Page 1

IUSD — Yearbook 2011/2012

MSc Integrated Urbanism & Sustainable Design (IUSD) www.iusd.uni-stuttgart.de


Editor: Nina Gribat, supported by Raoul Humpert IUSD Design Concept: Studio Matthias Gรถrlich, Darmstadt MSc Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design (MSc IUSD) Faculty of Architecture and Urban Design University of Stuttgart www.iusd.uni-stuttgart.de Print of Prototype: typographics GmbH, Darmstadt Copyright disclaimer: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form of by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 2012

Supported by:

IUSD Office University of Stuttgart Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning Keplerstrasse 11 70174 Stuttgart/Germany info@iusd.uni-stuttgart.de

IUSD Office Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering 1 El-Sarayat Street 11517 Abbasiya, Cairo/Egypt iusd@eng.asu.edu.eg


IUSD — Yearbook 2011/2012


5 — Table of contents

Introduction 5

01 — Architecture

7

Energy-efficient and Sustainable Architecture Sustainable Architecture I & II 9 Sustainable Architecture — Low Tech or High Tech? 12

02 — Urban Planning

17

Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management Urban Planning I Urban Planning II Design and Planning — Theories and Methods Extreme Urbanism

19 28 36 38

03 — Landscape

53

Ecosystem Design and Integrated Infrastructure Planning Designing Growth — Linking Urban Development with Baubotanik Processes

66

04 — Integrated Research and Design

73

Wagenhallen Atlas Strategic Design Projects: Transforming Nordbahnhof and Wagenhallen Area

75 84

05 — IUSD People

93

IUSD Staff, Stuttgart & Cairo IUSD Students 2011/12

95 98

55


6 — IUSD Yearbook 2011/2012


7 —

Introduction Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz – course director, University of Stuttgart Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen – course director, Ain Shams University Prof. Antje Stokman – director of admissions, University of Stuttgart Prof. Dr. Youhansen Eid – director of admissions, Ain Shams University Dr. Bernd Eisenberg – coordinator, University of Stuttgart Dr. Nina Gribat – coordinator, University of Stuttgart Dr. Yehya Serag – coordinator, Ain Shams University In less than two years after their successful funding bid, Ain Shams University and Stuttgart University are proud to have successfully established the new international double degree Masters Programme “Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design” (IUSD). The establishment of the programme took place in the context of the dramatic political transformation process in the MENA region which presented (and continues to present) many challenges but also, more importantly, fuelled the enthusiasm of all those involved. Furthermore, this transformation process has affirmed and validated our initial aim of training a new generation of experts and decision-makers (practitioners, academics, civil servants) from a variety of backgrounds to face the tremendous environmental, technological and social challenges of the rapid urbanization in the MENA region. It also offers the chance to our graduates to contribute to this transformation process by pursuing new career possibilities within more democratic and open societies. Highlights of the first academic year in Stuttgart included the inaugural conference of “Integrated Urbanism Dialogues I” (December 2011) – a new format for public discourses, which will accompany our Masters Programme throughout the next years; an excursion to Berlin and several excursions to symposia and conferences organised by partner institutions; workshops such as intensive sessions on team-building, conflict and project management as well as a week of clay construction in France. In addition, the results of the Integrated Research and Design Module of the first semester – the Wagenhallen Atlas

– were shown at an exhibition in Stuttgart and on the basis of this great publication, IUSD was invited to be an academic partner for the real-time architecture festival 72 H Urban Action, which took place in Stuttgart in the summer of 2012. This yearbook contains selected works of the first cohort of IUSD students, who started studying at the University of Stuttgart in Winter Semester 2011/12 and have transfered to Ain Shams University in Cairo after the Summer Semester 2012. The yearbook gives an impression of the variety and kinds of subjects that were taught during the first year on the basis of the students’ works – most, but not all courses could be represented. The IUSD team at the University of Stuttgart and Ain Shams University wants to thank the first cohort of IUSD students for their dedication and enthusiasm! Also we thank our universities and all our colleagues who contributed to the teaching and worked tirelessly to make IUSD a success. In particular we want to thank the DAAD staff in Bonn and Cairo whose active support made the establishment of IUSD possible. We are looking forward to the second year, which will take place both in Cairo in Stuttgart! ●


01 — Architecture


10 — Architecture


11 —

Energy-efficient and Sustainable Architecture, Sustainable Architecture I & II Core Module, WS 2011/12 & SS 2012 Prof. José Luis Moro, IEK

The aim of this Sustainable Architecture I is for students to understand the relations between questions of energy efficiency, sustainable building design and urban design, to analyse basic problems and to work out architectural and urban concepts on their own in dialogue with interdisciplinary project partners. The course provides an overview of best-practice projects including technologydriven design approaches and “low-tech” alternatives tested in Europe and the global south. Students study the principles of environmental architecture, including energy conservation, reduction of embodied energy of buildings and recycling, or the possibilities to integrate the use of solar energy and other renewable energy sources in architecture. The aim of Sustainable Architecture II is for students to recognise the interaction between construction and building form and to test these relations by doing practical and realistic design tasks. On one hand, the close conjunction between the distribution of forces, materials and their assembly is being introduced, and, on the other hand, the aesthetical aim of a designer. The students increase their technical, constructive and design-related

repertoire and recognise the relations between energy efficiency issues, sustainable building design and urban planning. This course offers a practical introduction to different means for energy conservation in buildings, as an approach to environmental architecture. It also examines the principles of environmental architecture and urban planning and their role in energy conservation, sources of renewable and nonrenewable energy, and the use of solar energy in architecture. The course is based upon the assumption that green architecture is not a matter of purely technology-based solutions but of an intelligent integration of complex factors, including functional and organizational aspects, a recognition of the human and behavioural dimension, context-specific issues such as local architectural traditions and typologies, local building materials, local climate and other ecological factors, as well as socio-cultural aspects and poverty-related issues. ●


12 — Architecture

Wagenhallen Pavilion – deployable info center – movable walls concept – ground floor plan – original position

Wagenhallen Pavilion – deployable info center – movable walls concept – ground floor plan – open back postion — Sebastian Hahn and Nahla Makhlouf


13 — Energy-efficient and Sustainable Architecture

Wagenhallen Pavilion – deployable info center – southern elevation

Wagenhallen Pavilion – deployable info center – longitudinal section

Wagenhallen Pavilion – deployable info center – northern facade section – movable facade section and southern facade section — Sebastian Hahn and Nahla Makhlouf


14 — Architecture

Sustainable Architecture: Low-Tech or High-Tech? Elective, SS 2012 Dominique Gauzin-Müller, external at IEK

Sustainable Architecture: Low-Tech or High-Tech? Sustainable Architecture is the result of integrated planning, which combines ecologic, economic, cultural and social aims. In order to explore his meaning in depth, the seminar was structured around four questions. Where does sustainable architecture come from? Pioneers like Frank Lloyd Wright, Alvar Aalto and Hassan Fathy were collectively studied and foundational texts about philosophy, economy and sociology commented. How much High-Tech is appropriate? Sustainable Architecture demands a deep knowledge about current technologies, but it does not need to be covered with photovoltaic. Case studies and a guest lecture by Arnaud Billard from Transsolar climate engineering (e.g. Masdar City) has supported us in defining the right measure of High-Tech depending on the context.

What does Low-Tech mean in the Global North and in the Global South? „More with less“ is one of the key words representing Low-Tech architecture. Case studies and a guest lecture by Anna Heringer (Aga Khan Prize Winner 2007) has demonstrated how it is possible to achieve beauty and create specific identities with little means. Where is the balance between High-Tech and Low- Tech? Sustainable architecture has to fulfill its functions and satisfy its users. It should be adapted to its natural, social and cultural environment and require little energy. Local, renewable materials should be favored. Numerous international examples from all the continents were collectively analyzed in order to understand the process, which brings to a more sustainable world. We also tried to answer two decisive questions: Which role does context play? Does sustainability bring about a particular aesthetic? ●


15 —

Center for building crafts in Saint Catherine, Egypt


16 — Architecture

Center for building crafts in Saint Catherine, Egypt

Case study: Center for building crafts in Saint Catherine by Mona Elkabbany and Nahla Makhlouf Story and actors The project is one among 70 EU funded projects in South Sinai through the South Sinai Regional Development program SSRDP. It was initiated as a proposal by an Egyptian NGO (Egyptian Earth Construction Association ‘EECA’). The aim of the project was to enhance the architectural character for Saint Catherine region, by trying to find appropriate building techniques suitable for local Bedouins to adopt after the project period and harmonize with the local context. Due to financial constraints, a partnership was established with one of the Bedouin land owners - Sheikh Moussa - to build on his land. In return the project team renovated two old buildings that he owned. The main activity of the project was to construct the training Center for Building Crafts. Other activities included issuing a building manual documenting building recommendations Providing vocational education for local builders, and technical assistance.

Location — Egypt, Sinai Peninsula, South Sinai Governorate — Elevation: 1586 m — Mount St. Cathrine 2629 m, the highest mountain in Egypt is surrounding the city. People and Culture — Population was around 4,603 inhabitants (1994), nowadays it is around 10,000 inh — 75.1% Gebaliya Bedouin ( 7 tribes, coming from South-Eastern Europe and Arabian Peninsula). Gebaliyah tribe represents the most skillful builders in South Sinai — Egyptians, Greeks and Russians — Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Climate — Summer: hot days, refreshing cool nights — Winter: very cold days, nights could reach –14° C, snowfalls take place from year to year


17 — Sustainable Architecture: Low-Tech or High-Tech?

Center for building crafts in Saint Catherine, Egypt Extract from a presentation by Mona Elkabbany and Nahla Makhlouf

History and tourist attraction Monastery of Saint Catherine, The Rock of Moses, UNESCO world heritage area Building program — Built Area: 300 square meters — Components: training halls, internal open space (Mag’aad), kitchen, toilet — Usage: The building was constructed to be a training center for local building crafts in Saint Catherine — Construction Techniques: rammed earth walls, stone walls and foundation, timber flat roof, dry toilet, constructed wetland, natural cooling and warming Architecture and Construction Building technique of the Bedouin were taken from the Byzantine settlers, standing away from the flood area. Form — Houses are built next to huge boulders, small rock shelters and storage rooms are constructed under the boulders — Simple and small stone structures with rounded walls, flat roofs, small openings and doors

Materials Stone and rock structures, cane roofing Rammed earth — This technique was chosen as an alternative to cement blocks that are currently used by Beduins in building. — Walls are constructed on a layer of a rock high-leveled foundation. — Bedouins interacted better with the manual ramming than the pneumatic rammers. — Different samples of soil from the surrounding desert were tried and sent to the laboratory for testing. Stone walls The second type of wall construction is using stone. It is a common natural construction material in Katrina. Bedouins use the large irregular stones from the mountain that are driven by the flood into the valley. Clay mortar was used. ●


18 — Architecture

Case study: Lloyd Crossing Sustainable Design Plan, Portland, Oregon, USA by Ghevar Ismaiel The project includes: construction of 35 dense urban blocks with 8.1 million square feet of mixed-use development within a time frame of 45 years. It is guided by the principles of “pre-development metrics”, which are based on the restoration of the area’s environmental qualities to the pre-development state. In order to achieve these aims, the planners outlined four key topics of interest: the formation of a high density urban area, the recovery of the area’s biodiversity, optimal exploitation of water, the limitation of energy consumption. Habitat and biodiversity: Before urban development the area was a coniferous forest (90% tree cover). The plan aspires to increase the vegetation cover of currently 14.5% to 25–30% by 2050. This increase in vegetation also includes afforestation along the streets and the creation of garden roofs on most buildings in the area. In addition, a habitat corridor will be created to bring different types of animals and birds from the nearby forest to the city, restoring some of the original environmental qualities. Moreover, a number of green areas will be created that penetrate the center of the urban fabric to soften the atmosphere at times of high heat and to alleviate the phenomenon of urban heat islands, which result in heightened temperatures of up to 10 degrees in urban areas in comparison to green areas. Water: The region receives about 64 million gallons per year, most of which goes to the drains. The plan puts a design for collection points of rainwater in the streets. It proposes wastewater reuse after recycling, in order to cover all requirements of the neighborhood water for other purposes than drinking. Energy consumption: The region receives annually 161 million kilowatts of solar energy. The project aspires to exploit some of this energy through expanded use of PV

cells and wind turbines in buildings. The plan also aims to re-balance carbon emissions with the activation of vegetation emitting oxygen and by reducing the use of traditional energy sources emitting carbon dioxide. The plan includes the work with possible scenarios to determine the best urban configurations in terms of optimum utilization of available climatic conditions. Environmental studies, for instance include figuring out the shading ratios in both summer and winter. The preferred urban models are those given the largest amount of shading periods in the summer. The areas most exposed to the sun and the areas with less shading by neighboring buildings are considered when it comes to the installation of photovoltaic cells. Different computer programs support engineers and planners in the completion of such environmental assessment. Place making: The plan encourages mixed land-use creating job opportunities close to housing, which in turn reduces the energy consumption of commuting to work. As a side effect, this mix also increases social interaction among residents. The plan proposed a differentiation of the road network into three categories: primary, secondary, and green. The plan also contains regulations of building heights particularly of buildings adjacent to the street in order to prevent heavy shading and maintain a human scale. This system also allows for increased architectural diversity as volumes remain proportional to the structural system of regulations while following different configurations of the building mass. The Catalyst Project – a pilot scheme of four blocks – aims to implement the plan on the neighborhood scale including detailed environmental studies, precise calculations of the required budgets and the economic returns anticipated. Projects such as the Lloyd Crossing help in turning the overall vision of achieving sustainable urban development into reality in testing the foundations of sustainable urban planning theory in a real-life setting. ●


02 — Urban Planning


20 — Urban Planning


21 —

Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I Core Module, WS 2011/12 Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, SI Dr. Nina Gribat, SI

In Urban Planning I different theoretical approaches to cities, environment, social issues and to the practice of urban and regional planning itself are introduced. The module aims to make students reflect critically on urban policy-making, urban and regional planning and urban management. In highlighting how different theoretical approaches inform planning practices (and vice versa) the module demonstrates that theoretical and practical approaches to planning are closely interlinked. Furthermore, the module draws attention to the dangers of uncritically transferring theories or practices to different urban contexts (e.g. global north to global south; or growing city to shrinking city). Practical constraints of relying on best practice methodologies (and mainstream urban theories) are highlighted. For their assessment, students are asked to write essays that deal with a selected theoretical concern of this course in a chosen case study area. â—?


22 — Urban Planning

Anarchism and Authoritarianism: The Life Long Struggle – Anarchist Neighborhoods in Authoritarian Societies by Ebtihal Mohamed Zakaria Rashad Abbas Introduction Planning, a tool of political power that enforces homogeneity on all, or an agenda exploited with benefits of private developers, or a process generated by art and shaped by individuals to adapt to their environments. Neighborhoods sometimes dictated by authorities even though planned carefully, still lack human activity and creativity. With the current political structures, it would be hard to alter your life, one imposed on you by others’ decisions. This is perhaps because planning sometimes looks at future forecasts and predictions as the ultimatum. “The future is often thought of as comprising the end of a single historical time line. Yet there are multiple temporal processes at work, some made up of the sequence of historical conditions, and others of life cycles and other temporal relations that are operating on different time lines.” (Myers, 2000, p. 226) This is only a little of a long struggle between some who have resisted to choose a life they aspire and power that yearns to plan from their own insight what’s best for others. The paper will highlight the interactions and conflicts between Christiania, an anarchist neighborhood and its wider authoritarian context. It will argue whether authoritarian planning approaches limit democracy and freedom of choice by mass producing identical lifestyles for, in other words by imposing “the power of normalization which imposes homogeneity” (Foucault, 1979, p. 184). It will also reflect on whether anarchist societies tend to form ghettos as presumably thought that anarchism leads to chaotic living and creates idle environments.

Maintaining Naturalism in an Ordered Society The district of Christiania in Denmark, described by The Guardian as “one of Europe’s most famous communes”, is an area of 35 hectares for an old military site, occupying a stretch of land by the riverside. The site was squatted on by a group of youth in the 1960’s to overcome an affordable housing shortage at that time. It has become ever since, a socially inclusive neighborhood which houses around 1000 inhabitants who find Christiana as their sanctuary. It was built with a Utopian perfection of freedom and selfless living away from stressful authoritarian structures. “The objective of Christiania is to create a self-governing society whereby each and every individual holds themselves responsible over the wellbeing of the entire community. Our society is to be economically selfsustaining and, as such, our aspiration is to be steadfast in our conviction that psychological and physical destitution can be averted-Christiania’s mission statement.” (Bell, 2011) The settlement declared itself independent of the government’s authority in 1971. Neighborhood decisions are taken in public meetings where everyone participates. This sometimes lengthens the decision-making process but the main objective is to avoid unintended exclusion of anyone “even if the social status is alcoholic, foreigner, physical or psychological handicapped.” (Myter og Fakta om Christiania, 2012) The neighborhood is famous for its soft drug trading which have been left to take place thinking by that, it would limit its spreading in the society. This however, has made room for organized crime in the 1980’s but was controlled by the residents and regulated. Property ownership in Christiania is a collective ownership. No one owns any properties or land but “members of the neighborhood association jointly agree to rules governing the collectively-owned property: how it is financed, how it is maintained, and who is allowed access.” (Holcombe, 2005, p. 10). All residents pay an equal rent to a shared money box. For the past 40 years, natural human activities over time have shaped


23 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I

Christiania into a Bohemian look. A mixture of self-built huts, eco-lodges, and glass houses make up the car-free neighborhood. Each person builds according to his taste regardless of any codes restricted by authorities outside its boundaries.

Fig.1: Christiania’s Buildings (source: http://tinyhouseblog.com/tiny-house-concept/christiania-tiny-houses//)

Bargaining Law and Order In 1973, the Danish government reluctantly gave Christiania the status of a ‘social experiment’ , which implies that Christiana is a temporary situation and can be subjected to future interventions. The authorities have been trying in vain to politically integrate Christiana into the overall system under the current political umbrella, the S-R-SF (Social Democrat-Social Liberal-Socialist). Multiple political strategies have been taking place from that time varying between authoritarian dialogues, trials in court, police crackdowns and political negotiations. Even though parts of the declaration values for the Danish government address freedom of individuals and tolerance, the approaches taken do not reflect them. As part of their intimidating strategy, the government has not allowed any new construction for the last 15 years. Another approach is massive police raids to weaken the self-government achieved by its residents. A valid excuse besides political interventions for the presence of police in the community is the drug trading allowed inside. Following those negotiations started such as the registration of all buildings in Christiania. Another agreement was carried out where the community paid a tax collectively for water and electricity provisions. A further scheme was to oblige the town to accept private ownership by attempting to sell out building rights to private enterprises. Parallel to that was a ‘democratic call’ for competitions to develop a master plan for the area. Struggles between the neighborhood and the authorities have been ongoing till to date turning Christiana into a major political issue.


24 — Urban Planning

Human Existence and Anarchism Anarchy in context is rejecting governmental authority and its legalizations such as land ownership, rental systems, laws and regulations. Outside the boundaries of the neighborhood, land is only sold to those who can afford while justice, equity and fair distribution of lands, jobs and water to individuals seems to have other materialistic calculations. It does not imply lack of order since the residents take matters in their hands and impose control. It rather means a state of freedom to enjoy peaceful and productive living. It also seeks to decentralize power practiced by the authorities in all its forms including army and police, church and political parties, and economic organizations. This gives one a sense of human existence and belonging. Christiania’s people wanted to interact with their surrounding environment in their own way of perceiving, shape it and adjust it to their own needs and senses. Authority is Power Practice Authority planning derived from governance deals with visions placed by analytical forecasts. Entangled with demands of power, it deals with a long chain of approvals in entire institutional systems to achieve desired targets. It only foresees a defined time in the future, sometimes without endorsing human values and stories. While public participation remains a choice, with the way it is carried out, it narrows the choices of people to several alternatives presented to them by those in power. “Participation, formally sanctioned and supported by national governments and aid agencies, is a double-edged sword. On the one side, participation can bring about increased access to decision-making processes by local people, cutting away bureaucratic red tape and institutional constraints as it proceeds. On the other, it can be used by governments and donors to justify and reinforce inequitable social relations of power.” (Mitlin, 1995, p. 232)

Fig. 2: The circle of ownership and anarchy (source: http://www.anarchistplanner.org/articles/AUP-zine. pdf)

Anarchist Societies can be Well-Ordered By analyzing the case of Christiana in relation to the issues of authoritarian planning and anarchism, it has been structured into a regular, yet different neighborhood with the help of its residents, and has not evolved like some social housing projects into ghettos. Christiania’s way of life might actually help individuals, by overpowering their feeling of choice. One might also question if Christiana didn’t have such a strategic location by the water, a property considered valuable to private developers, would it have been so important to legalize it and sell out its lands under the name of democracy. One of the arguments is the drugs allowed within, even though some countries generally led by a democratic authoritarian structure, have higher rates of thefts and drugs. ‘Normalization’ Versus Normality The Danish government has stated that it wishes the ‘normalization’ of Christiania. The analysis regarding issues of ‘normalization’ shows that those issues have been related solely to the application of laws and regulations with the continuous presence of police to enforce them, or through encouraging private ownership and providing houses’ numbers . It seems as though normalization has been narrowed down to a struggle of political ideologies and a fight for dominance of the strongest using all powers available. Normality on the other hand one would argue would be living a normal life one chooses without fear of police raids, nor the continuous suspicion of being watched in the name of authoritarianism.


25 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I

Conclusion Christiania is a community that wants to evolve, shape itself naturally and spontaneously, like an island existing in an extremely organized wider context regulated by laws, institutions and policies. “Law, institutions – or policies and plans – provide no guarantee of freedom, equality or democracy. Not even entire institutional systems, according to Foucault, can ensure freedom, even though they are established with that purpose. On the contrary, history has demonstrated – says Foucault – horrifying examples that it is precisely those social systems which have turned freedom into theoretical formulas and treated practice as social engineering.” (Flyvbjerg, 2002). Those two narratives live side by side. By reflecting on both in context it could appear that authoritarian planning channels people’s decisions into choosing certain ideologies, ones which are set out by those in power and that needs to be considered. Simultaneously, anarchist societies need some authoritarian control for services provisions and security issues as observed in Christiania. Especially now with growing population sizes and everybody is distant to ‘the other’, self governing communities need a very high degree of self discipline with all residents, an option which might be luxurious in certain societies. It appears that one narrative cannot live without the other; therefore it could be necessary to find balance, one that allows people to create as they please and choose their own system of living. Parallel to that authority may try to maintain small social structures that are easy for individuals to comprehend and connect with each other. They can be free to choose without the conspiracy of being subjected to police crackdown or inspection if they do not do as they are told by some who have no clue what shapes their dreams and lives. ●

References Bell, G. (2011, April 14). Neighborhood Planning in Action. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from historictownsforum.org: http:// www.historictownsforum.org/ files/documents/presentations/ Newcastle_11/Graham_Bell.pdf Flyvbjerg, B. (2002). Planning and Foucault: In Search of the Dark Side of Planning Theory. In: Planning Futures: New Directions for Planning Theory, London and New York: Routledge: 44-62. Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books . Holcombe, R. G. (2005). Common Property in Anarcho-Capitalism. Journal of Libertarian Studies. Holligan, A. (2011, August 15). Denmark Christiania: New challenges for Copenhagen’s hippy zone. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from www.bbc.co.uk: http:// www.bbc.co.uk/news/worldeurope-14496193 Marshall, P. (2010). Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism. Oakland: PM Press. Mitlin, J. T. (1995). Participatory approaches in urban areas: strengthening civil society or reinforcing the status quo? Environment and Urbanization. Myers, A. K. (2000). Constructing the Future in Planning: A Survey of Theories and Tools. Journal of Planning Education and Research.

Myter og Fakta om Christiania. (2012, January 23). Retrieved January 23, 2012, from www. christiania.org: http://www. christiania.org/modules. php?name=FAQ&myfaq=yes&id_ cat=5&categories= Thörn, H. (2011). Governing Freedom — Debating the Freetown in the Danish parliament. In Space for Urban Alternatives? Christiania 1971–2011. Vilnius: BALTO print. Truc, O. (2011, March 29 ). Rules close in on Copenhagen freetown. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from Guardian Weekly: http:// www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/ mar/29/denmark-copenhagenchristiania-enclave-truc Tveter, O. (2009). Anarchist Urban Planning & Place Theory. www. anarchistplanner.org. Wheeler, J. (2007, January 26). Tolerance Fades in Denmark as Christiania Free Town Faces New Era. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from www.worldpress.org: http:// www.worldpress.org/Europe/2647. cfm


26 — Urban Planning

Implications of upgrading projects on resident’s livelihoods Assets: The Masaken Zeinhum development approach by Omar Wanas Research question What implications do upgrading projects have on livelihoods assets of residence in informal areas? Introduction Informality is a distinct phenomenon in Egyptian cities and especially in its capital Cairo. These areas have long been frowned upon by politicians, planning practitioners and even the local community, but yet these urban patches continue to grow and exist despite the neglect of the public and the deteriorated physical and economic conditions. This survival spirit deserves to be acknowledged in the plans set to deal with such areas. This essay aims acknowledge this through analysis of the livelihood assets of one of these informal areas in Cairo and reflect upon the effect of an upgrade approach on its status. Misconception of terminology In Egypt informal settlements and slums were officially given the term “Ashwa’yyat” which translates to “unorganized”. This terminology along with the negative role of the media- especially the seventh art - lead to the term being adapted by the commons and becoming a synonym for slums till this day. The main implication of this terminology was portraying of informal settlements as socially unhygienic urban plots with extreme levels of poverty, pollution, violence and crime (Sims 2003:8) that was generalized on all informal settlements in Egypt. Based on this naive stereotype and being Immersed in the “Simplistic dualism” (Lombard et al 2010:124) of random vs. systematic, informal vs. informal, deficiencies in the planning output of such areas were inevitable. Lombard (2010:121) explains that “Plans failed to grasp the complication of the system they were dealing with and overlooked resident’s inventive strategies for getting by in daily life .They also overlooked the entrepreneur forms of economic activity and self-governance that often char-

acterize these settlements”. So, Planners transform from supplying the residents with their needs and legitimate interests to dictating how they should live their life. The existing complexity and maturity of life strategies in informal areas can be well explained on household mechanisms that residents devise in order to secure their living and combat their poverty. According to The Department for international development (1999), “People require a range of assets to achieve positive livelihood outcomes, no single category of assets on its own is sufficient to yield all the many and varied livelihood outcomes that people seek.” The five main core assets of capital that can be identified are human capital, natural capital, financial capital, physical capital and social capital (DFID, 1999). As for residence of informal areas, they mostly depend on informal sectors of the economy to secure their financial capital .Their educational level and social standard prevent them from acquiring jobs in the formal economy. Davis (2006:27) describes them more articulately as the “active employed - rather than the informal which have no choice but to subsist by some means or else starve”. Other mechanisms that households employ to get by include the intensive use of household and community relationships. (Roberts 1994, Lomnitz 1977). Sims elaborates on this by saying “The poor in Egypt have developed a number of these coping mechanisms such as kinship support, revolving credit, saving gamayias and neighborhoods solidarity networks”. The launch of the upgrade project In Masaken Zeinhum: Zeinhum is one of the largest informal areas in Cairo, with area up to 50 Feddans and accommodates about 20,000 inhabitants. It was constructed by residents of the neighboring Sayeda Zeinab area, who found it a cheap substitute to legal housing (Shahine, 1998). An upgrade project of this area was launched by the Egyptian Red Cross (ERC) and Cairo governorate under the supervision of the former first lady Suzan Mubarak (Aboulmagd 2008). Khadr (2011:172) explains that “this project is heralded as a new model of urban community development that has yielded success in many aspects. But for other analysts, however, it is an example of an excessively topdown, non-replicable model which produced a somewhat


27 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I

contrived, showpiece” for which the former regime would claim credit.

Figure 1: The Low density phase 1 of the Zeinhum upgrade project (Afify 2009:5)

Fig 2: Mixed use physical capital before upgrade (Afify 2009:6)

Fig 3: residential physical capital after upgrade (Afify 2009:6)

Implications of the upgrade process on the financial and physical capital Zeinhum residents enjoyed the proximity of public schools and hospitals and the connectivity to downtown in which most males worked as craftsmen or in sales services and females worked as house cleaners (Khadr 2011:174). Residents Housing consisted of a mix of unmaintained three story buildings to shakes made out of wood and tin with unpaved streets full of garbage. With regard to public utilities almost all households were connected to public water network and to electricity mains (Khadr et al 2011:15). To implement the first stage of the project, all the shacks in the way of the construction project were torn down and their inhabitants were relocated to alternative housing – 30 km from downtown – in the new cities of Al-Nahda and Al-Salam in Helwan city (Shahine, 1998). This was a complete economic burden on the residents which were sent away from their strategic location and suffered the additional expenses of transport to and from their job locations downtown. Not only did this approach fail to recognize how the residents relate to the wider economy of the city (Hossain 2008), but a large portion of the residents were never able to return. This was simply because the design tended to including large ornamental green landscape areas and yards between the units .This squandering use of land caused the number of units created to be less than half of what had existed (Fig.1) (Shahine 1998). The governorate of Cairo affirmed that only 20 % of the original residents returned to the new units. On returning, the physical enhancement of the New Zeinhum was noticeable to the residence (Fig.2, 3). The apartment units were well painted and the apartment areas were relatively large. Lamp posts were installed and sidewalks were paved (Khadr et al 2011:38).Sadly, In order for the residents to be assigned to their new apartment, they had to pay a nominal fee of LE1, 000* to obtain a flat .Reports of people selling their furniture in order to earn the LE 1,000 were recorded (Shahine 1998).In addi-


28 — Urban Planning

tion to the former Initial expenses, the residents had the right of Usufruct over the apartments and had to pay a monthly rent. Many residences complained that before the upgrade they used to pay a rent of 3 LE and pay no cost for utilities now they have to pay a rent of 55 LE and also pay for utilities. (Aboulmagd 2008). A major flaw in the physical capital lies in the resident participation in the design of the building units. In The primary survey of old neighborhood one fifth of the population were recorded to be unemployed. On asking them, 61% of them preferred to work in the community rather than outside Zeinhum (Khadr et al, 2011). Despite this, the design of the new buildings and neighborhood was strictly designated for residential use. Arous (2006) quotes Antoniou’s (1985) argument that “A mix of commercial and residential property encourages intergenerational labor inputs”, increase the use value of the physical structures and combats the unemployment, which would have made it a feasible strategy to be used in this case . Implications of the upgrade process on the Human capital Before the upgrade, 70% of the household heads could read and write, 40% had a primary degree and only 2.5 % a university degree (Khadr et al, 2011). Hence, a new school and infirmary were built within the settlement and workshops of needle works, leather production and stained glass were offered as part of the upgrade process. These efforts along with the new clean environment improved public health motivated the young residents to enroll in school and lead to school dropout rates to decrease substantially. Unfortunately, this enhancement in education caused the increase in the expenditures of the residents more than they could afford. Despite the school fees being about LE 10, but the planning failed to calculate the additional expenses of the widespread culture in Egypt of private tutoring. Hartman (2008) describes private tutoring as a “shadow education system” that drains the household budget of families in Egypt. Private tutoring expenses recorded LE 150 per course in only one semester (Shahine 1998) which was totally unaffordable for a family with a total income of LE 200 to LE 500. So

though the resident’s intention of continuing education may be present but the affordability is a big obstacle in the way of sustaining this education process. Implications of the upgrade process on the social capital Prior to the upgrade, when asked about whether their monthly income was sufficient, 40% of the population reported negatively and cited “gamayias” and borrowing from relatives and friends as main source of financial help (Khadr et al, 2011). These resident- formed networks support households in distress and form the basis for informal safety nets among them (DFID, 1999).it takes several years and continuous growing relationships to form such networks and they mainly depend on physical proximity and interaction of community members in informal areas. Abouelmagd (2008) emphasis that “social capital can be affected by fundamental changes in structure and composition of an area”. Obviously the results of the survey were overlooked as the strong social fabric was destructed in the upgrade effort. The redistribution of the new dwellings was done randomly. the dwellers were settled in the new project with new neighbors, not the old ones they were raised with for years (Aboulmagd, 2008). Moreover, many of Zeinhom households were living in shared accommodations through which they enjoyed the use of the shared consumer durable goods which after the upgrade were separated and experienced decline in wealth as a result. Conclusion In total, Though People were grateful for the new settlements, health care and workshops but they were suffering from the “unexpected financial burdens” they have had to bear as a result of the upgrade (Shahine, 1998), 40% of the population reported unchanged income and 20% a decrease. Moreover, 91% families reported an increase in their expenditures (Khadr et al, 2011). Not mentioning the severe feeling of vulnerability due to the absence of their usual social safety nets. Many lessons can be drawn from this approach. First, the project should have had the wellbeing of the residents


29 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning I

as a top priority. Approaching the project for its political propaganda concept was obvious from the very beginning in the “media catching” statements used like “totally eradicating of the wide spread illiteracy “or “access to high quality and specialized knowledge”. This led to creating a shiny housing compound for the poor rather than a functional one, and also led to them being provided with privileges before their basic daily needs. The second is that Heavy handed interventions like removal should be kept as a last resort. If found necessary, planners should first assess the positive assets existing in the area and work on developing them before introducing alien strategies of upgrade. This isn’t an argument against the possibility of tradeoffs between livelihood components. I merely argue for the gradual introduction of these tradeoffs to the community rather than a sudden change. Most importantly, the existing livelihoods of the residents should not be destroyed in order for them to be able to sustain themselves till they adapt to the new assets and achieve concrete poverty alleviation. Finally, the role of the planner should lie in anticipating the consequences of the strategies before applying them and rising the residents awareness on how to deal with this new upgraded life. ●

References: Abdelhalim, K. (2010), Participatory upgrading of informal areas, PDP, Egypt. Abouelmagd, D. (2008), Public housing and public housing policies in Greater Cairo. Antoniou, J. (1985). The conservation of the old city of Cairo, UN publications: Paris. Arous. R. (2006), Wall Dwellers: Socio-Economic conditions and possibilities for participatory approach, Oxford, Brookes University. Davis, M. (2006), Urban Involution and the informal proletariat, Planet of slums, Verso. Department for international development,(1999), Sustainable livelihoods Guidance sheet, DFID. Hartman, S. (2008), the informal market of education and private tutoring in Egypt and its implications. Hossain, S.2008, Urban poverty, informality and marginality in the global south. Khadr, Z. Bulbul, L. (2011), Zeinhum: a model public-private partnership slum transformation, Cairo: A City in Transition, United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) Khadr, Z. (2011), Zeinhum: a model public private partnership slum transformation, Cities and citizens series, vol.2, 170–175. Lombard, M. Huxley, L. (2010), self –made cities: Ordinary informality? , Planning theory and practice.

Roberts, B. (1994), Urbanization, Development and the Household, Comparative national development: society and economy in the new global order. Shahine, G. (1998), Life after the Bulldozers, Al-Ahram Weekly Online12 – 18 November, Issue No.403 Sims, D. (2003), Understanding slums: Case studies for global report on human settlements, CIA Fact book.


30 — Urban Planning

Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II Core Module, SS 2011/12 Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, SI Dr. Nina Gribat, SI Dipl. Ing. Manuel Heckel, external at SI

Urban and planning theory may sometimes seem a little abstract and detached from concerns in planning practice. This course aims to show how theoretical concerns underpin practice in focusing on urban development projects that target social, environmental, or economic sustainability, both in the global north and south. The course is based on a case study approach. In the first phase, students are required to critically analyse different urban development approaches of different real-word projects regarding social, environmental and economical issues of sustainability. In the second phase, they develop suitable strategies to enhance certain aspects of sustainability in the case study area. Both phases, the analyses and the preparation of strategic urban development concepts follows a structured approach to which students are introduced at the beginning of the term. In addition, students receive some basic materials, which form the starting points for their analyses and interventions. Case study areas are selected based on different urban development and planning approaches, spanning from urban upgrading approaches of existing areas to the construction of new quarters or towns, but also including nonbuilding approaches. â—?


31 —

Achievements We choose our neighbours

We realize our housing ideas

We have life long tenancy security

We have less financial pressure than a private building partnership

Constraints Financial weakness of members may lead to inertia of cooperative

Two-class membership could arise

Cooperative model deters people wishing for private ownership

Our shares are small and the financial risk is low Our rents are fixed

Everybody has a vote

Structure dependent on active members volunteering Amortization rates for the city are higher in leasehold model

Planning intervention: A combined cooperative housing model for the French Quarter – Tübingen Infographic by Lisa Deister, Julia Hartmann, Mohamed Amer Hegazy, Franziska Laue and Pia Lorenz


32 — Urban Planning

Then

Now

appeal to homogenous working class milieu

large, sluggish and intransparent administrative bodies

appeal to steady income of traditional workers

People

get together

to finance

diverse milieus, generations and income levels

smaller and transparently run cooperative administrations with improved democratic processes

financing options for the whole range of income groups

We need to build!!! Low interest rate capital from external third party

Cooperative member

We want to chose our neighbours ng

We don´t have time to design

We need tenancy security

ga

r the

i

shares:

Building partnerships

€€

i.e. 50% Cooperative member

acquire Cooperative tenant

shares:

depending on financial means

i.e. 35%

Cooperative member shares

i.e. 50%

plan together

i.e. 35%

Cooperative Fund

We want individual flats

as members in a new cooperative model

We want to be creative

Bank : € €

finances

with subsidy (i.e. fixed social housing rate for a certain number of flats)

i.e. 30%

Municipality

promotes cooperative model

runs prospective members exchange

provides professional legal consultation and expertise

specifically approach low-income groups, diverse milieus, different generations

State

promotes cooperative model

municipal financing program

20 years loan period, 3% interest rate, 3,5% amortisation rate amendment of cooperative law to facilitate foundation of cooperatives

KfW loan support program for housing cooperatives

funds of Social Housing Program (Landeswohnungsbau-programm) €


33 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II

no individually designed flats, standard floorplans

higher incomes do not pay off

standardized floorplans and small flat sizes do not appeal to families

t h e ir h o m e s

and stay

f o r a l if e t im e

possibility to co-design in building partnerships as well as simple tenancy

a range of rent contract options to achieve rent free tenancy

clever designers provide for adaptable flat sizes that grow and shrink with their inhabitants

Flat available for redistribution

Running costs High initial investment

inhabited by building partnerships i.e. 50%

inhabited by cooperative tenants i.e. 50%

Cooperative’s real estate stock

Lifelong contract

shares: €€

Rent: €€

Tenancy without rent Tenancy without rent

Rent: €

cease of membership moving out or death

i.e. 35% Lifelong contract shares:

Low initial investment

i.e. 35%

Rent: €€€

Tenancy without rent

Rent: €€

Tenancy without rent have children

Rent: €

in case of improved financial situation Lifelong contract

with subsidized shares

separate

No initial investment

Rent: €

partner dies

i.e. 30%

Redistribution or change of flat size

form patchwork families

Yearly ground rent: 3%

adjusts Framework plan

children move out

provides land in leasehold city has to provide a leasehold rate of 3% (instead of usual 4-6%)

but they need support...

Planning intervention: A combined cooperative housing model for the French Quarter – Tübingen Infographic by Lisa Deister, Julia Hartmann, Mohamed Amer Hegazy, Franziska Laue and Pia Lorenz


34 — Urban Planning

Planning Intervention: A combined cooperative housing model for the French Quarter – Tübingen by Lisa Deister, Julia Hartmann, Mohamed Amer Hegazy, Franziska Laue and Pia Lorenz Introduction The French Quarter in Tübingen seems to constitute a flagship project in terms of economic, social and environmental sustainability. Having analysed the visions of the city on these three dimensions, we have found that the very much-pronounced aim of creating a socially diverse city quarter has failed. As the major reason for this failure we have identified the inadequate measure of building partnerships meant to automatically provide for diversity. On the basis of this previous research we have now developed an alternative housing model that should have been offered side by side to the common building partnership model. We will call it here, the combined cooperative model. In comparison to the common cooperative model, it combines the idea of the building partnerships with the tenancy security and financial accessibility provided by the traditional cooperative model. Social Sustainability From the beginning of the development process of the French Quarter in Tübingen, the city has set clear sustainability criteria on a social, economic, and environmental dimension (1). One of the most prominent visions of the city was to achieve a specifically high level of social mix in the area: The quarter was aimed to provide housing opportunities to a wide range of income groups and social milieus (2). By first acquiring the land through a legal arrangement called “Städtebauliche Entwicklungsmaßnahme”, and subsequently marketing plots directly to the end users in the form of building partnerships (Baugruppen), the city attempted to steer development towards the creation of a social mix. This model however has not proven to provide equal access to low-income society groups and thus not triggered the envisioned degree of diversity (3). Instead, the building partnership model

appeals to a very homogenous milieu of society in terms of income and life style. Among all three dimensions of sustainability, the achievement of this social aim has shown most shortcomings. Following the theses of Littig and Grießner, we understand social sustainability as directly connected to social values such as participation, equal opportunities, and justice- while considering that these values are legitimate in themselves (4). In the case of Tübingen, a strengthening of social sustainability would thus require the socially just provision of centrally located housing with equal access for different income groups, lifestyles and generations. Consequently, we propose a model of cooperative housing that provides diverse schemes for financing, flat arrangements and levels of involvement in the design of the building. The cooperative model proposed in this intervention understands land and housing as a public good, not a private commodity (5). With our combined cooperative model, we aim to provide a more inclusive alternative housing model to the building partnerships. Our model is based on the idea of communal ownership of land and housing. Building partnerships vs. cooperative housing Traditional building partnerships provide a suitable model for communal decision and planning processes of people with similar interests and similar financial means. However, after the construction phase is over, the partnerships turn into normal owner communities and the flats as well as the ground becomes privatised. Traditional building partnerships may provide some flexibility concerning the financial input every individual party of the group has to provide, but they still only appeal to groups who can provide a certain amount of capital as initial investment. In contrast, housing cooperatives are not built on the principle of ownership. Instead of owning the flat or land individually, all members of the cooperative own collectively. Every member finances a certain amount of shares of the cooperative and thus gains the lifelong right to live in one of its flats to a guaranteed rent. The membership is a lot cheaper than the financial contribution needed to


35 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II

partake in a building partnership. In addition, the continuously shared responsibilities of communal ownership might require the establishment of forms of negotiation and shared decision-making. The curse of housing cooperatives When trying to solve the problem of equal access to housing, cooperatives seem to provide the perfect solution. However, they have been neglected throughout a long period of Germany’s housing politics. Especially the construction phase of the French Quarter fell into an era that was non-supportive of housing cooperatives. Housing cooperatives were first set up for industrial workers but also state employees in the late 19th and early 20th century. From their earliest days they have been based on ideas of social reform, mutual self-help and co-operation. The curse of the housing cooperatives starts during the 3rd Reich when adherents to the regime replaced their management bodies. Existing associations of cooperatives were merged into large regional monopolies with huge administrative bodies. After 1945, in West Germany, the great housing shortage led to dramatic state interventions and heavy subsidisation of cooperatives, which in turn became larger, less self-organized and less democratic. In the East, they became subsumed under heavy state directed socialist management structures. Largely owed to the results of the post-war construction boom, by the 1980s, co-operatives have received the image of an overcome socialist management structure in charge of huge and undesirable housing blocks. Coupled with a decrease in housing demand, this negative image led to the cancellation of tax exemptions for housing cooperatives. Within the liberal turn of the 1990s, with its emphasis on the strengthening of the individual enterprise and the private sector, the German state turned even farther away from the idea of cooperative housing. Cooperatives in East Germany had to sell 15% of their housing stock to their tenants. From 1997–2005, the acquisition of private housing property – the opposing model – became heavily subsidized through the ‘Eigenheimzulage’. Only in 2006, with the cancellation of the ‘Eigenheimzulage’ and the adoption of a new law facilitating the creation of

cooperatives, government policies started to shift again and cooperatives gain popularity again (6). Considering this historical overview, the political surrounding in the 1990s – the planning phase of the French Quarter in Tübingen – have not been favourable towards housing cooperatives. Bad reputation, the perceived adherence to a supposedly failed political system, and the subsequent antagonistic state subsidies seem to have led to the neglect of the cooperative model in the case of Tübingen. Even though the idea of housing cooperatives has recently gained importance and political support, there still exist problems for a widespread implementation of the traditional model. With its relatively small and inflexible flat sizes, a large amount of the existing cooperative housing stock is unattractive to many people. Also, the large size of cooperatives, which stem from the old social housing programmes, often makes them overly bureaucratic, less democratic and flexible. Further, the general public often still perceives housing cooperatives with a negative image of panel blocks and socialism. Within our increasingly individualising society, mass housing and the idea to live in former homes of industrial workers clashes with contemporary demands for choice and self-expression. Concerning the dimension of social sustainability, the traditional cooperative model shows shortcomings on two dimensions. First, cooperative members still have to buy a certain amount of shares of the cooperative and thus be provided with some financial reserves. These prescribed acquisitions still have an exclusionary impact on groups that cannot provide such financial means and are not eligible for taking a bank credit. Second, traditional cooperatives do not allow for the participation of their members in the design process of the building. Our model: the combined cooperative solution The combined cooperative model addresses both, the mentioned shortcomings of the building partnerships and the traditional housing cooperatives. With our model we specifically focus on the challenges of an organizational structure that combines building partnerships and traditional housing cooperatives, on innovative financ-


36 — Urban Planning

ing structures as well as on the role of the municipality and the national state. Our model will make cooperatives more flexible towards the needs of their inhabitants, and will thus appeal to a larger and more diverse target group with adaptable and self-designed flats. Organisation suitable for diverse interests The key attribute of the combined cooperative model is the provision of two branches: one derived from the building partnerships and one derived from the traditional housing cooperatives. In the building partnership model, cooperative members can form groups interested in building and designing together- and are then supported by architects in the planning of the cooperative flats. This combination provides a suitable environment for people who are interested in designing the building they live in and more traditional cooperative tenants who rent a space from the cooperative without being involved into its conceptualisation. In order to stay flexible and provide every member with a flat responding to their current need, this model encourages member exchange between the two branches. Financing The financing structure of the cooperative is designed in a very adjustable manner. Potential cooperative members who are entitled for state social benefits and usually discouraged by the shares they have to finance in order to join the cooperative, can be subsidized by the state through cheap loans or the acquisition of their shares by the city. The purchase of cooperative shares is further held flexible concerning its amount. It is the choice of the members themselves if they want to by a large or a small share. This initial investment into the cooperative influences the time and amount they will pay rent to the cooperative. A large initial acquisition of shares may lead to a short rent period and a long period characterized by tenancy without rent. The cooperative fund that is created with these financial contributions is then providing for the purchase of new housing stock. The cooperative also enjoys better conditions at private banks than each of its individuals would by themselves.

Municipal, national and international support In order for our model to achieve its aims of greater social sustainability, it needs local as well as national political support. All levels of government need to be more active with the promotion of the cooperative model, specifically towards target groups normally excluded from selfprovided housing, such as low-income groups, migrants and the elderly. This has most recently been encouraged on the international level as the Secretary General of the United Nations, Ban-Ki Moon, has pronounced the year of 2012 as the international year of cooperatives saying that “cooperatives are a reminder to the international community that it is possible to pursue both economic viability and social responsibility” (7). Further the municipalities can support the cooperatives by subsidizing bank credits in order to reach a lower interest rate. The national level has already been doing that with a KfW (Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau) loan which is specifically designed for financing the acquisition of cooperative shares. Additionally, a municipal support structure is needed for the provision of larger loans. Especially in the case of the French quarter, the framework plan was not favourable to cooperatives due to its very small plot sizes, an aspect that can easily be changed by the municipal council. Whereas small plot sizes were initially meant to deter larger developers and maintain an amount of diversity and flexibility, in the case of cooperative housing, this concept needs to be softened. Further, high land prices often discourage cooperatives from purchasing new areas. This reluctance could easily be overcome by providing the land to the cooperatives in leasehold contracts instead of selling it to them. In order to be profitable for the cooperative, the leasehold rate can be adjusted to a yearly rate of 3%, instead of the usual 4–6%. Conclusion The combined cooperative model provides a solution to the former accessibility restrictions of Tübingen’s housing market. For the French quarter, it means the integration of formerly marginalized groups into the housing development. With its flexible financing schemes, it


37 — Urban Policy, Planning and Sustainable Urban Management, Urban Planning II

opens up possibilities for a wide range of income groups, and could thus constitute an important step towards a more socially just provision of housing. With its building group options, it responds to the demand for individualized housing solutions and the current trend towards communal living, while its “traditional” cooperative option offers possibilities for people less inclined or able to contribute to the design process. In order to be successful, however, the model needs support not only on the administrational and financial level. Especially in the South of Germany, private property acquisition is still a dominant model in housing. An active promotion of alternative models by local decision makers is essential. In addition, the forms of negotiation and communal decision-making required by a cooperative model do not constitute themselves alone, they are a culture to be supported, developed and practised. Trial-and error will be part of such process. On the path to social sustainability, however, these might be skills and qualities that will be direly needed. ●

References: (1)  Stadtsanierungsamt Tübingen (1993): Städtebaulicher Rahmenplan. (2)  Soehlke, G. (2012): Interview with Gerd Soehlke on 20 April 2012 in the Technical Town Hall Tübingen. (3)  Littig, B. and Grießner, E. (2005): Social sustainability: a catchword between political pragmatism and social theory. International Journal of Sustainable Development. Vol. 8. 65-79. (4)  Manderscheid, K. (2004): Milieu, Urbanität und Raum – Soziale Prägung und Wirkung städtebaulicher Leitbilder und gebauter Räume. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften: Wiesbaden. (5)  Crome, B. (2007): Entwicklung und Situation der Wohnungsgenossenschaften in Deutschland. Information zur Raumentwicklung. Heft 4.2007. 211-221. (6) ibid. (7)  Ban Ki-Moon (2012). Available at: http://www.genossenschaften.de/internationales-jahrdergenossenschaften-2012-0 . Last access: 15/07/2012.


38 — Urban Planning

Design and Planning — Theories and Methods Elective, SS 2012 Prof. Dr. Wolf Reuter, IWE

The objective of the modul are theoretical and methodological analyses of design and planning processes. The module focuses on questions such as what kind of problems are handled, what kind of knowledge is needed, what steps are to be identified during the process, and what kind of methodological tools are available and adequate? Different theories, their strengths and weaknesses were examined. In the context of this module, methods are not considered as mechanical devices, but rather as thinking tools, which enable students and practitioners to solve different and unusual problems in the broad and dynamic field of design and planning. This approach contributes to develop – in a much more general sense – competences in problem solving. An in-depth knowledge of theories and methods can help to overcome difficulties in planning, like structuring, analysing, organizing knowledge, cooperating, developing concepts, looking for impacts, judging on alternative options. ●


39 —

Problem: How to water supply an urban agglomeration in Lima? Morphological Box

MORPHOLOGICAL BOX

Design

Values of the variables

variables E1 Distribution

Tanks

wells

sewage

aqueduct

E2 Origin

Water

River

Lake

Sea

Run-off

spring E3 Treatment

Vapour in the air

Biological

Treatment

Natural

treatment

plant

treatment

(land fields)

E4 Drinking

Natural

Chlorinated

Potable hot

Dechlorinated

Deminerali

water

Spring

water

water

water

sed water

Minister of

Private

Locals

ONG or

equipments

company

(residents)

associations

The city

Unknown

The

Investor

benefactor

UNESCO

Distilled water

Water E5 Installer

E6 Funder

The locals

1st chosen path: We can distribute water by tanks, the origin of water is river and the water is treated 1st path: chosen path: path: company treated and distributed the in chosen a treatment station. The2nd water is a chlorinated one. 3rd A private We can distribute water by Distribute the water by The water is distributed water. All the operation was financed by an investor. tanks, the origin of water an aqueduct, it is natural from wells; the origin of is river and the water is spring water. The water water is the underground 2nd chosen path: Distribute the water by an aqueduct, it is natural spring water. The water is treated by treated in a treatment is treated by a biological source (run-off). The a biological procedure (wetlands). international ONG thenatuaqueduct and supervise the station. The water is a procedureAn (wetlands). waterconstruct was treated chlorinated one. A private An international ONG rally by decantation. We treatment phase. The operation was financed by the UNESCO. company treated and disconstruct the aqueduct have distilled water. The tributed theThe water. All the and supervise the treattheunderground drill3rd Path: water is distributed from wells; the originresidents of watermade is the source (run-off). operation was financed by ment phase. The operaing and financed it. The water was treated naturally by decantation. We have distilled water. The residents made the an investor. tion was financed by the drilling and financed it. UNESCO.

1 Exercise: How to water supply an urban agglomeration in Lima? Infographic and text by Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni


40 — Urban Planning

Extreme Urbanism Elective, WS 2011/12 Prof. Dr. Eckkart Ribbeck, SI Prof. Dr. Philipp Misselwitz, SI B.S. M. Arch. Marisol Rivas-Velàzquez, SI

A global tour with Google Earth: extreme and special forms in the international urban development and housing are to be discovered, documented and interpreted. The focus is on non-European city model or „urban patterns,“ which differ significantly from those of Europe. This can involve both traditional and modern, formal and informal structures. The spatial and typological analysis is complemented by an analysis of the local history of urban development and of the economic and social situation of users and residents. Questions to be answered include: What are „other“ city structures and urban blocks in nonEuropean space? What frameworks and factors influencing take extreme forms of Urban planning and housing out? Is there a growing global similarity or uniformity of urban concepts or „urban regionalism“ with clearly identifiable characteristics and differences? ●


41 —

Overview on the urban structure of Tokio, Japan by Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni, Julia Hartmann, Muna Shalan


42 — Urban Planning


43 — Extreme Urbanism

Infographics on the density of housing in Lima, Peru Extract from a presentation by Nina Schaal, Julian Knopp, Marius Ege and Peter Schick


Rammed Earth Workshop, Grain d’Isère in Villefontaine near Lyon, France


Impressions of the IUSD Students’ life in Stuttgart


72 Hour Urban Action – Participation of the ILPÖ with Action Gardening in the Wagenhallen area


Wagenhallen Exhibition including the Wagenhallen Atlas


Teambuilding Workshop with Gerd L端ers


Signing of the addendum of the IUSD Master Program in Stuttgart


IUSD Symposium – Integrated Urbanism I, Stuttgart, December 2011


03 — Landscape


56 — Landscape


57 —

Ecosystem Design and Integrated Infrastructure Planning Core Module, WS 2011/12 Prof. Antje Stokmann, ILPÖ Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ

This module presents the basic principles of ecological landscape design theory applied to urban environments, investigates the new landscape-based technologies as well as design approaches to create and discuss the challenges of an integrated planning process. The module aims to make students reflect critically on how urban landscapes are conceptualized, planned and implemented. It gives an overview of actual environmental challenges related to the urban environment and explained the effects of infrastructure development on landscape structure and function – drawing on knowledge from the fields of ecology, engineering and landscape architecture. Different theories are introduced that try to re-center landscape planning and design around the goal of designing green infrastructure systems rather than creating beautiful and luxury landscape images. Responding to contemporary urban and infrastructure development challenges, this course brings together a series of innovative concepts and theories to discuss different methods, models and measures of ecological design of combined landscape and infrastructure for the 21st century. ●


58 — Landscape

Screens - Sieves - Sedimentation Mechanical Treatment

Constructed Wetland

Fig. 02: Domestic wastewater

Water re-use for irrigation in agriculture

Screens - Sieves - Sedimentation Mechanical Treatment

Constructed Wetland

Fig. 03: Wastewater from agriculture and industry

Water re-use for irrigation of urban green areas

Screens - Sieves

Constructed Wetland

Fig. 04: Wastewater from urban runoff

Constructed Wetland

Fig. 05: Non-urban rainwater

Clean water disposal in rivers


59 — Ecosystem Design and Integrated Infrastructure Planning

Purify water – Constructed wetlands and biofilters by Sandy Qarmout, Lisa Deister and Nicolas Serenelli Water is one of our main resources and in heavy use. Polluted in many ways by our daily use, it is usually directed to a technical treatment plant for purification. This expensive procedure is often not necessarily needed. In other cases, it is also not possible due to lack of financial capacity and resulting missing infrastructure. Constructed wetlands can be implemented in order to carry out parts or, in certain cases, even the whole purification process of polluted water. In addition to economical advantages, ecological, climatological and aesthetic side effects can be generated. Constructed wetlands were developed by environmental engineers to make use of one of the processes taking place in natural wetlands: the purification of water. The most important bio-chemical processes of the purification of the water are done by microorganisms. In constructed wetlands, selected plants are used in order to optimize the purification process. [1] Different types of constructed wetlands can be implemented in multiple situations in urban areas, preferably at small scale: they can for example be used to treat the runoff from residential areas, airports or motorway interchanges, recycle the wash water from petrol stations, the effluent of timber production, nurseries and fish farming, or replace technical treatment systems in bathing lakes. [2] (Fig. 01) The choice of the type and size of the wetland highly depends on the level of pollution of the water and the required quality of the outcome. Beside the potential economical benefits of reduced costs for the technical water treatment infrastructure, several side effects can be generated: Constructed wetlands offer habitats for multiple animals and plants and can affect the microclimate in a positive way. The selective application of water, vegetation and the different types of constructed wetlands can be used as design tools to create pleasant and representative open spaces. In addition, the implementation of this kind of “green infrastructure”

might raise the awareness of a more sustainable use of the very important resource water. The implementation of a constructed wetland design starts analyzing the origen (input) of the polluted water in order to determine the composition of its pollutants and its treatment requirement in the further steps as well as the different possibilites of re-use in the area. Once the sources qualities and quantities are known treatment stages and re-uses can be further designed, established and designed. In Fig. 02 domestic waste water sources collected in the sewage system of a town or city is shown. Since the pollutans of it are higher due to the mixture of components, waste water treatment is required in previous steps such as screening, decantation and biological procedures to prepare the water as a proper input to the wetland. Later on the water can be treated in the wetland offering different landscape or recreative attractiveness to the area while treatments procedure to conclude reusing the water in several uses, such as irrigation of areas nearby the city. In Fig. 03, waste water coming from agricultural or industrial use modifies the requirements of previous steps before the constructed wetland can be implemented for final steps of the purification process. When the quality of the polluted water is better as seen In Fig. 04, where only urban runoff water is collected, less treatments are needed before the application in the constructed wetland. The most natural and ideal case when no WWTP (Waste water treatment plant) or treatment step would be needed is seen in Fig. 05, where water has few pollutans and represents only the landscape runoff collection to the constructed wetland where after treated can be re-integrated into the natureal water cycle.


60 — Landscape

Particules settle

Organisms and plants absorb nutrients

Water infiltration

Fig. 06 + Fig. 10: Free-Water surface constructed Wetland

Gravel and sand planted with aquatic vegetation Fig. 08 + Fig. 13: Subsurface flow Wetland

vertical flow improves oxigenation Vegetation keeps permeability and provides habitat for microorganisms

bottom sand layers

bottom sand layers

bottom sand layers

bottom sand layers

Fig. 07 + Fig. 15: Combined Wetland

horizontal flow vertical flow Fig. 07 + Fig. 17: Combined Wetland


61 — Ecosystem Design and Integrated Infrastructure Planning

Types of constructed wetlands According to the requirements of the treatment for the polluted water, the origin of it and the local conditions such as free space, soil and topographic characteristics different constructed wetlands solutions can be considered in order to adapt and optimize the results to the local and particular needs. Three main different constructed wetlands groups can be applied as tools: Fig. 06 shows the first group Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetlands where projects take advantage of the open space and sun light. Oxygen plays a major role in the process. Fig. 07 represents the group for the Sub-surface flow Wetlands which can be constructed as vertical wetlands using different levels of water steps or by horizontal wetlands with only one relatively flat basin level being enough for the water treatment. Especially in the first case the topography can be integrated in the design. Fig.08 represents the combination of the previous systems where advantages from each solution can be used in order to increase the efficiency by complementing them. This option is usually known as the Combined Wetlands or Hybrid constructed wetlands. Several functions can be achieved by the implementation in different areas of the city or outside the city such as flood control, groundwater replenishment, shoreline stabilisation and storm protection, reservoirs of biodiversity, cultural value, recreation and tourism as well as water purification by acting as a biofilter. Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetland A Free-Water Surface Constructed Wetland (FWS) allows water to flow above ground; it is exposed to the air and sunlight and is therefore also named “Aerial wetland�. Generally, it is composed of a number of open stretches that circulate the polluted water through a series of large watertight basins of decreasing depths. Each basin is lined with a waterproof barrier (clay or geotextile) either covered with rocks, gravel and soil which allow macrophytes and other water adapted plants like cattails, reeds and rushes to grow. [2]

The FWS could be flooded with different types of wastewater to a depth of 10 to 45cm above ground level. While water slowzly flows through the wetland, synchronized physical, chemical and biological processes sort out solids, mortify organics and take out nutrients from the wastewater. [2] The wetland works as the mediator where particles settle, and organisms and plants absorb the nutrients. This type of wetland is adequate for achieving high removals of suspended solids and reasonable removal of pathogens, nutrients and other pollutants like heavy metals. Extremely polluted water like raw black-water should be pre-treated first in order to avoid an overload of accumulation of solids and wastes. The efficiency of the FWS highly depends on how well the water is distributed at the inlet. Polluted water can be inserted to the wetland using weirs or by drilling holes in a distributing pipe to make sure the dirty water is distributed in even spaced intervals. Other potential limiting factors can be shade and protection from wind mixing which might limit the dissolved oxygen in the water. [3] The treatment of polluted water with the help of a FWS may require more land and time, but can still save costs because of lower operation costs. It does not require energy neither professional operators nor sophisticated equipments. [4] Subsurface Flow Wetlands Subsurface Flow Wetlands (SFW) work mostly anaerobic: the layers and components remain saturated and unexposed to the outer atmosphere. Plants which are able to grow widespread roots even without an aerobic environment such as cattails, bulrushes and reeds can be established. [5] The plants roots deliver oxygen to the cells available in the SFW, which allows aerobic processes to happen in the root zone. Further contributions of plants in wetlands are providing additional surfaces where bacterial can live, trapping the waste materials, as well as absorbing and storing specific metals and nutrients in the wastewater. There are two different systems of Subsurface Flow Wetlands: Horizontal Flow Wetlands and Vertical Flow Wetlands.


62 — Landscape

Fig. 01: Examples of urban waste water treatment systems using vegetation Infographic from an article by Sandy Qarmout, Lisa Deister and Nicolas Serenelli


63 — Ecosystem Design and Integrated Infrastructure Planning

Horizontal Flow Wetland A Horizontal Flow Wetland (HW) is a large lagoon filled with gravel and sand and planted with aquatic vegetation. As polluted water flows horizontally through the lagoon, the plants filter out particles and microorganisms degrade organics. [6] An HW needs only one basin which is relatively flat or slightly sloping. [2] Its bed should be lined with a resistant liner (clay or geotextile) to prevent leaching, and then it is filled with small, evenly sized gravel. This gravel should be clean to avoid clogging. HW functions well when a wide inlet zone is designed to evenly distribute the flow. No sewage is exposed to the surface and no risk to humans is a threatening. [6] This type of wetland can be adequate in secondary or tertiary treatment stages, for either small sections of urban areas or peri-urban and rural communities, depending on the size of the lagoon. It is best appropriate for warm climates, but it can still be designed to tolerate some freezing and periods of low biological activity. Vertical Flow Wetland A Vertical Flow Wetland (VW) is a total of aquatic planted filters placed on slight slope. Polluted water is poured onto the wetland surface from above by a mechanical dosing system. The vertical flow of the polluted water that happens by natural gravity improves the oxygenation. [2] Structurally, the VW can be designed either as a shallow excavation or as an above ground construction. However, each filter should have a waterproof layer and an effluent collection system. Usually this layer is filled with a minimum of 20cm gravel cover, followed by another layer of sand to be the base for the settling effluents from the raw wastewater. Thus, this system goes through different stages of aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the frequency of pouring the water should be timed so that the oxygen has enough time to spread through the different mediums and fill the gaps. These mediums filter the solids, represent a surface for bacteria, and form a base for the vegetation. The vegetation maintains permeability and provides habitat for microorganisms. In addition, it

transfers oxygen to the root zone where bacteria can start degrading the organics. [7] A VW is adequate for primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment stages. [2] However, since it uses relatively large land areas, it is appropriate to be used where land is cheap and available. It is also a good option where a well trained maintenance staff, spare parts, and constant power supply is available. VW best suits the warm climates, but can be designed to tolerate some freezing and periods of low biological activity. Combined Wetlands Combined or so called Hybrid constructed Wetlands are a cross system, comprised of more than one type of wetland, most frequently of vertical flow and horizontal flow systems, arranged in a staged way. Each system has capabilities and limitations in a specific treatment operation; therefore, combining them accordingly can complement the purification process comprehensively. [2] For example, Horizontal flow Wetlands cannot provide nitrification due to their limited oxygen transfer capacity. Vertical flow systems, on the other hand, provide good circumstances for nitrification but not for de-nitrification. Therefore, a Combined wetland, having the advantages of the Horizontal and Vertical flow systems, can achieve the best result by producing an effluent low in biochemical oxygen demand, which is fully nitrified and partly denitrified and hence has much lower total-N outflow concentrations. This type of is adequate when removal of ammonia-N and total-N is required. It is important to carefully design and maintain the different operations held within a combined system of many different types of wetlands. Therefore, skilled operators, spare parts, and constant power supply are required. Finally, as all the previously mentioned types, hybrid constructed wetlands are best suited to warm climates. [4] Operation and maintenance of wetlands Comparing to technical treatment plants, constructed wetlands produce lower operating and maintenance costs. However, they have to be managed in order to per-


64 — Landscape

form well, mostly periodically. One important factor is the water level. It should not be too low and neither too high as this can cause damage to the structure, the plants as well as microbial community. In addition, it has to be assured that flows can reach all parts of the wetland. The type of the constructed wetland and the selected plants have to be adjusted to the level of pollution of the water. The water quality should be kept more or less constant as lower or higher concentration of nutrients could damage the plants. To avoid an eutrophication the plants should be trimmed before or after dormancy and the plant remains as well as sediments have to be removed from the constructed wetland. To identify structural problems or changes of the site conditions and potential resulting problems constructed wetlands should be monitored periodically. [8] The operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands can mainly be run by non-professionals in most cases. Change over time and along the seasons Following a natural cycle, the appearance as well as the performance of constructed wetlands changes over time and also along the seasons. The dynamic of vegetation and efficiency has to be considered in the design. Due to the high amount of nutrients and accumulation of sediments, constructed wetlands develop more quickly than natural ones do. However, it can take several years until the optimal functioning of the constructed wetland is reached. The efficiency also responds to environmental conditions, especially regarding changes in temperature or precipitation along the seasons. In general, constructed wetlands can continue to function also in winter as the decomposition and microbial activity taking place in the substrate generates enough heat to keep the water body from freezing. Like this, the purification process can also take place when the surface of the water is frozen. To ensure the functioning of the constructed wetland the water level has to be kept more or less constant. In summer high evapotranspiration might be a hazard to the water level. Additional water supply might have to be considered. [8]

Design considerations and Conclusion In order to achieve a high performance of a constructed wetland, multiple factors have to be considered in the design. It should be adapted to the local situation in terms of climatic conditions and local factors such as topography and soil. In this way operation and maintenance costs can be kept on a low level. Besides, the source and the amount of polluted water as well as the level and kind of pollution have to be taken into account. They play an important role for the selection of plants as these have to withstand the contamination. The plants also have influence on the result of the purification process: different plants absorb different nutrients. Thus, a targeted plant selection helps to achieve the required water quality next to creating a pleasant atmosphere. Two very important and potentially limiting factors are time and space. Constructed wetlands need time to develop in order to achieve optimal efficiency. In addition, their performance is often inconsistent during the year due to the dependency on environmental and climatic conditions. They also require generally larger areas than technical treatment systems do. That is why they are mainly implemented where land is available and affordable. However, also the additional aesthetic, environmental and educational benefits should be considered in the decision making process as these can add to a more sustainable and more qualitative urban development. â—?


65 — Ecosystem Design and Integrated Infrastructure Planning

Task 2 – My personal urban landscape postcard Example by Rasha Arous

Task 2 – My personal urban landscape postcard Example by Rasha Arous


66 — Landscape

Reclaiming contaminated land Traditional remediation strategies (ex-situ) by Julia Hartmann, Pia Lorenz and David Vargas Mendivi

heavy contamination inorganic substances medium contamination organic substances or heavy metals

shallow contamination inorganic substances

MASS EXCHANGE

heavy contamination

IN-SITU

Containment on

CONTAINMENT

STABILIZATION

CHEMICAL EXTRACTION

Chemical extraction of contaminants

Waste repository

Fig. 01: Examples of reclaiming contaiminated land: traditional remediation technologies (ex-situ) Infographic from an article by Julia Hartmann, Pia Lorenz, David Vargas Mendivi


67 — Ecosystem Design and Integrated Infrastructure Planning

Reclaiming contaminated land Bio-remediation strategies (in-situ/ex-situ)

Medium to low levels of contamination

variety of substances organic substances

PHYTOEXTRACTION

organic substances

“Composting” site

inorganic substancesespecially heavy metals

MICROBIAL DIGESTION

organic substances

IN-SITU: PHYTOREMEDIATION

Incineration

Waste repository

Fig. 02: Examples of reclaiming contaiminated land: bio-remediation strategies (in-situ/ex-situ) Infographic from an article by Julia Hartmann, Pia Lorenz, David Vargas Mendivi

PHYTOSTABILIZATION

PHYTODEGRADATION

PHYTOVOLATILIZATION


68 — Landscape

Designing Growth – Linking Urban Development with Baubotanik Processes Elective, SS 2012 Dr. Ferdinand Ludwig, IGMA Dipl.-Ing. Daniel Schönle, external

The area of the Wagenhallen in Stuttgart is a site of subculture. It is used as a workspace of the so called “creative class”. Where you can find a vast urban wasteland today, dense building development will take place in the near future. In this special setting an important question arises: How can you create spatial structures that serve the current as well as the future stakeholders and thus allow an urban transformation of the site? To this effect Baubotanik structures offer possible solutions since they imply different spatial qualities and usage possibilities during the process of creation and development: In the beginning they consist of young and quite susceptible plants that need some care, but they also contain scaffolding structures, pipes, drippers and other horticultural devices, necessary to enable plant growth. Baubotanik constructions can have the size of a fully grown tree from the first day on and can be used in different ways, reflecting the generally horticultural character. In the course of time robust and more or less autonomously growing tree structures evolve which can be used e.g. as a “public tree house” to enrich a neighborhood square.

The seminar focuses on the general basics of designing Baubotanik structures. Especially the process-related character of plants will be examined and the developments resulting from these biological principles will be linked with possible developments of usage demands and changes in the urban environment. In small testdesigns temporal-spatial strategies will be developed which can be presented/realized as graphics, animated film, sequential models or interventions on site. ●


69 —

Staged maintenance and selection of different plant species


70 — Landscape


71 — Designing Growth — Linking Urban Development with Baubotanik Processes

Baubotanik spaces and microclimate – Research about the spatial change Extract from an infographic by Trinidad Fernandez and Lisa Deister


72 — Landscape


73 — Designing Growth — Linking Urban Development with Baubotanik Processes

Baubotanik spaces and microclimate – Research about the microclimate – “design” Extract from an infographic by Trinidad Fernandez and Lisa Deister


04 — Integrated Research & Design


76 — Integrated Research & Design


77 —

Wagenhallen Atlas Integrated Research and Projects and Methods and Tools, WS 2011/12 Dr. Bernd Eisenberg, ILPÖ Dr. Nina Gribat, SI Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ Yaşar A. Adanalı, external at SI

The Wagenhallen and Nordbahnhof area is a special place. Although it is very close to Stuttgart’s city centre and main station and rather expansive, it is strangely tucked away behind railway lines and thoroughfares. But if one steps into the area a parallel universe unfolds, which is unlike any other site in the city: an obscure oasis filled with traces of the former railways use, now mostly overgrown or transformed by unusual activites and programmes. So far, urban transformation has been ad-hoc and improvised without an imposed planning concept. Remains of the former use were appropriated in a pragmatic, lowbudget and do-it-yourself style. With the advent of the megaproject Stuttgart 21 (S21) this could change quickly and dramatically. The new scheme will radically reorganize Stuttgart’s railways system by relocating most tracks underground. Wagenhallen and Nordbahnhof area will become the northern end of a vast, interconnected site freed from railway use, stretching all the way down to the main station: the largest and most attractive investment site in Stuttgart for decades to come. The site will soon loose its obscure, half-forgotten status and become a focus of diverse development interests. Planners, poli-

ticians and investors have already discussed a range of development options for the site. None of the plans proposed so far, however, has recognized the ongoing sociocultural activities on the site. Urban and landscape design approaches, for instance, have mainly focused on the final urban form, proposing ordinary new urban quarters and parks that remove all traces of the past and present and smooth it in with the rest of the city. However, until all this happens, many years will pass. In the aftermath of the Stuttgart 21 protests, the city is in a defensive position and needs to prove to all Stuttgarters that the land made available through the project will be developed innovatively as a public resource. A new debate is needed on the future of the site as well as courage to experiment with a different urban development approach. This atlas attempts to make a contribution to this debate by providing a comprehensive and sensitive analysis of the site – a “Sleeping Beauty” with unique physical and spatial qualities, full of social and cultural resources provided by its present users. The Atlas is therefore urging to look at the site as “already in transformation” – a transformation process that should not be wasted but carefully and sensitively developed. ●


78 — Integrated Research & Design

Wagenhallen Atlas – Analyses for Strategic Design Projects


79 —


80 — Integrated Research & Design

Wagenhallen Atlas – Natural Environment and Climate by Lisa Deister, Zeina Elcheikh, Mohamed Amer, Mahmoud Hegazy, Lobna Mitkees and Omar Wanas


81 — Wagenhallen Atlas


82 — Integrated Research & Design

Wagenhallen Atlas – Statistics by Rasha Arous, Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni, Franziska Laue and Sandy Qarmout


83 — Wagenhallen Atlas


84 — Integrated Research & Design

Wagenhallen Atlas – Built Environment by Ghevar Ismaiel, Mona Farouk El-Kabbany, Zaineb Madyouni, Nahla Nabil Makhlouf and Ayham Mouad


85 — Wagenhallen Atlas


86 — Integrated Research & Design

Strategic Design Projects: Transforming Nordbahnhof and Wagenhallen Area Integrated Research and Design Module, SS 2012 Dr. Nina Gribat, SI Dipl.-Ing. Moritz Bellers, ILPÖ Dipl. Ing. Lukasz Lendzinski, external at SI David Baur, external at SI

In aiming at expanding students’ understanding of the roles and responsibilities of professionals involved in the process of shaping our cities, buildings and urban environment, this course addressed the following questions: Can a use-oriented and actor-driven urbanisation which is already taking place on site and which does not require a fixed long-term vision inform a new development approach? What rules and regulations are required for such an open-ended, process-oriented development process in which the starting points are clear but in which the final vision is deliberately kept open? How much “certainty” in form of architectural, urban and landscape design interventions is necessary to support a concept of “planning for uncertainty”? Which local resources can be used as catalysts for further development? Which qualities need to be safeguarded during the development process? Working on Strategic Design Projects, meant linking research and design skills in terms of applying ecological knowledge, up to date technologies and shaping built form. In addition, it included collaborative forms of project development and organization. Students were

asked to creatively and strategically assemble new alliances and relationships among owners, clients, builders, fabricators, consultants, NGOs etc. that could form the starting points for innovative environmental, urban and architectural design and research. This course explored how new models of working could expand the scope and capabilities of architects, urban planners and engineers to embed the role of design and research in the overall process of developing and realizing a project. The “Integrated Research and Design Module“ was designed to address this new condition and prepare the next generation of professionals to lead in the development of new modes of research and design practice. ●


ROSENSTEIN.ORG o is planning our city of tomorrow? 87 —

et) m) .com)

Graphic from ROSENSTEIN.ORG – Who is planning our city of tomorrow? by Julia Hartmann, Pia Lorenz and Muna Shalan


88 — Integrated Research & Design

Land Tenure Management

Privatization of land The land is handed over into private ownership.

one-off revenue

land dominates over the long-term use value. However, privatization of small parcels of public land can still provide

Temporary use contracts

grants right of use

The land remains in public ownership. A land management organisation in public control grants use rights for existing buildings and open spaces. Rent conditions can be adapted according to the needs of the lessee and publicly determined criteria such as the social, ecological or cultural value of the project.

pays rents to the community

Long term building lease grants right to build

The land remains in public ownership. A land management organisation in public control grants the right to build. Continuous revenues are yielded back to the public. Affordable housing can be subsidized through adjustments to the ground rent, for example in conjunction with state support programmes for social housing and the founding of cooperatives.

projects: 2% ground rent, 50 years amortisation, contract reassessed after 33 years

Lease for housing: 3-5% ground rent, 25 years amortisation, contract reassessed after 66 years

pays rents to the community

Lease for businesses: 6% ground rent, 17 years amortisation, contract reassessed after 33 years

ROSENSTEIN.ORG – Land Tenure Management

Mission Statement The acquisition of the Rosenstein area by the city of Stuttgart in the context of the project S21 has brought a considerable part of the city into the hands of the public. Together with the exceptional civic activation potential and desire to participate in local decision making, this constitutes a unique chance for Stuttgart’s citizens to shape city development and orient its policies towards social, cultural, and ecological value creation. As these goals are difficult to achieve through conventional measures of urban development, we propose an alternative model of land tenure and public decision-making. It builds on Heiner Geißler’s mediation statement from 30 November 2010, which states that: — a ll land parcels have to be kept free from financial speculation — Real estate development has to be made possible at affordable prices

— E xtensive and long-term citizen’s participation concerning the new city quarter has to be implemented In reference to the above points, our alternative model considers the following aspects: Land tenure Owned by the city, this area constitutes important capital of the citizens. It has to be regarded in context of its societal value. The value of its use by Stuttgart’s citizens has to be considered higher than the short-term capital gain from selling the land to private investors. Participation In case of sale, the city will lose great parts of its management potential. Moreover, innovative forms of citizen’s participation can only take place throughout time. In case of direct liquidation, the influence of the public ends with the commenting of the local development plan.


89 — Strategic Design Projects: Transforming Nordbahnhof and Wagenhallen Area

Steps of participation

inspired by Arnstein’s ‚Ladder of citizen participation’ (1969)

Citizen Participation

Steps of participation Steps of participation inspired by by Arnstein’s Arnstein’s ‚Ladder ‚Ladder of of citizen citizen participation’ participation’ (1969) (1969) inspired Shape through use

Citizen Participation

Citizens have decided in partnership upon the criteria for the uses of the site and citizens have the chance to shape the area through use.

Shape through use Shape through use Citizens Partnership Citizens have have decided decided in in partnership partnership upon upon the the criteria criteria for for the the uses uses of of the the site site and and

Participation in partnership with elected politiciansuse. and other users. Citizens are citizens citizens have have the the chance chance to to shape shape the the area area through through use. directly involved in decision-making through extensive grass-root methods such as planning cells. Their outcome is legally binding.

Partnership Partnership Participation Participation in in partnership partnership with with elected elected politicians politicians and and other other users. users. Citizens Citizens are are Representation directly involved in in decision-making decision-making through through extensive extensive grass-root grass-root methods methods such such as as directly involved

Citizen’s needs Their are expressed through local and civil advocates acting in their interplanning planning cells. cells. Their outcome outcome is is legally legally binding. binding. est and having decision-making power.

Representation Representation Citizen’s needs needs are are expressed expressed through through local local and and civil civil advocates advocates acting acting in in their their interinterInvolvement Citizen’s est and and having having decision-making power. Citizens are technically integrated in decision-making but can be easily outvoted. est decision-making power.

Involvement Right to comment Involvement

Citizens Citizens are are technically technically integrated integrated in in decision-making decision-making but but can can be be easily easily outvoted outvoted.. ceive an answer from the municipality.

Right to to comment comment Right Unstructured surveying

-Represents the attempt to accentuate the opinion of citizens through non-repreceive ceive an an answer answer from from the the municipality. municipality. sentative surveys. This creates a very biased picture of reality and provides much space for manipulation.

Unstructured surveying surveying Unstructured Represents Represents the the attempt attempt to to accentuate accentuate the the opinion opinion of of citizens citizens through through non-reprenon-reprePersuasion sentative surveys. This This creates creates a a very very biased biased picture picture of of reality reality and and provides provides much much sentative surveys.

Participation is interpreted as indoctrination. Persuation is mainly used as a tool for space space for for manipulation. manipulation.

Persuasion Persuasion Participation is interpreted as indoctrination. Persuation is mainly used as a tool for Participation is interpreted as indoctrination. Persuation is mainly used as a tool for

Shape throug h

use

Sh thro Shap roug ugh apee th h us usee Partnership

Par Partne tnersh rship ip Representation

Rep ntation tion Represe resenta Involv ement

Inv Involv olvem ement ent Right to comment

Right Right to to comm comment ent Unstructured surveying

Unstructured surveying Unstructured Persuation surveying

Persuation Persua tion

ROSENSTEIN.ORG – Citizen Participation

Use Participation also means that citizens partake in the continuous creation of space. Putting a focus on how and by whom space is used makes lasting participation in the development process of the new quarter indispensable. Further, it must be guranteed that the area stays accessible for all citizens to the same extent. This implies the creation and conservation of housing for all income groups. Transparency Another essential aspect for the implementation of our land tenure, use and participation model is transparency. Transparency can only be guaranteed through a specifically created management body. It has to be decided publicly who can when and how use which part of land and how these decisions are going to be made. Our City of Tomorrow? Stuttgart currently has the chance to not only reshape a

prominent part of its inner city space but to redefine the current mechanisms of urban planning and management towards a process that loosens the grip of financial speculation and puts the needs and desires of Stuttgart’s citizens center stage. In order for this to happen, the political impasse and fear to talk about the future of the developable land needs to be overcome! Neglecting the topic of future land management as a tactic to obscure the overpriced purchase of land by the city will have dire consequences for a process that needs time and public attention. On the other side of the political spectrum, opponents of the S21 project have to accept the decision of the referendum and should acknowledge the enormous development potential the Rosenstein area presents. A discussion about new land tenure management approaches, coupled with a reformed and transparent system of citizen participation, can start to provide answers to the question: Who is planning our city of tomorrow? ●

Extract from ROSENSTEIN.ORG – Who is planning our city of tomorrow? by Julia Hartmann, Pia Lorenz and Muna Shalan


90 — Integrated Research & Design

symbiotic infiltration process

1 

Activation of Limits

2  Establishment of connections

3 Interaction and urban synergy

activation of the rosenstein fringe

rosenstein fringe revitalization of nordbahnhofstrassse, urbanvoids, muli-programmatic platform

selection of three samples 3 levels of intervention, 3 levels of control and 3 levels of investment

experimentation ground tweaking for connectivity

Extract from “Symbolic Infiltration” by Manal Fakhouri, Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni, and Zeineb Madyouni


91 — Strategic Design Projects: Transforming Nordbahnhof and Wagenhallen Area

5 the hybrid city

platform interstice sidewalk

4 Expansion

sample 3 sample 2 sample 1

small scale to have big chance repetition, duplication and interaction

selecting samples


92 — Integrated Research & Design

multiuse platform

Extract from “Symbolic Infiltration: the urban interstice as an interactive device” by Manal Fakhouri, Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni, and Zeineb Madyouni

interstice:


93 — Strategic Design Projects: Transforming Nordbahnhof and Wagenhallen Area

scale 1:250

From a backyard to a plaza

Sidewalk as a continuity


05 — IUSD People


96 — IUSD People


97 — IUSD Staff, Stuttgart & Cairo

Prof. Dr.-.Ing Philipp Misselwitz is the Chair of International Urbanism at the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart. He was educated at Cambridge University (Bachelor of Architecture, 1996) and the Architecture Association London (AA Diploma, 2001) and received a doctorate in architecture and urbanism at Stuttgart University (2009). He is a founding member of the Berlin based architectural research group ‘urban catalyst’ (www. urbancatalyst.net). He has worked as a consultant, project coordinator and researchers for a number of German and international organizations including GIZ, UN, UNRWA, Bundeskulturstiftung, Goethe Institute, Robert Bosch Foundation and Allianz Cultural Foundation. In 2009, he co-initiated and now directs the MSc IUSD. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Salheen obtained his BSc in Urban Planning and Design in 1993 from Ain Shams University, Cairo. He was appointed as teaching staff at the department and later received a PhD scholarship to obtain his PhD in Urban Design from Edinburgh College of Art, UK. He graduated in 2001 with a thesis on Comprehensive Analysis Approaches

in dealing with Urban Settings. Since then he acted as assistant and associate professor at Ain Shams University teaching and supervising multidisciplinary topics. He has coordinated and managed several international cooperation projects with Universities in Germany, Sweden, Austria and Denmark. He is currently an appointed member of the EU Higher Education reform Experts (HEREs) Group, contributing to various workshops and seminars on internationalization and harmonization of Higher Education. Salheen is also active in practice and consultation working with GIZ, UNHabitat, UNEP and UNDP as well as many other national and regional organizations in the fields of strategic, environmental and integrated planning and design. Prof. Antje Stokman is the chair of the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology at the University of Stuttgart and founding partner of the practice “osp urbanelandschaften” in Hamburg. She studied landscape architecture at Hanover University and Edinburgh College of Art. After graduation she gained practical experiences as a landscape architect in many international projects and was Associate

Professor in Hannover University from 2005–2010. She was awarded the Topos Landscape Award in 2011, the Lower Saxony Science Prize in 2009 and is member of the German national advisory council on spatial planning since 2010. In 2009, she co-initiated the MSc IUSD and now acts as Director of Admissions and teaches in various courses within the IUSD. Prof. Dr. Youhansen Y. Eid received a B.Sc. in Architectural Engineering, a M. of Architecture (1986), and a Ph.D. in Urban Planning from the University of Southern California (1992). Since then, she has worked at the Faculty of Engineering at ASU. She held the positions of head of department of Urban Planning (2007–2009) and Vice-Dean at the Faculty of Engineering (2009–2011). Currently she is Professor of Urban Planning at ASU, head of admission committee for the M.Sc. program Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design and Visiting Professor at the British University Egypt. Prof. Eid conducted a private architectural and planning practice and held planning consulting positions in some agencies in Egypt including GAEB and GOPP. Her research interests include the impact of socio-political and tech-

nological changes on urban form, strategic planning and sustainability. Prof. José Luis Moro is the chair of the Insitute of Design and Construction at the University of Stuttgart. After completing a Diploma in Architecture and Urban Design at the University of Stuttgart, José Luis Moro worked as a project leader and office manager at different architecture practices in Madrid, Berlin, Munich, Darmstadt and Zürich (Fernando Higueras, Thomas Herzog, Santiago Calatrava). He was mainly involved in the design and implementation of large public buildings and bridges. In 1990 José Moro established his own architecture office in Darmstadt. In 1996 he responded to a call of Stuttgart University to the professorship of Planning and Construction at the Faculty of Civil Engineering. At IUSD Prof. Moro is responsible for the core module of sustainable architecture. Dr. Nina Gribat completed a Diploma in Architecture and Urban Design (TU Berlin), the Bauhauskolleg Transitspaces (Bauhaus Dessau) and a MA in Planning Research and Theory (The University of Sheffield). She has worked at


98 — IUSD People

different architecture practices in Berlin and as a freelancer for different urban research projects. In 2010 she obtained her PhD on the topic of “Governing the Future of a Shrinking City: Hoyerswerda, East Germany” at the Department of Architecture and Planning at Sheffield Hallam University. Since April 2011, she is programme coordinator of the MSc IUSD. Nina also teaches several modules of the MSc IUSD. Dr. Yehya Serag received a Bachlor degree in Architecture with a major in Urban planning and Design from Ain Shams University, Cairo. He, then, obtained his MA in human settlements (PGCHS – Catholic University of Leuven) as well as a Post Graduate Certificate in spatial and regional planning after completing the European Module for spatial development and planning (NewCastle University). He graduated with a PhD on the topic “Networking and networks as tools for regional development and planning: Human settlements’ development potentialities in the Western part of Egypt” from the department of Architecture, spatial planning and landscape (Catholic University of Leuven). Since Septem-

ber 2008, Serag holds the position of an assistant professor of urban and regional planning at the Department of urban planning and design at Ain Shams University. He was also a visiting assistant professor at the Future University in Egypt (2011–2012). Starting from December 2010, he coordinates the MSc programme Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design (MSc IUSD). Dr.-Ing. Bernd Eisenberg completed a diploma in Landscape and Open Space Planning at TU Hannover and worked in the field of GIS-based planning in Hamburg and Stuttgart. He obtained his PhD on the topic of “Park metrics - quantification methods for spatial potentials of green open spaces with regard to recreational uses” at the University of Stuttgart. Bernd is involved in ongoing research activities of the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology (ILPÖ) related to sustainability and resilience of cities (projects LiWa and TURaS) and international educational cooperations. Since October 2010, he is programme coordinator of the MSc IUSD.

Dipl.-Ing. Lynn Mayer obtained the degree of Architecture at the University of Stuttgart in 2005. She worked in the architectural office LCM in Mexico City and took terms abroad in Barcelona and Cairo during her studies. After her thesis, she worked as a senior project architect for LIGANOVA, a multidisciplinary office of Brand&Retail Marketing in Stuttgart, Berlin and London. Parallel to her professional practice with small architectural projects, she works at the Instiute of Urban Design, Prof. Pesch since 2008. Between September 2011 and August 2010 she acted as a co-coordinator of the MSc IUSD. Dipl.-Ing Moritz Bellers completed a Diploma in landscape and open space planning at Leibniz University Hannover in 2008. Between 2004 and ‘05 he studied landscape architecture at Universiteit Wageningen, NL. From 2009 to 2011 Moritz Bellers worked for jbbug – landscape architects in Cologne. Since July 2010 he teaches and researches at the Department of Landscape Planning and Ecology, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning at University Stuttgart. Moritz Bellers teaches on several MSc IUSD modules.


99 — IUSD Staff, Stuttgart & Cairo

staff from other institutes involved in teaching … Onur Dursun, bauoek offered an elective on construction management in WS 2011/12 Dipl. Ing. Manuel Heckel, SI was involved in the preparation and tutoring of Urban Planning II in SS 2012 Dr. Ferdinand Ludwig, IGMA offered an elective on “Designing Growth” in SS 2012 Prof. Dr. Wolf Reuter, IWE offered an elective on “Urban Planning, Theories and Methods” in SS 2012 Hans-Georg Schwarzvon Raumer, ILPÖ offered an elective on “Geodesign” in SS 2012

External partners: Yaşar A. Adanalı is a sociologist and political scientist, writer and expert on participation, urban development and planning. He teaches on several international mater programmes, was awarded the Urban Planning Journalism Award by the Turkish Chamber of Urban Planners; was involved in teaching on the Integrated Research and Design Module in WS 2011/12. David Baur is a freelance artist, www.davidbaur. de, expert in urban interventions and chair of Kunstverein Wagenhallen; was involved in tutoring on the Integrated Research and Design Module in SS 2012 and co-hosted the SelfDirected Study Module 72H Urban Action Support in SS 2012. Dominique Gauzin-Müller is an architect and architecture critic, specialised on timber and clay construction and sustainable architecture and urban design. She has authored several books and publishes in numerous leading European architecture magazines; at MSc IUSD she delivers an elective course “Sustainable Architecture – Low Tech or High Tech?” in SS 2012.

Lukasz Lendzinski is co-owner of the architecture and urban intervention practice Umschichten, www.umschichten.de, chair of Kunstverein Wagenhallen; he was involved in tutoring on the Integrated Research and Design Module in SS 2012 and co-hosted the Self-Directed Study Module 72H Urban Action Support in SS 2012. Gerd Lüers is an expert in project monitoring and evaluation, change management and institutional capacity building; he delivers regular workshops for the MSc IUSD such as teambuilding and project management. Dipl. Ing. Daniel Schönle is owner of architecture and planning practice hp4, www.hp4.org; he co-teached the elective “Designing Growth” in SS 2012.


100 — IUSD People

Ayham Mouad architect, Syria

Baher Elshaarawy urban planner, Egypt

Ebtihal Zakaria Rashad urban planner, Egypt

Eslam Mahdy urban planner, Egypt

Lisa Deister landscape architect, Germany

Lobna Mitkees urban planner, Egypt

Manal Fakhouri architect, Jordan

Mohamed Amer Mahmoud Hegazy architect, Egypt

Omar Wanas architect, Egypt

Pia Lorenz political scientist, Germany

Rasha Arous planner/civil engineer, Syria

Sandy Qarmout architect, Jordan


101 — IUSD Students

Franziska Laue architect, Germany

Ghevar Ismaiel architect, Syria

Insaf Ben Othmane Hamrouni architect, Tunesia

Julia Hartmann architect, Germany

Mohammed Abdel Aziz Ibrahim urban planner, Egypt

Mona Farouk Elkabbany architect, Egypt

Muna Shalan architect, Jordan

Nahla Makhlouf architect, Egypt

Zaineb Madyouni architect, Tunesia

Zeina Elcheikh architect, Syria


IUSD Yearbook 2012  

MSc Integrated Urbanism and Sustainable Design - Yearbook 1st Intake; 1st year

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