Unit 1 Revision Questions 1. Proteins 1. What elements are in proteins? 2. What are the basic units of proteins? 3. What is meant by primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of proteins? 4. What is a fibrous protein? 5. Explain how a muscle contracts. 6. What is a globular protein? 7. What is a conjugated protein? 8. Give examples of fibrous, globular, and conjugated proteins. 2. Enzymes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
What is an enzyme? How does an enzyme work? Explain the effect of temperature and pH on enzyme action. Explain the effect of enzyme concentration on enzyme action. Explain the effect of substrate concentration on enzyme action. 6. How does a competitive inhibitor effect enzyme action? 7. How does a non-competitive inhibitor effect enzyme action? 8. How are enzymes activated? 3. Protein Synthesis 1. What is DNA? 2. Describe the structure of a nucleotide. 3. Explain how chemical and hydrogen bonds hold a DNA molecule together. 4. What are the 4 bases, and how do they pair? 5. What are the 3 differences between DNA and RNA? 6. What is a codon? 7. What is an anti-codon? 8. What is the function on mRNA? 9. What is the function of tRNA? 10. Explain the steps involved in transcription. 11. Explain the steps involved in translation. Cell Structure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
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nucleus? nucleolus? ribosomes? RER? SER? Golgi apparatus? lysosomes? mitochondria? cell membrane?
4. ATP and the Krebs’ Cycle 1. 2. 3. 4.
What do cells use for their energy source? What does this source get converted into after use? Where does glycolysis occur? Outline the stages of glycolysis, including anything lost or gained. 5. What is the function of NAD? 6. Where, precisely, does the Krebs’ cycle occur? 7. Outline the steps of the Krebs’ cycle, including anything which is given off, or gained at each step. 8. What is the last stage of aerobic respiration? 9. Where does this stage occur? 10.Outline the steps of this stage. 11.What is the function of oxygen? 12.How many molecules of ATP does one molecule of glucose generate? 13.Outline the steps of anaerobic respiration. 14.Where does anaerobic respiration occur? 15.How many molecules of ATP are produced during anaerobic respiration? 5. Sources of Energy Have not included questions on the identification of carbohydrates, but read your notes on it, often asked as a PS question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
What are carbohydrates used for? What is a simple lipid? What is a phospholipid? Outline how fat can be used as an energy source. Other than for energy, what are the roles of lipids? How can proteins be used for energy? What happens during starvation? Outline the energy sources used by a marathon runner from the start to the end of a race.
6. Cell Membrane and Transport of materials 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
What is the cell membrane composed of? How are the components arranged? What is this arrangement known as? What are the 2 functions of the phospholipids bi-layer? What are the roles of proteins in the membrane? What is diffusion? What is osmosis? What happens if a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution? 9. What happens if a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution? 10. What happens if a red blood cell is placed in an isotonic solution?
11. What is active transport? 12. What conditions are required for active transport? 13. What is the difference between endocytosis, and exocytosis? 14. What is the difference between pinocytosis, and phagocytosis? 7. Cellular Response in Defence 1. What is immunity? 2. Give examples of innate immunity. 3. What cells carry out phagocytosis? 4. Outline the process of phagocytosis. 5. What is an antigen? 6. What is the humoral response? 7. What is the cell-mediated response? 8. What is the function of a helper T-cell? 9. What is a memory cell? 10. What are the differences between the primary, and secondary response to an antigen? 11. How can pathogens be altered to produce a vaccine? 12. What is the difference between active and passive immunity? 13. Give an example of natural active immunity. 14. Give an example of natural passive immunity. 15. Give an example of artificial active immunity. 16. Give an example of artificial passive immunity. 17. What is an allergy? 18. For the 4 blood groups, state their antigens and antibodies. 19. Which blood group can donate to all others? 20. Which blood group can receive from all others? 21. What happens if someone receives the wrong blood? 22. Why are transplanted organs often rejected? 23. What is autoimmunity? 8. Viruses 1. 2. 3. 4.
Why are viruses called obligate parasites? What is the structure of a virus? Outline the steps involved in viral replication. What 3 things are required by a virus, from the host cell, for successful replication? 5. What is a retrovirus? 6. How does a retrovirus replicate? 7. What is AIDS, and what is its cause? 9. Chromosomes and DNA Replication 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
What is a chromosome complement? What is an autosome? What is the difference between haploid and diploid? What is the difference between meiosis, and mitosis? Outline the steps of DNA replication. Why is DNA replication said to be semi-conservative?
10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Meiosis Outline What is What is What is What is
the stages of meiosis. formed as a result of meiosis? independent assortment and why is it important? crossing over, and why is it important? chiasma?
For chapters 11, 12, and 14 it is important that you do a lot of practice questions from the past papers. You must also know the definitions of the terms from S.G. genetics work. 11.
1. What is the difference between complete, incomplete, and codominance? 2. What are the 3 phenotypes of haemoglobin? 12. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 13.
Sex-linked and Polygenic Inheritance What are the sex chromosomes for males and females? What are sex-linked genes? Name 2 sex-linked conditions. What is a heterozygous female called? Who is more likely to suffer from a sex-linked condition? What is polygenic inheritance? What is the additive effect? Mutations and Chromosomal Abnormalities
1. What is a mutation? 2. What is a gene mutation? 3. What is deletion? 4. What is insertion? 5. What is inversion? 6. What is substitution? 7. What is a point mutation? 8. What is a frameshift mutation? 9. How does PKU arise? 10.How does albinism arise? 11.How does cystic fibrosis arise? 12.Give 2 examples of mutagenic agents. 13.What is non-disjunction. 14.How does Turnerâ€™s syndrome arise? 15.How does Kleinfelterâ€™s syndrome arise? 14. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Genetic Screening and Counselling How can a trait be recognised as autosomal recessive? How can a trait be recognised as autosomal dominant? How can a trait be recognised as sex-linked recessive? Outline 2 methods of pre-natal screening. Which condition is screened for post-natally?