Page 1

Compound Words

March 2, 2012

TLÜ Haapsalu Kolledž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Warm-Up Translate into English. kasvuhoone kaugushüpe majakas jääkaru keskaeg meelespea (lill) 50-aastane naine äi valgusaasta vererõhk

asepresident kooliõpetaja kirdetuul tulumaks lühiajaline mälu viiskümmend neli hõbehall vaas maksumaksja ühenädalane puhkus poolõde

TLÜ Haapsalu Kolledž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Compounding A compound word = a word composed of two or more words. There are three forms of compound words: 1) the closed form (the solid compound), in which the words are melted together, e.g., notebook, keyboard, butterfly 2) the hyphenated form, in which words are joined by a hyphen or hyphens, e.g., daughter-in-law, six-year-old, Tshirt, merry-go-round 3) the open form, in which words are spelled as unconnected, e.g., post office, real estate, full moon TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Compounding As expressions become more popular or adopt special meanings, they follow a gradual evolution from two or more separate or hyphenated words to single words. E.g. audio visual - audio-visual - audiovisual wild life - wild-life - wildlife There is only one sure way to know how to spell compounds in English: use an authoritative up-to-date dictionary!

TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Basic Rules Some word pairs convey a different meaning when they are written as solid compounds. Thus, choose the correct form for what you mean, e.g., anyway = regardless any way = in any manner blackbird = a species of bird black bird = any bird coloured black Print solid two nouns that form a third when the compound has only one primary accent, especially when the prefixed noun consists of only one syllable, e.g. bathroom, bookseller, cupboard Certain expressions are written as separate words when they are used as noun phrases but are hyphenated or written solid when used as adjectives before nouns, e.g., deep sea vs. deep-sea fauna TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Basic Rules When verbs are combined with a preposition or adverb, write them as two words. But when the same two words are used as nouns or adjectives, they should be hyphenated or joined, e.g. to break up vs. a breakup. Most words with prefixes and suffixes are printed solid. A hyphen is sometimes used to avoid doubling a vowel or tripling a consonant. A hyphen is also used to join a prefix to a capitalized word or to distinguish a compound word from a homonym, e.g., anti-American, mid-April, re-cover (cover again) vs. recover. Print with a hyphen the prefixes ex- and self-, e.g., ex-girlfriend, self-educated. TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Basic Rules Print solid any, every, some, no when combined with body, thing, one, where, e.g., everywhere, somebody, nothing, anyone. Print no one as two words at all times! Print compound personal pronouns as one word, e.g. herself, themselves. Don’t hyphenate a civil or military title denoting a single office, but print a double title with a hyphen, e.g., secretary general, vice president, but secretary-treasurer. Use hyphens in a prepositional-phrase compound noun consisting of three or more words, e.g., mother-in-law, man-of-war. Print a hyphen in a compound formed of repetitive terms, e.g. razzle-dazzle, walkie-talkie. TLÜ Haapsalu Kolledž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Basic Rules A prefix that is standing alone but is representative of a compound word carries a hyphen, e.g., over- and underused, micro- and macroeconomics. Use a hyphen to join a single capital letter to a noun, e.g. Xray, T-shirt, H-bomb Print as one word compass directions consisting of two points, e.g., northeast, southwest Use a hyphen to join the elements of an improvised compound, e.g. a let-George-do-it attitude, a how-to-bebeautiful course TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Basic Rules Print a hyphen between words, or abbreviations and words, combined to form a unit modifier immediately preceding the word modified, e.g., large-scale project, long-term loan, lowcost housing. Where meaning is clear and readability is not aided, it is not necessary to use a hyphen, e.g., nuclear power plant, high school student, life insurance company. Print without a hyphen a compound predicate adjective or noun the second element of which is a present participle, e.g. the effects were far reaching, the area is used for beet raising. Print without a hyphen a compound predicate adjective the second element of which is a past participle, e.g., the area is drought stricken, this material is fire tested. TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Basic Rules Print without a hyphen a two-word modifier the first element of which is a comparative or superlative, e.g., best liked books, better paying job. Do not use a hyphen in a two-word unit modifier the first element of which is an adverb ending in ly, e.g., eagerly awaited moment, highly rated bank. Compounds containing other adverbs are hyphenated, e.g., wellwritten article, ever-rising flood. A unit modifier containing a numeral or spelled-out number is usually hyphenated, e.g., a 15-minute test, two-thirds, a 10year-old boy. TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Compounds N N morphology lecture = head of compound morphology = modifier

N lecture

Headed compounds are called endocentric. An unheaded compound is called exocentric, e.g. redneck, bigfoot, pickpocket. Copulative compounds are formed by words of equal importance, e.g. bittersweet, singer-songwriter. TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Compounds It is possible to form compounds out of compounds, e.g., coffee table book, coffee table book cover, coffee table book cover design. There is no logical limit to the lengths of such compounds. Thus we can say that compounding in English is recursive (can repeat itself indefinitely). Ways of combining words: N + N = N (coffee table), N + Adj = Adj (iron hard), Adj + Adj = Adj (icy cold), Adj + N = N (blackbird), V + N = N (swearword), Prep + V = V (overrate), V + Prep = N (pushup), Prep + N = N (underground), Prep + Adj = Adj (overdone), Prep + Prep = Prep (without), N + Prep = N (looker-on), etc. TASK: Give your own example for each of the above-mentioned combinations. TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Distinguishing Compounds and Phrases A compound is very similar to a phrase, e.g. a black bird vs. a blackbird. Phonology: The normal way of pronouncing the compound word blackbird would be with stress on black. This pattern of initial stressing is called compound accent. Syntax: We can modify an adjective with a degree term such as very, somewhat or surprisingly. But this is impossible with compound words. TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Bibliography

English Compound http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_compound Spelling Compound Words http://www.wilbers.com/part24.htm http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/compounds.htm

TLÜ Haapsalu Kolledž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee


Practice Can you spot any errors in the use of compounds in the following sentences? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The war in Iraq has been a closely-monitored media event. Follow up activities have been scheduled for June and July. We must follow up on these changes. Long term planning must be an essential goal of this company. The committee centers all of its recommendations in performance based standards. 6. She is a well respected teacher. TLĂœ Haapsalu KolledĹž, Lihula mnt. 12, Haapsalu 90507; Tel: 472 0240; e-post: kolledz@hk.tlu.ee; http://www.hk.tlu.ee

Compounding  

Compound words.

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you