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Meaning Of Sociology Etymological meaning: Sociology Socious Logas (Latin) (Greek) Society Science Web of Social relationship Sociology: is a scientific study of society. Definition of sociology According to Ward”Sociology is a science of society”. According to Giddings” Sociology is scientific study of study”. According to MacIver & Page “Sociology is about social relationship, the network of relationbships, we call society.” According to Johnson, “Society is science of social groups.”

(III) Scope of Sociology

Formal or specialistic or Particularistic school

Synthetic school

1. Propounder is Geoge Simmel (Germany) 2. Others are Verkant, Max Weber, Von Weise, Tonnies 3. Sociology should have its specific Subject matter of study (IV) Subject matter of sociology Study of social relations Social statistics Social Dynamics (V) Nature of Sociology  As a Science Scientific method is used Observation is used Study of ‘What is’ Cause-effect relationship is analyzed Theories are built Theories can be retested Theories are universal Prediction can be done  OBJECTIONS AGAINST SCIENTIFIC NATURE

1.Lack of Objectivity 7.Lack of Predictabilty


5.Lack of causeeffect relationship

2.Complexity of social phenomena

3.Dynamic nature of social phenomena

4.Difficulty in measurement

(VI) Origin & Development of Sociology 1838 August Comte of France coined the term sociology He gave theory of scientific philosophy Comte, Marx & Spencer throw light on social Evaluation.

Different stages of Development of Sociology Ist stage –started in Europe, Pluto-republic, Aristotle-Politics Vedas,Upnishads & Purans of India. IInd stage-Religion & Philosophy were used to understand social phenomena IIIrd stage- Scientific methods were used to understand social phenomena. IVth stage- Formal study of sociology began first of all in YALE University of America.

Development of Sociology in India 1. Development in ancient India 2. Formal development of sociology (1914-Bombay University,1917-Calcutta University,1921-Lucknow University) 3. Spread of Sociology in independent India (V) Social Group Meaning & Definition MacIver & Page “Collection of Human beings in social relationship with one another” Herteon,”Collection of two or more individuals & having social relationships” Characteristics of Social Groups

Social relationship

Collectio n of individual s

Work division


General interest



Collectiv e Deal

Startific ation

Voluntary members hip

Type of Social Group Small 1.

Basis of Number formal


2. informal Stable 3. Basis of Stability

Quasi Unstable Outgroup

4. We Feeling Ingroup 5. Reference Group (Basis of Aspiration) Primary 6. Basis of Social Relationship Secondary

(VI) Social Process-is different form of social interaction

Associative 1.Co-operation 2.Accomdation 3.Assimilation 4.Acculturation

Dissociative 1.Competetion 2.Conflict 5.Integretion

(VII) Socialization-is a process by which a child acquires a cultural content along with the self hood and personality. Stages – Oral stage

Anal stage Oedipus stage Adolescence Adult Young Old Agency of socialization

Family Play group Neighborhood Secondary group Theories of Socialization I. II. III.

Cooley Theory- Looking Glass Self Theory Head Theory –I & Me Theory Frend Theory-Id, Ego & Superego

Paper II B.A.Part I Sociology (I)

N.K.Bose -ďƒ Approach of study-Civilizational Important Studies -1.Study of caste system 2.Gandhian view of Bose 3.Indian nationalism 4.Unity & Diversity in Indian Peasant Life 5.National Integration

(II) G.S.Ghurye (1893-1983) Approach of study –Indological Major works-1.Schedule tribes 2.Indian Sadhus 3.Caste System 4.Cities& Civilization (III) Joint Family Common residence Common Kitchen


Rights & Duties



Common Worship

Large Size Common Property

(IV) Caste System- 1.It is based on birth 2.Endogamy 3.Segregate society 4.Restrictions on social intercourse 5.Heirachy 6.Ascribed membership (V)Factors for change in caste system 1.Industrailization 2.Education 3.Western Civilization 4.Impact of Wealth 5.Means of Transport & Communication 6.Democracy 7.Abolition of caste panchayat 8.Disorganisation of joint family. (V) Corruption 1.Shortcut to fulfill aspirations 2.Bribe is given or taken 3.Biased attitude 4.Money is a goal & a means 5.Law is violated.

Change in values

Lack of Control on corruption

Expansion of cash economic system

Causes in India Collaboration of business & politics

Distorted Goverment

Dirty politics




Types of Corruption

White Collar


(vi) Poverty-Two Perspective



Basis of minimum

Minimum living standard

Income required for Subsistence

National Income

Measurement of poverty

Per Head Consumption Expenditure

Per Capita Income

ChronicPasses from generation to generation

Type of Poverty

Acute for sometime




Ill health





Culture of Poverty


(vii) Unemployment-means without employment Seasonal Educated




Types Voluntary Disguised

Semi unemployme nt Friction Unemplo yment

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