Reference Material and Guidelines for Narrative Sculptures
for Dandi Memorial Complex
Background: To commemorate the Dandi March, one of the most important movement of our freedom struggle, there is a proposal to make Memorial at Dandi. For this the government made a committee called High Level Dandi Memorial Committee. After many different concepts and proposals from different designers , HLDMC made IIT Bombay the Design Co-ordinating agency for the project. After this a Creative Consultative Workshop for Dandi Memorial was organized in Dandi/Navsari on 4th and 5th February, 2011 in the Agricultural University Campus, Navsari, Gujarat. Then a National Design Team was formed with respect to individual expertise who will takes care of specific departments. The members became a part of the project which has a national cause with self commitment and willingness to participate. This National Creative Team proposed a Design Concept for Dandi Memorial to the HLDMC on 21st April 2011. This Design Concept got approved and now the team is asked to detail out the proposal and make a final presentation by end of July. The Proposal has few main parts: • Idea of the Path-way to the Main Memorial • Idea of the Main Memorial • Idea of Salt Making Activity • Idea of Other Activities in the Memorial. Now the team is working towards detailing the proposal. The team has been given specific tasks which is being co-ordinated by IIT Bombay. The Team will make a detailed proposal by end of July to HDLMC.
Concept of the Pathway to the Main Memorial: This document presents, the design concept for the path-way to the Main Memorial. The path-way to the main memorial is the Replication of the Dandi March Route, which finishes with the Main Memorial at the climax of the walk. I has a vertical tall structure with sculpture of Gandhi and 81 marchers following him. The Path-way which is the replication of the Dandi March Route will have milestone like panels. These panels will have visuals of events that took place during the march. The path-way is set around a man made lake made on site as a metaphor to the sea, along which the actual walk took place. The documents here explains • Proposal of the Memorial in brief. • Concept of the Path-way in detail. • Description of each panel explaining the location and plan of the visual for each panel. • Parameters for Stylization of the stone relief sculpture. This report can be used for commissioning of the sculptor for the relief work to be done on the panels. Giving the entire visualized story and the parameters for stylization sculptor can make the final proposal of the visuals of each panel.
Salt March: Mahatma Gandhi’s 1930 Salt March to the seaside village of Dandi, and the following Civil Disobedience of the British Empire, are among the most significant events in contemporary Indian political history. The Salt Satyagraha was initiated by Mohandas Gandhi and the Congress as the first struggle for complete independence. This seemed a small issue, but the dramatic manner in which he announced and executed the plan, the march on foot of this unarmed man of God for 241 miles, with villagers flocking from miles around to kneel by the roadside, set the imagination of the nation a flame and roused enthusiasm such as no one has anticipated. The Salt Satyagraha campaign was based upon Gandhi’s principles of non-violent protest called satyagraha, which he loosely translated as “truth-force.”In early 1930 the Indian National Congress chose Satyagraha as their main tactic for winning Indian independence from British rule and appointed Gandhi to organize the campaign. Gandhi chose the 1882 British Salt Act as the first target of satyagraha. The Salt March to Dandi, and the beating of hundreds of non-violent protesters in Dharasana, demonstrated the effective use of civil disobedience as a technique for fighting social and political injustice.
Proposal of the Memorial Mahatma Gandhi planned Dandi March to start one of the biggest and most impacting Civil Non-Disobedience Movement. This movement was highly successful which has inspired many other movement throughout the world. It was a unique method of protest which for the first time in the history of the world struggle affected and included such a large crowd of people. Dandi the place where the Movement was concluded and Gandhi broke the Salt Law, has become a pilgrimage and even today many people do this march and go there to honour the movement. Considering the remote location and the poor access to Dandi, it is felt that along with building the memorial complex with adjoining tourist facility; there is also a need to have regular activities and events, to be planned and executed with devotion and passion, to bring people to the memorial, and to keep the place energetic and alive (jagrit) the year round. (Concept Proposals for Dandi Memorial Complex, Compiled by IIT Bombay,)
Quality objectives for the memorial, which should be included:
First Concept Proposal by National Creative Team: Based on insights and proposals from all the participants the First Concept Proposal was drafted for Dandi Memorial. This got approved by HLDMC and now by end of July the Team will submit fully developed concept of the proposal. Here now different part of the project will be taken up by participant colleges according to their expertise.
â€˘ Durability: The structure should be highly durable with a life of at least 150 years â€˘ Frugality: The memorial should not use highly expensive materials, and the whole effort should be completed in as small a budget as possible, without affecting the durability objective. â€˘ Humility: The scale of the memorial should be humble and modest and not overpowering. It should derive its energy from activities which would happen there.
Points important to the concept: • Based on the Philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi. • Story of Salt Satyagraha Communicated. • Making the Memorial an active place. • Sustainable and Durable. • Minimum intervention and very simple approach to the design. • Apart from being place of memory and respect, it is to be a place of experience and learning. The site is a 15 acre land in front of the Saifee Villa. The memorial has a miniatured walk representing the walk of Gandhi and fellow marchers. This pathway is created along a man made river which is metaphorical to the sea which was always on one side of the original route of March. The path becomes an experience of the whole walk, which people take to reach the final destination. It becomes like a pilgrimage to the final destination of Dandi where Salt Law was broken and Satyagraha Movement started. This path has panels with relief work telling the story of the March. The March ends with 81 life size sculptures of the Marchers and one main memorial. One main purpose of the Salt March was to make it a struggle movement for all, and the biggest success of the movement was also, that it became a cause of every household in the country. The experience of becoming a part of the movement, by finally join the group of marchers and reaching the climax of the memorial is brought with the 81 sculptures. The Main Memorial is a tall vertical structure composed of a large number of village dwelling forms, with a light in the middle of each dwelling. This becomes a metaphor of Gandhi philosophy of reaching every household and understanding that the soul of our country is in the villages of our country.
Components of the Memorial: • Re-enacting the Dandi March • Replication of the Dandi March route as a Pathway to the Main Memorial • Main Memorial • Integrating Salt • Other proposed activities to keep the Dandi Memorial Complex alive and active
Re-enacting the Dandi March Background Even after 80 years, hundreds of people continue to march from Ahmedabad to Dandi covering the distance of almost 241 miles Gandhiji and his followers covered during the march. Many people including foreign nationals voluntarily participate in this Dandi march. Very recently family members of a British diplomat, a group of Non-Resident Indians, Diplomats of Pakistan Embassy in India and Tushar Gandhi, great grandson of Gandhi, had organised and participated in similar marches in order to experience and also to share their campaign with the local people in Gujarat. These walks are also initiated regularly by Gandhian Sarvodaya groups based in different parts of India regularly. Proposed Activity A 24-day-long guided walk from the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to Saifee Villa and finally to the Dandi Memorial would help people to experience the historic walk of Dandi by Gandhiji and his Satyagrahis. The 24-day-long walk could be organised every year from March 12th till April 5th to coincide with the historic Salt March. A national participation of individuals would be ideal and the yearly walk covering 241 miles to celebrate the Gandhian wisdom and non-violence would attract people from all over the world on a regular basis. The culmination of the walk could meet with a â€œDandi Memorial Guided Walkâ€? reintroducing the historic walk and the 81 people who made the history by challenging and finally defeating the British colonial rulers.
Replication of the Dandi March route as a Pathway to the main Memorial It is proposed to create a pathway from Saifee Villa towards the main memorial which will replicate the Dandi march route, through 24 stops, representing the 24 halts. Each step space would be 20 feet wide, with a stone panel, like a large milestone. The panel will carry a visual depiction of the main events which occurred during the dayâ€™s journey to the halt, through bas-relief sculptural narratives. The pathway is proposed to be created around the left bank of a small lake to be constructed in the space earmarked for the memorial complex, with embankment resulting from the dug material from the excavations done to create the lake. There will be individual spaces which are designed to enable groups to gather around each panel narrative, where a guide would take them through the episodes. The panels would be lit by embedded solar lights in the night. The visual narratives would be designed as self-evident episodes, easy to understand. Each panel will also carry the names of the halt villages in Devanagari, Gujarati, Urdu Nastâ€™aliq, and Roman scripts.
At the centre of the main memorial it is proposed to have a statue of Gandhiji leading the marchers derived from the well-known Nandlal Bosewood-cut image, followed by life size sculptures of the group of the 81 fellow marchers. It is envisaged that every year on the culmination of the Dandi yatra on 5th April, the entire pathway will get filled by marchers, in a re-living of the historical Dandi march. Going up the proposed pathway and viewing the 24 -episode sculptural narrative will create a one-hour activity for tourists and visitors.
Concept for the Main Memorial: The memorial structure is conceived as a tall pyramid shaped cluster of many human dwellings, carved in stone mimicking the soft forms of village huts constructed from earth. Each dwelling would have a lit-space inside, with the image of Gandhiji leading the march in the centre of the main hut at the base of the pyramid. The composite pyramid symbolizes the many communities lit up everywhere through the idea of freedom through Satyagraha. The earth architecture inspired soft forms of the cluster of huts also symbolize simplicity, humility and sustainable living, where the collective awakening and bonding together of many small communities â€“ each awakened to its own potential and inner power â€“ creates an integrally strong larger structure which is unshakeable in its resolve against the mightiest power. The human dwelling pyramid will be lit in the night both inside and outside with solar power, to convey the thought of many lives illuminated through the idea of Satyagraha. The solar lights embedded in the structure will create a warm glow in the inner spaces, while the external walls will have white light from solar powered LEDs, paced carefully to highlight the soft contours of the memorial structure.
Salt Making Activity:
A former gold-mine near Taipei in Taiwan has been converted into a tourist site, after the gold mining activity was abandoned. All visitors have the possibility of getting an experience of prospecting for gold by the panning method. This creates a highly interactive, participatory experience for all visitors, where they learn the process of panning for gold, through successive filtration and removal of sand to isolate the glittering gold grain. Besides the idea of enhancing the exhibition of salt making equipment and process, which already exists in Saifee Villa, it is proposed to introduce a solar power based salt making activity at the memorial complex.
With the adjoining tourist complex and supporting facilities, it is possible to plan regular activities at the dandi Memorial complex, developing it into a hub for spreading awareness of Gandhian thought. The planned activities, if properly promoted and executed, will ensure a regular flow of visitors to the campus; keep the tourist complex active, and make the Dandi Memorial a new international destination on the tourist map of India. The activities are based on people’s participation to bring energy to the memorial complex. This avoids the usual fate of many large memorials created with great vision but without an activity plan, which soon fall into neglect through a lack of visitors. • 10-Day Hind Swaraj Reading (November 13-22) • Gandhi Katha • Story Telling event / • Youth Training on Non-Violent Action • Traditional Medical Camps • Workshops on Alternative Living • Training on Khadi Production • Dandi Beach Cleaning • Dandi Design Competition / Camp • Ideal Complete Republic Village Model • Neem Campaign • National Integration Campaigns • People’s Library • Gandhian Writer’s Meet
Replication of the Dandi March route as a Pathway to the main Memorial
View of the Site, showing the pathway reaching the Main Memorial
The Pathway is designed as to the original route of the march. Thus starting from Sabarmati and reaching Dandi in the same manner, gives a miniatured walk of the entire journey.
Dandi March: (Brief summary) Why did it happen? After the failure of the first Round Table Conference in 1929, the leaders of India decided they need to take a stronger step towards independence. As a result of the denial of reforms and political rights, and the persistent ignorance of Indian political parties, on 26th January, 1930 they declared Purna Swaraj in Lahore, resolving the Congress and Indian nationalists to fight for Purna Swaraj, or complete self-rule independent of the British Empire. Gandhi and other Indian leaders would immediately begin the planning of a massive national revolt that would encourage the common people to participate and also help involve revolutionaries into a struggle committed to non-violence.
Before the March: On March 2, 1930 Gandhi wrote a remarkable letter to Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India. He wrote, “Dear Friend, I cannot intentionally hurt anything that lives, much less fellow human beings, even though they may do the greatest wrong to me and mine. Whilst, therefore, I hold the British rule to be a curse, I do not intend to harm to a single Englishman or to any legitimate interest he may have in India…” He went on to inform Irwin, he intended to break the salt laws. The Viceroy, as expected wrote back to express his regret that Gandhi was again “contemplating a course of action which is clearly bound to involve violation of the law and danger to public peace.”
Idea of Salt March: Gandhi searched for an issue that would unite all Indians, and when his Declaration of Independence of India failed to do so in January 1930, he subsequently embarked on a new breed of non-violent protest. After the Declaration of Independence, Gandhi started developing a clear vision of how to achieve independence of India. He did lots of thinking and soul searching. He was in search of an idea that can be transformed into a mass movement. He was at an impasse. He was in search of an issue that involved the masses and at the same time defied British laws in protest. He came up with a brilliant idea to develop a mass non-violent movement against British Salt tax. The British Salt tax was such a unique idea that affected every one. British generated salt tax revenue to support their rule. The private sale and production of salt was a criminal offence punishable by law. However, salt was easily available in coastal zones of India. Labourers could easily produce it freely but they were forced to pay for it. This salt issue also met his criteria of that the movement must involve everyone irrespective of religion, or any other differences – it must involve masses and ignite them throughout India.
The action planned my Mahatma Gandhi was highly symbolic-the salt produced by illicit means would be impure and probably unpalatable, but it was breaking a British law which earned the rulers money at the expense of the masses. It was a symbol of revolt. It was a long drawn-out movement during which a large mass of people was mobilized and thus the method of struggle was a simple one, one capable of generating emotional feelings and one which everyone could understand and everyone down to the humblest peasant, could participate in. It was designed to achieve a three fold purpose: It was to be a pilgrimage, It was to get the people’s blessing, It was the method of initiating a non-violent revolution against the British Raj.
The Salt March: As part of the preparation of this massive satyagraha campaign, Gandhi addressed a mass meeting on 10th March attended by the inmates of the Sabarmati ashram. At the prayer meeting on 11th March at Sabarmati Ashram, Gandhi invoked the inner strength of the satyagrahis and resolved to continue their non violent means of passive resistance until swaraj could be achieved in India. Finally, on 12th March at 6.30 a.m., Gandhi set out on his two hundred miles long journey, from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi in the company of his 81 chosen followers. In this journey to Dandi, Gandhi's trail increased in size as thousands of inspired followers joined him in his march. On 13th March Gandhi delivered a speech at Bareja, where he invited the villagers among whom there was a considerable number of Christians and Muslims, to join hands in supporting the cause of India's freedom. In his 14th March speech at Vasana, Gandhi asked the amassed audience whether they would believe him, if he made a prediction that a day would dawn when the British would apologize to the Indians. Gandhi addressed to the people of Dabhan on March 15th. In this speech he appealed to the people that if they have the armour of inner strength, they should boycott Government jobs, endorse khadi, reject foreign made goods and abandon alcohol. Armed with an innate commitment to the eternal spirit of truth and self righteousness, they should join the army of salt satyagrahis. On 17th March Gandhi delivered a speech at Anand, wherein he urged the students to withdraw from their academic pursuits, until the salt satyagraha campaign achieved its goal. On 23rd March, he challenged the British government's capability to arrest him although he had embarked on a mission to disobey British laws. In the speech delivered on 25th March, Gandhi declared that he had decided to stay at the residence of a Muslim friend, from where he would undertake his satyagraha struggle. In his way Gandhi sought to garner the support of the Muslim community as well in his satyagraha campaign against the unjust British salt tax law. On 26th March, 28th March and 29th March, Gandhi delivered speeches at Ankleshwar, the bank of River Keem and Bhatgam respectively. In Bhatgam, Gandhi condemned indulgence and extravagance and said that there is no place
for these in a satyagraha campaign. Addressing the cloth merchants of Bombay who attended his speech at Sandihiyer on March 30th, Gandhi said that the involvement of the merchant class in the satyagraha struggle signifies their commitment to the cause of Indian's struggle for freedom. On April 5th, Gandhi addressed the associated press at Dandi. He appreciated the government for resorting to absolute non interference, while he was on his march to Dandi. With the blessings of God, he communicated his noble intention to initiate civil disobedience in the company of his followers on 6th April. The day, declared Gandhi would begin with fasting and prayer. On 6th March, Gandhi, on the Dandi beach, breached the British salt laws. He picked up a fistful of salt and mud and manufactured salt by boiling it in sea water. He urged his followers to violate the British Salt Tax law by manufacturing salt all along the sea coast. It was decided that the crusade against the salt tax would be carried on till April 13th that mark the National Week.
After the Salt March: When Gandhi broke the salt laws in Dandi at the conclusion of the march on April 6, 1930, it sparked large scale acts of civil disobedience against the British Raj salt laws by millions of Indians. 2nd letter to Lord Irwin: Gandhi was arrested on May 5, 1930, just days before his planned raid on the Dharasana Salt Works. The Dandi March and the ensuing Dharasana Satyagraha drew worldwide attention to the Indian independence movement through extensive newspaper and newsreel coverage. The satyagraha against the salt tax continued for almost a year, ending with Gandhi's release from jail and negotiations with Viceroy Lord Irwin at the Second Round Table Conference. Over 80,000 Indians were jailed as a result of the Salt Satyagraha. The campaign had a significant effect on changing world and British attitudes toward Indian independence,and caused large numbers of Indians to actively join the fight for the first time.
Panels: Form and Material The Panel comes at the end of every stretch and carries the story of the march. The story of the march, in 24 bits, comes on these 24 panels. These panels are metaphoric to milestone and when people walk on this pathway, they come to these panels at end of every stretch and read these as milestones. Size of the Panel: The panels are 2 mt x 1mt in dimension, with 2 brick thickness depth. The pedestal will have 1mt x 1mt niche where terracotta panel will be installed. The pathway will also be laid with brick. Form of the Panel: The panel are seen as milestone to each stretch of the walk. Thus they will have 500 mm of band on the top as well as bottom. The middle portion will be a niche where the relief will come. Thus the height of the relief panel become 1mts. Number of Panels: Every halt will have one panels with visual of the halt and event that happened there. Material: The panels are made of brick pedestals which are mounted with terracotta panels with relief sculpture of events. The Pathway is also laid with brick.
Brick for Pathway and Panel Pedestals A moulded rectangular block of clay baked by the sun or in a kiln until hard and used as a building and paving material. Thus panels are decided to have pedestals made of brick. Brick is one the oldest construction material, which is being used since centuries. It has great life and strength and can be easily used for all kind of construction. It is low on cost of construction and needs less maintenance. Thus the pedestals for the panels, and the pathway, both are to be made with brick. This material also goes with the Gandhian philosophy which is so modest and grounded. It is more rural, raw and warm, unlike stone or cement which is extremely cold and hard. In India one can see number of examples of brick construction from history which have lived for many years. Also there are modern examples of brick construction which look timeless and beautiful in all context.
Terracotta for the Panels with Relief work Terracotta is a form of ceramic clay generally recognizable by its distinctive orange-brown or rust colour. Its origin can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization of 3500 B.C. Excavation at Mohenjodaro and Harappa have unearthed several terracotta items. Terracotta has a unique quality of earthen charm, light weight and simplicity. It occupies central position in Indian life and culture. Specially the villages of India. Thus the material becomes even more correct for the memorial. We can see number of examples in India and abroad of terracotta wonders which have lived through ages and make beautiful pieces of work.
Visuals On the Panels:
The Information on the panels are going to be completely visual in nature. They are going to depict the main event of each halt. They are depiction of the story of the march, story of how the whole country became a part of the non violence movement. In our Indian tradition, we can see use of Koshtaka, in the surface sculpture on the temples walls. These are grids on which stories of our history is written. Thus taking this as the base, the composition of the panels is done.
“ Arrangement of different elements and their relative dimensions are many times determined by logical reasoning and not just by visual necessities. Sometimes, the order and relative scales are determined by hierarchy of meaning involved.” (Coomaraswamy, 1934) Hierarchy of content is an important parameter for design. Things always get arranged according to priority and hierarchy of importance. Thus hierarchy in visual layout is also important. Position, Scale and Order of elements in the compositions are guided by this hierarchy. Hierarchy of content can also be created by use of grids. Ancient Indian art also shows use of such grid. The Koshthaka explained in “ Vastusutra Upanishad” is one such grid which gives a layout for Visual Composition of elements in Hierarchy of meaning. In this grid the most important element appears at mid-centre or top centre position (Brahma Ksetra) of the layout. Secondary things in hierarchy are presented at left and right side (Jaya and Updaiva) of the central element or below it. Tertiary elements get the bottom position(Stuvaka and Jaiva Ksetra). This grid was used in relief sculptures of Indian temple to depict content hierarchically. The grid is a self reflector and symmetrical.
Daiva Ksetra Grid for the Panel: Upadaiva
The events in the narration are more like key events. Thus they can be based on the Vastusutra Upanishad grid, where the main event, supporting event and related event are arranged in the grid. Thus dividing the space into half and then continuing to divide into halves to get 64 unit grid.
Main Image Area Secondary Image
Related Image Area
Alteration of the Grid.
Program to vary Composition in each Frame: As to the need of the content, the areas shift to make different compositions. According to the narration need the composition can change and make different alterations for different frames.
Abstract Form of Art
Representational form of Art
Stylization: Stylization is the representation or treatment to a form of art to convey a particular message of the piece of art. It can be measured on the scale of realistic to abstract. Thus as to the need of the project and content, the work is stylized and decided as to where would it come on the scale of realistic and abstract art. One can also distinguish between narrative art (which tells a story) and decorative art. While a decorative work can be either abstract or representational, a narrative work must be representational. Thus the panels for the narration of the Salt March will be representational and not absolutely abstract. The stylization of work is done to add meaning to the given form of work. By doing this one adds a dimension to the work and adds character to the story. Stylization for the relief sculptures of Salt March will be conceptualized on: Indian: The movement was for freedom of our country. The entire story is of our freedom struggle. Thus it is important that the style is Indian. Our country has a rich heritage of Stone relief work in our temples and other monuments. Thus one can take them as references to develop a style. The style in every form needs to be Indian.
Story of the March: While working on the stylization there is another important aspect to be looked at. The story and its detail The entire event was set in villages of India. Real life lives in the villages of the country and thus Gandhi based his movement with them. It is important to be able to bring that mode into the style. Also there are details like the place of Gujarat, time when the event happened, and other details that becomes a part. • Rural • Dusty • Hot • Gujarat • Crowd • Patriotic • Villages Representational: This work is to narrate a story, which happened during our freedom struggle. Thus it cannot be abstract. But to bring the essence of the March and communicate the philosophies of Mahatma Gandhi, there has to be some interpretation of the drawings from real to representational. Thus representation form of art needs to be done here.
Gandhian Philosophy: The narration is for the memorial to commemorate the Salt Satyagraha which was lead by Mahatma Gandhi. He was a man of many principles and Satyagraha was an important part of the entire event. All participants were Satyagrahis. Thus the stylization of the relief when done should be based on these principles. • Simple • Minimal • Natural • Local • Honest • Timeless • In Connection to the Common Man
The Pathway to the Main Memorial is the replication of the walk which Gandhi and his troop did from Sabarmati to Dandi. According to the walk, the divisions made are 24, dedicated to each village they stopped during their journey. The pathway is laid with brick and the panels are made of brick and terracotta. The Going up the proposed pathway and viewing the 24 -episode sculptural narrative will create a one-hour activity for tourists and visitors. These 24 panels are described in detail. Important events that happened and listing of images as to hierarchy are done for each panel. Suggestive images for each panel is provided which can be further interpreted and visualized by the sculptor. The visuals are mainly composed with Hierarchical Grid used in Koshtaka of Vastu Sutra Upanishad. Here the event is structured as per hierarchy of their importance and composed into the panel. The 24 panels are connected to each other by a common thread which binds all the 24 events together. The March started with 82 people and by the end of it, whole nation was a part of it. Everyone was a part of the cause and had joined the movement. This adding of people was an important thread and needs to be communicated in the panels.
Reliving The Dandi March: Description of each Panel
1. Sabarmati, 12th March • Prayer at 4am, start of march at 6.30 • Crowd and chaos, 10,000 people crowded from 11th, and many more came on 12th to see the march start. • Excitement and apprehension, Rumour about the arrest of Gandhi • Lining of the marchers, uniform of the marchers • Kasturba applying tilak to Gandhi’s forehead • Kaka Kalelkar presented Gandhi with fifty four inch long iron tipped liquored bamboo staff • Not taking the Ellis bridge, and crossing the river which was not more than knee deep on foot. • Marchers washing reaching the Chandola lake, and washing themselves. • Walked through villages of Danilunda and Narol receiving coconuts and tilaks along the way • Reach Aslali
Jawaharlal Nehru said on this occasion “Today the pilgrim marches onwards on his long trek. Staff in hand, he goes along the dusty roads of Gujarat, clear eyed and firm of steps, with his faithful band trudging along behind him. Many a journey he has undertaken in the past, many a weary road traversed. But longer than any that have gone before is this last journey of his and many are the obstacles is his way. But the fire of a great resolve is in him and surpassing love of his miserable countrymen. And love of truth that scorches and love of freedom that inspires. And none that passes him can escape the spell and men of common clay feel the spark of life. It is a long journey, for the goal is the independence of India and the ending of the exploration of her millions.”
Key Event • Lining of the marchers, uniform of the marchers • Kasturba applying tilak to Gandhi’s forehead. • Kaka Kalelkar presented Gandhi with fifty four inch long iron tipped liquored bamboo staff. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Mahatma Gandhi with Kasturba and Kaka Kalekar • Supporting Image: Marchers lined up in uniform to go. • Related Image: Sabarmati Ashram with People watching Gandhi go.
The mood set in the panel is of great patriotism. There is a huge crowd of people to send off the marchers. Also there is feel of enthusiasm and chaos, as there is news of Gandhi’s arrest. In the composition the central position is taken by Gandhi with Kasturba and Kaka sahib Kalelkar. On the left side marchers are shown and on the right people from ashram and others who have come to see Gandhi set on March. The backdrop can be off sabarmati ashram as the march started from there.
2. Aslali, 12th March 1930 After walking for almost 11 kms their first stop was at Aslali, a prosperous Patidar village of over 1,500 inhabitants. There was a very celebrated welcome of the marchers, flags were waved, music played and garlands were hung around dirty necks. The meeting was held and fund collected. Resignations were accepted. They stayed back at Aslali on the 12th. • Marchers meet the welcoming committee a km before the village, which comprised turbaned dancers and musicians blowing flutes and conch shells, beating drums and tinkling cymbals and women dressed in traditional costumes balancing pots and coconuts on their heads. • The public speech at open space near the dharamsala, which had an old Shiva temple with two large mango trees beside it. 4000 people including 500 women attended the speech. • Morning prayer at 4 am • Left Aslali with gift of a horse and two bullock-cart.
Key Event • Marchers meet the welcoming committee a km before the village, which comprised turbaned dancers and musicians blowing flutes and conch shells, beating drums and tinkling cymbals and women dressed in traditional costumes balancing pots and coconuts on their heads. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi being welcomed, dancers and musicians welcoming them. • Supporting Image: Marchers following Gandhi • Related Image: Villagers welcoming Gandhi. Gift of horse and two bullock carts given to the troop.
This is first stop for the marchers. The villagers are welcoming the marchers with full enthusiasm. In the composition, the Troop with Gandhi is entering the village. Thus Gandhi is in the centre. There are villagers on the right with garland welcoming. There are dancers and musicians in the backdrop. Left side of the frame has the marchers following Gandhi.
3. Bareja and Navagam, 13th March Left Aslali with a gift of horse and two bullock- carts, they reached Gajera in 2 hrs. They walked through cotton fields. Gandhi suffered from rheumatic attack in the way, but refused to take the pony. Though he covered a major part of the walk leaning on the shoulders of the two youngest marchers of the group. From Bareja they reached Navagam, where they were distributed among various families for the evening meal.
• Greeted with music and flowers at Bareja. The group stopped by the tank in an open field under the shade of two large tamarind trees and rested for a while. “ Khadi is the foundation of our freedom struggle.” • Evening prayer meeting with the marchers in the field near Navagam. After this the party entered the village in procession with bhajans being sung on the way. • At Navagam for evening dinner, the marchers were distributed amongst families instead of communal kitchen. Here the could spread the word of Satyagraha on more personal level. • From Navagam Gandhi sent the horse back to Chinubhai its owner. • From Navagam the party walked along better roads, through cotton and juvar fields. Walked to Wasna by the less well-travelled route through Govindpura
Key Event • At Navagam for evening dinner, the marchers were distributed amongst families instead of communal kitchen. Here the could spread the word of Satyagraha on more personal level. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Mahatma Gandhi having dinner with a family at navagam • Supporting Image: Other marchers distributed to different families. • Related Image: Village scene in the background.
Mood set in the frame is that of participation. Here first time the Satyagrahis are coming in direct contact with the villagers. They got a chance to spread the cause of the movement and bring awareness to every person. In the composition Gandhi with one or two marchers is sitting in the aangan of one of the villagers house. On the right hand side is the villager with family serving. On the left hand side here are other marchers distributed to different families and having their dinner.
4. Wasna and Matar, 14th March A system of escorts, in keeping with customs of hospitality, was starting to emerge. Villagers would accompany the departing Marchers from their own village halfway to the next, where they were met by a welcoming party. In this way they were passed from village to village in a sort of ever continuing relay baton change. From wasna to Matar the walk was mainly kaccha road with clouds of dust. Received by 300 villagers • On the way to Matar crossed the bridge less Watrak river. • Met a sizeable music-playing crowd at the outskirts of Matar. Abbas Tyabji and Shankerlal Banker came to meet Gandhi. • Satish Kalekar and Kharag Bahadur Singh the 80th and 81st marcher joined the group in the evening at Matar. • Fires of Holi and celebration at Matar and rest of the country.
Key Event • On the way to Matar crossed the bridge less Watrak river. Met a sizeable music-playing crowd at the outskirts of Matar. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Mahatma Gandhi crossing the Watrak River with other marchers. • Supporting Image: Satish Kalekar and Kharag Bahadur Singh joined the group. • Related Image: Fires of Holi with people of villages around.
The composition will show Gandhi and his troop crossing the river. Gandhi is in the central frame with fellow marchers. There are villagers waiting on the other side. The background has fires of holi, showing the happening of holi.
5. Dabhan and Nadiad, 15th March To Reach Dabhan a village of population of 2500 people, they walked 16 km and for 3 hrs. Because of the extreme heat, Gandhi walked with a cloth draped over his head and the dust so thick that he was forced to walk barefoot. Duleti was celebrated in the rest part of the country. The dais was kept at the harijan quarters. Crowd of 25,000-30,000 people attended the talk. For the first time Dandi was mentioned the final destination of the march. • The marchers passed through the village of Sandhana without halting. • A village of 2500 people, received the Marchers with great enthusiasm. • Gandhi walked straight through the village past the temple and the village square to the Harijan quarters where he drew water from the well and bathed. • Occurrence of Dhuleti, the day after Holi. • Evening prayer under a large banyan tree by the empty Ram talav - The village tank. • A crowd of 25,000 to 30,000 people attended the evening speech. • First public mention of Dandi as the final destination. • Nadiad a town of 31,000 people, welcomed the party with a sea of humanity. • The road was lined by men on both sides. • Nadiad’s sprawling Santaram temple complex was for night stay. Mahadev Desai visited. • Because of the crowd Gandhi was not able to reach the dais, thus he addressed the masses from the balcony above the main gate of the temple. Public speech was witnessed by a crowd of 50,000 people, with dancing and singing the patriotic songs. • Gandhi writing in the moonlight.
Key Event • Because of the crowd Gandhi was not able to reach the dais, thus he addressed the masses from the balcony above the main gate of the temple. Public speech was witnessed by a crowd of 50,000 people, with dancing and singing the patriotic songs. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Mahatma Gandhi sitting in the balcony of the shantaram temple. • Supporting Image: Crowd of almost 50,000 people sitting around the temple • Related Image: Backdrop of the complex with crowd dancing and singing.
Mood of the frame is very crowded and full of enthusiasm. Almost 30,000 people attended the meeting. In the composition, in the centre Gadhi us shown standing in the balcony of the Shantaram Temple, from where he is addressing the crowd. Rest of the frame is full with people showing large participation of the villagers.
6. Boriavi and Anand, 16th March It was a 13 km walk to Boriavi, which took 3 hrs. They received a good reception. Meeting under a large banyan tree near the dharamsala. Acceptance of resignations, purses and membership to the cause. They did not stop in Anand proper. Sunday evening to Monday evening was day of silence. • Along the way Khare sang songs and were showered with rose petals. • A young follower described Gandhi “ Engrossed in thought he was writing at noon, his watch was hanging at his waist and his stretched leg was moving rhythmically in time with his thoughts. • Students of the Charotar Education Society meets Gandhi. • Villagers sprinkle the dusty road with water. • Escorted in procession through the town of 11,500 inhabitants, they halted in a field behind the Dada Naoroji High School. • From Sunday evening to Monday evening the party took a break, and Gandhi observed a silence.
Key Event • The entire route watered by the Anand Municipality. The party marched to the tune of Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi with his troop walking to the tune of Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram. • Supporting Image: Anand Municipality watering the roads. • Related Image: Villagers welcoming the troop. More and more people joining the group of marchers.
The mood is of a hot day, with very dusty streets. The marchers look tired and worn out. But they are still very enthusiastic about the march. Here the villagers can be seen watering the streets and flowering the path. The composition will have Gandhi and his troop in the centre. In the right side of the frame, one can see the villagers watering the road, to facilitate the troop walking and also spreading flowers and leaves to show their love and respect. The left will show villagers joining and marchers following the march.
7. Napa and Borsad, 18th March Walk to Napa took about two and a half hours, where almost 10,000 people came to welcome the marchers. Anand municipality watered the roads. From Napa to Borsad they crossed Dedarda. There they stayed at the Edward Memorial High School. Around 13000 people attended the meeting here also. At Borsad Gandhi announced that about seventy Mukhis, Matadars and Ravaniyas from 8 villages had resigned. • The entire route watered by the Anand Municipality. The party marched to the tune of Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram. • Abbas Tyabji visited Gandhi • At Borsad Gandhi announced that about seventy Mukhis, Matadars and Ravaniyas from 8 villages had resigned.
Key Event • At Borsad Gandhi announced that about seventy Mukhis, Matadars and Ravaniyas from 8 villages had resigned. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Mahatma Gandhi sitting and a Marcher collecting the resignations. • Supporting Image: Mukhis, Matadars and Ravaniyas resigning • Related Image: Crowd of villagers sitting in the meeting.
The composition will have Gandhi sitting in the centre under a tree heading the meeting. In the left there are the matadars, and other Indian officials offering resignation. On the right there are villagers attending the meeting with the marchers.
8. Ras and Kankapura, 19th March The journey to Ras took two hours. The dust on the kaccha roads was very deep. It was in Ras that Sardar Patel became the first arrested Salt Satyagrahi of the Salt Campaign. Abbas Tyabji was also present. Peached Kankapura in about 2 hrs. At night 10.30 they started for the river. ople thought Gandhi can get arrested here at Ras. • Welcome by Durbar Gopaldas, Ashabhai Patel and Ravishankar Maharaj. • Sardar patel was arrested here, villagers demand for no-tax campaign. • Accompanied by women singing nationalist songs, Gandhi skirted the town, walked around the tank and settled in one of the dharamsala. The party crossed the Native State Territory for the first time. • A 105 year old woman bowed, put a tilak on Gandhi’s forehead and asked him to “return soon having obtained Swaraj” near Dewan, a small village not far from Kankapura. • Jawaharlal Nehru reaches Kankapura two hours after Gandhi left. • Durbar Gopaldas joined the party and announced himself as the bodyguard of Gandhi.
Key Events: • A 105 year old woman bowed, put a tilak on Gandhi’s forehead and asked him to “return soon having obtained Swaraj” near Dewan, a small village not far from Kankapura. Listing of Images: • Main Image: 105 year old lady putting tilak on Gandhi’s forehead. • Supporting Image: Marchers walking with Gandhi • Related Image: Village scene with people waiting, Durbar Gopaldas waiting and later joined.
The composition is with Gandhi and the 105 year old lady in the centre. Gandhi has his marchers on his side, and villagers waiting to receive the troop are standing near the lady.
9. Mahi River Bank and Kareli, 20th March The crossing of the river during high tide would help to reach the other side most easily. The scene of the river bank resembled that of a fair ground, with time being filled by singing. Ragnathji purchased a new boat and ferried Gandhi across the river. While crossing the river because of loss of time due to the crowd, the boat came to a halt in the shallow waters and Gandhi, along with the others who had been ferried across, commenced to wade though he knee deep mud while thousands of people lined both banks holding oil lit torches. • Ragnathji, a brave young landholder ferried Mahatma Gandhi across the river after purchasing a new boat. While crossing the river because of loss of time due to the crowd, the boat came to a halt in the shallow waters and Gandhi, along with others who had been ferried across, commenced to wade through the knee deep mud while thousands of people lined both banks holding oil lit torches. • Crossing of the river with everyone, when kilometers of wading through thick mud on the moonless night were the most difficult hours of the entire journey. • Nehru joined Gandhi at Kareli, and gave a speech at Kareli with Gandhi. He left from there.
Key Event: • Ragnathji, a brave young landholder ferried Mahatma Gandhi across the river after purchasing a new boat. While crossing the river because of loss of time due to the crowd, the boat came to a halt in the shallow waters and Gandhi, along with others who had been ferried across, commenced to wade through the knee deep mud while thousands of people lined both banks holding oil lit torches. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Mahatma Gandhi crossing the river with the marchers through the knee deep mud. • Supporting Image: Raghunathji with the newly bought boat helping them cross the river • Related Image: Thousands of villagers on both sides of the river with lantern guiding the troupe. And many more waiting on both sides of the bank.
A very energetic scene. Large crowd is seen in this scene. Huge chaos and energy. The composition has Gandhi crossing the river, and the boat stuck due to high tide. There are people standing on both the banks with light showing light. The frame will have in the left Nehru coming to join. The right side will have villagers waiting.
10. Gajera and Ankhi, 21st March Passing by Pilodra and Vedachthey reached Gajera. Here they rested in the pandals erected in a grove of mango and banyan trees by the side of the Muslim graveyard. The speech happened on the dais erected under a large banyan tree. 5000 people listened to the speech. six and a half kms away, Ankhi had a crowd of 2000 people to attend the speech. • The marchers had left Kareli at 6 a.m. And by 7.30, after passing through Pilodra, had arrived a Vedach-a small village. • Gandhi says to villagers of Gajera that the meeting starts only when the untouchables are allowed to sit with the high caste. • At Gajera five would be Marchers came from the Ashram and approached Gandhi to be allowed into the ranks. • The evening prayer conducted on way to Ankhi under a tamarind tree by the small village of Uchchad. • At Ankhi the marchers were met by slogan shouting and notional song and bhajan singing crowd.
Key Event: • Gandhi says to villagers of Gajera that the meeting starts only when the untouchables are allowed to sit with the high caste. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Mahatma Gandhi sitting in the meeting on the dais asking the untouchables to join the high caste • Supporting Image: The untouchables sitting separate and high caste sitting separate. One or two of them about to join the crowd. • Related Image: crowd of villagers sitting listening.
The central frame has Gandhi in a meeting in the village. The left has the untouchables sitting and right has the villagers. Thus the frame shows the untouchables going and joining the villagers.
11. Jambusar and Amod, 22nd March The marchers arrived Jambusar by walking for 5 to 6 kms and crossed dark soiled and cotton growing countryside. 12000 people with leaders like Sarojini Naidu, Dr. Ansari and Motilal Nehru greeted Gandhi and his troop here. They rested in the ginning factory. Motilal Nehru decided to make a gift of his home Anand Bhavan to the Congress. All leaders including Dr. Chandulal and Nehrus addressed the crowd. They went to Amod after Jambusar, which was not exactly a village or a modern town either. The village of Amod was cleaned and watered, buildings decorated. The crowd affectionate and full of enthusiasm. • A town of 12,000 population was freshly decorated. Sarojini Naidu, Dr Ansari and Motilal Nehru awaiting Gandhi’s arrival. Motilal Nehru decided to make a gift of his home Anand Bhavan to the Congress. • A crowd of 5000 people awaited for the speech. In this crowd 500 women and 1000 Muslims were present. • Old Abbas Tyabji walked with Gandhi the whole 11 kms to Amod. Nehru remarked of Gandhi and the others continuing “ That was my last glimpse of him then as I saw him, staff in hand, marching along at the head of his followers, with firm step and a peaceful but undaunted look. It was a moving sight.” • On the way to Amod a patriotic and enthusiastic gentleman stopped the procession, showered the Marchers with rose water, garlanded Gandhi with yarn and presented a purse. • The village of Amod was cleaned and watered, buildings decorated. The crowd was affectionate and full of enthusiasm. • Members of the Congress Bombay Youth League came to meet Gandhi. • Gandhi advised the Youth League members on how they could take
Key Event: • On the way to Amod a patriotic and enthusiastic gentleman stopped the procession, showered the Marchers with rose water, garlanded Gandhi with yarn and presented a purse. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi being greeted by the enthusiast and patriotic gentleman. • Supporting Image: Other marchers with Gandhiji. Abbas Tyabji walking with Mahatma Gandhi • Related Image: Students of Bombay Youth League waiting to meet.
The central position is taken by Gandhi garlanded by a patriot enthusiast. Gandhi has marchers following and right side has villagers waiting.
12. Buva and Samni, 23rd March The walk to Buva was one of the shortest. The reception was not very good, and they stayed in the village dharamsala. Passing through Kerwada and conducting the prayer at Somiala they reached Samni in some three hrs. Here the reception was much more rewarding. Around 1000 people attended the meeting. • Gandhi meets Rajagopalachari, an ex-General Secretary of the Indian National Congress, and G.B. Deshpande at Buva • An incident when while Gandhiji was walking towards an enormous banyan tree, a woman rushed out of a house with the intention of placing the tilak on Gandhi’s forehead, he restrained her and said that if she was actually interested in the campaign she would be wearing khadi. After this incident she became a lifelong khadi wearer. • To reach Samni they passed through Kerwada and conducted evening prayers by Somiala. • Gandhi commented on the huge turbans of rajputs in Samni, after which they started wearing topis • During the meeting a Harijan of the village came forward to garland Gandhi with a skein of cotton. Gandhi accepted it with pleasure.
Key Events (option 2) • During the meeting a Harijan of the village came forward to garland Gandhi with a skein of cotton. Gandhi accepted it with pleasure. Listing of Images: • Main Image: a Harijan putting a garland around Gandhi made of skein of cotton. • Supporting Image: Marchers sitting with Gandhi. • Related Image: Scene of people sitting in the meeting.
The central part has Gandhi being garlanded by a harijan. There are marchers on the left side of the frame. And there are villagers in the right.
13. Tralsa and Derol, 24th March Marchers reached Tralsa via Kelod. Many people from Samni and Kelod joined the march whom Gandhi asked to disperse later. Kasturba and Kakasaheb Kalelkar came to Tralsa to confer with Gandhi. Also Dr Chandulal Desai, a close friend came to meet. Talk about the Sarda Bill at Tralsa At Derol they collected at Haribhai Jhaverbhai Amin 200 to 300 meters south of Derol.
• Marchers reached Tralsa via Kelod. Many people from Samni and Kelod joined the march whom Gandhi asked to disperse later. • On way to Tralsa the marchers had to cross several knee deep mud crossings which added to the physical discomfort. • Kasturba and Kakasaheb Kalelkar came to Tralsa to confer with Gandhi. Also Dr Chandulal Desai, a close friend came to meet. • Talk about the Sarda Bill at Tralsa • At Derol they collected at Haribhai Jhaverbhai Amin 200 to 300 meters south of Derol.
Key Events: • On way to Tralsa the marchers had to cross several knee deep mud crossings which added to the physical discomfort. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi crossing knee deep mud crossings. • Supporting Image: Marchers with Gandhi also crossing. • Related Image: Kasturba and Kalelkar about to join at Tralsa,
In the composition Gandhi is crossing several mud crossings. This is a tough task and people are seen putting efforts to cross these. There are other fellow marchers also following.
14. Bharuch and Ankleshwar, 26th March At the outskirts of Mohamedpura Naka, a thousand or more People, including Schoolboys, had gathered to welcome the Marchers. Kasturba, Abbas Tyabji and Sarojini Naidu met Gandhi. Broach was the place of reunion for the marchers as all the sick ones had recovered and joined back. As the march had completed its 15 days, public consciousness and curiosity was growing, the press coverage was also increasing. Gandhi and marchers recorded their weight at the clinic at Bharuch, Sarojini Naidu accompanied the band of Satyagrahis to Ankaleshwara. The speech at Ankaleshwara was witnessed by a crowd of 6,000 people. The crowd consisted of several hundred Muslims, some Parsis and Christians. There were 3 to 4 Americans as well. • At the outskirts of Mohamedpura Naka, a thousand or more People, including Schoolboys, had gathered to welcome the Marchers. • Kasturba, Abbas Tyabji and Sarojini Naidu met Gandhi. • It was a town of population of 35000, which offered treats of a city. • As the march had completed its 15 days, public consciousness and curiosity was growing, the press coverage was also increasing. • Gandhi and marchers recorded their weight at the clinic at Bharuch, • The one and a half km took the party through the winding streets of a brightly decorated town, Gandhi being accompanied by his wife, Abbas Tyabji, Dr Chandulal Desai and Sarojini Naidu-on whose shoulder he leaned for support while climbing the hill in Broach. They were showered with rose petals along the way. • The party walked to Nawa Chowki where they boarded decorated boats for the crossing of the Narmada. Reminds Rama’s departure. • Sarojini Naidu accompanied the band of Satyagrahis to Ankaleshwara. The speech at Ankaleshwara was witnessed by a crowd of 6,000 people. The crowd consisted of several hundred Muslims, some Parsis and Christians. There were 3 to 4 Americans as well.
Key Events: • The party walked to Nawa Chowki where they boarded decorated boats for the crossing of the Narmada. Reminds Rama’s departure. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Decorated boats being boarded by Gandhi and party to cross the river narmada • Supporting Image: Marchers also boarding the boat. Sarojini Naidu accompanied. • Related Image: Decorated boats about to start from Narmada. Crowd of villagers there to bid farewell.
The composition has Gandhi on a boat crossing the Narmada. There are well decorated boats which will take all the marchers to the next bank.
15. Sajod and Mangrol, 27th March The reception at Sajod was practically nonexistent, possibly because the Marchers arrived before the expected time. Gandhi addressed a crowd of around 1000 people. To reach Mangrol they had to cross Digas from where some followed the party to listen to Gandhi’s evening speech. Mangrol was the smallest village the Marchers had entered with a population of 400. • The reception at Sajod was practically nonexistent, possibly because the • Marchers arrived before the expected time. Gandhi addressed a crowd of around 1000 people. • To reach Mangrol they had to cross Digas from where some followed the party to listen to Gandhi’s evening speech. • Mangrol was the smallest village the Marchers had entered with a population of 400.
Key Event: • Gandhi and Marchers used to do spinning activities everyday. Thus can be shown. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi spinning • Supporting Image: Marchers also spinning and writing as daily activities during the March • Related Image: The villagers becoming a part of the activity and message of Satyagraha and Freedom Struggle reaching the villagers.
Gandhi and the marchers used to spin cotton everyday during the march, practising Satyagraha, In this frame Gandhi sits in the centre spinning and people are sitting around resting. There are other marchers also spinning.
16. Rayma and Umrachi Starting from Mangrol, and crossing Walner the Marchers reached Rayma, the last village of Bharuch district. Rayma was the first place where Marchers stayed at a private residence. • Starting from Mangrol, and crossing Walner the Marchers reached Rayma, the last village of Bharuch district. • Here they were received by the village musicians-thirty men with drums and pipes who escorted them to the pandal erected in the compound of the home of Nathubhai Kashiram. ( Rayma was the first place en route where the Marchers stayed at a private residence.) • Some Harijans who were standing away from the main audience were asked to join the speech by Gandhi. • Crossing the river Kim by using a bridge rather than a boat. An enthusiastic crowd of 500 was waiting to receive the party across the river. Mithubehn Petit, a Parsi Surat Congress organiser put tilak on Gandhi’s forehead and garlanded him with hand spun cotton .
Key Events • Crossing the river Kim by using a bridge rather than a boat. An enthusiastic crowd of 500 was waiting to receive the party across the river. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi crossing the river using a bridge rather that a boat. • Supporting Image: Marchers with him crossing as well. • Related Image: 500 people waiting to receive the party.
The central frame has Gandhi crossing a river on bridge made with help of fellow marchers. Other marchers are following him.
17. Ertham and Bhatgam, 29th March At Ertham 1500 to 2000 people attended the speech. The marchers walked past the village of Takarma, to reach Bhatgam from Ertham. 500 people welcomed the marchers with coconut and cotton yarn garland. Turning the searchlight inwards. Getting upset on use of petromax and any luxury by the marchers, • At Ertham 1500 to 2000 people attended the speech. • The marchers walked past the village of Takarma, to reach Bhatgam from Ertham. • 500 people welcomed the marchers with coconut and cotton yarn garland. • Turning the searchlight inwards • Getting upset on use of petromax and any luxury by the marchers
Key Events • Gandhi used to write in the moonlight at night. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi writing in the moonlight. • Supporting Image: Other marchers sleeping and having rest • Related Image: Village night scene with people sleeping .
Gandhi used to write regular columns and other updates of the march regularly. In one such scene, Gandhi occupies the central position writing in the moon light. There are people sleeping around. The mood is very quite and relaxed. There is silence and no one around Gandhi when he is engrossed in writing his day’s account.
18. Sandhier and Delad, 30th March To reach Sandhier the party passed through the Rajput village of Mehemadpur and Gola. There was another halt a Achharan. They were welcomed by the welcoming committee to escort to group. Seventy five merchants came to confer with Gandhi on the subject of the boycott of cloth. Amitlal Vithaldas Thakkar, a prominent social worker was in Sandhier to see Gandhi. Delad was 5 km distant, where they reached with a halt at Pariya. The roads around Pariya were watered for one km and decorated with festoons of auspicious asopalav leaves. Gandhi addressed a crowd of 6000-7000 people that night at Delad. • To reach Sandhier the party passed through the Rajput village of Mehemadpur and Gola. There was another halt a Achharan. They were welcomed by the welcoming committee to escort to group. • Seventy five merchants came to confer with Gandhi on the subject of the boycott of cloth. • Amitlal Vithaldas Thakkar, a prominent social worker was in Sandhier to see Gandhi. • Delad was 5 km distant, where they reached with a halt at Pariya. The roads around Pariya were watered for one km and decorated with festoons of auspicious asopalav leaves. • Gandhi addressed a crowd of 6000-7000 people that night at Delad.
Key Events • Gandhi entered the village of Chhaprabhatha stripped to the waist with a cloth draped over his head. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi entering with a cloth tied on his head with fellow marchers • Supporting Image: Other marchers following him. • Related Image: People from villages waiting to welcome the troop.
The Central frame will show Gandhi walking with the cloth tied over his head. The troop is following him. There are villagers on both the sides withing to welcome.
19. Chhaprabhatha and Surat, 1st April • Gandhi entered the village of Chhaprabhatha stripped to the waist with a cloth draped over his head. • Trains ....coming in crowded with white-clad enthusiasts who made the building echo with shouts of Mahatma Gandhi ki Jai. • The crush of people made it difficult to move as the marchers neared Surat. The marchers did not enter the city proper-instead went to the homes of Seth Nathubhai Narandas and Seth Dayalbhai Hargovindas. • The speech was to be held near the pier on the Tapi river bank. People had been crowding into Surat for days to witness the event. The evening speech was attended by 1,00,000 people of which 10,000 were women. • Auction of all gifts was done and fabulous sums were collected. • The crowds were so huge that the marchers made their way through with help of volunteers. Women and children packed the balconies in such numbers there was fear they might collapse. The houses along the • route were decorated with strings of asopalav leaves and every seventy metres highly decorated archways were set up for them to pass through. • Roads had been sprinkled with water. Showers of flowers descended upon them from the upper balconies, the marchers walked on a thick carpet of roses.
Key Event (option 3) ��� The crowds were so huge that the marchers made their way through with help of volunteers. Women and children packed the balconies in such numbers there was fear they might collapse. The houses along the route were decorated with strings of asopalav leaves and every seventy metres highly decorated archways were set up for them to pass through. Roads had been sprinkled with water. Showers of flowers descended upon them from the upper balconies, the marchers walked on a thick carpet of roses. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi with troupe passing the streets. • Supporting Image: Buildings all around with lot of people. • Related Image: Crowd of people, in the building and on the streets.
This is the biggest town and biggest crowd. The composition has Gandhi in the centre trying to make his way in the crowd of people. The related images show the building facade with people. There are people all around the place.
20. Dindoli and Vanz, 2nd April Warm welcome at Dindoli. From Dindoli covering Sania Kande, Kharwasa they reached Vanz.
• Warm welcome at Dindoli. • From Dindoli covering Sania Kande, Kharwasa they reached Vanz. • From Vanz they marched through Gaekwad Popda and then Kaphleta. Here the river Mindhola was crossed with help of farmers who used their carts to make a make shift bridge to facilitte the marchers to cross the river.
Key Events • Here the river Mindhola was crossed with help of farmers who used their carts to make a make shift bridge to facilitte the marchers to cross the river. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi crossing the river on the make shift bridge using the carts • Supporting Image: Farmers helping the marchers crossing • Related Image: Villagers waiting on both the sides of the bank.
The Frame has Gandhi crossing the river on the bridge made of cart. In the Centre is Gandhi with fellow marchers following. There are villagers on the other side waiting. Farmers can be seen in the related columns.
21. Dhaman and Navsari, 3rd April Crossing the tiny village of Chakhad they reached Dhaman. The marchers walked under specially erected archways including one of the hand spun cotton. Singing village women compared Gandhi entering Dhaman with Rama. Meets Kushalbhai Jan Patel and Ranchor Fakirbhai. At Dhaman, the chamar shoemaker mended Gandhi’s well worn chappals. Crowd of 5000 people gathered to listen to Gandhi. The walk from Dhaman to Navsari was long and had been watered and decorated. The streets of Navsari were decorated with flags and bunting and the town was overflowing with spectators. The speech was attended by 50,000 people. • Crossing the tiny village of Chakhad they reached Dhaman. • The marchers walked under specially erected archways including one of the hand spun cotton. Singing village women compared Gandhi entering Dhaman with Rama. • Meets Kushalbhai Jan Patel and Ranchor Fakirbhai. • At Dhaman, the chamar shoemaker mended Gandhi’s well worn chappals. • Crowd of 5000 people gathered to listen to Gandhi. • The walk from Dhaman to Navsari was long and had been watered and decorated. • The streets of Navsari were decorated with flags and bunting and the town was overflowing with spectators. • The speech was attended by 50,000 people.
Key Event • At Dhaman, the chamar shoemaker mended Gandhi’s well worn chappals. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi sitting and the chamar shoemaker mending the slippers. • Supporting Image: Other marchers sitting around • Related Image: Villagers joining the movement.
The central frame has Gandhi and the shoemaker. Gandhi is seen chatting with people. The shoemaker on the right is seen mending his chap pal. There are people around Gandhi listening to him.
22. Vijalpur and Matwad, 4th April â€˘ Crossing Pethan, Kothambri, they entered Matwad/Karadi. A reception of singing women and children escorted them to the village. â€˘ 5000 people had gathered the Matwad ground to attend the speech.
Key Events • Auction of things and collection of purse was done at every stop Listing of Images: • Main Image: One of the Marchers collecting purse and auctioning all the gifts. • Supporting Image: Gandhi with other marchers sitting. • Related Image: Villagers sitting in the meeting and participating in the auction.
The composition has Gandhi with people sitting on the dais in the centre. On of the marchers is holding the auction. There are villagers around attending the meeting.
23. Dandi, 5th April During the day Dr Sumant Mehta, Abbas Tyabji, Mithubehn Petit and Sarojini Naidu called upon the Mahatma. • Crossing two bridges, a village called Sanapur the marchers finally reached Dandi. • At Dandi Gandhi took up residence at the commodious bungalow of Muslim Seth Sirajuddin Vasi. • During the day Dr Sumant Mehta, Abbas Tyabji, Mithubehn Petit and Sarojini Naidu called upon the Mahatma. • Penned his famous “ I want world sympathy in this battle of Right against Might” • Gandhi conducted the speech under a Banyan tree between an old square concrete water tank and the tiny Dandi primary school.
Key Events • Gandhi conducted the speech under a Banyan tree between an old square concrete water tank and the tiny Dandi primary school. • At Dandi Gandhi took up residence at the commodious bungalow of Muslim Seth Sirajuddin Vasi. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi conducting speech under Banyan Tree. • Supporting Image: Saifee Villa in the backdrop, which they stayed in • Related Image: Villagers
The central position has Gandhi under the banyan tree attending prayer meeting. In the right and left people with marchers are sitting. The related image shows the saiffee villa and sea.
24. Breaking of the Law • The place full of excitement, rumour, and action. • Everyone was up and ready at 4 a.m • A detachment of 150 police officers had been stationed in Dandi and a further force of 400 was at Jalalpur. • Before the religious war begins, Gandhi took his ritual bath. • After the bath he picked up salt to break the law, and Sarojini Naidu standing by his side, cried “ Hail Deliverer” • Everybody started making Salt in Dandi.
Key Events • After the bath he picked up salt to break the law, and Sarojini Naidu standing by his side, cried “ Hail Deliverer” • Everybody started making Salt in Dandi. Listing of Images: • Main Image: Gandhi conducting speech under Banyan Tree. • Supporting Image: Saifee Villa in the backdrop, which they stayed in • Related Image: Villagers
The final image has a large crowd with sea. Central position with Gandhi picking up salt and crowd on the sides.
Prepared by Nimisha Drolia, IDC, IIT Bombay