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Index Chapter one. Rice production in Seville (Spain)..................................................................................2 1. History.........................................................................................................................................2 2. Quantity.......................................................................................................................................2 3.Types.............................................................................................................................................2 4. Growing.......................................................................................................................................3 5. Harvesting....................................................................................................................................4 6. Milling.........................................................................................................................................4 Chapter 2. Types of rice in Seville (Spain)..........................................................................................5 Interviewing an expert................................................................................................................5 Article based on answers.............................................................................................................5


Chapter one. Rice production in Seville (Spain) 1. History The Moors brought Asiatic rice to the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th century. They grew rice in Valencia and Majorca. The first attempt to cultivate rice in Andalucía was in the 20th century, when R. E. Fisher considered the idea of growing it in the wetlands next to river Guadalquivir. He was an expert working in the Nile delta who came on a hunting visit.When he saw the area he was convinced that those lands could be used for agriculture and he designed a project of cultivation in small plots. Primo de Rivera, head of the government at the time, supported him and in 1927 they created the firm "Islas del Guadalquivir S.A." for the sale and transformation of Las Marismas (wetlands next to the river). But eventually, the project was not successful. In 1937 Rafael Beca Mateo bought the lands and started to grow rice in the area of Isla Mayor. There was a civil war in Spain at the time, so the authorities were very interested in the growing of rice because it could be a good source of food for people. Lots of families came from Valencia to grow rice in Andalucía. They had experience, so they were the best to cultivate the lands. They set the first small villages.

2. Quantity The average production of rice in Spain is about 830.000 tonnes a year. A big part of it is produced in Andalucía. Andalucía is the community that produces the biggest quantity of rice in Spain, about a 40 % of the total. In the last decade, Andalucía produced 295320 tonnes from 34662 hectares cultivated with an output of 8'4 t/ha. Rice growing employs thousands of workers every year.

3.Types There are lots of varieties of rice. The main types are indica or long-grain rice and japonica or medium-grain and short-grain rice. In Andalucía most of the cultivated rice is indica (about 80 %) although, in Spain, people usually prefer short-grain varieties for their dishes.


4. Growing

Rice is normally grown as an annual plant. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. This simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, and deters vermin. Land preparation involves ploughing and harrowing to mix the soil, and leveling. Farmers usually do this in spring. Rice cultivation requires a warm weather, at least in Spring and Summer, and abundance of water. Then the lands are flooded by rain or river water with a system of channels. The growing of rice has several stages: 1. Land preparation 2. Seeding or plant establishment 3. Water control 4. Nutrient management 5. Pest management 6. Harvesting 7. Drying 8. Storage 9. Millling

5. Harvesting Harvesting is the process of collecting the mature rice crop from the field. Depending on the


variety, a rice crop usually reaches maturity at around 115-120 days after crop establishment. Harvesting activities include cutting, stacking, handling, threshing, cleaning, and hauling. Rice has to be dried before milling. Rice is usually harvested when the grains have a moisture content of around 25%. It can be done manually, in a traditional way, or using modern machines. After harvest, the rice grain undergoes a number of processes depending on how it will be used. Such methods include, drying, storing, milling, and processing.

6. Milling Mills either sun dry or use mechanical driers or both. Drying is the most important operation after harvesting a rice crop. It has to be done quickly to get good quality rice. Storing grain is done to reduce grain loss to weather, moisture, rodents, birds, insects and microorganisms. Milling is a crucial step in post-production of rice. The basic objective of a rice milling system is to remove the husk and the bran layers, and produce an edible, white rice kernel that is sufficiently milled and free of impurities.


Chapter 2. Types of rice in Seville (Spain) Interviewing an expert 1. How many types of rice are there? 2. Which ones are cultivated in Andalucia? 3. How many colours rice can be? 4. Which types of rice is the longest? 5. Are there any different varieties of long and short grain rice? 6. Are they cultivated in the same way? 7. Which types of rice are harvested earlier?When? 8. Do they plant all the types in the same month? 9. When does the planting/seeding start? 10. What temperature does rice need to grow? 11. What pests are common in rice growing? 12. What are the most damaging disease for rice? 13. Do they affect all the same? 14. Is there transgenic rice? 15. Which types of rice need more water? 16. Are all the types for the same dishes?

Article based on answers In Andalucía there are two main types of rice, long grain and short grain. They’re classified according to size. Rice is cultivated in Sevilla and Cádiz. The 75% is long grain and only the 25% is short grain. The most important varieties are J Sendra, Bomba and Marisma (short grain varieties) and Puntal (the most common long grain variety). The longest variety is Blue Bell, but it doesn’t exist now. In Spain, there is only white rice but in other countries there can be red and black. In Spain there isn’t transgenic rice, but there is transgenic rice in Asia. Andalucia was the first to have integrated production, more ecological. The growing cycle is more or less the same in both types. Normally the seeding starts in May, but if


the weather isn’t good enough it starts in June. The growing cycle takes 140, 150 or 160 days. There is only about one week of difference between varieties. The normal temperature is between 18º and 35º. In theory, the hotter the better. The most important pests in rice growing are red worm and “rosquilla”. The red crab can be also considered a pest because it makes galleries in the ground. Birds can be very dangerous too. The most damaging disease is called “pyricularia” Good cooks use different varieties for different dishes but short grain is more commonly used in Spanish food. When cooking, this type absorbs more water (or broth) than long grain rice, so it is more tasty. In conclusion, Andalusian rice is long or short white grain. Both varieties are cultivated in similar ways but they are used for different sorts of dishes. Let’s try them all!


Rice in Seville