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"Nothing more excellent or

valuable than wine was ever granted by the Gods to man." Plato


What is in Wine?

Caloric content dependent upon alcohol and sugar content


How is wine made? 

After harvesting  The

grapes are transported to the winery where they undergo destemming and crushing. are a variety of presses that are used to produce the juice, which is called “must”.

Crusher

 There

Small Bladder Press


How is wine made? ď ś

The sugar in the wine is used by the yeast to produce ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas, thus making wine. Large Rotary Press

ď ś The

type of yeast can affect the qualities of the wine as will other compounds in the wine - some naturally occurring and some that are byproducts of the winemaking process.


How is wine made? ď ś

Fermentation and Aging ď ś After

crushing and pressing the must is transferred to large, refrigerated stainless steel tanks where it is fermented to produce wine. ď ś Once

fermentation is complete, the wine can be transferred to barrels for aging for 6 to 24 months.

Active Yeast Cells

Fermentation Tanks

Barrel filling Barrel aging


How is wine made? 

Fermentation and Aging:

 The

barrels are usually made from Oak (??)  Some wine is aged in old barrels and some in new to produce different characteristics, as well.

Active Yeast Cells

Fermentation Tanks

Barrel filling Barrel aging


How is wine made? ď ś Bottling

and Cellaring: the wine is complete it is transferred to bottles. ď ś Most wine is consumed within three years of bottling.

Bottles being filled Bottling line

ď ś After

Large Commercial Cellar

Small in-home cellar


How is wine made? 

Bottling and Cellaring: 

Some fine wines gain added flavor and bouquet with time in the bottle if it is stored at 50 to 60 F. But, humidity is also important so that the corks do not dry out, which spoils the wine.

Bottles being filled Bottling line

Large Commercial Cellar

The wines commonly aged in the bottle are: Cabernet Sauvignon (Red) Pinot Noir (Red) Chardonnay (White) Champagne (White Sparkling)  Port  Sherry    

Small in-home cellar


Differences in making red & white wine White Wine:   

Grapes for white wine are harvested and pressed. The must is fermented in stainless steel tanks. Some white wines, such as Chardonnay, is aged in oak barrels. The wine is bottled Most white wines are not bottle aged but consumed with in 3 years of bottling. However, an exception is particularly fine wines made from Chardonnay and Champagne.

Red Wine:  

   

Grapes for red wine are harvested, crushed. The must is left with the skins during fermentation to produce the red color. Red wine is commonly aged in oak barrels for 6 to 24 months. The wine is bottled. Many red wines are ready to drink after bottling. However, some red wines, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, will benefit with some bottle age.


Sparkling wines Champagne (Sparking) Wine:       

Grapes for sparking wine are harvested and pressed. It is fermented like a white wine. More sugar and yeast is added to the wine. The wine is bottled. The additional sugar and yeast produce carbon dioxide, which carbonates the wine. The second fermentation is stopped. Most sparkling wines are made to drink young. But, fine Champagne will benefit with additional bottle age.


Summary 

     

Wine grapes are harvested either manually or mechanically. Manually harvested grapes are usually preferred. After harvesting, grapes are destemmed, crushed (or pressed) to produce the juice, referred to as “must”. The must is fermented and sometimes aged in oak to add flavor and aroma in some wines before bottling. Sparkling wines such as Champagne are made by imposing a secondary fermentation in the bottle to produce carbonation. Most wine is made to be consumed within 3 years of production. However, some fine wines may gain special qualities by further bottle aging.


Why smelling, not only tasting? Men can perceive only 4 kinds by tasting‌ But, can perceive hundreds of by smelling!


Tasting Wine • Watching

• Tasting

• Smell


Consumption of Wine in World France, Italy, Portuguese 60 liters per person Belgium, Germany, Austria 20 liters per person Turkey 1 liter per person annually

WINE  

wine description

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