these fields. The future looks bright for India, but we need to catch up very fast!!


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TIGHT RESERVES Anirban Banerjee Second Year

TECHNICAL

As per U.S, tight reserves have been defined as the low porosity reservoirs with a permeability even less than 0.1mD. Tight gas reservoirs were considered to be unproductive sources from economic point of view. But institutes like the GRI (gas research institute) have conducted successful research work over the last 3 decades and have enabled us to think of tight reserves as one of the most promising unconventional gas source for the future. Unfortunately, analysis of tight reservoirs is one of the most difficult problems facing a reservoir engineer. Many tight formations are extremely complex. Because the permeability of these formations is low, many standard formation evaluation techniques do not provide adequate results. The methods used in conventional reserves lose their sensitivity in tight reserves. Tight reserves are not isotropic and we cannot say whether the formation is unilayer or multilayer. Moreover we can’t accurately predict the drainage area and average reservoir pressure of tight reserves. This poses serious problems while calculating the performance and productivity of reservoirs. However some techniques such as hydraulic fracturing and acidizing are widely been used for drilling from tight gas sands(TGS). Hydraulic Fracturing is the most effective method. High pressure fracture fluid such as water is injected into the horizontal wellbore. The high pressure leads to formation of cracks/fractures in the formation. Proppants such as sand are then injected to prevent the fractures from closing up. This increases the volume of the interconnected voids through which the oil/gas can penetrate and reach the wellbore. However this technique is not so viable in offshore wells, because of high monetary investments and other risks involved. Some modifications are suggested such as micro-seismic monitoring campaigns are performed in these low permeability environments to improve the understanding of the induced fracture network. When fracture is developed, it sends out some seismic signals which are captured, monitored and processing are done. The location of the micro event is found out in space and time. Comparing the pressure, slurry rate etc. at that particular location we can find out how the reservoir is treated. Many case studies have been done to facilitate the evolution of unconventional gas reserves. Such as the RISHA gas field in eastern Jordan is a prime example of this. Jordan despite of having no conventional gas resources of its own and relying heavily on its imports are now managing to produce its own fields though unconventional. The Travis peak formation in Canada, the Foukanda basin in Congo serves as the other examples. However the extraction from tight reserves is limited to U.S and few other parts of the world. About 43% of U.S.A s gas production coming from unconventional resources, from which 70% is from tight gas sands. Thus with ever rising prices of natural gas and oil and facing problems of energy depletion in coming years, it’s of prime importance for us to consider tight gas reserves as one of the potential resource.


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SHALE OIL: A CHALLENGING ALTERNATIVE Saket Javeri Final Year The term shale oil comes from oil shale, but oil shale is a misnomer. It is better identified as organic marlstone, marl being a blend of clay and calcium carbonate. An oil shale is a finegrained sedimentary rock containing considerable amounts of kerogen, derived from many organisms, chiefly plants. Significant quantities of oil and combustible gas can be extracted from these by the conventional process of destructive distillation. Although resources of shale oil occur in many countries, only 33 countries posses deposits of known economic value (including India). The largest deposits are found in the United States of America consisting 62% of the world resources. Total world resources (not reserves) of oil shale are estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels. However, petroleum based crude oil is much cheaper to produce than shale oil because of additional costs of mining and extracting.

In India, Shale oil reserves are estimated to be around 100 billion barrels. A difficult terrain, poor infrastructure facilities are the key challenges to the shale processing in the north-east

“Shale oil, for production, must be drilled and blasted – in situ method. If it is to be processed other than the in situ method, the rock must be loaded to the processing plant where it is crushed and then heated” Shale oil, for production, must be drilled and blasted – in situ method. If it is to be processed other than the in situ method, the rock must be loaded to the processing plant where it is crushed and then heated. As stated earlier, the organic material kerogen, to be changed into an oil-like substance has to be heated to approximately 9000F. By this process the organic material is converted into liquid, which must be further processed to produce oil which is better than the lowest grades of oil produced from conventional oil deposits, but of lower quality than the upper grades.

In India, shale oil the potential can be seen in the north-eastern states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh & Nagaland. The reserves are estimated to be around 100 billion barrels. A difficult terrain, poor infrastructure facilities are the key challenges to the shale processing in the north-east. For a nation which imports 75% of its oil needs, shale oil can be considered as an optimistic prospect. In the late 1980s, Oil India Limited and Robertson Research Inc. (UK) had analyzed a large number of rock samples obtained from oil wells, outcrops and coal mines in connection with hydrocarbon exploration in the region. The Rock-Eval yields for the coal and carbonaceous shale indicate prolific hydrocarbon potential for Barail Coals, of the order of 280 kgs of hydrocarbons per ton of rock. The Barail Series oil shale gave a maximum yield of about 80 kg hydrocarbons per ton of rock. This compares favourably with some of the yield values obtained from other oil shale deposits in the world.


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SHALE GAS: COULD IT BE THE NEW ENERGY SOURCE? Shantanu Kumkar, Essar Oil MIT-Alumnus

PERSPECTIVE

Unconventional gas reservoir is a term commonly used to refer to a low permeability reservoir that produces mainly dry natural gas. Many of the low permeability reservoirs that have been developed in the past are sandstone, but significant quantities of gas are also produced from low-permeability carbonates, shales, and coal-bed methane. An unconventional gas reservoir can be deep or shallow; high pressure or low pressure; high temperature or low temperature; blanket or lenticular; homogeneous or naturally fractured; and containing a single layer or multiple layers. Unconventional gas resources include tight gas, coal bed methane (CBM) and gas shale or shale gas. As you go deeper into the resource triangle, the reservoirs are lower grade, which usually means the reservoir permeability is decreasing. These low permeability reservoirs, however, are usually much larger than the higher quality reservoirs. Shale gas and It’s Production Shale formations act as both a source of gas and as its reservoir. Natural gas is stored in shale in three forms: Free gas in rock pores, free gas in natural fractures and Adsorbed gas on organic matter and mineral surfaces. These different storage mechanisms affect the speed and efficiency of gas production. Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are the key enabling technologies that first made recovery of shale gas economically viable with their introduction in the Barnett Shale of Texas during the 1990s. However, a comparison of the currently hottest shale plays makes it clear that, after two decades of development and several iterations of the learning curve, best practices are application-dependent and must evolve locally. Typically, exploitation of a shale play proceeds through three distinct phases: Discovery and planning is the stage during which all of the initial reservoir knowledge is gathered. Extensive analysis including coring establishes the economic viability of the play during this phase, and helps determine the techniques to be used to optimize the development. The effectiveness of planning accomplished in the discovery stage depends largely upon knowledge of the reservoir. Drilling and reservoir evaluation is the operational phase. During this stage, the focus is on application of the planned techniques most efficiently to maximize reservoir contact and lower cost per unit. It is in this stage of development that the issues concerning infrastructure and practical efficiencies are addressed. And this is the present state of several currently hot shale plays.


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Production phase focuses on optimizing reservoir drainage, which in U.S. shale gas plays typically requires stimulation, usually by hydraulic fracturing. The efficiency of these completion operations can have significant impact during the production phase; with proper fracturing and placement of proppants, some shale wells have been producing for decades. Effective, economic hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are the primary enabling technologies behind the recent surge in shale gas production. Long a dream of the petroleum industry, horizontal drilling came into widespread use in the mid-1990s. Horizontal drilling has been an efficient way of removing gas from conventional reservoirs, coal seams, and even from tight gas reservoirs. Now drillers are using it to enhance recovery rates in the ultralow permeability they encounter in shale. Shale gas wells are not hard to drill, but they are difficult to complete. In almost every case, the rock around the wellbore must be hydraulically fractured before the well can produce significant amounts of gas. Fracturing involves isolating sections of the well in the producing zone, and then pumping fluids and proppant down the wellbore through perforations in the casing and out into the shale. Fractures are the key to good production. The more fractures in the shale around the wellbore, the faster the gas will be produced. Because of shale’s extremely low permeability, the best fracture treatments are those that expose as much of the shale as possible to the pressure drop that allows the gas to flow. The natural formation pressure of a large gas shale reservoir will decline only slightly over decades of production. Any pressure drop on individual wells is likely the result of fractures closing up, rather than depletion of the reservoir. The key to good shale gas production over time is having the proper distribution and placement of proppant to keep the fractures open. There are fundamental differences in the production of gas from shale and gas produced from other unconventional sources. Many tight gas sands, for example, yield a tremendous amount of gas for the first few months, but then production declines significantly and often becomes uneconomical after a relatively short time. Shale gas is completely different. Shale gas wells don’t come on as strong as tight gas, but once the production stabilizes, they will produce consistently for 30 years or more. Suppose that new horizontal wells in a typical shale gas play produce 1 million ft3 per day (1 MMcfd). If the operator puts 10 such wells on 1 square mile, that section will produce 10 MMcfd. With an estimated 120 bcf of gas per square mile in the ground, these gas shale reservoirs will be producing gas for a very long time. SHALE GAS & INDIA Companies including Reliance Industries Limited (E&P), RNRL, and Genpact, have expressed interest in exploring for shale gas in India. A complication to shale gas in India is that the government-issued leases for conventional petroleum exploration do not include unconventional sources such as shale gas. India has huge shale deposits across the Gangetic plain, Assam, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and many coastal areas. Basins of preliminary interest identified by Indian geologists are the Cambay Basin in Gujarat, the Assam-Arakan basin in northeast India, and the Gondwana Basin in central India. Initial studies by ONGC on reserve estimation of shale gas in some of the country's sedimentary basins such as Damodar and Cambay basin have revealed a resource potential of about 35 and 90 TCF of gas. India plans to launch shale gas auction in august 2011. The Petroleum and Natural Gas Rules, which govern the oil and gas exploration activity, will be amended prior to the floating of the first round of auction. Shale will be the second unconventional natural gas source in India after coal-bed methane.


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ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION

PERSPECTIVE

The issues facing shale gas are largely those common to all petroleum production activities. They are getting magnified in the Marcellus exploitation regions because of the novelty of such activity in the states of New York and Pennsylvania. The latter was the location of the first oil well in the US. The placement of wells in farming areas raises special challenges, even if the farmers get a new source of substantial revenue. The primary differences between modern shale gas development and conventional natural gas development are the extensive use of horizontal drilling and multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Horizontal drilling allows an area to be developed with substantially fewer wells than would be needed if vertical wells were used. The overall process of horizontal drilling varies little from conventional drilling, with casing and cementing being used to protect fresh and treatable groundwater. The reduced number of wells needed (because of Horizontal Well technology), coupled with multiple wells drilled from a single pad, has significantly reduced surface disturbances and the associated impacts to wildlife and impacts from dust , noise, and traffic. Where shale gas development has intersected with urban and industrial settings, regulators and industry have developed special practices to help reduce community impacts, impacts to sensitive environmental resources, and interference with existing businesses. Hydraulic fracturing has been a key technology in making Shale Gas an affordable addition to the Nation’s energy supply, and the technology has proven to be a safe and effective stimulation technique. Ground water is protected during the shale gas fracturing process by a combination of the casing and cement that is installed when the well is drilled and the thousands of feet of rock between the fracture zone and any fresh or treatable aquifers. The multi-stage hydraulic fracture operations used in horizontal wells may require 3 to 4 million gallons of water. Since it is a relatively new use in these areas, withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing must be balanced with existing water demands. Once the fracture treatment is completed, most of the fracture water comes back to the surface and must be managed in a way that conserves and protects water resources. While challenges continue to exist with water availability and water management, innovative regional solutions are emerging that allow shale gas development to continue while ensuring that the water needs of other users can be met and that surface and ground water quality is protected. An additional consideration in shale gas development is the potential for low levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) to be brought to the surface. While NORM may be encountered in shale gas operations, there is negligible exposure risk for the general public and there are well established regulatory programs that ensure public and worker safety. Although the use of natural gas offers a number of environmental benefits over other fossil energy sources, some air emissions commonly occur during exploration and production activities. ECONOMICS OF SHALE GAS There are fundamental differences in the production of gas from shale and gas produced from other unconventional sources. Many tight gas sands, for example, yield a tremendous amount of gas for the first few months, but then production declines significantly and often becomes uneconomical after a relatively short time. Shale gas is completely different. Shale gas wells don’t come on as strong as tight gas, but once the production stabilizes, they will produce consistently for 30 years or more. Suppose that new horizontal wells in a typical shale gas play produce 1 million ft3 per day (1 MMcfd). If the operator puts 10 such wells on 1 square mile, that section will produce 10 MMcfd. With an estimated 120 bcf of gas per square mile in the ground, these gas shale reservoirs will be producing gas for a very long time. That realization, plus increasingly effective horizontal drilling tools, 3D seismic imaging, and advanced reservoir modeling software, has many people looking at shale gas as an important new resource.


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SHALE GAS: A FUEL FOR INDIA? Nishant Kumar Panigrahi Third Year Entering the new decade India is ambitious to counter the impact of global financial crisis and maintain a high GDP growth rate in the range of 7% to 9% before entering into the double digit percentage level. Fossil oil and natural gas meet 40% of India’s energy needs and about 80% of petroleum products are imported annually to meet the growing demand. Shale gas thus presents itself as a world of opportunity to India. The oil shale reserves in India are estimated in more than 15 billion tons, especially those in the Assam and Arunachal Pradesh deposits, which are likely to produce 140 million tons per year for the next 100 years. This is more than India's entire current oil consumption

“The government should create a productive environment to nurture this highly conducive fuel and should position itself to make shale gas a “game changer” that India so badly desires.”

Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) created an exploration landmark when shale gas flowed from the Barren measure shale near Durgapur. The recent acquisition by BP in the KG basin and the establishment of ExxonMobil India signals the interest of foreign players in India’s burgeoning gas sector. India therefore requires careful planning and review before it sets out for shale gas marketing. Because of its similarity to the current Indian scenario the European Industry can teach us more than the runaway success of the U.S shale gas industry. First and Foremost being the ready availability of gas markets in the U.S. India’s domestic market is evolving but it is nowhere near to the US. US companies are able to sell their gas easily into the system and use the future market to support more intensive programs that require constant re-investment. On the other hand European gas markets are constrained by national boundaries. Many major companies have rushed to buy acreage in the most prospective basins, but exploration activity has really not taken off. The prediction seems that it’ll take another five years before shale gas has an impact on the European market. The Indian government will need to issue policies that make shale gas business lucrative and worth investing. One of the policies would be to allow markets to set the price and deter from setting caps at uneconomic levels. Unlike the US the cost of capital will be higher for Indian operators as much of the funds will have to be invested in creating a proper infrastructure, which ultimately will increase the price of shale gas, and setting caps will defeat the purpose and degrade the attractiveness that shale gas holds. Secondly the government should focus on creating pipeline infrastructure to bring gas to the market, as the operating companies may lack the scope and the scale to establish their own pipeline infrastructure. Moreover understanding of the Indian sub-surface is very limited, as it has not been explored to a great extent. So subsidizing operators who will be exploring these less explored basins, will be a smart move. The government while deciding the policies of NELP-IX should keep the aforementioned points in mind. Large shale gas discoveries should embolden India to convert transport fleets in all cities from petrol and diesel to CNG. That will reduce not only energy dependence but pollution too. By substituting coal and liquid fuels from the automotive, power and industrial sector, shale gas has the potential to help India to achieve a less carbonaceous growth. The government should create a productive environment to nurture this highly conducive fuel and should position itself to make shale gas a “game changer” that India so badly desires


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GAS HYDRATE: IS IT POSSIBLE? Kutbuddin Bhatia and Levin Chacko Final Year

TECHNICAL

The question of 20th century was ‘Food Security’ and India answered it well with ‘Green Revolution’. But, in 21st century the main concern is Energy security and India should answer it with ‘Gas revolution’. With the ever increasing gap between demand and supply of fossil fuels in India the nation is burdened with high import bill. The Annual population of India increases at 2% also the energy use per capita increases at 2% per year. As a result of which the energy consumption increases at 4% per year and doubles every 36 years With no major findings of conventional oil and gas reserves it is high time that we look forward to other alternative resources such as gas hydrates, CBM, tight gas, shale gas, renewable energy resources. Deep below the Indian seabed is an infinite source of energy waiting to be tapped, it’s Gas Hydrate. But, why are they important for India? It’s because of 4 reasonsavailability, efficiency, environment, and cost. India is sitting on prognosticated gas hydrate resources of 1,894 trillion cubic meters, which is over 1,700 times as much as the proven natural gas reserves within the country. If the estimate of prognosticated gas hydrate reserves holds true, the energy source is infinite and can last several years. Nevertheless, the efficiency of gas power technologies is higher than that of other resources. It has also been recognized as a potential eco-friendly energy source of the future as CO2 emissions are minimal. With concern to economics, even high-cost domestic energy is attractive to India if there is total security of energy supply. The amount of distributed organic carbon is highest in gas hydrate than all conventional hydrocarbons. 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000

2000 0 Gas hydrate

Fossil fuel

Soil

Dissolved Land Biota organic matter

Peat

Other

Organic Carbon distribution (1015 g) Gas hydrate is methane gas trapped in a cage of water molecules. They are ice-like crystals that lie 200 to 800 m below the sea bed, at very high pressures and very low temperatures. These have been found in KG basin, North East Coast, Mahanadi and Andaman basin. If mined and brought to atmospheric conditions, they produce 160 times their volume of methane but the technology to mine these hydrates is at its infancy. Now, the question for economic development of hydrate is, ‘Can a commercially viable recovery system be developed?’ If this problem is cracked, the energy resources will become endless.


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Developments in human society are governed by the innovations in the technology. The major technological task in this is to estimate gas hydrate and free gas underlying gas hydrate resources in the Indian deep offshore from seismic data, sampling hydrated sediments in identified areas and to develop technology for their exploitation. The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is the most obvious indicator of gas hydrate. The BSR occurs at the base of the P-T stability field for hydrate. It marks the bottom of the hydrate "ice", and the top of underlying free gas. This will obviously help in the exploration of Hydrates. A second focus will be the technology for gas recovery. Possible techniques presently available include water heating and hydrate depressurization. In water heating, warm or hot water is injected into the hydrate bearing strata causing hydrates to melt and produce methane gas. In depressurization, the hydrates are exposed to a low-pressure environment where they are unstable and decompose into gas and water. Another important element that can be injected in hydrate reservoir is chemical additive such as methanol and glycol that reduce the area of hydrate phase envelope and help in releasing of gas.

“Once we understand the resource, define the reservoir properties and address the production challenges, gas hydrate production is certainly viable and will unquestionably curb the up surging energy demand.�

The new drilling technology, such as horizontal drilling through the reservoir to enlarge the drill hole face area is a promising option that will reduce the risk of seafloor instability. These technologies need to be integrated with technologies for exploitation. Using microwave of high frequency as a source of thermal radiation, it is possible to increase the temperature of hydrate formation zones which will eliminate the disadvantages of heat loss in injection of hot water. Heat necessary for the gas hydrate decomposition may also be obtained directly in hydrate zone by means of exothermic reaction of natural gas oxidation. Two promising processes of natural gas oxidation are the partial catalytic combustion and the partial oxidation to synthesis gas (CO + H2 mixture).

It is worth remembering that many years were required to develop the technology for economic recovery of many other resources; tar sands, CBM are example. Sometimes the answers come very quickly, sometimes only after many years. Gas hydrate is a very large potential energy resource; it just needs economically viable exploitation solutions. Once we understand the resource, define the reservoir properties and address the production challenges, gas hydrate production is certainly viable and will unquestionably curb the up surging energy demand in India.


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Mr. Nirpen Bharali

About Mr. Nirpen Bharali: Nirpen Bharali is the director HR & BD of Oil India Ltd.

HR & BD, Oil India Limited As Told To Susrut B.

He did his schooling from Sainik School, Goalpara, Assam. He then joined the Petroleum Departent of ISM Dhanbad in 1974. After graduation he joined the IOCL (Assam Oil division). He then did his management from IIM, Ahmedabad in 1982. Later he joined Oil India Ltd. as a Production Engineer and headed the department from 2005-2008. Later he became the General Manager of HR & BD department and finally being promoted to director’s position in 2010.

“Opportunities in the industry will be plenty and prepare yourself to grab them all.”

What drew your attention to this field? An incident in late sixties drew me to this field of hydrocarbon exploration and production. I was a young school student at that time and was residing in a hostel. During our summer break I had come to my hometown Jorhat and one evening we saw a very red glow in the eastern sky. Next morning I learnt from the newspapers that there was a blowout from a well in ONGC’s oilfield Rudrasagar located around thirty kilometers away from Jorhat. Along with a friend of mine I went to Rudrasagar to see what was actually happening. It was a disturbing sight with uncontrolled fire, tremendous heat and a chaotic situation everywhere. The next day I went to the district library trying to find some book on the subject. While I did not learn anything much about blowout, I could gather a fair idea about some of the basic oilfield activities. This in fact initially drew my attention to this field I have not regretted my decision at any point of time since then. Can you share with us any memorable incident you have had in the petroleum industry?

There have been a number of interesting and memorable incidents related to my profession in the industry. But the one that has always remained at the top of my mind relates to improvisation of a gas lift technique to overcome an embarrassing situation. Achieving production targets remain a major headache for all operation personnel, especially towards the end of the year. A few years back, when I was heading the crude oil production group we were falling short of our target and there was considerable pressure on all the group members to ramp up production. As luck would have it, a major producer suddenly ceased, making the situation even worse. We knew that the well could be brought back with artificial lift assistance, but we did not have a workover rig readily available to undertake a re-completion job. In one of our brainstorming sessions we decided that instead of completing the well with a set of gas lift valves, we would puncture the tubing at a precalculated depth with a through tubing


39 | P a g e perforating gun with minimal charges. The decision was arrived at after a lot of debates and while there were views in favour and against, as the leader of the group I decided to go ahead. Fortunately for us, once the hole was punctured and gas injected, the well came back and in twenty four hours’ time the production rate was more than double the earlier rate, which itself was significant. We all jokingly named this technique as “Poor man’s gas lift”. More importantly, we were also subsequently able to surpass the annual production target. As I understand we continue to use this technique even now once in a while.

I would rather pick a person who is strong on concepts, has good aptitude and a positive attitude towards life.

What skills/inputs you look for in a new recruit during a job interview? It is really difficult to judge the actual calibre of an interviewee within the short span of a job interview. Personally speaking I do not lay much emphasis on the depth of the subject because such knowledge can always be gathered during the professional life. I would rather pick a person who is strong on concepts, has good aptitude and a positive attitude towards life. How important is networking and good communication skills in this industry? Networking within and also outside the industry is a strong point for any professional. It helps one to remain updated on different fronts and comes very handy in hours of need. With things changing so fast and professional issues being common to a large extent, sharing and learning from each other can play a major role in handling difficult situations. It is good to have adequate communication skills, but again it is profession specific. For a person in a marketing or sales job, it is perhaps one of the most important requirements, but for someone working in the field of R&D it may not be that important. Overall, a person with good communication skill definitely has an advantage in life.

What is your message to the students of Petroleum Engineering in the MIT? Learn your basics right to become a good professional. Be honest in all you do. Opportunities in the industry will be plenty and prepare yourself to grab them all. May God bless you all!

From the discovery of crude oil in the far east of India at Digboi, Assam in 1889 to its present status as a fully integrated upstream petroleum company, OIL has come far, crossing many milestones OIL has over 1 lakh sq km of PEL/ML areas for its exploration and production activities, most of it in the Indian North East, which accounts for its entire crude oil production and majority of gas production. Rajasthan is the other producing area of OIL, contributing 10 per cent of its total gas production. Additionally, OIL’s exploration activities are spread over onshore areas of Ganga Valley and Mahanadi. OIL also has participating interest in NELP exploration blocks in Mahanadi Offshore, Mumbai Deepwater, Krishna Godavari Deepwater, etc. as well as various overseas projects in Libya, Gabon, Iran, Nigeria and Sudan. In a recent CRISIL-India Today survey, OIL was adjudged as one of the five best major PSUs and one of three best energy sector PSUs in the country. Courtesy: www.oil-india.com


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SOARING HIGH: THE BLACK-GOLD PRICE Raksha Motiwala, Reliance Petroleum MIT-Alumnus Oil prices play an important role in determining the global economic performance. Inflation, trade deficit, unemployment, fluctuation in the exchange rate are all governed by the oil prices. It can be said that the Face of Economy is mainly governed by the Oil Price fluctuations.

TECHNICAL

Factors affecting oil prices:  Commodity traders affect the oil price by bidding on oil futures. The traders predict the future of the oil based on the projected supply & demand & determine the oil price. Traders bid on the price of the oil by analyzing what the oil will trade at. These prices are fluctuating daily.  Oil prices are also affected by the current supply of oil in terms of output, especially the production quota decided by OPEC.  Increased Oil demand during summer in countries particularly the US.  The US uses 20% of the world oil. European Union uses 15% of the world’s oil. Increased demand from India & China and decreased supply by Iraq & Nigeria would create so much demand for oil that it would overtake supply, driving up prices.  World crisis in oil producing countries (like the Middle Eastern Countries) is another reason for fluctuations and hike of oil prices.  The fall in real estate & global stock markets leads to a speculative oil bubble caused by investing into oil futures. Hence the oil prices and prices of all other linked commodities go up.


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The OPEC organization formed by 12 major oil producing countries produces about 46% i.e. almost half of the world’s oil. This was formed to regulate the supply and the price of oil. OPEC concluded that if they competed with each other the oil price would be so low that they would run out very soon as they had a non-renewable resource. Prices are decided by OPEC who got together to avoid competition with aim to keep oil price as high as 70$ to give incentive to countries to drill more oil wells which are too expensive to be opened if oil price is low. Another reason for high oil prices is the declining dollar as oil is denominated in dollars. The decline in the dollar in the last few years by 40% has put an upward pressure on oil price. Effects of high oil price:  Increase in oil price results in the Increase in prices of other linked commodities like transportation, electricity, gasoline, industrial products, food items etc. Hence an increase in oil price results in inflation.

 High oil prices result in High price of gasoline. Crude oil account for 55% of the price of Gasoline. Remaining 45% are the distribution and taxes. Usually, distribution and taxes are stable; the change in the price of gasoline reflects oil price fluctuations.  The High oil prices might also contribute to trade deficit of the country as many countries import petroleum related products like crude oil, natural gas, fuel oil etc.  Depending on what the traders predict they can bid up the oil prices. This can result in high oil prices even when there is plenty of supply on hand. If this happens other investors will also bid on oil prices which might lead to creation of an oil bubble.  The high oil prices along with high wage pressure leads to unemployment. Control Measures to Oil Prices:       

Reduce the usage of oil. This can be done by driving less. Building more fuel efficient cars is necessary. Using alternative fuel vehicles or using public transport would be helpful. Develop cellulosic ethanol & farmer owned bio-fuel refineries. Renewable fuels should be developed for the fuel supply. Invest in vehicle advanced technology like light weight engines. All new buildings should be carbon neutral & energy efficient.

The fears of OPEC supply cut, political crisis in the oil producing countries and tight crude stocks have been responsible for driving up the crude oil & products price. The economic consequences on the oil importing countries would be bad leading to budget deficit problems threatening the economy. Hence it can be said that the consequence of high oil price is a major threat to the economy.


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PEAK OIL: FACT OR MYTH Aman Arora and Chaitanya Padalkar Final Year

PERSPECTIVE

Fact or myth, the idea of peak oil, has plagued many; governments and industry alike. The easiest definition of peak oil is the point in time when the maximum global production rate is reached, after which the combined production rate enters a terminal decline. There is little argument about the fact that the gross reserves of fossils are enough to last at least the next 100 years. But the concern is not the reserves of oil but its production. Since, spurge in the growth rate of many large undeveloped nations which make up about 1/3rd of the world’s population, oil production is struggled to

keep up the increasing demand for oil. And it is only a matter of time before the demand overtakes the supply of oil. There have been numerous predictions of the timing of peak oil, starting from the 1960s by M. King Hubbert to 2030 by the IEA. There is no doubt that the oil production will peak, it is a question of when? According to the study on the largest 811 oil fields by Canadian Energy Research Association (CERA) the average rate of decline is 4.5%. As many of the mature American and Middle Eastern Oilfields peak, there is a growing anxiety over supply of oil. A look into the peaking of oil raises the following issues. The first cause for concern is the dwindling number of discoveries. New discoveries are smaller and far in between as well as spread over a wide geographical coverage. As the discoveries are smaller, the development is slower and more difficult as economics come into play prominently. As the risks are higher, so are the expertise and the caution involved in the development of these fields. Smaller and marginal fields may serve to satisfy the need for oil but are unprofitable for large multinationals, and eventually the national oil companies that are active in the development of these fields bow under the burden of subsidized oil rates. The fluctuation in oil prices has also caused a delay in the development of close to 30% of the new fields in development phase. The second concern is over the failure of enhanced oil recovery process to deliver on their promises. Apart from water flooding, hardly any EOR technique has shown technological and economical viability of large scale. As fields mature, as the production declines and the operational costs of many artificial and pressure


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maintenance practices rises, thus the desperation for newer and fresher techniques of production enhancing techniques (EOR) increases. Many experts instead are now calling EOR as the ‘kiss of death’ with regards to low returns for the huge amounts invested in R&D in EOR. With the current average recovery rate about 40% the industry still waits for a miracle to boost the recovery factor. The third concern is the overestimation of reserves. It is estimated that over 300-400 billon barrels of worlds estimated 1200-1300 billion barrels are overestimated. Many claim that the US encouraged watch agencies and multinationals to manipulate depletion rates and future reserves data “It is pretty to maintain low prices. Over estimation not only compounds the problem of looking to meeting growing demand for oil but also sets clear that there back the expected recovery and the associated production schedule. Over estimation of reserves means oil will peak sooner and is not much consequently the decline rate will be higher than expected. This is the chance of most logical reason for the differences in the estimated time of peak oil by energy agencies and large oil companies, who put this peak to have finding any occurred in 2006.

significant quantity of new cheap oil. Any new or unconventional oil is going to be expensive”

Another concern is the not so new concept of energy security. As the developed countries look to garner more and more oil to maintain their high standards per capita consumption, developing countries aggressive acquire extra stakes in oil assets to maintain their high growth and development rate. This has turned new exploration grounds into a battle field of national oil companies and multinationals. The result at the same time has been a never seen before level of cooperation by oil companies in the form of cross-staking and more inclusive JVs.

As the situation becomes graver, there is little doubt that the prices will continue to touch higher benchmarks. But caution must be practiced. As exploration and development costs escalate they will contribute to increase in prices. Lord Ron Oxburgh, a former chairman of Shell is quoted, “It is pretty clear that there is not much chance of finding any significant quantity of new cheap oil. Any new or unconventional oil is going to be expensive”. However, the high oil prices are only justified if the efforts in new ventures are corresponding. The world economic agencies and governments must curb artificial hike in prices due to speculation and politically motivated practices. This will ensure that affordable oil is available during the transition period. The industry needs to begin remedial practices as soon as possible if it hopes to survive the impending oil crunch, which experts are calling the most likely cause of the next world war. It needs reassess its priorities, and put more effort into the exploration in the frontier basins. Though the existence and discovery of remaining fields is a factor of perseverance and to major extent luck, the development of existing reserves is possible. Redevelopment of mature fields, renewed effort into R&D of a broader spectrum of EOR techniques and efficient reservoir management can provide half the solution. At the same time, the industry must evolve and critically examine the idea of evolving from oil and gas to energy industry, with focus on unconventional, a gas-centric industry to a foray in the renewables.


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DECONTROL OF OIL PRICES Vishal Agarwal Third Year

PERSPECTIVE

“From tomorrow petrol or diesel prices are going to be hiked… gas cylinders are going to be more expensive… kerosene rates will be raised…etc”. All such statements will become more commonplace in the coming years as our government has deregulated the oil and gas prices. Though it sounds harsh and will have an impact on the common man’s budget, it might be a blessing in disguise for our burgeoning economy. If we see the price mechanism of developed countries such as US, oil prices change according to the market. The Indian government’s controversial decision of decontrolling oil prices has provoked the whole country and opposition to oppose the move, but if we try to analyze it carefully, it is a feasible long term option. Government strives to manage the country’s assets and revenues generated belong to every individual of the nation. Providing subsidy in any manner to one particular sector, industry or section of the society will burden rest of the nation. In international market petrol and diesel prices are almost the same, while in some European countries diesel is more expensive than petrol. Contrast to this, in India the diesel is less expensive than petrol. The idea behind this is that diesel is extensively used by remote areas farmers, commodity transport and goods movement. This ideology of keeping the diesel prices less than petrol has resulted in more number of diesel cars and automobiles not only in rural areas but more in urban developments. Companies have diverted their interest to produce more diesel utilities. Now, though diesel seems to be more attractive, this does not imply in case of environment. Diesel utilities have been found to be polluting the atmosphere more rapidly because of its excessive emissions. Environment is a growing cause for concern, and methods to curb pollution and expenditure on health related problems are becoming increasing. This reduces the efficiency, productivity and affects the economy.

Allowing some kind of subsidy on any cause leads to higher payback in terms of taxes and various duties, because in this process we lose our national treasure and to compensate this each year a new but tricky tax policy has to be implemented. Fiscal deficit and inflation are the main evils faced by the nation due to allowances of different subsidies. Directly or indirectly


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we are unknown to many taxes and returns which we have to pay to the government. There is a term in economics known as hidden or indirect tax which is an outcome of inflation. It means we are paying taxes to the government by buying different materials and by other transactions which has become expensive due to inflation. A simple review of Indian automobile population can explain this more clearly. The luxury cars and other private automobiles purchased by higher or middle class of the country notwithstanding, the rest of the population mainly uses the public transport system. Our nation is composed mainly by lower class population with most of them below poverty line, and the subsidy which was meant for the poorer class is enjoyed more by the other classes. Moreover, lower section of the society has to pay taxes and revenues for the things and services they do not enjoy. As If OMC (oil subsidy is increased, inflation rises up resulting in more paybacks by all sections marketing of the society. So, as a whole in a cyclic way each have to cut into their companies) are pockets more. allowed to set If OMC (oil marketing companies) are allowed to set prices according to the prices according international market but with some fixed constraints and guidelines in to the synchronization with the existing policies, our national locker will be international restrained to a larger extent. Though it sounds more unfriendly to the public market but with sector decontrol will be more helpful in the long term. When companies are some fixed working completely under several restrictions of the administration then any constraints and kind of loss to the companies also becomes the responsibility of the guidelines in government and so it have to take steps to compensate these losses which is synchronization mainly done by subsidies and any urgent blind policies in favor of the companies. Other planning sectors will also be addressed more effectively with the existing which could not be done when energy fulfillment of all the classes (here oil policies, our part is the concern) becomes paramount. Allowing companies to fix the oil national locker prices will create obsession of saving their bucks and indirectly lead to new will be inventories. In this process pollution and harmful effects due to wastage and restrained to a more emissions will reduce successively. larger extent

Huge subsidies lead to a careless handling of the resources which may be minimized. When people know that they are the only payers for what they are purchasing they become more conscious unlike in the case of subsidy. More new technologies will be promoted with more efficient utilization also, stressing on environment friendly uses. This reforms the intellectual capability of the citizens, which nation as a whole benefits by it and is seen by less and effective expenditure in our budget. Imports and the pressure on our economy due to energy requirements will find better solutions. All round development with more infrastructural sophistication is only possible when our economy is given a chance to concentrate equally on all sectors rather than obsessing with one.


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OPEC’s FIFTY YEARS A SUCCESS IN ITSELF

PERSPECTIVE

Nakul Khandelwal and Nishant Panigrahi Third Year The cartel of Oil Producing and Exporting countries commonly known as OPEC marked its 50 th anniversary in September 2010 amidst rife speculations over its impact on the oil market. OPEC was set up in Baghdad in September 1960 by five oil producing countries Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela- Joined together to safeguard the interests of the oil producing countries and to ensure order and stability in the international oil market. Although OPEC had a humble beginning, it had its fair share success and controversies. The greatest of which was OPEC’s participation in 1973 oil embargo. They also went to show how much of an effect the Middle East could have on life in the United States. But too much of it has already been said on the topic and fingers pointed in both the directions. In its 50th anniversary we shall not delve into its past and try and look forward to the glorious future it holds. OPEC currently consists of twelve members who include Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Venezuela, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, Angola, Libya and Qatar. OPEC members produce about 40 per cent of the world's oil. The group meanwhile possesses about 60 per cent of the world's proven crude oil reserves. OPEC has now approved a new Long-Term Strategy; its first in 5 years in which they have agreed to hold its production steady, leaving output quotas unchanged since December 2008. The Libyan turmoil notwithstanding, currently oil is being traded at $70-$80 per barrel, a comfortable price which even OPEC deems fit. However the market was hugely different during the last financial crisis. During the latest recession, OPEC showed great resolution in agreeing a record output cut and then ensuring unprecedented level of output discipline. That helped to drive the price back up from a low of $32.40 in December 2008 to the roughly $70$80 price range. The limits of its influence tend to get highlighted during recession. But OPEC played an exemplary role to stabilize the crude prices. In 1986 it took OPEC 18 years to revive price, but only a few months during the 2009 recession. OPEC’s role in the Oil market is curtailed by any growth in non-OPEC production. In the near future, non-OPEC production is expected to grow, major contribution of which will be by Russia and the ramped up production from the North Sea, which in turn will reduce demand for OPEC crude, but over the longer term, forecasters anticipate OPEC’s share of the market will increase. Challenges will also arise as the world looks more to natural gas and alternative fuels for energy. But liquid hydrocarbons will still play a major role in energy supply for years to come, and OPEC member countries hold three-quarters of the globe's reserves. Ian Skeet, a former Shell executive and author of a book on OPEC's first 25 years, said about the future oil market then what is likely true today: "What can be said is that the international oil trade will continue, that the main supplier of that trade will be the countries which today form OPEC, and that Saudi Arabia will remain the single most important influence on oil price."


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THE LIBYAN OIL TURMOIL Raktim Borpatragohain Third Year The 12th largest petroleum exporter and a member of OPEC (organization of petroleum exporter countries) - LIBYA is facing a crisis and this is a crucial period in the timeline of oil history. Libya accounts for about 2 per cent of the world’s crude production, averaging about 1.6-million barrels of oil per day. It pumped 1.58 million barrels of oil and about 100,000 barrels of natural gas liquids per day in January 2011, according to the International Energy Agency. But, nobody knew that a small civil protest led by Fathi Terbil with 200 protesters to end the dictatorship of Muammar al-Gaddafi would lead to a big civil war and unrest in the country which would eventually affect the world oil export and lead to a huge rise in oil prices.

Libya’s oil production has been roughly chopped in half to about 800,000 barrels per day. Labor is a key problem, with workers fleeing the country and ships not coming to collect its products. Prices around the world have rallied due to Libya’s infighting, with West Texas Intermediate crude closing a $100.59 and Brent Crude at $113.81, although it has retreated a bit when it hovered near $120 per barrel. The price of oil is rising not only because of Libyan protests, but out of fear that the turmoil will spread in the Middle East, which fulfils a huge slice of global demand. Europe receives 85 per cent of Libya’s crude and natural gas liquids exports, and another 13 per cent heads east of Suez, according to the IEA. Libyan oil and natural gas liquids made up 23.3 per cent of Ireland’s imports in 2010, 22 per cent of Italy’s imports, and 21.2 per cent of Austria’s imports. Libya also fulfilled 3 per cent of Chinese crude imports in 2010. But the unrest lead to closing of oil production in Libya as there is no workforce to work and no ships to export their products which lead to a scarcity of oil in the world and their prices rose to a maximum in the last 2.5 years. As is known, crisis of Libya is increasingly out of control now; the country’s civil war would destroy Libya’s oil wealth. The massive oil terminal at Brega, the country’s second largest hydrocarbon complex was strangely deserted since the crisis began on Feb. 15, the facility has had to scale back production dramatically from 90,000 barrels of crude a day to just 11,000 barrels. The huge spherical storage containers and reservoirs at Brega which holds natural gas and crude oil; that were never filled up to the brim earlier are now filling up rapidly with no ships to cart away their valuable contents. Libya's uprising came to the Brega complex on Feb. 20 when inhabitants of the nearby village appeared at the gates and said the complex was now with the revolution. Many of Brega's 600 foreign workers — mostly from Britain and other European countries have already evacuated. Although Saudi Arabia is compensating the present oil requirement, but this wouldn’t last for long as the demand is constantly increasing. Thus, we can say that the world oil economy is at stake now.


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EVERYTHING IS FAIR FOR BLACK GOLD Sadaf Chisti Final Year

PERSPECTIVE

Oil and politics will always go together for a simple reason, since oil has become an indispensable commodity without which the world would not function, countries that produce oil have learned how to use it as a weapon. And who says weapons, says politics. The United States recognized early on the importance of the politics of oil and the important role oil would play in modern post-World War II geopolitics. It soon became evident that in the industrialized era, oil would replace coal as the main source of energy and as the coalmining towns of Newcastle and West Virginia began to die, a new mirage began to rise in the deserts of Arabia. The U.S.’s keen interest in oil politics surfaced around the close of WWII, when on Feb. 15, 1945, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt flew to Egypt to meet with Saudi Arabia’s King Abdulaziz-Ibn Saud. The meeting between Roosevelt and King Saud was a major landmark in contemporary history of oil as it opened the chapter of oil-politics when the American president promised the Saudi king to protect his oil fields in return for preferential treatment. Just weeks earlier the United States had thwarted a final German attempt to make one last thrust through Allied lines at Bastogne. Had the Germans been successful they would have been able to link their forces in the Ardennes with the Belgian port. This gave them access to an un-interrupted flow of oil, essential to keep the tanks moving forward. As it turned out later, the Germans had lost the Battle of the Bulge because their tanks had run out of gas. Roosevelt immediately recognized the strategic importance of oil. Had the Nazi’s won the Battle of the Bulge, World War II would have been prolonged long enough to allow German scientists to finalize the V2 rocket and as they hoped, produce the first atomic bomb, giving them an ultimate victory. In essence the reason the Germans lost the war was the shortage of oil. Later, the usage of oil as a political weapon became evident during the 1973 ArabIsraeli conflict that became known as ‘The October War’ in the Arab world and the “Yom Kippur War” in Israel.In order to punish the west, Arab oil producing countries such as Saudi Arabia and the Gulf agreed to reduce their output. Naturally, less oil on the market meant higher fuel prices at the pump. The price of oil had quadrupled to nearly US$12 per barrel by 1974. This increase in the price of oil had a dramatic effect on oil exporting nations. The countries of the Middle East who had long been dominated by the industrial powers were seen to have gained total control of a vital commodity. The traditional flow of capital reversed as the oil exporting nations accumulated vast wealth. Some of the income was dispensed in the form of aid to other underdeveloped nations whose economies had been caught between higher prices of oil and lower prices for their own export commodities and raw materials in the course of shrinking Western demand for


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their goods. Much was absorbed in arms purchases that exacerbated political tensions, particularly in the Middle East. The Arab oil embargo forced western governments to enact strict measures in order to safeguard oil reserves and make them less dependent on the middle-east. In the long run, the tactics used by the oil producers backfired them. The 1973 Arab oil embargo initiative was a public relations disaster. With the oil embargo in place, the industrial governments of the world in some way altered their foreign policy regarding the Arab-Israeli conflict. Furthermore, given that they were producing, exporting and selling less gas, the oil producers lost billions of dollars in potential revenues later on. .

“The energy crisis led to led to greater interest in renewable energy and spurred research in solar power and wind power�

However the 1973 oil embargo did accomplish to demonstrate the potential oil had as a weapon. The outcome changed much in the modern history of oil and politics. The embargo forced the west to become less dependent on Arab oil. American and international oil companies began looking for oil elsewhere. The energy crisis led to greater interest in renewable energy and spurred research in solar power and wind power. It also led to greater pressure to exploit North American oil sources, and increased the West's dependence on coal and nuclear power There were alternatives to Arab oil for example from Norwegian waters or off the English coast or the Canadian oil and other previously untapped oil fields. The outcome was two-fold. First, European and American dependence on Arab oil lessened and second, it gave the new producers additional revenues as oil prices continued to climb. Oil prices shot up because erecting platforms in the inclement weather of the North Sea or extraction of oil from the sands of Canada was far more expensive then Arab oil.

Since then there were other wars that were fought over oil. The United States went to war in 1990/91 against Saddam Hussein to liberate Kuwait from Iraq. This Gulf War was often named the mother of all wars. United States involvement in the war clearly proves their connection to the oil politics. Even current events such as Afghan war and Iraq war, wherein it has helped USA establish military bases all over Arab countries. There is no proven justification or the need of the war hence opposing the UN and many other countries. Also the recent interventions of USA in Iran’s affairs can easily link their interest in oil.


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About Mr. Borpatragohohain: Mr.Bhupen Borpatragohain apart from being the Managing Director of Assam Gas Company Limited is also looking after the DNP limited as Director and overall incharge of the company. DNP Limited is also a Govt. of Assam undertaking and a joint Venture Project of Assam Gas Company Limited, Oil India Limited and Numaligarh Refinery Limited. He did his schooling from Moran HS school, Dibrugarh. He then completed B.Sc with Hons in Chemistry. Later on he obtained his bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from Jorhat Engineering College, Assam in 1982.

I endeavored to be a part of a team that could contribute directly to the nation’s growth.

MR. BHUPEN BORPATRAGOHAIN Managing Director, Assam Gas Company Ltd

What drew your attention to this field? Oil and gas sector has a Ready Market. India is deficient in production of Oil and gas and as a technocrat; I endeavored to be a part of a team that would contribute directly to the nation’s growth. A significant quantity of associated gas was flared at Upper Assam oil fields since discovery of Oil in Naharkatia oil fields in early 60s. I wanted to work for fruitful utilization of this natural resource. Can you share with us any memorable experience you have had in the petroleum industry? There are many of them. However, one which often would come to my mind was the bomb blast plotted by a terrorist group in the gas trunk pipelines of Assam Gas Company Ltd. in a single day (within 2/3 hours) in the year 2005. In those days, I was heading the Technical Services of Company and mobilized all resources at my disposal to control the damages and resume the gas supply within the next 72 hours.

Where do you see the gas industry in India 10 years from now and how much is the scope for nonconventional energy resources in India? Gas industry will play a vital role in energy security for India. Some significant developments are: i) Import of LNG ii) Import of natural gas from middleeast through pipeline. iii) Piped natural gas to a number of cities in India. iv) CNG vehicles in a number of cities in India where piped gas is available. v) Significant amount of new finds of gas by private players in KG basin. vi) Trunk gas pipeline network being constructed by GAIL and Reliance Industries Limited to cover entire India. Non conventional energy has great potential in India particularly in solar and wind energy. India’s large coastline can be a major source for wind energy.


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What skills/inputs do you look for in a new recruit during a job interview? After completion of 4 years bachelors’ degree, we don’t expect him to know everything but he should have a sound fundamental background of his profession. His affinity towards work and interpersonal skills also matters a lot. Is there a saturation of petroleum engineering graduates in Indian oil industry? There is actually a shortage. A major portion of the country’s oil reserves remains unexplored particularly in small and marginal fields. Future of the oil industry may be in successful exploration of shallow water, river basins, sea beds and reserves of North Eastern part of India.

Dedication, devotion and determination are the key functions of any success.

Your message to the students of MIT… Key for success in life is hard work; there is no short cut to success. Dedication, devotion and determination are the key functions of any success. Students will have to broaden the knowledge base and gather experience in the core areas of the discipline. I would encourage the students to keep the nation’s interest always in mind and not to change to fields like software or administrative service because you should be focused on the basic objective. Nation makes progress, when petroleum engineers are successful in their objective. Discovery of new oil fields will open avenues to thousands of jobs for other discipline.

Assam Gas Company Ltd., a Govt. of Assam undertaking and an ISO 9001 :2000 company, was established on March 31,1962 in Shillong as a private limited wholly owned by the Government of Assam to carry out all kinds of business related to natural gas in India. It has its present headquarters in the oil town of Duliajan in the district of Dibrugarh, Assam, India. The Company entered into the gas transmission business in the year 1965 and stands today as one of the premier companies in India to be in the Natural gas transmission and distribution business. Since its foray in the Gas transmission business for the last 36 years, the company has been continuously working towards marketing natural gas as a product for different market segments. Today natural gas is the most sought after fuel and raw material in the Petrochemicals, Fertiliser, Power, Tea, Commercial and Domestic sectors. The Company is also in the process of taking advantage of the changing environment by exploring avenues to have business ties with other companies. Study for the growth in gas transmission business by way of laying pipelines, supplying gas to consumers from various sources spread over north eastern India has been taken up. The Company has already drawn up a programme 'Vision 2010'. (Courtesy:www.assamgas.org)


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PROSPECTS FOR TOMORROW’s PETROLEUM ENGINEER Prof. Rahul Marathe Senior Lecturer "The field is in dire, dire need of people," says Mr. R. K. Vij (ONGC, Ahmedabad), "The workers are graying and a large fraction of current employees is retiring in the near future. So, the industry is desperate to hire new talent."

PERSPECTIVE

Oil keeps the world running, and petroleum engineers are the ones in charge of making sure that there's enough oil produced to go around. For those who want to play an important role in making the world run, there did seem to be some doubt creeping into their minds about future prospects and career, due to the recent instability of oil prices and current job scenario in the industry. The oil and natural gas that the world consumes today was much easier to find and bring to market than future supplies will be. The new oil and gas supplies of tomorrow will come from technologically challenging and capital intensive projects in deep marine environments offshore, ecologically sensitive onshore areas, and even in extreme climate conditions. Also there are big challenges in unconventional hydrocarbons like gas hydrate reservoirs, heavy oil, shale gas, tight reservoirs etc. These projects will require a large, well educated work force at the time when many people currently working in the oil industry are reaching retirement age. The big players in the industry have aggressive plans for expansion in the near future. Referring the recent news, the oil giant ONGC announced the first shale gas discovery near Durgapur, and was a member of international consortium for commercial production of gas hydrate in Canada. This kind of commitments will not only require billions of investment dollars, but also many trained professionals in all phases of petroleum employment, including petroleum engineers, and petroleum geologists. As industrial experts believe that sooner the clouds of recession and recent oil price crisis will shade off and immediately the new oil rush will begin. It is also important to note that the industry is very much moving towards alternative energy sources, especially Geothermal Energy and In-situ leaching of uranium. Geothermal Energy Geothermal development, a natural extension of oil and gas development activities, is attracting both new petroleum engineering graduates and established petroleum engineers in increasing numbers. The geothermal industry has tremendous potential for growth, and will make a significant contribution to worldwide energy supplies. The rapid growth of geothermal activity in USA has created a strong demand for talented engineers and, particularly, petroleum engineers since their education and training are ideally suited to geothermal development. The major areas of challenge in geothermal industry are- Stimulation and Reservoir Engineering of Geothermal Resources, Drilling of geothermal wells, production mechanisms for recovery of heat, well testing etc. The geothermal industry is now attracting higher quality petroleum graduates at starting salaries comparable with oil and gas.


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Indian geothermal provinces have the capacity to produce 10,600 MW of power- a figure which is five times greater than the combined power being produced from non-conventional energy sources. Several geothermal provinces in India characterized by high heat flow (78468 mW/m2) and thermal gradients (47-100o C/km) discharge about 400 thermal springs.

“This kind of commitments will not only require billions of investment dollars, but also many trained professionals in all phases of petroleum employment, including petroleum engineers, and petroleum geologists�

One-time investment and low maintenance cost, low area requirement, and incentives given by the Govt. for non-conventional energy sector is attracting many industries towards geothermal energy in India. In-situ leaching of uranium In-situ leaching (ISL), is a mining process used to recover uranium through boreholes drilled into a deposit. The process initially involves drilling of holes into the ore deposit. Explosive or hydraulic fracturing may be used to create open pathways in the deposit for solution to penetrate. Leaching solution is pumped into the deposit where it makes contact with the ore. Actually the petroleum engineering curriculum is among the broader-based ones in all of engineering. SPE defined all sources of energy produced from wells as falling legitimately within the field of petroleum engineering. But the impact of this broader definition of petroleum engineering on the undergraduate curriculum is minimal. It is important that petroleum engineers have to establish early that energy, not just oil and gas, is going to be our emphasis in the future.


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LIFE OF PETROLEUM ENGINEER Stefy Thomas Third Year DISCOVERING NEW OIL AND GAS

PERSPECTIVE

Investigating possible new sources of oil and gas is an essential part of petroleum engineering which may take several months to assess for further approval of work. Petroleum engineers consider all kinds of environments-- jungles and deserts, ocean floors and mountains. Once petroleum engineers identify new drilling sites, they plan how the drilling will be handled. Working with geologists and other specialists, engineers consider the type of rock to be bored through, the optimal number of wells for the site and other matters. IMPROVING OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION Petroleum engineers spend their days and time not just searching for oil and gas but improving the machines and techniques used to extract them. They want to increase production from each location, decreasing the amount of oil and gas that is left behind, and thereby increasing efficiency and profits. They use a number of computer softwares to simulate the volume of raw materials a particular site will yield and predict the pace of extraction which takes a considerable amount of time and energy. WORK ENVIRONMENTS AND TRAINING Depending on their employers and particular positions, petroleum engineers may spend their days in quiet urban offices, creating simulations at a computer, or in the fields of faraway countries where new oil and gas reserves have just been discovered. They bring to their work a solid background in their field, with undergraduate coursework in geology, reservoir analysis, well drilling, petroleum production and other relevant subjects, according to the Society of Petroleum Engineers. It takes a lot of hard work and strength to work as a petroleum engineer EARNINGS AND JOB OUTLOOK Although earnings vary based on employer, education and experience, in May 2006 the median annual income for a petroleum engineer was $98,380, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Between 2006 and 2016 job growth in the field is predicted to be 5 percent. Currently in 2010, over 100,000 people worked as petroleum engineers nationwide.

At times it may be seen that being a petroleum engineer, it is highly rewarding but it is also a highly risky job. It also demands an autocratic decision making yet a simple solution to each of its problems faced on the daily basis in the industry. What with depleting reservoirs and increasing demand from the world, there is so much of oil needed and who do we think is our help in all matters related to the oil industry? ---------- A Petroleum Engineer.


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MR. ABHIJEET BANERJEE HR-Country Manager, Weatherford As Told To Nithin Gandhare & Shweta Tare

What matters in a MNC is the candidate’s Global Prospective.

What attracted you to the HR in the oil industry? To give you my background, I have spent a long amount of time in the pharmaceutical industry. What really attracted me towards the oil industry were the challenges that are there in the human resources function, in this sector. Challenges of handling and managing global talent as against handling people issues localised to the Indian (market). Second was exposure to regional (MENA) & global (US) human resources practices. Third of course is that there is the political and economic impact of the oil sector on countries across. From a Human Resources stand point, it translates to wide spread challenges such as making Human Resources available at the right place at the opportune time despite geopolitical challenges. There are also cyclical challenges. For example there are times when there are lots of projects and we are short of people and then there are times when there are fewer projects and we have to still gainfully and productively keep the manpower engaged. For a human resources professional, I view these as very challenging and fulfilling and hence I got attracted to this Industry.

Our college management believes in values based in education where spirituality is the third dimension. How do you think will it help us in the future? I think it’s very good. Not many colleges would really have this kind of a dimension to studies. What we believe is that not only should people be very good at their function, which is if you are a petroleum engineering you have to be good in your function as petroleum engineering. But also that you need to gel well with people, you need to interact with people at a very basic level which helps you through spirituality. Spirituality also gives you that inner strength and peace to deal with pressure situations which is quite common in the Oil Industry. Secondly, values and spirituality are virtues which would always keep an individual grounded. This also helps individual to remain level headed which is very important as a professional. We also have some company values which are used in all walks of employee’s life cycle (recruitment, confirmation, appraisals, promotions etc.)


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Spirituality also gives you that inner strength and peace to deal with pressure situations which is quite common in the Oil Industry

which is not very common in the other industries. Here this trend is very common. Third is of course the differentiated (high) compensation compared to any other industry. So on one hand there are times when people make huge amount of money, but when there is a downturn people also lose their job. But people in this industry take it in their stride! Last and most important from a HR stand point – it is a Human resource intensive sector and the people are familiar to the economics of demand and supply. They are quite geared up to understand and adjust to the cyclacity of the business. How should students like us increase our employability in a multi-national company like Weatherford? Domain knowledge has to be good. We follow very strict and stringent processes to test this aspect. To check the domain knowledge, we not only have a functional question paper of that discipline like petroleum engineering or a mechanical engineering but also we check the aptitude through the various tests that we have created. Second is values. We as a company follow a set of values which are used in all our people process – hiring, induction, confirmation, appraisal etc. Values like Humility and Discipline are very important for a company like Weatherford. Third very important factor is whether you are flexible. Within Weatherford we have fourteen to fifteen different product lines, wherein one can get transferred from one Product line to the other, which in itself could be a big change. What also matters in a Multinational Company is a candidates global prospective. Lastly and most importantly, I think all such companies also look for learnability (or learning quotient) of freshers. So keep yourselves updated with functional knowledge, values as well as general knowledge. Also learn to practice good values of humility and discipline as well as to be flexible

What are the outstanding qualities you look for in students during campus placements? Domain knowledge comprises of 70% of what we really look forward to followed by, good presentation and communication skills. Other attributes like I said, earlier flexibility, humility, discipline and global outlook and perspective. Our College enforces uniform on Mondays and Thursdays. Today many companies have some kind of dress code. Do you believe such discipline is required? I think it’s good and it helps you to follow the value of humility. When you wear a uniform, everyone is at the same level. There is nobody different in terms of economic as well as social background. And when you work in a company like ours, we also have uniforms when people work in fields. These are called coveralls. And when non field employees visit the rigs, we also wear coveralls. It gives a very different feeling and perspective. Everybody is a part of the same group, nobody is senior or junior. So I think that’s a very good practice What are the employee development policies at Weatherford? Weatherford considers its employees as its most important resource and majority of people policies are oriented towards employee development. There are state of the art technology & training centres in each of the global regions. The technical competencies as well as soft skills training needs are taken care here. Besides, there are huge number of internal trainings which have been developed in house. There are many computer based self-learning modules as well. There are many modules for on the job training and assessments. The Structured Performance Appraisal system also provides a scientific platform for employee development.


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STUDENT ACTIVITIES

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MIT PETROLEUM CLUB MIT Petroleum Club was formed out of an idea to educate the petroleum students in our college in a more practical, industry oriented way. Away from the theoretical point of view, we wanted students to understand the kind of life and work done in the industry. The Vision was ‘To share knowledge and experiences, inculcate a sense of professionalism, and eventually broaden the thinking-spectrum of the petroleum engineering students, for them to be industry-ready, when they graduate.’ The way we achieved this objective was by holding lectures by students who have had experience in the industry through internships, projects, personal experience. We also invited people from the oil and gas industry to give us informative lectures. We started our meetings in the month of August with meetings held every alternate Friday at 3.30pm. There were around 6 meetings in total held during the last semester. The detailed description of meetings is given below: 1st meeting More than 100 students (SE, TE and BE) came for the introductory meeting, an overwhelming response indeed. They were informed about the objectives of holding the petroleum club and the knowledge they can take back after each of the meetings. We held a small petroleum technical quiz, to help them judge themselves. The first meeting ended successfully and the agenda for the next meeting was disclosed.

2nd meeting We decided to divide the overall objective into five stages – drilling, exploration, reservoir, production and unconventional stage. So we started off with the exploration stage. Vaibav Jain, a BE student who had done an internship on petrophysics with Shell Ltd. in the summer volunteered to give a lecture. He gave an overview of how an E&P company operates from the initial stage to the field development. Petrophysics was his interest, so he gave a detailed lecture


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on the work of a petrophysicist and his contribution towards the exploration and other stages. Questions were answered after the presentation to meet the satisfaction of students. The meeting ended with a profiling of an oil and gas company, ONGC and in the end the current petroleum affairs were discussed. Agenda for the next meeting was disclosed.

3rd meeting The meeting had been conducted to throw some light on drilling department and give the second year and third year students some introduction of directional drilling by Avinash Deore and Lalit Bhamare of BE Petroleum. These BE students had done their internship in Jindal Directional Drilling Ltd. SE students were amazed by the directional drilling concepts as it is a complex and difficult process to drill a directional well and reach the exact destination. They were also informed with the day to day problems faced by the engineers on the field. The meeting ended with a company profiling of Reliance Ltd. and ended with current affairs. 4th meeting This meeting stressed on the importance of communication skills as required in the petroleum industry. An alumnus Mr. Diwakar Sinha spoke about his experiences and gave valuable tips for the students. He conducted a mock-interview session with a student to demonstrate the process. 5th meeting This meeting had another alumnus, Mr. Pranav Tetali speaking about his experiences in the petroleum industry. He informed the students about the procedure to apply for projects and internships. He stressed upon the need for the students to be proactive in building their relationship with industry professionals. 6th meeting This meeting focused on unconventional resources and specifically on Coal Bed Methane. Abhishek Bihani of BE Petroleum spoke from his experiences gathered at Essar Oil Ltd. during his internship. The CBM reserves in India were discussed. The basics of CBM production were explained as were the reservoir aspects and stages of production. The presentation provided an insight into a promising future energy resource. The MIT Petroleum Club served as a valuable tool for the exchange of valuable experiences gathered by the students. It gave the students a platform to sharpen their communication skills, particularly speaking in front of a large crowd. It also facilitated a fortnightly meeting between students of all three years and helped in understanding of petroleum concepts for the SE & TE students. Last but not the least the exercise helped increase the networking amongst the one-hundred odd students of the MIT Petroleum Department and helped us to know ourselves better.


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GEOLOGY TOUR Manthan Thakkar Third Year

VISIT REPORT

The Department of Petroleum Engineering, MIT Pune recently organized a geology study tour to Bagalkot and Gokak Districts of North Karnataka. We had some around 40 students who actively participated in the tour. The tour began on 7th February, 2011 from MIT Campus. The journey started at 7:30 am in the morning. The bus took the Kolhapur Highway and we reached Bagalkot after 12 hours of journey at 7:30 pm in the evening.

Next day i.e. 8th Feb, began with our visit to Gaddankeri which is located 6 km west of Bagalkot town. These were the Bagalkot group of rocks which had thick pile of Chicshellikari Limestone. Here the students were divided in 9 groups and each group was given area of 70 cm* 50 cm which was to be mapped at 1:1 scale on full imperial graph paper. The actual strike and dip angles were to be shown on the graph after measuring it by inclinometer. Badami is located 31 km south of Bagalkot. It is world Heritage site where caves are carved in thickly bedded sandstone belonging to Badami group. Thereafter we were taken to Archeological sites of Pattadkal, Aihole which have famous temples like Durga Temple, Ladh Khan Temple and others which are carved out of sandstone. We then returned to hotel at around 8 pm in the evening. Next day i.e. 9th Feb we were first taken to Muchakundi Dam in Kaladgi basin. Here we could see the traces of Muchakundii Quartzite. We could also see the size of grains reducing as we go up the hill on this basin. Thereafter we were again taken to Gaddankeri. Here we started moving towards South where we could see presence of Syncline and different beds came to notice like Chicshellikari limestone, few trenches of Argillite and at last Quartzite. We then had lunch and then moved to our next destination i.e. Gokak which is important town in Belgaum district. Next day i.e. 10th Feb, we left for Gokak Falls. Gokak falls are created by Ghataprabha Rivers that takes 54 m leap over a sandstone cliff. On the way to the falls we could see presence of Dolerite Dyke on one of the rocks which clearly showed presence of unconformity and irregularity. The cliff is in the shape of horseshoe which is the creation of river Ghataprabha River and it shows giant potholes. The sandstone present there exhibit excellent primary structures like current bedding ripple marks, alternating fine and coarse compositional bands. We then did some shopping at the Textile mill present just opposite to Gokak Falls and then left for Pune and reached MIT campus.


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ONGC AHMEDABAD FIELD VISIT Ajit Muley Third Year It was just the end of our semester exams and everyone was enjoying vacations. On one lazy afternoon I got a call from my colleague that we got permission to visit ONGC Ahmedabad. Prof. Sanjay Joshi and Prof. Rahul Marathe were assigned our guides for the trip. We packed our bags and started our journey from the MIT campus. The night passed on with dancing, singing, etc. We reached our destination at 7am i.e. hotel Elite. On the morning 11th of January, our visit started by visiting an ONGC well drilled 1900 m deep. The Shift-in-charge explained the plan view of the well, various components on the rig. He also threw light on various workover operations and well completion procedures.

On the same day we visited 3 gas wells out of which 2 were under gas lift. A Reservoir engineer explained the components and the functions of the MANOMETRIC tool which was used for gas lifting. He also explained the components of the Christmas tree. Later in the conference room a geophysicist interacted with us on various aspects of geology, he also explained us GTO of one of the well Subsequently the Area manager (Reservoir Engineer) gave us brief presentation on Reservoir Management. He gave us the all-round view of the oil industry; he also acknowledged our department for our excellent faculty and performances of our alumnus in the industry. He spoke on the aspects of economics in oil and gas, SPE and its importance. He lecture was very helpful and interactive. On the next morning we visited the DESALTER plant at NAVAGAM .As explained by the shift in-charge, salinity of the Gujarat crude is 300% but with the help of desalter plant


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VISIT REPORT

we can reduce it to 7% and water content up to 0.2%. He explained us the block diagram and components such as heater, Heat exchanger, pumping systems. The plant consisted of huge 8 storage tanks each of capacity 180000 m^3 which were

further connected to refinery. He also explained water treatment plant, and lastly took us to control room and gave us idea of DCS system, governing the whole plant.And at about 2 pm, we came at the place the most awaited for, drilling rig site at Navagam The rig was 120m high ‘A’ shaped, powered by 3 diesel engines each of capacity 1000 HP and was directional well of –S type drilled up to the depth of 1700 m, formation was active due to nearby water injection wells, mud of density 1.05 gm/cc was used & was pumped with the help of 3 triplex pumps The shift in-charge explained us BOP (SRA-7”), along with working mechanism of accumulator system he added 5.5” casing was still remaining. When we were on site tripping out was taking place for open hole logging We had interaction with the chemist who explained mud circulatory system & its components-degasser, shale shaker, desander, desilter, agitators. KCL polymer based mud of density 1.05 gm/cc was used for the operations. He briefly explained applications of mud, mud properties, process of shale sloughing. Joshi Sir explained us everything patiently and calmly answering all our questions. Due to visual understanding of operations going on we were able to clear with various conceptsLastly we had an interaction with the drilling engineer .He explained us the Economics related to drilling operations. He added that rig costs 35000 Rs. /hr, that is 7.5 lacs per day, so operations take place in three shifts. On the last day we had visit to GGS (group gathering station) There, the in-charge gave us a brief idea of GGS and its components. On the same day at 1 pm we had visit to ETP (effluent treatment plant). Here the water which was removed from crude was pretreated & send to CWIP (Central Water Injection plant), where the water was pumped at required pressure to various oil wells which were under secondary recovery. At about 3 pm we visited to CTF (Central Tank Farm) at KALOL. We had an interaction with CTF in-charge. He said that there are 3 CTFS in Ahmedabad at South Kadai, Kalol, Navagam. In the evening we went through GCP where gas was compressed and distributed to various consumers like Amul Dairy, Reliance, with large share used for gas injection. As we made our way back to bus, we were filled with a sense of satisfaction, our brief but memorable experience and would look forward to be an integral part of it. Soon after taking dinner it was time to say goodbye to Ahmedabad and way back to Pune. I am grateful to the whole staff of ONGC, Ahmedabad asset and Prof. Sanjay Joshi, Prof. Rahul Marathe , Prof. Shailendra Naik for making the trip possible.


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NATIONAL SEMINAR “DRILLS AND DRILLING- AN UPDATE” Manish Kumar Second Year It was 22nd September 2010 when I first set foot on the soil of Dhanbad. As it was raining heavily and was already twilight, I decided to head to the nearest hotel. I was there to attend the National seminar on “Drills and Drilling-An Update (D&DU 2010)” to be held on 23rd and 24th September 2010. I was so excited that I reached the venue before dawn. The event was about to begin at 0930 hrs so I got time to have a look at the remarkable city outskirts. After that I went to the Golden Jubilee lecture hall, ISM where this event was about to be held. I was warmly welcomed by the coordinators and volunteers of the event and was provided with the seminar kit. There were seven sessions to be conducted in the seminar out of which 3 sessions on first day and 4 on second. The seminar started with the inaugural function followed by HiTea. Then it was the turn of the keynotes speakers where they introduced the event and explained the scope and expectations from the seminar. The session then started. Scientists from research institutes, practicing engineers, executives from marketing and manufacturing units, professionals from software and IT sectors, faculties and students from academic institutes from all over India were present. We started with the in-depth analysis of the subject of drilling. As the session proceeded, some of the speakers spoke about the history of the drilling, some about present scenario and current techniques applying in the industry, while others spoke about the researches going on and the future of the subject. Almost all topics related to drilling from ancient to advanced techniques were covered in the seminar. Every minute of the 7 sessions was informative and question answer session after each presentations were most fulfilling and satiated the thirst of knowledge of many young students. Case studies in the seminar were a great resource of practical knowledge. The day was concluded by the cultural performance by a local band followed by an open garden dinner. The four sessions of the second day were to be exceptionally great. It was a great opportunity to interact with the researchers and M.Tech students. At the start, I was a bit nervous to interact with “Big” people from the industry and erudite researchers who were masters of their field, but with the proceedings and supports of other students I learned and enjoyed a lot. At the end of the day in a valedictory session, the certificates were given by the chief patron Shri P.K. Lahiri; IAS(Retd.); chairman GC&EB; ISM, Dhanbad. Those 2 days are really very memorable for my life and I returned much more knowledgeable and informe


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YOUNG PROFESSIONALS REPORT Ann John Final Year SPE Applied Technology Workshops provide opportunities for sharing and exchanging technical knowledge among a group of experts.

CONFERENCE

It is something of a truism that today’s Young Professionals will be the Leaders of tomorrow, but organizations need leadership at all levels. Even in the most hierarchical, command and control organization – think of the military – success depends on people at all levels exercising leadership and taking initiative, within the framework they have been given, to create opportunities to act. Decisions become more complex the further up an organization you go, frameworks expand, the authority to act increases, but fundamentally we are all leaders. As we progress we become better, more capable leaders.l

MITians: Down Memory Lane The SPE Young Professional Workshop was held at the Leela Palace Kempinski, Bengaluru from the 20th-23rd of July on ‘Driving tomorrow, Today’. During this workshop we were able to understand the environment that one was working in, gain insight into one’s strengths, and recognise opportunities to leverage those strengths through effective working relationships with others. The workshop was primarily aimed at young professionals, engineers, human resources professionals, policy makers, industry recruiters, educators and government administrators and organizations dealing with young professionals. The workshop started off with the keynote address,” Leaders of Today” by Mr Sudhir Vasudeva, ONGC Mr Vasudeva enlightened us about the role of a leader quoting, ’either convince or get convinced’. He believed that the days of ‘easy oil’ were gone, so we need to change our mindsets for new energy resources that are including the conventional and unconventional energy sources. During the course of the workshop there were about 6 sessions on various non technical challenging topics namely; Know Better - The World We Work In, Who am I?, Talent is Not Enough: Some Connectivity, Semantics and Cliché, Taking charge, Grow and Resources and way ahead.


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IADC DRILLING TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION Avinash Deore Final Year

On the cheerful morning of 17th January 2011, the IADC South Central Asia Drilling Technology Conference & Exhibition began at Hotel Taj Lands End, Mumbai, with the theme, ”Achieving E & P Objective'' The two day conference was inaugurated by Chief Guest, Secretary, Ministry of Oil & Natural Gas. Mr. S. Sundareshan. Mr. R.S. Sharma (CMD, ONGC) and Dr. Lee Hunt (President, IADC) were the guests of honor. Mr. Ken Fischer (VP, IADC), Mr U. N. Bose (ONGC) and Mr. Deepak Munganhalli (Transocean) were representatives of the IADC SCA Chapter. As per the Indian tradition, inaugural ceremony began with lighting of a lamp, which is considered as a symbol prosperity, knowledge and peace. Keynote address was delivered by Mr. Steven Newman (CEO, Transocean). During his address, he shed light on Indian Energy Scenario and Energy Security of India. He not only mentioned about grand entry on Indian oil companies like ONGC, Reliance into foreign countries but also mentioned their impact in offshore world. Mr. R.S. Sharma, who joined IADC in the year 1988, told in his address that energy insecurity has lead to exploration at large scale and how improving well technology can help to improve the rate of production. At the end of his inspiring speech, he also mentioned about need for IADC- Academia Program. He believed that the interaction between future workforce and industry personnel is not only necessity but a top priority. Chief guest Mr. S. Sundareshan, Secretary (Ministry of O&G) focused on government’s role to increase the investments in Oil & Gas Sector. According to figures mentioned by him, India will have 100% increase in investments in the natural gas sector with 25-30% in the near future. He also mentioned about a novel idea of the pipeline network planning by GAIL throughout India to reach the consumers from nonproducing states. At the end, he highlighted the NELP IX round which would be finished by March 2011. Out of total 36 blocks, 19 are categorized as onshore and 15 as offshore. ONGC Videsh is investing 14 Billion in Exploration and other areas. He promised the equal opportunity for both public & private operators for investments in energy sector of India. Theme for first session of day 1 of the conference “Deepwater Challenges-From Drillers Point of view” as explained by session chairman Mr. Deepak Munganhalli (Transocean). Mr. David Reid (VP, E&P, NOV) delivered the first talk of the session on “Development of Automation in Offshore Drilling”. He began with the first drillship's arrival was in 1960's, focus on safety and performance in the 70's and 80's, and in 90's the demand driven movement to deep water with advancements in technology. Then he came to


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IADC CONFERENCE

need for automation. To reduce the time spent on drilling and to reduce the accidents, he proposed idea of fully automated rig controlled by one person. Prevention of human errors and lean drilling were advantages of automated drilling. Mr. Helio Santos (President, Safe Kick) shared his thoughts on Automated WCS-Positive Consequences of Kick Tolerance. Kick tolerance is constant and its volume independent of formation pressure, were some misconceptions cleared out by him. Kick tolerance decreases with increase in depth and it depends on formation properties such as pore pressure. The last speaker of this session Dr Paul Francis (At Balance) spoke about “MPD in Deepwater”. Trident RCD System, annular and flow pool were the few important areas mentioned by him. “Non-conventional Energy Sources- Fuel of the Future” was the theme for the next session of the day as explained by MR. U. N. Bose (ONGC) and Mr. Anurag Gautam (Baker Hughes). “Shale Gas Development: From Exploration to Rejuvenation” was topic presented by Mr. Andy Soo (Baker Hughes) in which he explained that how all shales are not equally productive. Another presenter Mr. Aditya Kumar highlighted “The Challenges in Implementation of Underground Coal Gasification project”. With increase the percentage of oxygen with injected air, CF of producing gas increases. He also mentioned about the biggest in-situ Combustion Plant designed by ONGC. Recently discovered energy source CBM was explained by Mr. Michael D. Zuber (Schluberger) including the history of CBM from 1990's and its application. Second day started with “Well Construction Challenges-Meeting E&P Objectives” as theme for fourth session moderated by Mr A.P. Sandhu (Aban Offshore Ltd). Mr. Scot Petrie from Tesco presented Retrievable Casing while Drilling which was a new topic. He also focused on Kick Control during his presentation. “Utilizing Solid Expandable Technology in Re-entry Projects” was the idea presented by Mr. Greg Noel. At the end Dr. Mody from Apachy Corp. spoke about bridging the gap in leading edge drilling technology. He highlighted Time and Cost estimation in offshore & onshore rigs. Major challenges in offshore drilling, pore pressure fracture gradient prediction, Improving loss circulation treatments, salt mechanics understanding were few highlights of his address. “Hole Cleaning: The Key to successful Drilling in High Angle Wellbores” was the topic delivered by Mr. Terry Hemphill (Halliburton) in which he elaborated on signs of inadequate hole cleaning, key parameters, tools to improve hole cleaning, results of sweep study. Next session was about “Building an Effective Safety Culture” moderated by Mr. Ken Fischer (IADC). Various speakers gave address on topics like Developing Safety Culture, Importance of Leadership in Achieving Safety Goals. In third Session of the day, “People - Key Assets of Business” was theme. Various panellist spoke about the importance of the issue. Ms Lisa Silipigno (HR head, Schlumberger) focused her address about women empowerment and issues related to women in drilling industry. This two day conference was a great experience for a student of petroleum engineering. During this period, we talked to various IADC personal and other people from service industry. The informal talk with them was very productive in terms of being keeping level with the developments in the industry. We posed queries to people and they answered very enthusiastically. They also promised to help us in future. The two day conference ended with a talk on “Importance of Institute Industry Interaction”. IADC promised that next year onwards it will involve more students as part of the conference.


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WOMEN: WELCOME TO THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY Prajakta Kulkarni Final Year It was an inspiring evening of 15th Oct 2010, when girls from MIT came together for an interaction with working women from the petroleum industry. Prof. Dr. Jadhav and Prof. Dandge had a lion’s share in making this interaction a great learning experience for us. To highlight the opportunities for girls in petroleum industry, this special program was organized. The agenda of the program was information about job opportunities and sharing of various experiences. Our guests of honor were Mrs. Vijaya Kullkarni, HR Manager (ONGC, Ankleshwar Asset), Dr. Archala Danait (Halliburton) These two great ladies enlightened us all the girl students with the roles; a girl plays in her life – both professional and personal, as an individual. Despite the male dominated industry, recently many companies are recruiting girls and thus trying to give them equal opportunities. They gave us the counsel that, “challenges are for everyone but if you have talent and fortitude, you will surely attain success in your life!” Many alumni, including Aarti Dange, the first woman petroleum engineer from MIT and Madhavi Jadhav were also present in this enriching lecture and shared some of their memorable experiences and difficulties faced by them as being a woman and working as a field engineer. They also advised all the girls to be strong and independent to work for this industry and encouraged the spirit of fighting against all odds. Lastly our own faculty members, Prof. Dr Pardhi, a senior scientist from NCL and Prof. Desai of Mechanical Department shared their thoughts on yoga and fitness and how these play a very important role in our life. It was indeed a series of amazing moments for all the girl students of MIT! It dawned on us that day that girls are nowhere behind their male counterparts whether it is astronomy or deep water drilling…


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QATAR TOUR DIARY Abhishek Punase Final year

SPE CONFERENCE

“Bring in Ideas and entertain them royally; for one of them may be the king”. I have been a witness to the events which saw this golden adage come to life. This one idea has brought me the things I only dreamt of. An idea so special, that I can be proud of it throughout my life.

It all started when I was preparing to present a paper on some innovative topic at the Annual Institute Industry Interaction Program (AIIIP). In the oil industry, especially in cold regions, it is a common problem that oil produced gets congealed at the surface. I began to think of some remedy to this problem. Upon researching, I found out that a versatile plant like soya has the property which can prevent this congealment. I began working on this idea, analyzing its various aspects, and was successful in showing that it was an effective technique worth to be used in the industry. My efforts bore fruit and I presented a paper on the same in the AIIIP. Presenting a paper in the AIIIP was an achievement in itself, but then I began to think big. I thought of presenting my idea on a much wider scale; a global scale. This was by no means an easy job. It required a lot of experimentation and analysis of the results to fully justify the idea. This is where my friends came to my rescue. They pumped me up whenever I lost hope or when the chips were down. Kudos to my friends for simply being there. Our combined efforts bore fruit and my paper was selected to be presented for the SPE Projects and facilities, METS, at Doha, Qatar. Before moving further, I would like to fully acknowledge the timely financial help extended by MIT and the SPE Student Chapter, Mumbai section. Without them, it wouldn’t have been possible for me to undertake the trip. The experience in Doha was one of the best in my life. The streets were full of life and it seemed they were inviting me to get a taste of real life. The hospitality of the people over there was simply awesome. Though I was thousands of kilometers away from home, I never felt a trace of home sickness. The D day came on 16th of February 2011 when I presented my paper before the committee. The jury and audience consisted of eminent people from Qatar Petro, Total, Schlumberger, Shell, Chevron and other big wigs of the industry, so I was a bit nervous initially. But once started, everything went on quite smoothly and according to my expectations. The jury was impressed by everything I did and appreciated my effort. This was the best compliment I have ever received. This motivated me to continue doing research and earning further laurels in future.


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INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE WITH SHELL Vaibav Jain Final year So after a month and a half of waiting, it was final. It was going to be me , Jitin K and Kutbuddin Bhatia who got an opportunity to work in one of the foremost Oil and gas company in the world, Shell for a 2 month long assessed internship. On our way to Bangalore, we didn’t really know what was in store for us but all of us were equally excited and thrilled. It was a long 18 hour train ride from Bombay but train rides have always been very fascinating to me personally. Passing across various states, witnessing the geographical beauty and nature, the single most natural creation of God. Though that would pacify us a little but I am sure all of us were eagerly waiting to arrive the city of Bangalore and get on our feet to walk towards the gate of Shell. So in the month of scorching heat, June here we were, one of the biggest cities down south where one of the three technology center of Shell was awaiting us. Our first task was to get accommodation which was not that easy as we had expected. Our first day at the office was all about getting introduced to the Shell world – lectures on HSE, culture of Shell, rules and regulations to be followed, ethics and morality and obviously a lot of coffee cups. It was two days before we all were introduced to our team and the project/internship had commenced. I was assigned a project dealing with the Petrophysical analysis of an oil and gas field. My work profile was of a petrophysicist while Jitin and Kutub profile was of a Reservoir Engineer. All three of us were scattered on three different floors. We had arrived for the internship rather late due to our university exams so didn’t really get an opportunity to interact with the other interns who were already three weeks into their project. Apparently we missed out on a lot of parties thrown by Shell for the interns. Nevertheless we were happy to be here and wanted to work on the project as soon as possible and educate ourselves. My team was great, with a combination of experienced and young professional, it was a good mix. They made me feel very comfortable and made it clear to me that I could ask for their help whenever required and never hesitate to ask questions even if I think they are stupid. The environment of the office was very welcoming, very ergonomic. So I was introduced to my project by my supervisor, another petrophysicist on my team. We sat down and made the workflow of my project. This involved a lot of literature survey because honestly I was a novice, atleast in the petrophysics shoes. I had a year left for


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SHELL INTERNSHIP

graduation and until then I had no clue of the role of a petrophysicist. It was a challenge for sure, but I was geared up. The Supervisor offered me some books which for the next few days I went through and educated myself with formation evaluation basics. Parallel to this, I familiarized myself with the software that I had to work on – Techlog. Over the next two weeks, I strengthened my basics in formation evaluation and my hold on the software. I understood my deliverables and starting collecting the data that I would require to achieve the same. Every day that I would go back home more learned and educated. The interaction with the team and other employees during the lunch hour or during work or post office was equally important and exciting. Post office I had made some table tennis buddies and would meet up for a nice and refreshing yet competitive game.

My mid review was due; I had to showcase my learning during the course of internship till then to my Mentor. Honestly it didn’t go great but it only made me stronger and eager to showcase better work. My supervisor was extremely helpful in pointing out my faults which I made sure to take into account and work on it. The other interns were supportive as I was for them too. I followed the workflow designed and worked towards the deliverable and objective of my project. I scheduled weekly sessions with my mentor which were very helpful. My mentor and I had created a very cordial relationship where I was very comfortable discussing with him my doubts; a hour long session used to extend to more than 2 hours and neither of us minded that. He was impressed with my thinking and my abilities; this made me feel very confident. Soon my final review of the presentation where I had to compile two month of my work in a project and make a presentation in front of the project reviewers. Internship with Shell was a great learning experience for all of us. It really helped us to understand the great Oil and Gas Industry and complement our theoretical understanding


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SPE AIIIP’11 SPE ANNUAL INDUSTRY-INSTITUTE INTERACTION PROGRAM2011

SYMPOSIUM REPORT NEW AND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY IN UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY T HE M E: IT W IL L N E V ER EN D …

Department of Petroleum Engineering, Maharashtra Institute of Technology, and the Society of Petroleum Engineers, Student Chapter of MIT, organized its Annual Industry Institute Interaction Program–2011 on the 18th, 19th and 20th March 2011. A symposium, “New and Innovative Technology in Upstream Oil Industry” was organized as a part of the month long series of technical competitions. The prize distribution function and panel discussion were held on the 19th evening for which Mr. P. K. Borthakur (Executive Director, Asset Manager, Bassein and Satellite, ONGC, Mumbai) was the Chief Guest. The symposium was divided into A) Presentations of innovative ideas by students and B) Presentations by experts from Industry as a part of ONGC Chair Program

(Industry Judges and Student Paper Presenters for the Paper Presentation Contest)

EVENT SPONSORS


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SPEECHES & PANEL DISCUSSION

( L-R: Dr. L. K. Kshirsagar, Mr. P. K. Borthakur, Dr. T. Chakrborti, Dr. Joneik Hage, Mr. Sumit Bhat, Mr. P. Sangvai,

SPE AIIIP 2011

Mr. A. Banerjee, Mrs.(Dr.) A. Danait, Dr. P. B. Jadhav during the release of the MITSPECK 2011 magazine)

The Panel Discussion Session started with felicitation of the Chief Guest and other distinguished Guests of Honour on the dais by Dr. L. K. Kshirsagar (Principal, MIT-Pune). Dr. Kshirsagar in his speech acknowledged the help from the industry and thanked the Petroleum Industry Experts and alumni for attending the function and encouraging the young Petroleum Engineers. Mr. Abhishek Bihani, President, MIT-SPE Student Chapter, spoke about the chapter achievements. Dr. P. B. Jadhav, Head, Department of Petroleum Engineering, highlighted the achievements of the department and the help we are constantly receiving from SPE Mumbai and alumni. Mr. P. K. Borthakur, eloquently encouraged the students to opt for blue collar jobs, as they are the foundation blocks for the oil industry. Dr. L. K. Kshirsagar, chaired the Panel -Discussion for which the theme was “It Will Never End”. The panelists were Mr. P. K. Borthakur, Dr. Tarun Chakraborti, Head, ONGC Academy, Dr. R. V. Marathe, Dr. Joneik Hage, Principal Reservoir Engineer, Shell Technology Center, Bangalore, Dr. S. V. Deshpande, Cambay Petroleum, Mr. Abhijeet Baneerjee, HR Manager, Weatherford, Mrs. Lakshmi Suresh, Mr. Atul Rathod, Mr. Sumit Bhat, Mr. Vikash Kumar, Mr. Juju Mathew, Mr. U. Singh Jadon, BG India. Also, Mr.N. Bhartiya, GGM ONGC, Mr. Mandar Pathak, Transocean, Mr. R. K. Singh, Schlumberger, Mr. A. K. Bhatia, GM, ONGC, Mr. Atul Godbole, Mr. Yogendra RIL, Mr. Deshmukh BG-Kazakhstan, Dr. S. Ghosh Halliburton, Mr. Kapil Garg MD-Oilmax, Mr. W. Lazarus Schlumberger, Mr. Sudeep Gupta ONGC were present at the event along with 25 Alumni. They all agreed that hydracarbon resources will never end and there in a great need to explore the huge unconventional sources like shale gas, CBM and gas hydrates. Dr. Joneik Hage (Reservoir Discipline lead, Shell India) announced the “Shell Outstanding Student Award 2011” which went to Mr. Kutbuddin Bhatia of Final Year Petroleum Engineering. Mr. Sumit Bhat (Country Manager-Production Enhancement, Halliburton) gave away the “LNNN Scholarship” to Mr. Nishant Panigrahi from Third Year Petroleum Engineering.

Finally the icing on the cake was the announcement of the “ONGC-Scholarships” by Dr. Tarun Chakraborti (Head, ONGC Academy, Dehradun) who formally signed an MOU with Dr. L. K. Kshirsagar, offering two scholarships, one for an undergraduate student and another for a postgraduate student


73 | P a g e Student Paper Presentation contest, on innovative ideas was held on Saturday, 19th March, 2011. Following students presented papers on a wide variety of topics listed below: 1. Enhanced CBM 2. Shortcrete for Cementation 3. Freeze Coring 4. Elastomer Plunger 5. Independent Rotating Cone Bit 6. Stop Gas Coning by Sago 7. New Gas Hydrate Recovery Using Nanoparticles 8. Lamp Black in Casing for Annular Pressure Buildup 9. Electrolysis for CBM Wells 10. Relative Permeability Modifiers Using Smart Biopolymers 11. Aloe-vera for Hole Problems 12. Magnetic Field Induced SRP 13. Condensate Blockage Reduction by CMG 14. EOR-Surfactant Screening Study 15. Drilling Jars Using Ferro-fluids 16. Scale Inhibition using Silicate Nanoparticles

Amit Raina Abhishek Rai Aman Arora Prajakta Kulkarni Nitin Gandare Aaditi Jaiswal Kutbuddin Bhatia Avi Jakulwar Abhishek Bihani Anshul Gupta Kunal Bachav Aditee Kulkarni Lokranjan Mishra Mohammed Mizbauddin Sadaf Chisti Deepak Kumar

On Saturday 19th March 2011, the SPE AIIIP’11 started with the paper presentation competition. Dr. P. B. Jadhav, Head, Department of Petroleum Engineering, felicitated the Judges: Dr. Joneik Hage (Principal Reservoir Engineer, Shell, Bangalore), Mr. S. R. Athawale (ONGC), Mr. Juju Mathew (Head, Oil and Gas Division, L & T, Mumbai), Mr. Arnabh Mukherjee (Sr. Scientist, NALCO, Pune), Mr. Wilfred Lazarus (Drilling Engineer, Schlumberger), Mr. Vikash Kumar (Domain Champion, Well Testing, Schlumberger, Mumbai) and Mr. Sanjay Lale (Chief Engineer(D)). During the lunch break, the poster presentation and photography competition was held.

AWARDS During the month, a number of competitions were also held, including a Model Making Competition, Case Study, “Darcy” Business Challenge, Debate Competition, Technical quiz competition, Poster Presentation and a Photography Competition. S.no

Event

Winners

1

SHELL-Student Paper Presentation Contest

Kutbuddin Bhatia and Levin Chacko

2

SE-Paper Presentation Contest

Bilal Ghansar

3

‘Fishing-Tool’ Model-Making Contest

4

SHELL-Darcy Business Challenge

5

SPE Debate Contest

Jitin K, Ashwin Agarwal, Bilal Ghansar

6

SHELL-Photography & Videography Contest

Prajakta Kulkarni and Neha Porwal

7

SPE Poster Presentation Contest

Levin Chacko, Jitin K. and Lalit Bhamare

8

Petroleum Quiz Competition

9

BJ Services-Case Study Contest

Prashant Dangat, Rajesh Rathi, A. Gautam, Mayank Kumar, Sumeet Narkhed Satyam Krishna, Ketan Raje, Rohini Poptani Pratiksha, Raj Chandak, Bipin Bhat

Kutbuddin Bhatia, Rishabh Rathi, Raj Chandak, Anirban Banerjee, Monali Lobo A. Arora, Raktim B, Randhir Singh, Mayank Kumar, Panav Hulsurkar, Sakul Grover


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“ONGC CHAIR” PROGRAM DISTINGUISHED GUEST-LECTURE SERIES

SPE AIIIP 2011

A series of presentations by guests was organized on Sunday, 20th March 2011, as a part of the ONGC-Chair Program, covering nearly every aspect of the Petroleum Sector. Dr. Tarun Chakraborti, captivated the student audience by his very lively interactive session on HR challenges in ONGC.

Dr. Tarun Chakraborti delivering a lecture

Dr. R. V. Marathe delivering a lecture

Speaker /Affiliation

Topic

Mr. Atul Godbole, Consultant

Importance of Monitoring Core Analysis Projects

Mr. Richard Menezes, Shell

Footprint Reduction for Global Unconventional Gas.

Mr. Nikhil Hardikar, Baker Hughes

Fluid Characterization and testing using RCI

Dr. Tarun Chakraborti, ONGC Academy

HR Challenges in PSU

Dr. R. V. Marathe, Head, IRS, ONGC

IOR/EOR Technology for E & P Industries

Mr. Wilfred Lazarus, Schlumberger

Drilling Optimazation with Rotary Steerable Systems.

Mr. Jitin Kazhakapurayil, Secretary, MIT-SPE Student Chapter, thanked all the guests who spent their valuable time for two days on our campus and also to all the student participants in the various events. Special thanks to all the alumni who made it a point to attend the function. In all about 20 Alumni were present:, Sumit Bhat, Halliburton; Mandar Pathak, Vinod Mahadik, Transocean; Konark Ogra, Rajesh Randive, Schlumberger; Richard Menezes, Amit Nair; Shell, Ashish Tiku, Hemant Gurav, Cairn; Atul Rathod, Mohit Bhat, Weatherford; Nikhil Hardikar; Baker Hughes, Ashish Chitale, Atul Godbole; ICS, Nikhil Peshwe; Hindustan Petroleum. We gratefully acknowledge our corporate sponsors:  ONGC  Shell India  Oil India Ltd.  Transocean  Niko Resources and individual sponsors, management of MIT-Pune for making the event successful.


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INDUSTRY-INTERACTION LIST Date 15-Jan-10 20-Jan-10 22-Jan-10

Title/Topic Reservoir Simulation Opportunities in NSW SPE Presidential Address

4-Feb-10

Jewels of M IT

4-Feb-10

Alumni meet

5-Feb-10

CMG Training

6 - 10 Feb 2010 12-Feb-10 16-Feb-10 27-Feb-10

Education tour Opportunities in Nigeria Alumni meet Tool making competition

2-Mar-10

Collaboration

3-Mar-10

Alumni meet Darcy Business Challenge Competition

5-Mar-10

Name Ashish C hitale, B P, USA Dr Tedd, Dean, Faculty of Engineering Dr Utikar, A P, Chemical Engineer ing Depar tme nt Dr Behrooz Fattahi, Pre sident Dr Brian Wiggins, Section Chairman Ameet Nivsarkar, VP NASSCOM 15 alumni attended Arindam A nang, Aneesh Phade, RIL TE Petr oleum MR Muttuk umar, C onsultant, Sterling Oil Harshad Parak h, SHELL USA Hiten T har, Jindal and Vishk ha Wani, EP So lutions Dr David H orsup, USA, Dr Hari Reddy, Director , NAlCO, Dr Sriram, Siv asamy Amit Kar nik, SHELL Ne therlands Shruti Jahagirdar, Yash Gupta and Amit Singh, SHELL

6-Mar-10

Address

10-Mar-10

Address

11-Mar-10

2010 SPE AIIIP

11-Mar-10

Alumni Meet Bridging the g ap Symposium

Dr Ramashish Rai, Director, IOGPT Dr Mankar, V ice Chancellor BATU, LONERE, Dr Mhalgi, TAC O Judge s from ONGC, SHE LL, Halliburton, Schlumber ger 18 Alumni were prese nt ONGC, SHELL, BG India, SLB, Halliburton R IL, E ssar, Weatherfor d

Education tour opportunities in ONGC Scholars hip

TE Petr oleum Mr. Jemstein, Director, HR, ONGC Dr Khambe te

11-Mar-10 13- 16 Mar 2010 21-Mar-10 28-Mar-10 27-28 Mar 2010

Workshop

18-May-10

ONGC Chair Meeting

11-Jun-10

Alumni meet

14-Jun-10

Interaction

14-Jun-10

Interaction

29-Jul-10

Alumni meet

5-Aug-10

Alumni meet

28-Aug-10

SPE YP Program

Weatherfor d-Pr oduction Optimization Dr Tarun Chakrabor ti, HEAD, ONGC Academy Manish Labroo, Cairn, Sumit B hat, Halliburton Dr Saraf, ONGC Mr Gupta, Director, Ye nnai Sachin Kelk ar, ONGC, Sridhar Joshi, T otal, Pra kash Deore, HP, Prassana Mali, KOC Aditee Bhagaw at, Aker Solutions, Monika Shar ma, Baker


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28-Aug-10

ONGC Lecture ser ies

10-Sep-10

Interaction

Dr Shir ish Patil, A lask a Fairbank s, USA

21 - 27 Sep 2010

Workshop

R A Joshi, PETROTECH

27-Sep-10

Alumni meet

30-Sep-10

Alumni lecture

Sachin Kelk ar, continue d education

Diwakar Sinha Pranav Te tali, Nigeria

4-Oct-10

Reservoir simulation

8-Oct-10

alumni meet

Timmy Thomas, Rohit Patil, Nigeria

11-Oct-10

alumni meet

Amit Saraph, ONGC, Sourabh Jain, Niger ia

15-Oct-10

Challenges f or Women Engineers

22 -24 Oct 2010 25 30 Oct 2010 30-Oct-10 11-13 Nov 2010

2010 SPE Sub Regional Contest ONGC lecture seri es HSSE Workshop Workshop

Dr Soni, USA and Dr . Mrs. Soni, SHELL, USA

Dr Danait, H allibur ton, Mrs. Kulkarni, ONGC, A arti Dange,We atherford E P Solutions Madhavi Ja dhav RIL, Mrs. Desai, MIT, Dr Mrs. Pardhi, NCl 6 student groups par ticipated , 3 prize s won LKK, SDP, SJN, SRJ lectures for new e ntra nts Mr Jadon Singh, BG India Petrofe d, S D Patwar dhan, M Chakraborti and R A Joshi

International Drilling conf erence

Prof. S R Joshi

21-Nov-11

Panel disc ussion

Prof. S R Joshi

30-Nov-11

Alumni meet Cairn Energy Program Inauguration (CIIIP )

18-21Nov -11

Jan 20 2011

28-Jan-11

30-Jan-11 6-Feb-11 9-Feb-11 12-Feb-11 23-Feb-11 24-Feb-11 25-Feb-11 27-Feb-11 7- 18 Mar 2011

Future of Oil Industry

Interaction Geological Education Tour Tour to ONGC Install ations, Ahmedabad Alumni meet Model Making competition SE Paper pres entation Interaction Visit to Cairn Rajasthan Facilities Lecture series on EOR

Ismail Solkar, Kuw ait, Musal ir, RIL, Badguj ar, GSPC Mr. Abshishek Upadhay ay and Mr Manish Labr oo Mr. Alain Leb aste, SPE President 2011, Mr Vasudeva, Director, Off shore, ONGC Mr Borthakur, Chairman, SPE Mumbai Section, Mr. Santanu Hati, Mr Jayanta Mukhodadhyay, Mr Manav Kanwar, Mr B harali, Director, Oil Mr. Shy amal Bhattacharya, GGM,ONGC Prof R A Joshi and Siraj Bhatk ar Prof S R Joshi and Rahul Marathe Ameet Nivsarkar, VP NASSCOM Sudeepto B anerjee, Maserk oil and Mujeer Sheikh, Baker Suadi Arabia Ashish T ick oo Mr Saik ia, GGM Oil India Prof S J Naik and Pr of S D Patwardhan Dr. T G Kulkarni, GGM Reservoir, Oil India


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BE ABSTRACTS INNOVATIVE BLACK COATING TECHNOLOGY TO SOLVE OFFSHORE WELL PROBLEM Avi Jakkulwar

BE ABSTRACTS

During offshore production, a major problem associated with almost every producing well is Annular Pressure Buildup (APB). Hot producing fluids heat up the annular space between casing and tubing that causes expansion of annular fluid (Brine/Nitrogen). This gives rise to high casing pressure that may cause severe problems like collapsing of tubing, rupture of casing and wellbore instability. Lamp Black is a traditional heat transfer medium to absorb heat. The application of black coating to inner side of casing will absorb maximum heat from tubing through annular fluid. This increases the heat transfer so that maximum heat will be given off to formation which is at lower temperature than tubing. Expansion of annular fluid will be reduced hence casing pressure will decrease and that will result to lower APB. Experiment and analytic calculations were carried out to check the rate of heat transfer of black coating which confirmed that black coating increases the heat flow rate as compared to other materials. Low cost coating can be made as an integral part of manufacturing of casing. This method will require production of oil to remain uninterrupted. INCREASING HYDRAULIC FRACTURE EFFICIENCY Zishaan Haindade, Saket Javeri Hydraulic fracturing is a technique of fracturing the rock resulting in the increase in porosity and permeability thus permitting high flow rates of oil or gas into the wellbore at economic rates. The fracture is kept open by using a proppant material – pumped along with the fracture fluid, such as sand grains, ceramic balls etc, when the injection of fracture fluid is stopped. The proposed technique is to increase the efficiency of a frac job by using a proppant coated with an absorbing polymer. The proppant size will increase as the polymer coated on it swells on contact with oil. The sand coated proppant hardens when it comes in contact with crude oil. This provides a more conductive path connecting a larger area of the reservoir to the well. Thus, this technique increases the cumulative production in a short period of time. ENHANCED CEMENTATION THROUGH-SHOTCRETE Abhishek Rai Proper cementation is the basis of a successful completion of an oil well. Conventional cementation which requires high initial setting time and has low strength gaining rate, requires modified properties for cementing challenging zones. Shotcrete is a pneumatically conveyed concrete through a hose at high velocity on surface to be cemented where it undergoes placement and compaction at the same time. It is currently used in the tunnel and boring industry. With the use proper additives like Fine ash, Resin capsules and Powder accelerators, quick setting time and enhanced durability can be achieved. When used with C-fiber reinforcement high thermal shock resistance and excellent corrosion resistance can be imparted to cemented zones. Here in this paper, a modified tool will be presented which will be lowered on a coiled tubing unit. Immediately after drilling, this coiled tubing unit will be lowered and shotcrete will be sprayed on the inner side of the well bore for about a 2-3 mm thickness. This will result in an artificial casing inside the wellbore and eliminate a major need of the casing expense. This will be particularly useful in exploratory wells.


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FREEZE CORING Aman Arora, Abhishek Bihani, Chaitanya Padalkar The importance of obtaining a perfect core from a reservoir is undisputed, and one of the major techniques is side-wall coring. Most side-wall coring techniques have low core recovery and produced damaged cores, especially in unconsolidated formation. Freezing has long been used to preserve cores on the surface but has never before been used insitu. Here in this technique, part of the formation is frozen before being cored. Freeze coring promises to be a boon to sidewall coring by increasing localized formation strength thus increasing impact resistance of the target formation. Hence, the chances of recovering the intact core increase significantly. This paper investigates in a comprehensive manner the effect of freezing the formation before coring and discusses the science, results, applications and advantages of using this technique. HYDROGEN SULPHIDE (H2S) CONTROL Kaif Ansari

BE ABSTRACTS

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is one of the major problems in crude oil production. Hydrogen Sulphide is produced by sulphur reducing bacteria. H2S is one of the major problems in drilling as well as production stage. Hydrogen sulphide is harmful to health of the personnel working on the rig as well as corrosion it causes which results in loss of thousands of dollar the company. This paper presents a way to deal with the sulphur reducing bacteria, and the type of material to be used in such an environment which is prone to H2S production. ELASTOMER MODIFIED PLUNGER LIFT TO PREVENT LIQUID FALL BACK Prajakta Kulkarni, Neha Porwal During their natural lives, most gas wells experience some type of liquid loading. Plunger lift is an effective technique to unload the liquid, however the problem with the conventional plunger lift is liquid fallback. This occurs when the fluid slug above the plunger reaches the surface, gas travelling with higher velocity than the liquid separates and causes the remaining liquid to drop back into the well-bore. Liquid fallback is undesirable because it represents volume loss from the original liquid slug during each cycle. The additional liquid increases the bottom hole flowing pressure and hence decreases production. To avoid this, modification of the conventional plunger is required. The modified plunger consists of a power screw arrangement and an elastomer. In the power screw arrangement, a side-wall elastomer expands and contracts with the help of a power screw having a controlling system on the surface. Elastomer expands only when sufficient liquid column builds up and plunger just starts travelling upwards. The expanded elastomer decreases the tolerance between tubing and the plunger thus reducing fallback. Different elastomer types were studied as regards to their liquid hold-up strength, sealing properties, friction, wear and cost. Amongst these nylon polymer was found to have favorable properties. Economically, this design can give profitable results as elastomers are inexpensive and the production cycles are also reduced thus increasing efficiency. INDEPENDENT ROTATING CONE BIT Nitin Gandhare The paper traces the development of a radically different design of a new Tricone Drill Bit Technology. The technology of Independent Rotating Cone Bit (IRCB) is based on Epicyclic gearing. It consists of three outer gears called planet gears which mesh with the outer ring gear. Planet gears are fixed on the bit neck and are coupled with the cones of the drill bit. In this system, one of the two basic components i.e. the outer ring is held stationary in


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bearing housing and the rotation is given to the IRCB with the help of a mud motor providing power to the system. The last component i.e. the planet gears receives power from the system which in turn rotates cones of the bit. Thus the number of rotation of each cone is more as compared to conventional bit. Given a fixed torque and same number of rotations as that of Tricone bit, IRCB produces more rotations and therefore an increase in Rate of Penetration. This paper discusses the design concept, development and drawbacks of this bit. A prototype bit will be shown during the presentation of the paper. IRCB can be used in horizontal drilling and ERD; and initial tests show a 0.5 times increase in ROP. USE OF SODIUM ACETATE TRIHYDRATE FOR PREVENTION OF GAS HYDRATE – A LABORATORY STUDY Tarang Tushar Most natural gas contains substantial amounts of water vapor at the time it is produced from a well or separated from an associated crude oil stream. Water vapor must be removed from the gas stream because it will condensate into liquid. This may cause hydrate formation as the gas is cooled from the high reservoir temperature to the cooler surface temperature. Liquid water almost always accelerates corrosion, and the solid hydrates pack solidly in gas-gathering systems, resulting in partial or complete blocking of flow lines. Hydrates form more easily at high pressures and low temperatures. In this paper application of heat is the measure taken to control hydrate formation and prevention of wax formation. This heat applied is not generated from heaters, but is the heat given out by an exothermic reaction (maintaining 54° C in flowing natural gas) by the formation of Sodium acetate trihydrate (Hot ice). Application of this would require an over pipeline set up that would allow passage of Sodium acetate trihydrate and water. This method proves to be cost effective because the high coat of inhibitors. USE OF ELECTROLYSIS IN GAS LIFT IN COAL BED METHANE Abhishek Bihani, Vaibav Jain, Abhishek Punase Coal-bed methane in recent decades has become an important clean energy resource. Today methane is produced by known artificial-lift techniques like gas lift and sucker rod pumping. Gas lift is a suitable candidate for dewatering CBM wells but requires an appropriate gas source in abundant quantities as well as an ensemble of equipment to function effectively. Instead of gas injection for artificial lift, this paper proposes a new technique of in-situ generation of gas using electrolysis. Electrolysis primarily aims at splitting of a water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen. These gases will reduce the density and the flowing pressure gradient thus lifting water present in the well-bore. The lifting can be through casing or tubing according to down-hole electrode positions and can be assisted with help of a plunger. Ratio of gas volume produced will be 2:1 in favour of hydrogen and can be calculated by Faraday’s law of electrolysis. The gas production is governed by a simple formula and can be controlled according to the electrical current supplied. It requires a less complicated production assembly than traditional gas-lift and saves the cost of procuring and injecting gas. Also the hydrogen and oxygen thus generated can be separated at the surface and sold for additional revenue. SMART HYDRAULIC JARS Sadaf Chishti, Deepak Kumar, Aman Arora A smart fluid is a fluid whose viscosity can be changed by applying an electric field or a magnetic field. There are two major smart fluids known which are commonly known as magneto-rheological fluid (MR) and electro-rheological fluids (ER). The novel feature of smart fluid is in its ability to change its rheological properties upon the application of an external electric field or a magnetic field and the change is proportional to this field. A jar is a device for providing an impact load to the stuck drill pipe when it cannot be retrieved by normal string and derrick forces. Hydraulic jars use a hydraulic fluid to delay the firing of the jar until the driller can apply the over pull to the string to give a high impact. The time delay is provided by hydraulic fluid being forced (metering) through a small port or series of jets. Often there is variation in the performance which is mainly because of the fluctuating viscosity of the hydraulic fluid due to the varied bottom hole conditions in which these tools have to perform. The losses due to viscosity


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variation affect the tools performance adversely. The unique properties that allow ER fluids to instantly turn from liquid into solid form could revolutionize the design of hydraulic systems in use today.

BE ABSTRACTS

WEALTH OUT OF WASTE: PRODUCE GAS HYDRATES FROM NUCLEAR WASTE Levin Chacko, Lalit Bhamare, Jitin Kazhakapurayil One of the most promising unconventional sources of energy which is yet to be produced economically is Gas Hydrates. Gas hydrate is a crystalline solid consisting of gas molecules trapped inside cages of water molecules. This paper proposes the injection of nuclear waste materials comprising the placing of waste materials into a repository or borehole in the hydrate formation through horizontal well The thermal flux of the waste materials leads to instability causing fractures in the formation. Radioactive waste causes temperature rise up to 1330C in the formation leading to disturbance in thermodynamic equilibrium and causing the water cage to decompose and release methane. Radioactive waste comes from sources like the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear weapons reprocessing, medical and industrial wastes. As being a waste it is very cheap and by using the current method of waste disposal to produce hydrates proves to be a boon to the nuclear as well as the oil industry. TECHNICAL SCREENING OF SURFACTANTS BY DSA100 BASED ON IFT VALUE Mohammed Mizbauddin There are different EOR methods: Thermal, Miscible and Chemical. Considerable oil production can be obtained from the oilfield reservoirs by the application of these EOR methods. The target in this search is investigation to explore new methods, mechanisms of the different EOR method, to produce and to test suitable chemicals before applying it at field. One of EOR method which is getting large attention is surfactant flooding. The main recovery mechanism of surfactant flooding is reduction of Interfacial Tension (IFT) between oil and water. Surfactants are screened based on their IFT value and Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). IFT value is calculated for different surfactant concentration samples starting from ambient Temperature and Pressure to Temperature at 900 C and Pressure at 4000 psi by using Drop Shape Analyzer (DSA100) from KRUSS. Calculated IFT value is plotted against temperature and pressure and the CMC of the different surfactant solutions is determined for different brine concentrations from excel sheet by plotting IFT Vs Concentration. RESTRICTION OF GAS CONING BY SAGO Aaditi Jaiswal One of the worst enemies of production- water and gas coning is one of the most frequent problems in the reservoir. Although water coning can be stabilized easily, breakthrough of gas in an oil well is difficult to control. There are many causes of gas coning like density difference between fluid, viscosity of fluids, pressure drawdown, permeability, natural facture in formation, casing leakage and bad cementation. Vertical communication between gas zone (from cone) and the oil pay zone either by natural (or induced) vertical fracture or vertical permeability is also the cause for this problem. If we restrict this vertical communication by blocking its pores, the invasion of gas in oil zone can be stopped. This paper suggests an idea of blocking the gas-cut zone by a special mixture of sago along with salt water (saturated brine) and ethanol. The main idea behind selection of sago is its property of forming gel like fluid when it comes in contact with water which will act as nonNewtonian fluid showing pseudoplastic nature. Salt has a dual function, firstly it will block the microspores by precipitating and secondly it will act as a preservative for sago. Ethanol is added in order to have quick precipitation of salt, whereas water will act as gelatinization


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agent. This mixture of sago and brine can be injected just above GOC. After its injection, the mixture will form a viscous layer between two zone namely gas and oil, allowing enough time for salt crystals to precipitate blocking microspores and sago blocking macrospores. The inherent property of sago to become hard enough when dehydrated and again give gel like characters when hydrated is what is taken into consideration. NI-FE NANOPARTICLE: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR RECOVERY OF HYDRATES Kutbuddin Bhatia, Levin Chacko Gas hydrate is a crystalline solid consisting of gas molecules, each surrounded by a cage of water molecules. They produce 160 times their volume of methane which is an infinite source of energy waiting to be tapped, but the technology to recover these hydrates is at its infancy. Recovery of gas from hydrates requires the dissociation of gas hydrates which can be accomplished in at least three ways: thermal recovery, depressurization or by chemical inhibition. The problems associated are: Most chemical additives (salt, methanol, and glycol) cause pipe and equipment corrosion, ecological problems. Preheated gas or liquid transportation down to hydrate zone is accompanied by extensive heat loss. Microwave or electromagnetic method also requires vast energy transfer to decomposition zone and is inefficient. This paper proposes the injection of air-suspended self heating Ni-Fe nanoparticles (50 nm) in the hydrate formation through horizontal well. These particles will penetrate deep into the class I, II and H hydrate reservoir by passing through the cavities (86-95 nm). The self heating of particles in a magnetic field is caused by hysteresis loss and relaxation losses. These particles cause temperature rise up to 42 0C in formation leading to disturbance in thermodynamic equilibrium and causing the water cage to decompose and release methane. In this technique, the pressure of the fluids in contact with hydrate is lowered, pushing the hydrate out of its stability region and leading to its decomposition. It has been discovered that the less expensive, readily available Eggwhite (Ovalbumin) can catalyze the reaction which results in large scale formation of these nanoparticles. The main advantage of this technique is the very low dosage requirements (small quantity required for 1m3 of hydrate decomposition). These nanoparticles used are non-poisonous, environment friendly and are recoverable. SIMPLE AND COST EFFECTIVE PRESSURE MAINTENANCE TECHNIQUE Zishaan Haindade The production of oil and gas from the reservoir causes the reservoir pressure to decline continuously, using the following method the reservoir pressure can be maintained without considerable decline. The technique involves drilling a directional well with 'J' shaped profile which will penetrate the reservoir from below and then injecting CO2 from the surface. The gas gets heated due to geothermal energy before entering the reservoir. The method will increase the reservoir temperature by 25-30°C depending upon the depth of the well below the reservoir. The pressure increases due to increase in temperature and the volume of CO2 pumped from the surface. The technique can be used to produce from reservoirs containing heavy crude. It can also be used to dissociate gas hydrates to produce methane gas.

TE ABSTRACTS ALOE VERA SLURRY – GREEN SCALE INHIBITOR Kunal Bachhav, Vishal Agarwal, Pramod Mundhe Today the oil industry is challenged with using eco friendly chemicals so as to preserve the environment. Many such eco friendly materials exist like husks for the coconut shells for lost circulation etc. Cheap and green materials are the need of the hour, where environment degradation is alarming. One such material is of immense use: aloe Vera. Aloe Vera which is widely used for medical treatments can also be used in many oil well related problems. Its gelation properties could be used for drilling fluids. Aloe vera contains water holding tissue which can prove as water trapper to lower its saturation in reservoir. Its protein


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content can also be used as antifreeze in cold region by accelerating oil. Amino acids in large proportion aloe can be applied for removal of the scale which gets developed inside casing.

TE ABSTRACTS

DOWNHOLE OIL-WATER SEPARATION USING A HYDROCYCLONE Rishabh Rathi , Raktim Borpatragohain, Susrut Bharali Downhole Oil-water separation is an emerging technology that is used to separate oil and gas from the reservoir fluid in the sub-surface. The by-product of the system is the formation water which is pressurized and used for water injection. A hydrocyclone is a device used to separate two components of a solution based on density difference and it uses the principle of centrifugal force. A hydrocyclone has two exits on the axis: the smaller on the bottom (underflow or reject) and a larger at the top (overflow or accept). The underflow is generally the denser or coarser fraction, while the overflow is the lighter or finer fraction. The hydrocyclone is being used for separation of denser water from lighter oil and gas. The hydrocyclone would be fit into the down hole equipment in the sub-surface. The formation fluid is passed through the hydrocyclone, the hydrocarbons the move through the larger exit at the top and the water is rejected through bottom exit. The rejected water is pressurized with pumps in the bottomhole and is used for injection into the reservoir. This process greatly reduces the cost of production as most of the water that was to be produced is eliminated in the bottom-hole thus reducing the cost of uplift, treating, etc. It helps in conservation of environment by restricting the damage caused by formation water to the environment. It reduces the chances of pollution of fresh water sources by formation water as the poisonous formation water may escape through casing leaks, etc if brought to the surface. This technology may change people's view on the petroleum industry harming the environment. DUAL EOR BY VIBRATIONAL CAVITATIONS Moreshwar Gawande, Mandal Padwal, Ajit Muley In brown fields, oil saturation is near residual. Small, immovable oil globules still exist everywhere inside the reservoir. It is a well know fact that vibrations to the formation helps residual oil particles coalesce together and bigger oil globules flow much more easily to the well bore. In this dual system, cavitations are deliberately induced in the water flooding injector well to produce vibrations. It is a modified innovative technique which will work simultaneously: that is vibrations will increase oil productivity and water injection will help displace the oil. Cavitations are always considered as undesirable effect in petroleum industry because of its hazardous effects, but we are going to change the common thinking. The system is designed such that harmful effect will be in total control and to our advantage. This is economical method because both methods are working at one time. INHIBITING RESERVOIR SOURING USING BACTERIOPHAGE Pranshu Shrivastava, Parineeta Singh, Aditya Ravi Reservoir souring is characterized by an increasing concentration of H2S in production gas. It is widely accepted that reduction of sulphate by Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) is most significant mechanism for H2S production in reservoir souring as a result of water-flooding. The paper will show how bacteriophage will help in preventing reservoir souring and increasing the overall production. Bacteriophage has the ability to destroy cultures of target bacteria, while being completely benign to all other microbes and higher life forms. An analogous case study will demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. Economic aspects will also be considered.


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ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE RECOVERY USING AMMONIUM CHLORIDE, NH4Cl AMIT RAINA, MANDAR PADWAL, MORESHWAR GHAWANDE With the need for energy increasing at a rapid rate, the need for alternative sources of energy is felt considerably. Coal bed methane provides one such exciting alternative. Primary recovery of coal bed methane is about 50%; so there arises a need for secondary recovery of coal bed methane. In this paper, we propose enhanced coal bed methane recovery using ammonia derived from ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). At higher temperatures, ammonium chloride gets decomposed to form ammonia and HCl. HCl can be removed by passing the gases over a bed of powdered CaO. By this process, CaCl2 is formed and ammonia gets separated from HCl. This NH3 (ammonia) can be injected into the wells. Due to preferential adsorption of ammonia on the coal surface, methane gets desorbed, leading to better recovery of coal bed methane. Hence our purpose is served. MAGNETIC FIELD SUCKER ROD PUMPING Mangesh Walivkar, Aditee Kulkarni The oldest and most widely use type of artificial of oil well is the sucker-rod pumping. Most of the stipper use sucker-rod pumps. SRP is the most commonly used artificial lift technique. However, there are some drawbacks to this technique, like high sand content, inclined wells, high gas content, very viscous fluids, low pump ability etc. Here in this paper we take up the challenge of using a SRP with very viscous fluids. When the fluid is viscous the sucker rod pump is not able to work. Since we now found that a strong magnetic field can reduce the apparent viscosity of crude. Magnetic field may also reduce the surface tension of these petroleum fuels as well as their apparent viscosity. CONDENSATE BLOCKAGE REDUCTION: A SIMULATION STUDY USING CMG Lokranjan Mishra, Neha Agarwal, Kushkant Dubey Natural gas is an important source for the global energy it will play a more important role in the future due to increasing energy demands, existing constraints in oil production, and environmental concerns for other fossil fuel types .Much of the current gas reserves can be found in gas condensate reservoirs .These reservoirs from a recovery and deliverability standpoint, can have significant differences from oil reservoirs. When the pressure, either in the wellbore or in the reservoir, drops below the dew point pressure, a liquid condensate phase appears and reduces gas production significantly .In this work we study the application of horizontal well in a giant gas condensate reservoir to reduce the condensate blockage. Here a critical question will be addressed: what fraction of increased gas production in a horizontal well is due to increased formation contact and what fraction results from condensate blockage reduction. Horizontal wells have smaller drawdown pressure than vertical wells, which leads to a delay in reaching the dew point pressure compared to vertical wells. Our results indicate that once the dew point pressure is reached and oil saturation formed in the reservoir , the magnitude of oil saturation build up in the near wellbore is lower in a horizontal well than a vertical; well. The ratio of horizontal well PI to vertical well PI increases after a dew point. The fact that the PI increased after reaching the dew point indicates that this increase in PI is directly due to ability of the horizontal well to reduce condensate blockage in the near well bore. The PI in the vertical well case is decreasing significantly once the dew point pressure is reached, while the PI in the horizontal well seams to remain steady even after the dew point pressure is reached. In this work we use the CMG software for reservoir simulation.

SE ABSTRACTS LAND AND WELL RESTORATION AFTER DRILLING Bilal Ghansar Oil well drilling produces a unique industrial waste control and energy saving problem because the geologists and engineers must locate the drilling rigs where oil and gas are expected to occur and not


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SE ABSTRACTS

where it’s convenient for them. The drill cuttings, waste mud fluid and other wastes are often stored in earthen pits. In case of limited areas of reserve pits, the entire waste mud slurry may be hauled off once or twice before the drilling operation is carried out. When land sites are taken into consideration, physical restoration of land becomes more important. Restoration involves removal of concrete, shale and other impurities present in the land, conversion of land to an agricultural site, landfill for dumping of waste material, a natural landscape or backfilling the land with some earthen material to make it more useful. Use of flocculation process for cleaning up of reserve pits is another technique which is beneficial. This process is definitely economical as cost per barrel of treated water is less, time to required to treat the water reduces drastically, does not require heavy machines and important properties of water and metals are restored. The effect of this system is non toxic as it substantially reclaims all of liquid phase for reuse. It has been noteworthy that use of zonite has been successful in USA and many developing nations, Nigeria for example are using this technique to abandon their wells. Moreover, use of flocculation to restore land after drilling operation will completely protect the environment and allow the land to be reused in same way as it was prior to drilling operation. PRIMARY RESERVOIR DRIVE MECHANISMS Rohini Poptani Movement of gas and liquid in a reservoir can be compared to the movement of any other kind of matter and therefore requires energy which is present in the form of pressure difference. Liquids and gases move from a region of high pressure to low pressure. This pressure difference occurs due to the natural reservoir energies that are created by the gravity action and the temperature effect of the earth, which are studied under drive mechanisms. Gas cap expansion drive:-Occurs whenever a gas cap is present above the oil in a reservoir. As the liquids and solution gas begin leaving the reservoir, a decrease in pressure leads to a dramatic expansion of the gas cap. This produces enough pressure to push the oil into the wellbore. Solution gas expansion drive:-Oil containing gas is highly compressible. As the oil starts entering the wellbore, a decrease in pressure below the bubble point of the solution gas causes the separation of the gas from the solution, and it forms a gas cap which forces the oil out of the reservoir. Water drive mechanisms:-When the water is a part of the aquifer and it pushes other fluids, it is called water drive. One mechanism occurs when aquifers lie under the petroleum reservoirs and the compressed water exerts enough pressure to cause the fluids to move into the wellbore. Another mechanism occurs when the aquifer receives energy from an external source.These are the primary drive mechanisms in a reservoir and it is imperative to have a profound knowledge of these mechanisms in order to optimize production and efficiency. MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (MEOR) Himahshu Tyagi Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a technique to utilize micro-organisms or their metabolic products to improve the recovery of crude oil from the reservoir rock. MEOR is a tertiary oil recovery technique. There are three ways in which micro-organisms may contribute to EOR. Micro-organisms can produce bio-surfactants and biopolymers on the surface. Micro-organisms grow in reservoir rock pore throats to produce gases, surfactants and other chemicals to recover the trapped oil in the reservoirs. Micro-organisms can selectively plug high permeability channels in reservoir rock so that efficiency of oil recovery process can be increased.MEOR has a vital role in solving coming energy crisis. Increased demand of petroleum products has given strong impetus to the development of EOR technologies among these MEOR is the oldest technique .The residual crude oil in reservoirs make up about 67% of the total petroleum reserves, indicating inefficiency of


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primary and secondary production techniques. So, the world remains a huge target for EOR process .MEOR has many excellent characteristics such as less economical, easily applied, quick effect, no contamination, increases oil production as well as decreases in operating costs. Though MEOR has some downfalls but there are many benefits as I mentioned earlier which make it a feasible technology. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY [EOR] Ishaq Sutaria According to a recent research it was found out that energy from oil and gas sector will continue to dominate the world energy for at least next three decades. Looking at the present rate of consumption of oil, the traditional techniques will not help. New ways of extracting oil and gas needs to be developed to get every possible drop from the existing sources. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a term for special techniques to increase the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from a field, over and above conventional primary depletion or basic water flooding which typically will recover 20% to 40% of the stock tank oil initially in place Using typical EOR methods, an additional 10% to 20% of oil can be extracted from a field. For example, polymers can be used to increase the viscosity of injected water, forcing it to move into regions of the reservoir that would not be contacted by plain water, resulting in a more efficient flood and sweeping more oil to the producers. In addition, small amounts of detergent-like surfactants can also be injected with the water and polymer; these “soaps” help “scrub” more oil out of the rock wherever the water goes, further enhancing oil recovery. Over the years a number of EOR techniques have been conceived including injection of carbonated water, surfactants, microorganisms, foams and other formulations.


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PETROLEUM ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MAEER’S MAHARASHTRA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PUNE

DEPARTMENT

AFFILIATED TO UNIVERSITY OF PUNE

Offers specialized programs for Petroleum Industry Bachelor of Engineering (BE) (Accredited to the National Board of Accreditation) Petroleum Engineering : Duration Four Years Petrochemical Engineering : Duration Four Years Master of Engineering (ME) Petroleum Engineering (By Papers) Petroleum Engineering (By Research)

: Duration Two Years : Duration Two Years

Doctoral (PhD) Petroleum Engineering Petroleum Geosciences For Information:-

Head Department of Petroleum Engineering Maharashtra Institute of Technology, 124, Paud Road, Pune – 411 038 INDIA, Phone No. 30273400 /30273491 Fax No. 91-020-2544 2770 Visit: Email:

www.mitpune.com/www.Petroleum-MIT.com prajadhav@yahoo.com pradeep.jadhav@mitpune.edu.in


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DEPARTMENTAL ANALYSIS, DESIGN, RESEARCH SERVICES THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING OFFERS ITS SERVICES RELATED TO ANALYSIS, DESIGN, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS WITH IN-HOUSE FACILITIES AND ASSOCIATED SENIOR CONSULTANTS. THE DEPARTMENT IS ACCREDITED TO THE NATIONAL BOARD OF ACCREDITATION, NEW DELHI

ROCK CHARACTERIZATION: Oil Well cuttings description. Thin section analysis for microfacies, texture, petrography and mineralogy using Nikon (Japan) microscope with automated photography and digital image analysis, Paleontology, Sedimentology and Clay X-ray Diffratometry, Scan Electron Microscopy.

CORE ANALYSIS: Soxhlet extraction, Resination, Core photography, Core Gamma using Scintillation Counter, Residual fluid saturation using Dean Stark Method Core Petrography: Thin section petrography, Stain Tests, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rock CT Scan (only atmospheric conditions) GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS:

Organic Geochemistry using Gas Chromatograph – Mass Spectrometer, PONA Analysis PLANT AND PROCESS DESIGN USING COMPUTATIONAL FACILITIES:  Pipeline Design, Surface Facilities Design for Oil/Gas/LPG installations  Fire and Safety Plans DATA ANALYSIS, MODELING AND SIMULATION:  Geological, Production and Reservoir data analysis of small fields  Work related to Reservoir Simulation, Well Testing, Decline Curve Analysis, using latest software  Calculations required managing oil and gasing properties: Fluid properties, Artificial lift, Economics etc. using ‘Petroleum Engineering Tool Kit Software’  Remote sensing and Geo-informatics in Petroleum Industry VISUAL EXAMINATIONS:  Cuttings, description using Carl Zeiss (Germany) binocular stereomicroscope.  Preparation of thin sections: Logitech Automatic Machine. Thickness of the section is controlled by quartz / calcite interference colors observed between cross nicols. Microscope: Nikon, Optiphot - 2 (Japan) with automatic photographic attachment. Magnification Available: 10 to 600, Digital image analyzer. X- RAY DIFFRACTOMETRY: Charges include, Sample preparation using standard procedures and clay separation. Instrument: Make: Philips, Calibration: Silicon, Accuracy: 0.3 % ± FSD at 0.2 % of reading. Internal Silica standard is preferred. Repeatability is good even on nano-scale. In addition, few samples will be cross checked on another diffractometer. SCAN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: JOEL, ASM 6360A model. Resolution: 3 nanometers. Magnification: 8 to 3 x 105. Assuming number of samples to be 40, 3 batches will be run: 10, 15, 15 samples in each batch. MODE OF PAYMENT: 50 % IN ADVANCE, 25% AFTER FIRST BATCH, REMAINING 25 % AFTER COMPLETION OF THE WORK


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LABORATORY FACILITIES

Apart from the theoretical curriculum, students are expected to know how to find out different parameters required in various operations of Oil and Gas industry. They are required to determine rock and fluid properties and it is necessary to test various chemicals and related materials. The institute has set up different laboratories with much advanced equipment. Some testing and experiment based consultancy work is also carried out in these laboratories. The students routinely use the internet facilities, SPE image library and simulator packages.

LAB-FACILITIES

Different laboratories used by Petroleum engineering students include:                 

Petroleum Geology and exploration Laboratory Petroleum Engineering Laboratory Refining and Separation Laboratory Geochemical Laboratory Reservoir and Production Engineering Laboratory Transport Phenomena Laboratory Petrochemical Processes Laboratory Instrumentation and Control Laboratory Computer Center Applied Chemistry Laboratory Thermodynamics Laboratory Heat transfer Laboratory Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Geotechnical Laboratory Environmental Engineering Laboratory Electrical and Electronics Laboratory Workshop with carpentry, fitting, welding, smithy section, machine shop and foundry.


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FACULTY MEMBERS Area

Designation

Areas of Specialization

1. Vikrant Gaikwad

Assistant Professor

Fluid mechanics

2. Vinayak Wadgaonkar

Senior Lecturer

Solid handling

3. Pratiksha Kale

Lecturer

Solid handling

4. Meenal Deshmukh

Lecturer

Heat Transfer

5. Kiran Patil

Professor

Reactive Distillation

1. L.K. Kshirsagar

Professor

Formation Evaluation

2. P. B. Jadhav

Professor

Reservoir Characterization

3. R. A. Joshi

Senior Lecturer

Rock mass characterization

1. Michael D’ Souza

Assistant Professor

Reservoir Engineering

2. Samarth Patwardhan

Assistant Professor

Well Testing and stim ulation

3. Somnath Nandi

Assistant Professor

Hydrocarbon Thermodynamics

4. T. G. Kulkarni

Adjunct

EOR Techniques

5. Ashish Chitale

Adjunct

Reservoir simulation

1. Shailendra. J. Naik

Assistant Professor

Production Engineering

2. Siraj Bhatkar

Lecturer

Production o ptimization

3. Rahul Gajbhiye

Lecturer

Flow assurance

1. Sanjay Joshi

Lecturer

Well Control

2. Rahul Marathe

Lecturer

Drilling Engineering

1. D B Dandge

Professor

Refining Technology

2. SY Deshmukh

Professor

Petrochemical Techno logy

3. Anand Kulkarni

Lecturer

Refining Operations

1. Dinesh Bhutada

Senior Lecturer

Environmental Engineering

2. S N Karkhanis

Professor

Environmental Engineering

Core Engineering

Exploration

Reservoir Engineering

Production Engineering

Drilling Engineering

Refining and Petrochemical

Environmental Engineering


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CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMME Realizing the need for updating the knowledge base of the professionals in the industry, the Department organizes short duration training programs with the help of experts in the industry. These programs can be tailor-made to meet the requirements of the industry. The faculty includes departmental core-faculty and experts from the industry. Content of the courses is on par with other international training programs. Excellent accommodation facilities for about 30 persons are available on campus.

SOFTWARES

We have organized training programs for Indian Oil Corporation (3 weeks), ONGC Ltd, India (1 week), College teachers in the state of Maharashtra and likewise. Presently following short duration courses are offered. Details can be worked out depending upon the interest of the industry personnel.          

Petroleum Development Geology for Drilling and Petroleum Engineers Carbonate Sedimentology Carbonate Sedimentology in field Disaster management and geographic information system (GIS) Organic Geochemistry in Petroleum exploration Basic Reservoir Engineering for Non Engineers and Geologists Drilling Engineering for Geologists and non engineers Petroleum Production Operations for Managers Petroleum Fiscal System Environment Management in Petroleum Industry

LIST OF SOFTWARE AVAILABLE WITH THE DEPARTMENT FOR RESEARCH 1. CMG - COMPUTER MANAGEMENT GROUP: UK has given network license version of their following reservoir simulation software      

GEM Compositional Simulator - 10 licenses IMEX Three-Phase Black Oil Simulator – 20 licenses STARS Advanced Processes & Thermal Simulator - 5 licenses WinProp Phase Behavior Package - 20 licenses (unlimited cells) Builder Pre-Processor System, Graphics & Interfacing - 20 licenses Results Post-Processor System, Graphics & Interfacing - 20 licenses

2. Kappa Engineering-Ecrin   

SAPHIR: Pressure Transient Analysis software used to interpret pressure drawdown, buildup, drill stem tests and interference tests. TOPAZE, Kappa Engineering: Production Analysis software use production data to be able to predict the reserves and future performance of the well and reservoir. EMERALDE, Kappa Engineering: Production Logging software used to take production data like flow rates and use them to predict which layers are more productive than others.

Purchase of latest version of Geo-media Professional 6.0 is under process and will be installed in a time span of two months.


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3. Integrated Petroleum Management: IPM has given network academic license version of their following reservoir simulation software      

PROSPER Well Modelling and Design 5, Version 11 MBAL Reservoir Analytical Simulation, Version 10 PVTP Fluid Characterisation, Version 9 GAP Multiphase Network Optimisation, Version 8 REVEAL Specialised Reservoir Simulator and Near Wellbore Reservoir Simulator, Version 4 RESOLVE Integrated Production Controller, Version 4

4. FEKETE™

      

Pressure Transient Analysis: Interpret reservoir flow characteristics and predict future deliverability based on well test results. Wellbore Optimization: Optimize your Wellbore for single and multiphase flow with various flow paths and operating conditions Production Decline Analysis: Calculate reserves & hydrocarbons-in-place from production data using traditional and advanced methods. Data Collection and Reporting: Generate production data files and import them into F.A.S.T. Well Test™ for pressure transient analysis Coal Bed Methane Reservoir Analysis: Estimate reserves & generate forecasts for new plays. Analyze production & pressure data for producing reservoirs. Gas Gathering System Analysis: Optimize gas-gathering systems by identifying bottlenecks & predicting deliverability of future scenarios. View FAST: Field Notes Data Generate reports, plots and tables

5. ASPEN PLUS™: ASPEN PLUSTM allows you to create your own process model, starting with the flow sheet, then specifying the chemical components and operating conditions. ASPEN PLUSTM will take all of your specifications and, with a click of the mouse button, simulate the model. The process simulation is the action that executes all necessary calculations needed to solve the outcome of the system, hence predicting its behavior. When the calculations are complete, ASPEN PLUSTM lists the results, stream-bystream and unit-by-unit, so you can observe what happened to the chemical species of your process model. 6. GIS SUITE OF SOFTWARE:  Geo Media Professional 6.0  Image Analyst  Microstation SE  MGE Terrain Analyst  Rockworks  MF Works High Resolution Digital data of IRS (LISS III and PAN) is available for selected regions. Large number of high scale aerial photography is available for selected regions of Maharashtra, 7. PETROLEUM ENGINEERING TOOLKIT: Petroleum Engineering Toolkit is a collection of Excel based programs used for estimation / calculation of different parameters in areas of reservoir engineering, production engineering, drilling engineering and Petroleum Economics. 8. WELLFLOW: NEOTEC has given academic license for their production optimization software.

9. EXODUS SIMULATOR: Reservoir Simulation software, used to predict the future performance of a reservoir by inputting the reservoir rock and fluid properties and simulating the reservoir.


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2011-BATCH PETROLEUM ENGINEERING CONVERSION OF RESULTS TO G.P.A. The Original B.E (Petroleum) Results are on Marks Basis. These have been converted to 5- Point GPA for the convenience of Prospective employer companies that are familiar with GPA system. The following table gives the Final Year-First Semester GPA Name Bihani Abhishek Dilip Kulkarni Prajakta Dilip Haindade Zishaan Muhamad Wajid Panchamlal Bankar Vinayak Adinath Kasat Sanket Sundarshyam Vaibav Jain Kazhakapurayil Jitin Bhaskaran Levin Chacko Plakottu Abhishek Punase Ansari Kaif Nadeem Ann John Javeri Saket Mahesh Tarang Tushar Ghodekar Mayuri Kishanlal Shinde Sankalp Hambirrao Jakkulkar Avi Diliprao Ajwani Ankit Premchand Aman Jalaj Arora Chaitanya Makarand Padalkar Jere Chaitanya Bhalchandra Bangar Prasad Prakash Sinha Ankita Sharadkumar Garje Machindra Keshav Ellengayle Henriques Patel Himanshu Velabhai Kutbuddin Hakimuddin Bhatia S Shyam Sundar Sadaf Chishti Abhishek Rai Jaiswal Aaditi Parasnath Kosambia Nikhil Kirit Gandhare Nitin Bharat Bhamare Lalit Vinayak Sarda Vishal Kishor Deepak Kumar Nitish Srivastava Singavi Gaurav Abhay Rahul Raina Amol M Patane

GPA 5 4.903 4.780 4.745 4.665 4.657 4.604 4.533 4.525 4.516 4.481 4.419 4.366 4.357 4.340 4.340 4.331 4.296 4.296 4.296 4.287 4.243 4.243 4.208 4.199 4.199 4.190 4.190 4.190 4.181 4.181 4.181 4.155 4.129 4.129 4.102 4.085 4.085 4.076 4.049

Name Gupta Anshul Anujkumar Pranav Anurag Rajput Roy Ruchira Kalyan Deore Avinash Narayan Lawande Avinash Ganpatrao Satpute Asita Prakash Neha Porwal Shevate Swapnil Dilip Suraj Singh Jadon Loya Narendra Jagdishprasad Rohit Pandey Jenish Gupta Bhargab Bhattacharjee Sirkhot Muneeb Mutallib Rahil Mukadam Dutta Ankit Swapankumar Bhat Bipin Ramesh Karajgi Abdul Atif Abdul Rasheed Rampurawala Murtaza Fakhruddin Kalode Mangesh Vasantarao Ghode Atul Prakashrao Dongardive Vicky Vijay Gaikwad Snehal Gautam Pangarkar Umar Bashir Shendre Yogesh Ramesh Sunita Sonu Choudhary Chavan Hrishikesh Krishna Lende Sushil Manohar Uberoi Gagabdeep Singh

GPA 4.032 4.014 3.988 3.961 3.952 3.944 3.935 3.926 3.908 3.82 3.768 3.724 3.715 3.688 3.671 3.644 3.6 3.521 3.512 3.504 3.486 3.398 3.31 3.266 3.222 3.222 3.187 3.178 3.143 3.019


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2011-BATCH: PROJECTS OF FINAL YEAR STUDENTS Organisation

Students Involved

BJ Services

Ankita Sinha, Ann john, Ellengale Henrique

Cairn Energy

Kutbuddin Bhatia

Cairn Energy

Panchamlal, Sanket Kasat

DGH Essar Oil

Shyam Sundar, Rahul Raina Jitin Kazhakapurayil, Bipin Bhatt, Vaibav Jain

Project Title Hydraulic Fracturing in HPHT wells Study and Evaluation of Non -Profile Plugs and Pressure/Temp. Monitoring Systems Injection Fall Off Test Design and Interpretation Log Interpretation Field Development Plan for a Marginal Field in XY Exploratory Block, Cambay Basin Production Analysis and Propositions for Production Enhancement Casing Design- Casing material selection with technical and economic feasibility

Essar Oil

Vinayak Bankar, Anshul Gupta

GSPC

Priyanka Badgujar

Halliburton

Chaitanya Padalkar, Aman Arora, Deepak Kumar

Cementation

Halliburton

Prajakta Kulkarni, Neha Porwal

Production Enhancement and Optimisation

Hardy Oil

HOEC Jindal Drilling Jindal Drilling MIT Pune MIT Pune MIT Pune

Levin Chacko, Himanshu Patel, Murtaza Rampurawala, Nikhil Kosambia Ankit Dutta, Bhargab Bhattacharjee, Hrishikesh Chavan Umar Pangarkar, Muneeb Sirkhot, Sachin Ghode, Atul Sotle Atif Karajgi, Prasad Bangar, Swapnil Shevate, Machindra Garje Sadaf Chisti Nitin Gandhare, Yogesh Shendre, Ankit Ajwani Kaif Ansari, Avinash Deore, Abhishek Rai

ONGC

Pranav Sahay

ONGC

Aditi Jaiswal, Nitish Shrivastava

ONGC

Asita Satpute, Ruchira Roy

ONGC

Tarang Tushar

Feasibility for Application of ESP in Sub-sea well Early Production System Directional Drilling Study of Downhole Problems in Directional Drilling Well Test Interpretation, Pipeline Erosion Prediction (MB Petroleum, OMAN) Managed Pressure Drilling Casing Selection and Design Criteria Reservoir monitoring using OFM software EOR By Immiscible Gas Injection (WAG)- A Lab Investigation Oil and Gas prediction forecast through different techniques Preparation of Reservoir Simulation Model of Producing field from a 2-D Geological Model


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ONGC ONGC

Mayuri Ghodekar, Sankalp Shinde Saket Javeri, Zishaan Haindade, Abhisekh Bihani, Abhisekh Punase

Performance Evaluation of Gas Condensate Reservoir Optimization of Gas Lift

ONGC

Gaurav Singavi

Simulation study of producing field and preparing a reservoir simulation model using CMG

ONGC

Lalit Bhamare, Narendra Loya, Suraj Singh Jadon, Amol Patne

Pressure Transient Analysis

Reliance Petroleum

Avi Jakkulvar, Jenish Gupta

Well completion (casing design & casing seating depth)

Schlumberger Weatherford Yennai Hydrocarbon

Vishal Sarda, Rohit Pandey Anurag Rajput, Chaitanya Jere Rahil Mukadam, Snehal Gaikwad, Mangesh Kalode, Avinash Lawande

Hydraulic fracturing in CBM Wells CWS Tool and Log Interpretation Slickline Operations/Services

THANK YOU!

OIL & GAS SECTOR MIT-Petroleum Engineering Department is sincerely grateful to the Oil & Gas Sector in India and Abroad for providing Short term projects and internships to the Undergraduate and Postgraduate Petroleum engineering Students. Thank you for providing practical working exposure to students and bridging the gap between Industry and Institute. We will be looking forward to your guidance in the future. Contact: MIT-Petroleum Engineering Department. (Address on first page)


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2012-BATCH PETROLEUM ENGINEERING CONVERSION OF RESULTS TO G.P.A. The Original T.E (Petroleum) Results are on Marks Basis. These have been converted to 5- Point GPA for the convenience of Prospective employer companies that are familiar with GPA system. The following table gives the Third Year-First Semester GPA Name Padwal Mandar Sahebrao Munde Pramod Ashok Muley Ajit Balaji Nagaonkar Ajinkya Ajit Lokranjan Mishra Agarwal Neha Dinesh Sose Arjun Pandurang Chandak Raj Anil Parineeta Singh Badewale Nikhil Purushottam Sharanya Suraj Sharma Rathi Rishabh Rakesh Nakul Khandelwal Dangat Prashant Vishwanath Satyam Krishna Landge Shyamkumar Vithalrao Nobel Sam Koshy Nishant Kumar Panigrahi Shashank Dubey Kisan Soni Bachhav Kunal Hari Kushkant Dubey Amit Raina Pranshu Shrivastava Godse Pratik Subhash Susrut Gautam Bharali Gawande Moreshwar Suresh Aditya Ravi Rishik Kumar Borah Randhir Kumar Singh Zende Prasad Chandrakant Nikhil Singh Rajput Agarwal Ashwin Doshi Paritosh Rajesh Fatemeh Famoori Patil Mrunali Madhavrao Agarwal Vishal Ashok Dhonde Nikhil Rangnath Stefy Ann Thomas Raktim Borpatragohain Radhika Tejaswin Deshmukh Phad Vaibhav Vitthal Hodshil Rahul Ashok

GPA 5 4.946524 4.928699 4.768271 4.741533 4.73262 4.634581 4.625668 4.572193 4.545455 4.500891 4.474153 4.456328 4.420677 4.402852 4.385027 4.367201 4.358289 4.349376 4.2959 4.26025 4.206774 4.188948 4.171123 4.153298 4.099822 4.081996 4.010695 4.010695 4.001783 3.99287 3.966132 3.957219 3.885918 3.885918 3.850267 3.778966 3.761141 3.72549 3.716578 3.68984 3.672014 3.547237

Name Rajesh Pavan Rathi Patel Rohit Pradeep Kulkarni Aditee Maheshchandra Nalawade Swapnil Shivaji Dipan Saikia Thakkar Manthan Keyur Walivkar Mangesh Sureshkumar Tolkar Walid Ibrahim Chavan Mukul Narendra Subhasis Bharali Vijay Pichikala Kendre Sachin Narsing

GPA 3.538324 3.529412 3.449198 3.28877 3.270945 3.244207 3.217469 3.181818 3.146168 3.030303 3.030303 3.02139

‘I have never let my schooling interfere with my education.’ - MARK TWAIN


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2012-BATCH: SEMINAR TOPICS OF THIRD YEAR STUDENTS Student

Seminar Topics

AGRAWAL NEHA DINESH

ASP flooding

KULKARNI ADITEE M.

Porosity Estimation using Logs

LARRY JOHN THATTIL

Hydraulic Fracture in Frac Job Design

PARINEETA SINGH

Petrophysics

PATIL ANUJA PADMSINGH

Mud Conditioning Equipment

PATIL MRUNALI MADHAVRAO

DIL Spill Evaluation

RADHIKA TEJASWIN DESHMUKH

Logging While Drilling

SHARANYA SURAJ SHARMA

Vapex Method for Heavy Oil Recovery

ADITYA RAVI

Cyclic Steam Simulation

AGARWAL ASHWIN C.

ERD

AGARWAL VISHAL ASHOK

Oil price mechanism

AMIT RAINA

Propping Agents: Fracture Conductivity

BACHHAV KUNAL HARI

Production analysis by using Ecrin

BADEWALE NIKHIL P.

Reservoir Simulation using CME

CHANDAK RAJ ANIL

Sand Control

CHAVAN MUKUL NARENDRA

Petro-physical Properties

DANGAT PRASHANT V.

Managed Pressure Drilling

DHONDE NIKHIL RANGNATH

Deviation Control for Directional Drill

DIPAN

Reservoir Drive Mechanism

DOSHI PARITOSH RAJESH

Artificial Lift

FATEMEH FAMOORI

Recovery of Clathrate Hydrate

GAWANDE MORESHWAR S.

In Situ Combustion

HODSHIL RAHUL ASHOK

Slick Water Fracturing

KENDRE SACHIN NARSING

Logging While Drilling

KISHAN SONI

Casing with Drilling

KUSHKANT DUBEY

Directional Drilling

LOKRANJAN MISHRA

Inflow Performance Relationship

MANIYAR SALMAN B.

Well control


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MAYANK SAWHNEY

Origin of Hydrocarbons

MULEY AJIT BALAJI

Water Flooding

MUNDHE PRAMOD ASHOK

Miscible Gas Flooding

NAGAONKAR AJINKYA AJIT

Productivity Measurement of Reservoir before and after Fracturing

NAKUL KHANDELWAL

Shale Gas

NALAWADE SWAPNIL S.

Blow Out Preventors

NIKHIL SINGH RAJPUT

Physics of Reservoir Engineering

NISHANT KUMAR PANIGRAHI

(Type Curves) Decling Curve Analysis

NOBLE SAM KOSHY

Coiled Tubing Workover

PADWAL MANDAR SAHEBRAO

Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation

PATEL ROHIT PRADEEP

Shale Gas - Technology Advances

PRANSHU SHRIVASTAVA

Material Balance In Oil Reservoirs

PUJARI SHRIDHAR MAHADEV

SRP

RAJESH PAWAN RATHI

Gas Lift

RAKTIM BORPATRAGOHAIN

Production Optimization Using Prosper

RANDHIR KUMAR SINGH

Downhole Fluid Analysis

RATHI RISHABH RAKESH

Slim Hole Drilling

RISHIK KUMAR BORAH

CBM Technology

SATYAM KRISHNA

C. B. M. Technology

SOSE ARJUN PANDURANG

Gas Injection

STEFY ANN THOMAS

Reservoir Heterogeneity

SUSRAT GAUTAM BHARALI

EOR - MEOR

THAKKAR MANTHAN KEYUR

Deflection Tools

TOLKAR WALID IBRAHIM

RSS

UTKARSH H. TIWARI

Dynamometer Cards (surface and down-hole)

VIJAY PICHIKALA

Kick Causes and Indications

WALIVKAR MANGESH S.

SRP Automation

ZENDE PRASAD CHANDRAKANT

Directional drilling

PHAD VAIBHAV V.

Drilling and Problems

PATEL KUNAL H.

Pipeline Transportation of Oil / Natural Gas


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SPE AIIIP 2011 COMMITTEE LIST

SPE AIIIP 2011

Competition/ Event Student Paper Presentation Case Study Darcy Business Challenge Model Making Poster Presentation Photography Debate Quiz SE Paper Presentation Committee Magazine-MIT SPECK 2011 Stage Arrangement Catering Accommodation Transportation P.A. System Computer Memento Compering Media (Photo/ Video) Store Print Media Management Crisis Management Walk To Remember Guest Committee Internship Committee Felicitation Ground Management Post- Function Invitation Committee Website Documentation & Reporting

Co-ordinators Prateek Pandey, Ankita Zoting, Chetan Vij, Kushal Doshi Abhishek Punase, Abhishek Bihani Vaibav Jain, Jitin Kazhakapurayi Nitin Gandhare, Zishaan Haindade Prajakta Kulkarni Gaurav Singavi, Amol Patane Panchamlal, Satyam Krishna Levin Chacko, Chaitanya Padalkar, Ankita Sinha Team Rishabh Rathi, Kutbuddin Bhatia, Nishant Panigrahi, Aman Arora, Raktim B., Noble Koshy, Manthan Thakkar Nakul Khandelwal, Nithin Gandhare, N.Loya Arjun Sose, Neha Porwal Nishant Panigrahi Pranshu Srivastava Susrut Bharali Umang Patel , Rahul Agarwal Randhir Singh Sharanya Sharma, Nishant Panigrahi, Amit Raina, Aditya Ravi, Mrunali Patil, Stefy Thomas Paritosh Doshi, Prashant Dangat Pratik Godse, Debarpit Chandra Mandar Padwal, Nikhil Badewale Raj Chandak Neha Agarwal, Abhishek Garg, Monali Lobo, Sadaf Chisti Satyam Krishna, Sharanya Sharma Prashant Dangat Fatemeh Famoori Ajit Muley, Ajinkya Nagaonkar Aditya Ravi Pratik Joshi, Shweta Tare, Pratiksha Tathed, Rohini Poptani, Pratik Kapadnis, Pooja Bora Raktim B., Nishant Panigrahi, Bilal Ghansar, Anirban Banerjee Amit Raina


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*Bolded names are the Head of that respective committee.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Magazine Committee would like to thank everyone for their contribution to MIT-SPECK 2011 especially:

Cover Page-

Nikhil Rajput & Mayank Kumar

Collages-

Aditee Kulkarni & Neha Porwal

Middle Page-

Randhir Kumar & Arjun Puri

Printing-

Prasad Zende


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2002

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? 2011

2012

Your feedback really MATTERS Help us improve. Contact: MIT-SPE Student Chapter (MIT_SPE@rediffmail.com)


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MIT SPECK 2011  

The 10th Issue of a long standing tradition of MIT Pune Petroleum Department. The Theme for this issue is "It will never end"