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CREATING LOCAL MEANING

Nilofer Afza Tajuddin 4618963 Q2 Studio - Designing sustainable urban environments Tutor : Rients Dijkstra


CONTENTS

I Argument Formulation II Vision III Strategies applied IV Design and Masterplan V Pattern Language VI SUET VII Feasibility VIII References


Hidden agendas

Source : Author


For many people who live on the northern side of the River Maas, Rotterdam Zuid might as well be another city — a city where you wouldn’t want to get a flat bike tire in the middle of the night. The odd thing is, every time I do venture into Zuid, I’m pleasantly surprised by how quaint, hip and loved this area feels. Sure, Zuid still has its bad corners, but for the most part it’s experiencing a kind of urban renaissance. This is no coincidence.

How Rotterdam Reconnected Its Most Isolated Neighborhood Rachel Keeton, March 2014


How Tarwewijk reflects

Source : Author


Study area

Tarwewijk

Carnisse Zuidplein

Landmarks

Road network

Metro system

Ecology

Neighbourhoods

Water System

Vreewijk

Ahoy

Layers analysed


The traffic spine thats runs through the intersection of the Zuidplein Shopping mall, Ahoy and Ikazia is a primary connection bringing in high speed traffic from the north to the south of Rotterdam.

Noord

The traffic distributed road network East West Rotterdam.

is later into the along the Axis of

As a result of this high speed traffic corridor, a mobility environment is induced in the intersection.

Zuid

Mobility environment This mobility environment composed of the high speed traffic corridors, Zuidplein, Ahoy and Ikazia as a result, tend to have a larger regional impact than an immediate local one.

Local value < Regional value This group of landmarks bring in more people from the rest of Rotterdam than the surrounding areas. Zuidplein in specific occupies a gigantic footprint of approximately 65,000 sq m yet has minimum or negligible local impact.


There is hence a disjunction between where the mall sits and who it attracts. The number of visitors has also undergone a considerable decline in recent times.

Inactive facade The facade of the mall is inactive and fails to engage the pedestrian and hence creates a contained space.


Partiallly transform Zuidplein into a centre for the local residents while retaining its core

Disjunction of position and impact

Disproportionate footprint

Inactive facace

Negligible local impact

Strong regional value

VISION


In contrast to transforming the southern part of the mall, the northern zone has a stronger potential of establishing direct connections to the i m m e d i a t e neighbourhood. Carnisse and Tarwewijk which are in a close proximity are the primary target population in this proposal


STRATEGIES APPLIED

PROGRAMMATIC REJUVENATION

IMPROVING LOCAL CONNECTIONS


PROGRAMMATIC REJUVENATION

By clustering in order to create a synergy of cultural activities that resonate with the needs of the local community, programmes such as social rehabilitation, art galleries, exhibition and performance spaces and libraries are introduced into the newly acquired portion of the site.

A common platform for the expression and establishment of local identities of these groups is envisioned through a Art and Culture building which forms a larger social clusters in association with a public square, everyday shopping and leisure and the mall itself.


Image courtesy : Google


A local image is superimposed over the parking facade of the mall on the ground and first floor using everyday shopping and leisure elements like grocery stores, bars, pubs, eat outs and restaurants. The bus station is rezoned to facilitate this transformation


Future Extension

Parking extension

Urban farm

Art-culture Extension

Parking

Urban farm Parking garage

Art culture centre

Art culture centre

Theatre extension Library Exhibition and gallery Social Rehabilitation

The art-culture building with a primary social rehabilitation programme is redefined as the new art-culture building as per the ongoing Hart van Zuid proposal. This new building is zoned to the north corner of the site such that it benefits from both local connections and a strong infrastructure edge.


New residences are added in place of the old art building proposal. A vibrant public space in envisioned in the centre of this cultural hub, with the open space feeding off of the network of local activity taking place around it.


One at a time in Vreewijk

Source : Author


IMPROVING LOCAL CONNECTIONS

In order to establish strong connections and support for the local functions introduced on site, it is essential for the pedestrian and vehicular connections to be optimised. Landscape elements are used to further add value to these connections.


To facilitate tangible connections from Carnisse, The residential block between Goereesestraat and Van Swietenlaan is altered in two zones to establish a direct vehicular and pedestrian connection to intended local centre.

Direct connection to Carnisse


Connections on ground level A continuous pedestrian pattern is designed on the ground level with the programme influencing street activity. The primary axis connects Carnisse to the zone of Ikazia and passes through the shopping street and parking garage. Two secondary axes are planned parallel to the metro line. One runs along the office buildings on the east and the other along the new bus station. Ikazia zone access Tarwewijk access

Zuidpark zone access Carnisse access


Connections on upper level

The pedestrian overbridge from Tarwewijk to the shopping mall passes through the roof of the Art culture building and Parking garage. This establishes a continuous elevated level connection overlooking all the activities below. The roofs of the two buildings are planned with urban farms which accoommodate leisure activities for the locals as well as visitors.

Section through secondary axis along metro


Section through parking garage and public square

Pedestrian access

Mall entry Metro exit Pedestrian access

Vehicular access Section through Art-culture building

Art-culture Urban farm

Theatre

Pedestrian access Vehicular access

The secondary axis along the metro platform is designed as vibrant shopping street with green and blue landscape elements. The central public square with multiple spines feeding into it, becomes a hub of local social and cultural activity. The plaza is detailed based on this inflow of pedestrians.


Pedestrian patterns Vehicular patterns

Movement patterns on the Ground floor


Layout of the Shopping mall level


‘Everything is worthless’ - Welcome to Zuidplein

Source : Author


Adding worth to their lives


Metro Elevated Pathway Bus Bus

Pavilions Swimming pool Residential Ahoy Cinema Green Leisure

Pedestrian pattern intensity analysis


Based on the exits and flow of pedestrians into the public sqaure, different zones are identified. Spillover zones are those which are not just thoroughfares but destinations. The transitions spaces designed are pause point with ample seating and green spaces.

Pavilion zone Spillover zones Transition zones

Pressure points

Space derivations in public square

Source : Google


-2 m -2 m 0m 1m 2m 3m 4m 5m 6m 7m

Contours and Water system design Based on the natural terrain of the site, a drain pattern was designed. The surface run off from the site is directed to a water square which is part of the public square proposed. The water is then transferred to the natural water system to the south through bioswales. This details is elaborated in the SUET section.


Urban Heat Island effect Rotterdam Zuid has reported significance increase in surface temperatures during the summer. The water square and urban gardens integrated into the site to provide cooling effects to its surroundings. See SUET for more details.


Windows of Carnisse

Source : Author


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Creating a positive social change

â&#x20AC;?


Creating local meaning through social clustering


PROPOSED MASTERPLAN


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By introducing a new program yet retaining the core, the site of the mall is transformed into a centre that caters people from the i m m e d i a t e neighbourhoods as well as the entire region. A centre which was previously a more of a centre to rest of Rotterdam than the i m m e d i a t e neighbouthood, is now envisioned a public hub which reflects its local community as well as the rest of the city.

SECTION AA

SECTION BB


Art inspired by the abandoned in Vreewijk

Source : Author


â&#x20AC;&#x153;

Redefining the local identity

â&#x20AC;?


Physical Model


REFERENCES: How Rotterdam Reconnected Its Most Isolated Neighborhood - Rachel Keeton | RESILIENT Cities, March 2014 Social resilience in Southern-Rotterdam -ARTS foundation


PATTERN LANGUAGE


PATTERNS ON HEALTH INCREASING WALK-ABILITY FOR BETTER LIVEABILITY Streets with well planned pedestrian and bicycle pathways tend to have better liveability and in turn influence physical health of residents. With increase in the walk-ability of an area, the physical inactivity of the neighbourhood can be resolved. As a result the risk of various diseases such as cardiovascular ailment, certain cancers, depression and anxiety can be reduced to an extent. For ease of pedestrians and to encourage cyclists, well planned pathways that are dedicated for convenient flow of the people is essential. Micro elements such as trees, benches and lighting are also important to enhance the street experience. (Reference: Neighbourhood design and physical activity - ChanamLee and Anne Vernez Moudon)

Zones where pattern is implemented

Pattern for improved walk-ability

WALKABILTY INDUCED WHEN DESTINATION INCORPORATED Most people prefer different destinations to which to walk or cycle. Using the strategy to locate ‘clusters’ of diverse destinations that may include utilitarian, service and/or retail destinations, walk-abilty towards these points are triggered. These clustered destinations can make walking trips more desirable due to increased convenience from multifunctional opportunities. Examples of functions incude everyday needs like grocery stores, bars, restaurants, video stores, book stores, post office. “Grocery stores were the most popular destinations for all groups, with more than half from every group walking to them at least once per week.” (Reference: Neighbourhood design and physical activity - ChanamLee and Anne Vernez Moudon)

Zone where pattern is implemented

Destination driven walk-ability


PATTERNS ON HEALTH PSYCHOLOGICAL RESTORATION THROUGH VEGETATION AND LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS Psychological restoration is a key pathway through which urban nature promotes public health (e.g., Health Council of the Netherlands, 2004; Hartig et al., 2014). Trees as urban nature elements act as important cognitive resoucrces which influence liveabilty, directionality and psychological restoration in an urban setting. People commonly rely on this resource in daily life, as valuable stimuli. Studies have found that streetscapes with trees are ordinarily more preferred than streetscapes without trees (Sommer et al., 1990; Stamps, 1997; Gorman, 2004; Wolf, 2009) A chronic lack of restoration may cause negative consequences for effective functioning, well-being, and health of the residents. (Reference: Effects of urban street vegetation judgments of restoration likelihood - Pall J. Lindal, Terry Hartig)

Zones where pattern is implemented

Pattern for psychological restoration

COOLING EFFECT USING GREEN ROOFS A simple way to tackle the Urban Heat Island Effect is by incorporating green roofs Rotterdam Zuid has reported high surface temperatures and increasinf fatalities as a result of overheating. These patterns when applied, tend to create cooling effects in the surroundings. Green roofs not only provide shade but also reduce heat from the air through evapotranspiration, reducing temperatures of the roof surface and the surrounding air. In comparison to a conventional rooftop which may heat up to be 50°C warmer, the green roof is much cooler than the air temperature. (Reference : Using Green Roofs to Reduce Heat Islands : US-EPA)

Zone where pattern is implemented

Cooling effect


PATTERNS ON CONTROL CONTROL OF USE OF SPACE By using methods of territorial zoning, use of space can be controlled and demarcated. By using simple roof elements to define space, it is possible to control how people move and behave. It is also critical in order to break down a large space without creating physical obstructions. A tensile roof is used to create an invisible volume which is intended for seating purposes while the uncovered portion remains as the continuous spine.

Zones where pattern is implemented

Pattern for control of space

CONTROL OF PEDESTRAIN FLOW INTO SPACES By configuring building volumes and relevant exits, pedestrian movement is directed in a controlled pattern Paving patterns, building morpoholgy and openings for entry and exit are crucial in manipulation pedestrain flow in a desired manner. A definite axes is first created and paving is designed to support the same. All entrances and exits feed into the desired destination. This established a controlled pattern of pedestrain movement and subsequent measures for safety, surveillance and functions to be introduced can be applied. Zone where pattern is implemented

Control of Pedestrian patterns


PATTERNS ON CONTROL CONTROL OF SURFACE RUN OFF AND RAINFALL INTO WATER SQAURE Using natural terrain and design strategies, the flow of water across the site is directed into a water square Based on the natural terrain of the site, a comprehensive water system pattern was derived in order to maximise water collection on the site and use it for recreational purposes. The drains slope towards the water sqaure which function as an integral public square. Further, to prevent flooding, the water network is connected to the natural water system based on GIS data.

Water Square Primary water network

This section is elaborated on page

Zones where pattern is implemented

PATTERNS ON SAFETY NATURAL SURVEILLANCE Addressing urban insecurity by using placing more eyes on the streets In order to create a safe environment, Jane Jacobs precribes a method of ‘placing eyes on the street’ in order to induce a sense of safety on the streets. This forms the basis of thi pattern by the zoning of active facades along streets in order to create this ‘natural policing’. Active programmes include storefronts, bars, pubs, restaurants , social activities and important entrances and exits. (Reference: Safe and secure cities by Paul van Soomeren)

Zones where pattern is implemented

Pattern for natural surveillance


PATTERNS ON SAFETY CREATING TRANSPARENT CORNERS Elimination of blind corners enhances natural surveillance Design visibility in the built environment means allowing for clear sight lines and avoiding isolated or hidden spaces. Visibility can also be improved through modification such as creation of windows and other openings in otherwise blank walls. (Crime prevention through environmental design guidebook NCPC) By established clear paths and view points and creating transparent corners, the element of surprise is elimintaed hence increasing the surveillance and safety factor.

Zones where pattern is implemented

Pattern for transparent corners

LIGHTING FACADES FOR INCREASED ACTIVITY AND SAFETY In addition to active facades, lighting plays an important role in creating a safe environment Sufficient lighting is necessary for people to see and be seen. From a security point of view, lighting that is strategically placed can have a substantial impact on reducing the fear of crime. A basic level of lighting should allow the identification of a face from a distance of about 10 metres for a person with normal vision. (Crime prevention through environmental design guidebook - NCPC) In addition to street lighting, interactive lighting facades may be used in order to also create passive activity on streets using creative displays. The advatage of using facade lighting it that it can engage people throughout the day but also act as safety element at night.

Zone where pattern is implemented

Lighting facade


PATTERNS ON LEGIBILITY CREATING CLEAR SIGHT LINES Clear sight lines give a sense of direction and orientation Obviously a clear image enables one to move about easily and quickly; A vivid and integrated physical setting, capable of producing a sharp image, plays a social role as well. It can furnish the raw material for the symbols and collective memories of group communication - Image of the city, Kevin Lynch Creating a primary and secondary axis in design is critical in orientation of the design on the whole. These axes act as guiding factor by increasing the legibility of the surrounding functions as well. As a result, a clear and defined layout is established.

Zones where pattern is implemented

Pattern for sight lines

HIGHLIGHTING MAIN EXITS A building may be made more legible by making clear where its main exits using facade and floor elements In order to navigate pedstrians into the various entrances and exits, a clear demarcation of the locations of the same need to be defined. This can be done using paving pattern, opening all major entrances on to a large square and by highlighting the entrances using facade elements.

Zone where pattern is implemented

Pattern for highlighting main exits


PATTERNS ON LEGIBILITY DESIGNING LANDSCAPE LANDMARKS Using the design of the natural environment to make the setting legible Design neighbourhoods and places to take advantage of existing (or set out to create new) man-made or natural features (like rivers, hills, sea-fronts, public squares, important civic buildings or public art) both to create landmarks to aid legibility and to make environments otf special quality. (Crime prevention through

environmental design guidebook NCPC)

New landscape elements can be designed in order to not only benefit the residents but also create nature related landmarks. As a result, legibility is induced using the design of the natural environment. This in turn co-exists with built elements to enhance legibility on the whole.

Zones where pattern is implemented

Pattern for landscape landmarks


PATTERN LANGUAGE - ZUIDPLEIN PROPOSAL


SUSTAINABLE URBAN ENGINEERING OF TERRITORY (SUET)


AREA STUDIED FOR SUBSURFACE ANALYSIS

1.1. Archaeological Features


1.2. Archaeological value and policy

2.1. Types of Foundations


3.1. Ecology

4.1. Ground


5.1. Soil condition 0-1m

5.2. Soil condition 1-2m


6.1. Pipes and cables

6.2. Cables and Pipes


7.1. Water network

8.1. Geotechnical monitoring and CPT


General interaction between layers and subsurface elements based on GIS data


Agricultural - Very slightly contaminated Live - slightly contaminated

Soil Condition 0-1m

Agricultural - Very slightly contaminated Live - slightly contaminated Soil Condition 1-2m

Soil treated Soil aftercare solutions


Indicating childfriendly outdoor (outside playing standards) Greening task stone streets Water issues npvv Barrier from roads - 50km/h Signals map outdoor

Buzzard, swallow, godwit, tree sparrow Ecology

Under 4m 4-9m 9-15m Tree Heights


Electricity Telephone Private cables/Tubing Cables and Pipes Rotterdam

Electricity Telephone Private cables/Tubing Cables and Pipes Rotterdam

Drainage districts


Monitoring well in use Monitoring well no longer in use Ground water monitoring network

Fair to high archeologic Archeological features Map Rotterdam

Very high archeologic Fair to high archeologic Value archeology and policy map


energy company Nuon District heating map

Asphalt Elements Embankment material


500m

SUB-SURFACE POTENTIAL

CIVIL CONSTRUCTIONS

ENERGY

Archeological value Fair to high archeologic Archeological value Fair to high archeologic Cables and Pipes

Foundations - Special

Foundations - Concrete

SUB-SURFACE District Heating

Slightly contaminated soil - Agricultural Lightly contaminated soil - Live

WATER Primary Water network

Asphalt

Embankment


250m

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I - Surface material II - Soil quality

Hard surface

Slightly contaminated soil - Agricultural

Paved

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PROPOSED MASTERPLAN Q2 Studio - Designing sustainable urban envionments

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1. Contours and Water system design Based on the natural terrain of the site, a drain pattern was designed. The surface run off from the site is directed to a water square which is part of the public square proposed. The water is then transferred to the natural water system to the south through bioswales. The water system design is ordered as follows: The water from : Surface run off Drainage-Underground tank - Water Square Bioswale and finally connected to the natural water system


2. Green roofs to induce cooling - Urban Heat Island effect Rotterdam Zuid has reported significance increase in surface temperatures during the summer. The water square and urban gardens integrated into the site to provide cooling effects to its surroundings. Green roof patterns have been used to create cooling effect to the surroundings.


3. Grid pattern between cables and piples and trees planted While planting trees and other vegetation in public squares, it is important to establish a well defined network with pipes in the sub surface. This reduces the risk of any damage or future complications.


4. Collecting surface run off using gravel basins The natural slopes of roads divert water into gravel channel which act as excellent rentention streams. The water is then collected and diverted to an underground tank for usage.

5. Collecting surface run off using trenches The natural slopes of roads divert water into trenches which pour into a storm water pond beneath the surface. The pond below is desgined with a bulge for excess surge.


6. Retention water basin design As a result of polluted soil, until the soil is accordingly treated, the surface water collected cannot be allowed to infiltrate into the ground. As a result, the water basins designed in the area are of retention in nature. These basins need to be connected to the natural water system in order to form a closed loop. This closed loop design prevents flooding.

7. Air sparging This process involves cleaning the soil by injecting air into the soil or groundwater, which causes the contaminants to evaporate the gas.


8. Bio-swale Bio-swales are valuable landscape and aesthetic elements that also serves as r retention channels and can be used to clean water nased on the type of plantation in addition to transferring water to a large water body.

9. Water square as a detention pond system In this pattern, the water sqauares acts like a detention pondm which stored water until needed and then realeases water into the natural stream or bioswales.


10. Water square as an underground tank system The water square is an important social element that can induce different types of activities. The surface run off is collected and directed to an underground tank and once the desired water pressure is achieved, the water flows into the water basin.

11. Soil clensing using trees In a simple method of phytoremediation, trees tends to clean soil through the root system. Based on the underlying water table and impurities, the roots are able to absorb and expel them, hence cleansing the soil.


12. Degree of screening By planting trees in a certain way, a desried effect can be induced. By varying its composition across height, width, uniformity and transparency, various degrees of screening can be created.

13. Tree planting patterns The distance and manner in which trees are planted have considerable impacts on the immediate environment.


Various strategies used

Green and Blue design

Socio-economic clustering

Reflection In the case of the new proposal for the Zuidplein shopping centre, the primary intent of the project originated from the social disconnect that was evident in the surroundings. The shopping centre had a strong economic influence however failed to connect with the social and environmental needs of the local populations. Basing the argument on this statement, the urban strategy of clustering was used to incorporate these social and environmental values into the existing fabric. To incorporate these values, a cluster consisting of programmes such as social rehabilitation, local specific economic opportunities, green opportunities through recreational urban farming and public centric cultural activities were introduced. The green blue network was strengthened through the design of a water square, bio-swales and other landscape elements. The overall liveability of the zone was improved by triggering a positive social change through these strategies. Further, by analysing the various subsurface data and GIS related information, details specific to these functions such as soil cleansing measures, appropriate cable and pipes grids, health considerations and optimum usage of resources were derived. These formed the basis of the technical aspect of the project in terms of impact across all the parameters in the sustainability framework. The social, environmental and economic aspects were envisioned to co-exist and form a symbiotic relationship with each other. By forming an interdependency with each other, the target area was sought to be developed on a holistic basis. The most striking factor of the proposal is its ability to trigger social sustainability by strengthening the position of the local residents as the prime target population. This strong social factor reacts with its other counterparts in order to achieve â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;trueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; sustainable development.


SUET - ESSAY ON THE ZUIDPLEIN PROPOSAL INTRODUCTION In these rapidly changing times, sustainability has become an inevitable factor to development on the whole. In addition to addressing holistic development in the present without jeopardizing the potential of the future, this multidimensional approach to problem-solving addresses the need for the synergy between the various social, economic and environmental variables involved. Ideally, these three dimensions need to be satisfied in order to consider any design strategy truly sustainable. “Sustainable design considers collectively some of the harder questions, such as need, equity, ethics, social impact and total resource efficiency and thus the role of design in achieving inter-generational equity. More specifically, sustainable design seeks to translate and embody global and regional socio-environmental concerns into products and services at the local level. When a designer is immersed in the design process, trying to meet a client’s expectations and to satisfy consumer desires, terminology can become peripheral.” (Lewis, 2001)

Figure 1: Sustainability framework (Source: Google)

Figure 1 illustrates the desired synergy that should be achieved through sustainable design. While approaching sustainable design, several implications on the grounds of the social component, economic impact and subsequent environmental responsibilities needs to be addressed.

SUSTAINABLE DESIGN IN ZUIDPLEIN In the case of the studio project of Quarter 2 pertaining to the ‘Design of Sustainable Environments’, the neighbourhoods of Carnisse, Tarwewijk, Vreewijk, Zuidplein and Zuidpark in the Southern region of Rotterdam were considered. Any future development in this zone will need to consider its possible social, environment and economic outcomes. Based on rigorous analysis of various social, environmental and economic parameters, Zuidplein was identified as a focus region due to the disjunction between its location and the impact that it generates on the context. Zuidplein has a significant regional value as one of the largest shopping centre in the Netherlands and attracts visitors from various regions of the South Holland. However the number of visitors has seen a considerable decline since its initial construction in the 1970s. In addition to this regional decline, it is important to note the minimal or lack of direct local impact on its surrounding neighbourhood in terms of enhancing the social, environmental and economic value. In fact, it does little for the betterment of the economically weaker sections in Carnisse and Tarwewijk. Despite a strong cultural diversity in the study area, the centre by virtue of its sheer size often tends to be a self contained, exclusive public entity that barely addresses the local social or environmental issues.


Based on these inferences, a design proposal for Zuidplein was formulated such that, it was partially transformed into a regional as well as local hub. While the southern part of the centre was retained along with the strong infrastructural elements such as the metro and bus, the northern half was designed as a local socio-cultural hub that resonated with the needs of the immediate citizens. Programmes such as social rehabilitation, art, culture and education were integrated into the site of the shopping centre such that, social sustainability could be addressed. Furthermore, economic opportunities were tailor-made for the local residents through daily retail and leisure needs. These social and economic functions were further enhanced using environmental strategies to tackle the local surface heating and water concerns. This environmental concern is addressed through integration of water squares, a complete water system designed with bio swales, rainwater collection mechanisms, surface run-off collection techniques and green roofs. Various patterns were derived for the same, and were applied all across the design proposal. This overall design vision of achieving a regional as well as local centre was then studied rigorously based on the subsurface data available. Parameters such as pipe layouts, soil condition and pollution, terrain and contours, underground elements and their subsequent impacts on the nature of the design were considered. “ For the development and improvement of humankind, it is imperative to renew a commitment to living as part of the earth by understanding development and growth as processes which can be sustained, not exploited to impractical limit ”.( William McDonough & Partners, 2000) Based on these strategies a condition of social sustainability was induced which was further supported by the economic and environmental factors. By integrating the local communities into this zone, the declining shopping centre is directly supported by local activities. As a result, an alternate driving force is added which in turn enhances the visitors in the shopping centre and vice versa. By retaining the economic soul of the shopping centre and by adding new social and environmental aspects, a holistic and sustainable future is envisioned.

WHAT MAKES A GOOD URBAN DESIGNER? Based on the book, ‘The making of Polder Cities – A Fine Dutch Tradition’ by Fransje Hooimeijer, it is evident that an urban designer always needs to think ahead of his ahead, anticipating the many changes in the sensitive environments that he designs for. Like in the case of the Housing Act, the motive was to prevent the risk of housing rather than solving for the problem when it arises. In addition to this, an urban designer needs to respect the context that he designs for, for example the blue green network, social structure and other factors. A good example of highlighting this need for this ‘modesty’ while approaching the natural system is that of the plan of Kromhout in Blijdorp. By disassociating his design with the existing polder and water network, architect W. Kromhout planned an entire zone of houses based on an extravagant gesture of aesthetic appeal. Eventually, the natural systems became of a much larger priority than creating artificial water patterns. By the time the development starts taking place, the natural setting has changed, hence rendering his plan ‘outdated’. This example is crucial in understanding the need for relevance and respect of the context the design is formulated for.


ETHICAL DIMENSIONS As a designer or specialist involved in the process of sustainable development, it is essential to understand one’s role in providing the various perspectives while approaching development (Hooimeijer & Maring, 2016). The systems we develop are highly sensitive with multiple factors that constantly influence the behaviour of these systems. It is crucial to understand the behaviour of complex systems dealing with the social structure, economic impacts and environmental implications in order to make any development resilient. Furthermore, a deep understanding of the consequences of the various developmental strategies is essential to designing better on the whole. The interdependency of the various components of the sustainability framework needs to be acknowledged in order to prescribe a set of values that guide the course of development. In terms of ethical dimensions of sustainability, there may be situations in which a certain section of society may lose out while the other one gains. This disproportionate idea of development however cannot be considered ‘true’ sustainability. In the case of the Zuidplein area, the shopping centre has a large urban block which does not address the local population in any way. By retaining the soul of it and by retrofitting it with more inclusive functions, the targeted population became more diverse and proportionate. This proportionate distribution of people who benefit from the design is important in establishing sustainability on the whole in terms of the social implications. Driven by social sustainability, the economic and environmental aspects are supported and as a result, the sustainability framework is addressed. An interdependent relationship between the aspects mentioned in figure 1 is strived to be achieved.

CONCLUSION With the degree of complexity increasing in cities and with growing concerns of climate change, economic stability and equality in social structure, sustainable strategies have now become an inevitable consideration to any approach. In the case of Zuidplein, this approach was shaped by the social inequality, limited economic opportunity and growing health and environmental concerns. The challenge is to achieve developmental goal but also understand the ethical values and responsibilities involved. Based on the summary from the book ‘The making of Polder Cities – A Fine Dutch Tradition’ by Fransje Hooimeijer it is further evident how as urban designers, we need to propose relevant strategies derived from the needs of the context rather than those imposed on by the interests of the designer. This sustainability framework consideration coupled with the ethical values and civic responsibilities is key to any good design proposal.


REFERENCES •Lewis H., Gertsakis J., “Design + Environment A Global Guide to Designing Greener Goods”, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia, 2001 •Hooimeijer & Maring (2016) the purpose of including the subsurface in urban renewal: system exploration environment and subsurface. Delft: TU Delft. •William McDonough & Partners, The Hannover Principles - Design for Sustainability , Prepared for EXPO 2000 The World’s Fair, Hannover, Germany •UNESCO CSI paper 11, Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small Islands, Ethical Dimensions, Coastal region and small islands, paper 11 •THE ETHICAL DIMENSION OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT , Margareta Simona BUŞOI1 •January 2013 Comprehensive Plan Update: Working Draft •The making of Polder Cities – A Fine Dutch Tradition by Fransje Hooimeijer •The Hannover Principles , Design for Sustainability - Prepared for EXPO 2000 The World’s Fair Hannover, Germany


APPENDIX


Mind map showing route of first site visit and perception of facade porosity

Map showing level of street activity


Map showing porosity of neighbourhoods


RESIDENTIAL MIXED USE EDUCATIONAL RELIGIOUS INSTITUTIONS COMMERCIAL AND RETAIL GREEN SPACES HOSPITALS

Land Use Mapping


ESSAY ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF THE PROJECT Nilofer Tajuddin 4618963 Wouter ter Heijden 4512596


Feasibility

Assessing the socio-economic feasibility of the Zuidplein transformation

Introduction Zuidplein in the South of Rotterdam has undergone deterioration in recent times, with the number of visitors significantly declining ever since its construction in the 1970s. This essay discusses two design strategies that have been used to address this issue and compares both projects on the basis of socio-economic criteria. The first project (Project W) addresses the ‘End of Shopping’ and redefines the typology of the shopping mall by retrofitting other socio-cultural programmes on the existing framework of Zuidplein in order to cope with the declining shopping culture on the whole. The second project (Project N) creates ‘Local Meaning’ by demolishing a part of the shopping mall and introducing cultural programmes to it. Both projects aim at transforming the current scenario using different urban strategies. The projects are further elaborated on the various strategies used and compared on the basis of the costs involved, stakeholders and revenue generated.

The End of Shopping Project W generally focuses on the Zuidplein shopping mall building but also affects the adjoined public space. This public space is the area between the Gooilandsingel and Twentestraat. The starting point of the proposal is the new trends around shopping. The rise of online shopping, for example, creates a new demand for the traditional mall to offer. The Zuidplein mall already suffers from the fact that it cannot adapt to these new trends what result in vacancy and decline. The intension of the plan is to create a strategy and urban design that will transform Zuidplein into a sustainable shopping mall where these new trend can house. A shopping mall which can adapt to new retail changes and has a more liveable and active public space around it. This resulted in a transformation where, instead of demolishing the old mall, new buildings/blocks are added on top of the mall. These new blocks ‘activates’ the current mall to adapt to the changes on the retail market. The plan will, next to transforming the current shops, also adds more housing, offices and a hotel and cinema as well. The public space around the mall will be transformed from a traffic dominated area into a pedestrian and bicycle friendly strip form the art building, cinema and metrostation to Ahoy and the Zuiderpark. The proposal does not demolish much. The Zuidplein Theatre, offices along the Twentestraat and the apartment building along the Gooilandsingel are the only buildings which will be demolished. Some parts around the underpasses of the mall will be demolished as well but this is only approximately 5% of the Zuidplein building. Further on will the pedestrian bridge between the mall and Ahoy and the bus ramp of the metro station be demolished. The public space around the metro station will also be transformed, what means that the current pavement needs to be demolished as well. The cost of this public space are for the municipality. The proposal adds a lot of new buildings to the site. These buildings have different, private, functions including; apartment, offices, shops, parking garage, cinema and a hotel. The current proposal for the cinema and hotel are located next to Ahoy. But in order to create a liveable and more vibrant area of Zuidplein, the location of the cinema and hotel will be better closer to the shopping mall. The new buildings will cover the buildings which were demolish, the current bus square and part of the shopping mall. These buildings will ‘land’ on the roof of the mall so the density of the area will be increased without filling up to much public space. The public space will actually be increased as well as the typology of these new buildings are centred around a courtyard. These courtyards are on top of the (expanded) parking garage and can function as an extension of the shopping mall. This extension will improve the relation and connectivity between the closed shopping mall and public space around it. Some of these courtyards are private for the residents as they are only surrounded by apartments. The addition of these new buildings will generate a good revenue for the stakeholders who are involved in the project. All the new real estates are buildings which can be sold or rented. The shopping mall stakeholder will be the most important one because most of the proposal goes about his property. The investment in this plan can be seen as an insurance to secure or prepare the current mall from future changes. The phasing of the plan is simple. By demolishing the buildings on the west side of the mall first, the new buildings will face the public space of the Gooilandsingel, which will be transformed as well at the same time. During this transformation, the bus terminal will be replaced from underneath the metro station to underneath one of the new blocks. When the transformation is completed, the Gooilandsingel will have an active and lively strip with a better connection with the mall and divers functions. After this, the transformation on the east side can be done while the just realised buildings will have revenue. This phasing is very traditional for a sustainable, future-proof strategy.


Creating Local Meaning The shopping mall tends to bring in more visitors from the rest of Rotterdam in comparison to its immediate surroundings. This formed the premise of the project and a proposal was formulated to transform the area of the shopping mall into a cultural hub which acts a local centre in addition to its regional value. In order to achieve this, the north segment of the shopping mall is demolished while the remainder of the mall is partially transformed on the ground level. Using the urban strategy of clustering in order to create a synergy of cultural activities that resonate with the needs of the local community, programmes such as social rehabilitation, art galleries, exhibition and performance spaces and libraries are introduced into the newly acquired portion of the site. The art and culture building as per the ongoing Hart van Zuid agenda is now redefined as a new building proposal into the zone of the shopping mall. A parking garage with an accessible roof garden is added to support the cluster of the art and culture building, existing theatre and the shopping mall. A vibrant public space in envisioned in the centre of this cultural hub, with the open space feeding off of the network of local activity taking place around it. To facilitate tangible connections from Carnisse, The residential block between Goereesestraat and Van Swietenlaan is altered in two zones to establish a direct vehicular and pedestrian connection to the cultural hub. The bus station under the metro is reorganised to the south of the site, and the residential building and bus ramp is demolished in order to do so. In order to accentuate pedestrian movement and flow, everyday retail and leisure elements are introduced along the extents of the metro line on the east and north facade of the remaining shopping mall on ground level. A combination of all these elements results in vibrant streets that ultimately merge into the public square lined with various cultural activities. The transformation of the northern segment of the shopping mall into the art and culture building and parking garage, retrofitting of the everyday shopping on the ground floor and the construction of the public square and pedestrian connections to support these functions feature as significant costs involved. This project aimed at local rejuvenation addresses the surrounding neighbourhoods as the target population. As this is a project aimed at increasing the liveability in the area, the municipality is the primary stakeholder who acquires land from the privately owned mall for public development. Once the project is complete, the number of visitors is estimated to increase on the site, hence the mall may benefit from this increase in floating population. This in turn generates revenue for the private mall owner. In addition to this, the housing to the west of the mall developed by housing corporations further generates revenue when leased out to the residents. The project upon completion will create a strong social context in which the various local activities form a symbiotic relationship with the mall. This as a result creates a socially sustainable environment capable of functioning as a strong local as well as regional centre.

PHASE I Demolish residential building in the south west corner of the shopping mall Construction of new bus station begins in proposed zone while the old mall and bus station and ramp still function Construction of new residential blocks to the west of the Shopping mall (site of Art-culture building as per Hart van Zuid proposal) Alternate exits from Metro line to ground floor on North and South side of the platform constructed from the Second floor entrance deck of Shopping Mall

Create punctures in Residential block between Goereesestraat and Van Swietenlaan

PHASE II Structure of mall extended until Metro platform boundary on ground and first floor

PHASE III Mall resumes functionality

Relocation of the people affected by this to Punctures made along the Eastern facade of Mall Pedestrian pathway along the north facade of new mall the newly constructed residential block parking for Pedestrain exits to the office buildings extent constructed Bus station shifted to the new location

Reorganising Office parking into the Mall Parking Services for new shops on ground floor installed on ground and first floor

Old Bus Station and Bus ramp demolished

Use of pedestian overbridge to the North suspended and alternate provisions made

Northern part of Mall acquired by Municipality for Stenghten Pedestrian connections from further Public development Carnisse to Zuidplein - Construction of Roads and Pedestrian friendly pathways Design entries invited for the new Art and Culture Demolishing north part of Shopping mall building. Design and drawings finalised by The part closer to the functional mall Municipality building demolished first in order to restore functionality as soon as possible - Shopping mall temporarily closed Inner Layout of the mall and parking are renovated to suit the new form

The street under metro transformed as per design Urban gardens installed post completion of Art and culture Building and Parking garage Everyday retail and leisure elements retrofitted Construction of new pedestrian overbridge across the Art onto the west and north facade of the remaining and culture building and parking garage, directly to the mall on ground and first floor shopping mall in the north

Vehicular access to the Mall parking permanently shifted to the South-west Corner Entry-Exit

Construction of Art and Culture building and Construction of New pedestrian pathway along Parking garage begins the Office buildings in the south east corner of site Metro exits to ground floor redirected to new proposed locations

Figure1 : Phasing of project N

Services for new public sqaure laid out

PHASE IV Public square constructed

Ground floor shops leased out to local retailers


Comparison The comparison will make explicit how each project understands the issue of the declining shopping mall and uses various urban strategies in order to solve this problem. Through critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each proposal, the projects can learn from each other. The comparison is based on four parameters; socio-economic strategy, social context induced and economic context generated and the involvement of the stakeholders.

Socio-economic strategy + social context While Project N uses a strategy based on the social context of the neighbourhood, the comparison is based on the resultant social environment. The strategy of Project N is based on the social situation of the adjoining neighbourhood. By demolishing one-third of the mall and moving the location of the newly planned art centre to this location, the neighbourhood will be integrated directly into the Zuidplein area. This involvement creates better support for the functions in this area and will diminish segregation of the surrounding neighbourhoods. The strategy used in Project W is based on the goal to make the area more adaptable by adding more real estate and different functions. These new buildings are flexible and easily adaptable so it can react to the change of demand in the real estate market. This will create more opportunity when a market is locked. Both projects look at how to provide more support for the functions, development or demand in the Zuidplein area. This support will be a solution to the shopping mall issue. As Project N has a better strategy concerning the social context by involving the social situation of the neighbourhood, the project will prevent segregation or gentrification. However, Project W does not have a specific strategy relating to the social context. The addition of flexible real estate without a strategy of the social aspect may result in an unpredictable future where trends as gentrification can have a major impact.

Economic context Both strategies try to reduce the amount of cost by demolishing only what is necessary for their vision. Project N proposes the demolition of one-third of the mall which amounts as the major cost. However in the long term, the project will have a social benefit for the. It will improve the liveability and activity of the Zuidplein area as the design creates a better physical and social connection with the neighbourhood. On the other hand, Project W replaces the demolished buildings by more saleable places which are flexible and adaptive to market changes. The financial benefits will be more because more real estate is added, even on top of the current buildings.

Involvement of external parties The involvement and convincing of stakeholders is very different in the two projects. Project N can convince stakeholders through the support aspect and social benefits of the plan. The design will create an integrated support for different stakeholders. The new added functions will share their target groups and benefits from each other. Also the social aspect will play an important role in convincing stakeholders about the improved activity and liveability in the area. By exposing the negative future of the shopping mall, the adaptive strategy of Project W can convince stakeholders. It is a solution to the shopping mall problem with both functional and economic benefits. The major stakeholder who needs to be convinced is the owner of the shopping mall. Other parties can join the shopping mall stakeholder if the mall owner does not want to develop the entire real estate development alone. These convincing arguments of each proposal show the major differences between them. Their crux is representing the main goal of their project which is used for the involvement and reasoning of the same.

Conclusion

Based on evaluation on the grounds of social and economic parameters, it is possible to estimate the revenue generated and beneficiary stakeholders. This analysis is critical in understanding the feasibility of a given proposal and the various factors that influence the implementation of each. As urban designers, an understanding of how the proposal unfolds throughout its entire course and its impacts on the surroundings in the entire process is essential to designing sustainable urban environments.


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Profile for Nilofer Tajuddin

Design of Sustainable Urban environments - R&D Studio - M.Sc. Urbanism - TU Delft  

Redefining the Hart van Zuid Project - Rotterdam Zuid

Design of Sustainable Urban environments - R&D Studio - M.Sc. Urbanism - TU Delft  

Redefining the Hart van Zuid Project - Rotterdam Zuid

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