Page 1


rpy Gs;spfspypUe;J ehL tpupAk;. rpd;d thapypUe;J Gd;dif gpwg;gJ Nghy.


epiyg;ghL - 1 mwpKfk;

epiyg;ghL jkpo;j; Njrpa murpay; Fwpj;j mbg;gilahd fUj;Jf;fis vspikahd jkpopy; ntspf;nfhzUk; Nehf;NfhL ‘epiyg;ghL’ ntspahfpwJ. jk;ik Kd;dpiyg; gLj;Jtij tplTk; jhk; vOJk; fUj;ijAk; mijf; fhTfpd;w Clfj;jpd; ek;gfj;jd;ikiaAk; Kd;dpiyg;gLj;Jfpd;w vOj;jhsHfNs fhyj;jpd; Njit fUjp ,q;F vOJfpwhHfs;. jkpo;j; Njrpa murpaypy; mbg;gilj; njspitg; NgZtjw;F epiyg;ghl;bd; Njit czug;gLtjhf MrpupaH gPlk; fUJk;Ntisfspy; ,e;j VL ntspahFk;. jkpo; Clfq;fspw; gy Fog;gkhd> Mokw;w gug;gpNyNa rQ;rupg;gjhy; jkpo;j; Njrpak; Fwpj;j Mokhd> El;gkhd fUj;Jf;fis ,yFthfTk; njspthfTk; Kd;;itf;Fk; Njit vOe;Js;sJ. vkJ Mf;fq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gLk; vOj;jhsHfspd; ngaHfs; ,e;j ntspaPl;Lf;Nf jdpj;JtkhditahFk;. mjhtJ> NtW gj;jpupiffspy; ntspahFk; Mf;fq;fspd; vOj;jhsHfSf;Fk; ,Nj Gid ngaHfs; Fwpg;gplg;gl;lhy; me;jg; ngaHfSf;F cupath;fNshL ,q;F vOJgtHfis ,izj;J ,dk; fhzNtz;lhk; vd;W vkJ thrfHfis Ntz;LfpNwhk;. cq;fs; iffspy; jtOk; ,e;j ntspaPL vt;tpj jpupGfSf;Fk; cs;shftpy;iy vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s epiyg;ghL (nilaippaadu.org) ,izaj;jsj;jpy; ntspaplg;gl;bUf;Fk; %yg; gpujpNahL ,jid xg;G Nehf;fpf;nfhs;syhk;. Mf;fq;fs; Fwpj;j cq;fs; fUj;Jf;fis Nkw;Fwpj;j ,izaj;jsj;jpd; Clhf epiyg;ghl;bd; MrpupaH gPlk; ehb epw;fpwJ. epiyg;ghl;bd; kpd;dQ;ry; Kftupapy; ,Ue;J xU NghJk; ve;jtpj mwptpj;jy;fNsh> Rw;WepUgq;fNsh ntspaplg;glkhl;lh. vk;kplkpUe;J tUtJ Nghyj; Njhw;wkspf;Fk; kpd;dQ;ry;fs; vjw;Fk; ehk; nghWg;ghspfs; my;y. ,q;F ntspahFk; fl;Liufis vtUk; kPs ntspaplyhk;> Mdhy; fl;Liuapd; Muk;gj;jpNyNa ‘epiyg;ghL vDk; murpay; Vl;Lf;fhf’ vd;W %yk; milahsg;gLj;jg;gl;L fl;Liu Mrpupaupd; ngaUk; Fwpg;gplg;glNtz;Lk;. ,e;j ntspaPl;il vtUk; KOikahf kPs;gjpg;Gr; nra;Njh> gpujpnaLj;Njh ntspaplyhk;. Mdhy;> vJtpj ,ilr;nrUfy;fNsh jpupGfNsh ,y;;yhky; KO VLk; gpujpnaLf;fg;gl;L vJtpj fl;lzKk; ,d;wp ,ytrkhf tpepNahfpf;fNtz;Lk;. mr;rply;> tpepNahfr; nryTf;fhd fl;lzj;ij khj;jpuk; mwtpl;L tpepNahfk; nra;Ak; cupikia vkJ xg;GjNyhL ngw;Wf;nfhs;syhk;. ,t;thwhd ntspaPl;L cupik ahH ahUf;F toq;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;gJ Fwpj;j tpguk; vkJ ,izaj;jsj;jpy; mwptpf;fg;gLtNjhL gpujpf;fhd fl;lzKk; Fwpg;gplg;gLk;. Njitia xl;bNa ,e;j ntspaPL ntspf;nfhzug;gLtnjd;gjhy; ,J fpukkhd fhy xOq;fpy; mike;jpUf;fhJ. ,jd; gf;fq;fspd; vz;zpf;ifAk; Njitf;F Vw;gNt mikAk;. eaj;NjhL $ba ,yFthd J}a jkpo; eiliaNa ehk; tpUk;GgtHfsha; ,Ug;gpDk; rpukq;fSf;F kj;jpapNyNa ,e;j ntspaPl;il ntspf;nfhzHfpNwhk; vd;gjhYk; gd;dhl;L murpaw; #oy;> rl;l tptfhuq;fs; vOjg;gLtjhYk; fUj;ijj; njspthfj; njuptpg;gjpNyNa vkJ rpuj;ij Ftpe;jpUf;Fk; vd;gijAk; ,q;F njupaj;jUfpd;Nwhk;. epiyg;ghL jdJ thrfHfspd; fUj;ij MtNyhL vjpHghHf;fpwJ. This work is licenced under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California 94105, USA.

1


epiyg;ghL - 1 Mrpupau; jiyaq;fk; Mf;fk; ,oe;Njnkd;W my;yhthH Cf;fk; xUte;jk; ifj;Jil ahH (jpUf;Fws;: 593) nghUs;: Cf;fj;ij cWjpahfj; jk;ifg;nghUshf cilatH> Mf;fk; (,oe;Jtpl;l fhyj;jpYk;) ,oe;Jtpl;Nlhk; vd;W fyq;fkhl;lhH.

Njrpaj;jpd; nka;g;nghUs; fhZk; mwptpd; Njit <oj;jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpw;fhfNt Fuy;nfhLf;fpNwhk; vd;W $wpf;nfhs;SgtHfspy; gpujhd gFjpapdH jkf;Fs; gpsTz;L epd;whYk; ‘jhafk;> Njrpak;> jd;dhl;rp’ vd;Nw nghJthff; nfhs;if Kof;fk; nra;fpd;whHfs;. ,tHfspilNa nfhs;if xd;whapUg;gpd; xw;Wik rhj;jpag;gl;bUf;fNtz;Lk;. Mdhy;> nfhs;ifg; gpufldk; xd;WNghyj; Njhw;wkspg;gpd; gpsT Vd; Vw;gLfpwJ? ,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;F tpil fhz KaYk;NghJ Njrpaf; Nfhl;ghl;by; epd;W tOtpr;nry;Nthiu vg;gb ,dk; fhz;gJ vd;w Gjpa Nfs;tpAk; vOfpwJ. ‘jhafk;> Njrpak;> jd;dhl;rp’ vd;W nrhy;gtHfs; midtUk; ,tw;wpd; rupahd tiuaiwfis tpsq;fpa epiyapy;jhd; nfhs;ifg;gpufldk; nra;fpwhHfsh? my;yJ> ,tw;iw tpsq;fpapUe;Jk; $l> jkJ eyd; rhHe;j NjitfSf;fhf my;yJ jkf;Fg; gpd;dhy; epw;Fk; jpirjpUg;Gk; rf;jpfspd; J}z;Ljy;fSf;Nfw;g ‘murpaiy’ Xl;Ltjw;F vkJ kf;fspd; Kd;dhy; jhafk;> Njrpak;> jd;dhl;rp vd;W %d;W Fwpfspy; ‘new;wpg;gl;il’ mzpe;J tyk; tUfpwhHfsh? cs;sq;if ney;ypf;fdp Nghy rHtNjr muq;fpy; rpy efHTfs; gfpuq;fkhf ele;NjWtijf; fz;$lhf mtjhdpf;fKbfpd;wNghJk; ,it Fwpj;J vkJ kf;fSf;F Clfq;fs; njuptpf;fTk;> njsptpf;fTk; jtwptpLfpd;wd. jtpuTk;> Njrpa mbg;gilfspy; ‘nefpo;T’ fhl;LtNj fhyj;jpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd ‘,uh[je;jpuk;’ vd;W xU GwKk; ‘nfhs;iff;Nfw;w eilKiw my;y> eilKiwf;Nfw;w nfhs;if’ vd;W ,d;ndhU GwKk; <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpd; mbg;gilfisf; ‘fplg;gpy;’ NghLkhW ‘kjpAiu’ nra;Ak; Fohk; xd;W fle;j rpy khjq;fshfj; jPtpukhfj; jpiukiwtpy; nrayhw;wptUfpwJ. ,t;thW <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpa mbg;gilfs; Fwpj;j rupahd Gupjy; ,y;yhjtHfshy; Fog;gkhd eilKiwfs; iff;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wNghJ> my;yJ Ntz;Lnkd;Nw ntt;NtWtpjkhd tpsf;fq;fisf; fw;gpf;fKay;fpd;w jpupGthjk; jiyJ} f;Fk;NghJ ‘vj;jid tpjkhd Njrpaq;fs; vk;kplk;’ vd;W vkJ kf;fs; Vf;fg; ngU%r;nrwpfpwhHfs;. ,jd; tpisTfisj; jhafj;jpYk;> Gyj;jpYk;> ,tw;wpd; vjpnuhypaha;j; jkpof cwTfs; kj;jpapYk; $l ehk; fhz;fpNwhk;. tpsf;fkpd;ik vd;gijtplTk; tpsq;fpa kl;lq;fspypUe;J Ntz;Lnkd;Nw mofhff; fw;gpf;fg;gLk; jpupGthjNk Nfhl;ghl;Lf; Fog;gj;jpw;F Kf;fpa fhuzkhFk;. ,e;jj; jpupGthjj;jpw;Ff; fUtpfshapUg;NghH vkJ murpay;thjpfSk; Clfq;fSNk. jpiukiwtpy; elf;fpd;wtw;iw kl;Lky;y> rHtNjr muq;fpy; gfpuq;fkhf ele;NjWfpd;w rpy ehlfq;fisf;$l fpufpj;Jf;nfhs;Sk; Mw;wiy vkJ kf;fsplkpUe;J ,e;jj; jpupGthj murpay;thjpfSk; Clfq;fSk; ,tHfspd; gpd;dhy; xspe;Jepw;Fk; ‘kjpAiuQHfSk;’ jpirjpUg;gpg; gpupj;JtplKay;fpwhHfs;. vkJ kf;fNs vkJ Njrpaj;jpd; fhg;ghsHfsha; nraw;glNtz;batHfs;. kf;fspd; iffspNyNa Njrpak; capHtho;fpwJ. murpay;thjpfSk; Clfq;fSk; kf;fSf;Fr; Nrit nra;gtHfNs. vdNt> Kjw;fl;lkhf> jhafk;> Njrpak; jd;dhl;rp Mfpatw;wpd; mHj;jq;fisr; ruptu ehk; Gupe;jpUg;Nghkhdhy; Fok;gpapUg;NghiuAk; jpupGthjpfisAk; ,yFthf milahsk; fz;L <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpa tpLjiyapd; rupahd ghijia cWjpnra;Jnfhs;syhk;> jlk; GuSk; rf;jpfisAk; tpLtpj;Jg; Glk; Nghl;Lr; nry;yyhk;. <oj;jkpo;j; Njrpaj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu ‘jhafk;> Njrpak;> jd;dhl;rp’ vd;w %d;W nrhw;gjq;fSk; Fwpg;ghd> njspthd> tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;Jfpd;w mHj;jk; nfhz;lit. ,it gw;wpa njspe;j epiyg;ghl;il ,yFthd Kiwapy; Vw;gLj;j ‘epiyg;ghl;bd;’ KjyhtJ VL KidfpwJ. kPzL ; k; kPzL ; k; vkJ Njrpa murpaYf;fhd ‘mbg;gilfis kPlL ; g; ghHj;jy;’ (Back to the basics) vd;gJ Njrpa murpaypy; <Lgl;bUg;NghUf;F Nahfhrdg; gapw;rp Nghd;W mikaNtz;Lk;.

2


epiyg;ghL - 1 <oj;jkpoupd; ,iwik

jkpo; ,iwikf; Nfhl;ghl;bd; gpd;dzp  Nfhkfd; jhafKk; ,iwikAk; xd;Wlndhd;W gpd;dpg;gpize;jit. jkpoupd; jhaff;Nfhl;ghl;il jkpo; ,iwikf; Nfhl;ghL vd;Wk; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,iwik vd;gJ XH muNrhr;Rk; rf;jp xU Fwpj;j Gtpapaw;gFjp kPJ jdf;FNky; NtnwhU Nkyhjpf;fKk; ,d;wp cr;r MSikia nfhz;bUg;gjhFk;. jkpoHfshd ehNk vkJ jhafj;ij KOikahf MSk; rf;jpahfpd;w jhHkPf cupikiaf; nfhz;ltHfs; vd;gNj jkpo; ,iwik vd;gjd; ,d;iwa ajhHj;jg; nghUs;. jkpoHfspd; ghuk;gupa jhafkhd ,yq;ifj;jPtpd; tlf;F> fpof;F ,ize;j epyg;gug;gpy; <oj;jkpoHfs; nfhz;bUe;j murpay; MSik mtHfspd; tpUg;Gf;F khwhfg; gwpf;fg;gl;lNjad;wp> mtHfshy; ve;jf;fl;lj;jpYk; gpwUf;Fj; jhiu thHf;fg;gl;ljy;y. 1619 Mk; Mz;by; NghH xd;wpd; Kb tpy; NghHj;Jf;fypd; murdhapUe;j ];ghdpa kd;dDf;Fk; aho;g;ghz murpd; gpuKfHfSf;FkpilNa ele;j rl;l cld;gbf;ifNahL <oj;jkpoHfs; me;epa Mf;fpukpg;Gf;F cl;gl;Lj; jq;fs; tpUg;Gf;F khwhfj; jkJ ,iwikia ,oe;jpUe;jhHfs;. rpq;fstHfs; ntt;NtW fhyfl;lq;fspy; NghHfspd; gpd;dhy; Nfhl;il> fz;b cld;gbf;iff@lhf jkJ ,iwikia me;epa fhydpj;Jt rf;jpfsplk; vg;gb ,oe;jhHfNsh mijg;NghyNt jkpoHfSk; jkJ ,iwikia ey;Y}H cld;gbf;ifA+lhf ,oe;jhHfs;. NghHj;Jf;NfaHfspdhy; jkpo; ,iwik xy;yhe;juplKk; gpd;dH xy;yhe;jupdhy; gpupj;jhdpaHfsplKk; <oj;jkpoHfspd; Ra tpUg;Gf;F khwhff; ifkhwpaJ. ,t;thW ifkhwpaNghJk; Mf;fpukpg;Gf;F vjpuhd jkpo; ,iwikapd; FwpaPlhf xy;yhe;jUf;Fk; gpupj;jhdpaUf;Fk; vjpuhfg; Nghuhba gz;lhutd;dpad; vDk; td;dp murdpd; Nghuhl;lk; mike;jJ. 1796 njhlf;fk; jkpo;g; gFjpfSk; rpq;fsf; fiuNahug; gFjpfSk; gpupj;jhdpaupd; iffSs; te;jd. 1802 [dtup Kjyhk; jpfjp ,yq;if ,q;fpyhe;jpd; Kbf;Fupa FbNaw;w ehlhfg; (crown colony) gpufldk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. fz;b muR 1815 ,y; Mq;fpNyauhy; ifg;gw;wg;gl;lJ. fz;b ,uhr;rpak; ifg;gw;wg;gl;l gpd;dH> 1833 ,y; ,yq;ifj; jPit gpupj;jhdpaH epHthfuPjpahf xd;wpizf;Fk;NghJ jPtpy; ,Ue;j Njr myFfs; Nfhy;GW}f; fkp\dpd; (Colebrooke-Cameron commission) ‘rPHjpUj;jj;jpd;’ Clhf xd;wpizf;fg;gl;lNghJk; ,dthupahd gpujpepjpj;Jtk; njhlHe;jJ. Mdhy; nlhd%H (Donoughmore commission) ahg;G 1931 ,y; cUthf;fg;gl;lNghJ rHt[d thf;Fupik mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;L Fwpg;ghf jkpoHfs;> fz;br;rpq;fstHfs; Nghd;Nwhupd; Njrq;fs; (nation) mtHfspd; vjpHg;gpd; kj;jpapYk; Gwf;fzpf;fg;gl;L ,yq;ifj; jPit fhydpj;Jtj;jhy; fhydpj;Jtj;jpd; eyd;fSf;fhf ,izf;fg;glf;$ba ‘xU Njrk;’ Mf gpuj;jhdpa fhydpj;Jtk; khw;wpaJ.

3


epiyg;ghL - 1 fhydpj;Jt ehLfSf;fhd xw;iwahl;rp [dehafg; gupNrhjidf;fskhf ,yq;ifj; jPitf; ifahz;l gpupj;jhdpaH jkJ g+Nfhs kw;Wk; nghUshjhu eyd;fisf; fUj;jpw;nfhz;L nfhOk;igAk; fiuNahur; rpq;fstHfisAk; ikag;gLj;jpa mjp fhuf; ifkhw;wj;ij Nkw;nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpy; jkpo; ,iwikiag; Gwf;fzpj;jdH. mg;Nghija jkpoH jiytHfshd [p.[p.nghd;dk;gyk; Nghd;NwhH Kd;itj;jIk;gJf;ifk;gJ Nfhupf;ifAk; epuhfupf;fg;gl;L Nrhy;gup fkp\dpd; ahg;G (Soulbury commission) 1947 ,y; mwpKfkhdJ. 1948,y; ,yq;ifj;jPTf;F Rje;jpuk; toq;fg;gl;lNghJk; jkpoHfspd; tpUg;Gf;F khwhf xd;wpizf;fg;gl;l KOj;jPtpdJk; Kbf;Fupa FwpaPl;LuPjpahd ,iwik 1972k; Mz;L tiu gpupj;jhdpa kfhuhzpahUf;FupajhfNt njhlHe;jJ. gpupj;jhdpahTldhd ,iwikj; njhlHigj; Jz;bj;J> rpq;fsj; Njrpak; FbauR ahg;ig 1972 Nk 22k; jpfjpad;W mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ. ,jd; %yk; xl;Lnkhj;j ,yq;ifj;jPtpd; kPJ jdJ VNfhgpj;j cr;r MSikia epiyehl;lKad;wJ rpq;fsj; Njrpak;. 19 jkpo;g; ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdHfspy; 15 Ngupd; vjpHg;gpd; kj;jpapy; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpd; mq;fPfhuk; ,y;yhky; ,e;jf; FbauR ahg;G ngsj;j rpq;fsg; Ngupdthjj;jpd; jkpoH kPjhd jpzpg;ghfpaJ. FbauR ahg;Gf;F vjpuhf je;ij v];.N[.tp nry;tehafk; mtHfs; jdJ gjtpiaj; Jwe;J jdJ njhFjpapy; ,ilj;NjHjiyf; NfhupdhH. ,ilj;NjHjypy; jhd; ntd;why; jkpoHfs; 72k; Mz;bd; murpay; ahg;ig epuhfupj;Jtpl;lhHfs; vd;Wk; jkpoHfs; njhlHe;Jk; ,yq;ifapy; mlf;fg;gl;l ,dkhf ,Uf;fg;NghfpwhHfsh ,y;iyNay; Rje;jpu kf;fshfg; Nghfpd;whHfsh vd;gij epWTk; Kaw;rpahfj; jkpoupd; FbauR ahg;Gf;nfjpuhd nfhs;ifia 1972 xf;NuhgH 3k; jpfjpad;W kf;fshizf;Fupa rthyhf;fpdhH. 1947 etk;gH khjj;jpNyNa> mjhtJ ,yq;iff;F gpupj;jhdpaupd; Rje;jpuk; toq;fg;gl Kd;dNu je;ij nry;th rk\;bj; jPHitg; gw;wpa fUj;ij Kd;itj;jpUe;jhH. mNj tUlj;jpy; [p. [p. nghd;dk;gyk; mtHfs; gpupj;jhdpa fhydpfspd; nrayhsUf;F mtru kly;fs; tiue;jNghJ mjpNy jkpoHfspd; RaepHza cupik vd;w nrhw;gjj;ijf; ifahz;bUe;jhH. ,e;j Mtzq;fs; Ma;thsHfshy; ntspf;nfhzug;glNtz;Lk;. fhydpj;Jt rf;jpaplkpUe;J “Rje;jpuk;” toq;fg; glKd;dNu RaepHza cupikiaf; Nfhupajw;fhd rl;luPjpahd %y Mtzq;fs; ,it. jkpo;j; Njrpak; vd;w FwpaPL 1949 brk;gupy; jkpouRf; fl;rp cUthfpa NghNj jkpoHfshy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;bUe;jJ. murpaw; Nfhupf;ifahf rk\;bf; Nfhupf;if Kd;itf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. 1977 ,y; jkpoH tpLjiyf;$l;lzpahy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;l NjHjy; tpQ;Qhgdk; <oj;jkpo;j; jhafj;jpd; Gtpapay; vy;iyfisf; Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. ,ijNa jkpoPo tpLjiyg; Gypfspd; kiwe;j Nghuhl;lj; jsgjp r. fpl;L mtHfs; NtWtpjj;jpy; tiutpyf;fzQ;nra;jhH. vq;nfy;yhk; jkpoHfs; ,uhZtj;jhy; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;lhHfNsh> vq;nfy;yhk; tpkhdq;fs; Fz;L tPrpj; jhf;fpdNth> me;jg; gFjpfisnay;yhk; ,izj;Jg; ghUq;fs; mJjhd; vkJ jhafk; vd;whH. 1977k; Mz;Lj; NjHjNy jkpoHfisg; nghWj;jtiu ,d;Wtiuahd fhyj;jpy; [dehaf uPjpahf KOikahf Vw;Gilajhf ,Wjpahf ele;j NjHjyhFk;. ,jd; gpd;dhd NjHjy;fs; ,uhZtkakhf;fypd; kj;jpapYk;> mtrufhyr; #o;epiyfspd; kj;jpapYk;> ghupa ,lg;ngaHTfs; Vw;gl;bUe;j RKfkw;w #oypYk;> fzprkhd vkJ kf;fs; ehl;il tpl;Nl mfw;wg;gl;bUf;Fk; #oypYNk eilngw;wit> eilngWgit. 1977 Vg;gpuy; khjk; je;ij nry;thtpd; kiwtpd; gpwF ele;j nghJj; NjHjypd; gpd;dH gjtpf;F te;j jkpoupd; mg;Nghija murpaw; jiyik vjpHf;fl;rp Mrdj;jpy; ,Ue;jgb jLkhWk; epiy Njhd;wpaJ. ,iwikia epiyehl;Ltjw;fhf toq;fg;gl;l kf;fshizia [dehaf topapy; njhlHe;Jk; Kd;ndLf;f me;jj; jiyik jtWfpwJ.

4


epiyg;ghL - 1 ,ijj; njhlHe;J Njrpa tpLjiyg; Nghuhl;lk; mLj;j jiyKiwapdhNyNa Kd;ndLf;fg;gLfpwJ. 1983 ,y; rpwpyq;fh murpdhy; nfhz;Ltug;gl;l Mwhk; rl;lj;jpUj;jk; jkpoHfspd; ,iwikia ahg;G uPjpahfr; rpq;fsj; Njrpak; epuhfupj;j ,d;DNkhH nraw;ghlhFk;. jhk; nfhz;l kf;fshizf;F tpNuhjkhfr; rj;jpag;gpukhzk; nra;a Kbahj epiyg;ghl;by; ghuhSkd;wg; gjtpfisj; Jwe;jjd; %yk; gioa jiyKiw murpay;thjpfSk; 1983 ,y; jkpo; ,iwik epiyg;ghl;ilf; fhg;ghw;wpdhHfs;. Gjpa jiyKiwapd; jkpo;j; Njrpaj; jiyik 77k; Mz;L toq;fg;gl;l kf;fshizapd; ghw;gl;L ,iwikg; ghijapy; jd; gazj;ijj; njhlu Muk;gpj;jpUe;jJ. msg;gupa mHg;gzpg;Gf;fSldhd jkpo;j;Njrpa tpLjiyg;Nghuhl;lj;jpy; Njrpaj; jiytH gpughfud; mtHfshy; fl;bnaOg;gg;gl;l jkpoPo nka;elg;G muR jkpo; ,iwikf;fhd MSikiaj; jhafj;jpy; rl;l> ,uhZt> murpay;> r%f> gz;ghL Nghd;w gy gupkhzq;fspYk; gpd;dhspy; nka;g;gpj;jJ. ,uhZtr; rkepiyia vl;ba epiyapy; rHtNjr mq;fPfhuj;Jldhd NghHepWj;j xg;ge;jj;jpw;$lhd Ngr;RthHj;ijfspy; <LgLksTf;F jkpo; ,iwikapd; MSik 2001 ,y; cr;r tPr;rk; ngw;wpUe;jJ. ,e;j epiyapy; jhd; ntspr;rf;jpfspd; mOj;jk; x];NyhtpD}lhf ntspg;gLfpd;wJ. mjd; tbtk; jhd; ‘cs;sf RaepHza cupik’. 

1977k; Mz;Lj; NjHjNy jkpoHfisg; nghWj;jtiu ,d;Wtiuahd fhyj;jpy; [dehaf uPjpahf KOikahf Vw;Gilajhf ,Wjpahf ele;j NjHjyhFk;. ,jd; gpd;dhd NjHjy;fs; ,uhZtkakhf;fypd; kj;jpapYk;> mtrufhyr; #o;epiyfspd; kj;jpapYk;> ghupa ,lg;ngaHTfs; Vw;gl;bUe;j RKfkw;w #oypYk;> fzprkhd vkJ kf;fs; ehl;il tpl;Nl mfw;wg;gl;bUf;Fk; #oypYNk eilngw;wit> eilngWgit.

5


epiyg;ghL - 1 x];Nyhj; jPu;khdk;?

jkpo;j; Njrpaj;Jf;Fr; rthy; tpLk; cs;sf RaepHzak;  Nfhkfd; cs;sf RaepHza cupik (internal right to self-determination) vd;gJ ‘kf;fSf;F’> ‘r%fq;fSf;F’> ‘,dj;Jtr; rpWghd;ikfSf;F’ cupajhfNt fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. Njrpak; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;bd; mbg;gilia mJ jOttpy;iy. RaepHza cupik vd;w %yf; Nfhl;ghNl Njrpak; vd;gij epuhfupj;Jr; nry;tjhf jpupGgLj;jg;gLtJk; tpthjpf;fg;gLtJk; rHtNjr murpaypy; ele;Jnfhz;bUf;fpd;wNghJ cs;sf Ra epHza cupik vd;W mJ kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLk; Nghf;F cUthfpwJ. ,e;j mbg;gilapy; 2009 etk;gH khjk;> rHtNjr rf;jpfspdhy; Rtpw;rHyhe;jpd; jiyefH #upr;rpy; xd;Wjpul;lg;gl;l ,yq;ifj; jPtpd; jkpo;> K];ypk; murpay;thjpfs; ngUk;ghNyhH <oj;jkpo;j; Njrpak; vd;w tiutpyf;fzq;fs; gw;wpg; NgrhJ KO ,yq;iff;Fs; %d;Wtpjkhd ‘jdpj;Jtkhd kf;fs;fs;’ (distinct peoples) nfhz;l $l;Lj; njhFjpNa ‘jkpo;NgRk; kf;fs;fs;’ (Tamil speaking peoples) vd;gJ gw;wpg; Ngr Ntz;bapUe;jJ (‘fs;’ vd;w tpFjpia mtjhdpf;f). jhaf ,iwikf;Fupa <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;ij ‘jkpo;NgRk; kf;fs;’ vd;w mbg;gilapy; ,d;Dk; vt;thW tYg;gLj;jyhk; vd;gjw;Fg; gjpyhf ‘KO ,yq;ifj; jPtpYk; cs;sf RaepHza cupikiag; ngw;wtHfs;’ vd;w rpe;jidNahl;lj;jpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhf mikaf;$ba tiutpyf;fzq;fSf;Fs; vkJ murpay;thjpfis vt;thW mzptFf;fr; nra;ayhk; vd;gjw;fhd Kaw;rpahfTk; ,e;j #upr; khehL Nghd;w K];jPGfs; mikfpd;wd (,e;jr; re;jpg;G Fwpg;gplj;jf;f vijAk; rhjpf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ NtW fij).

rHtNjrj;jpd; tuyhw;Wj;J}f;fk; gpNwrpiyr; NrHe;j Carlos Latuff 2009 ,y; jPl;ba vz;zr; rpj;jpuk;.

6


epiyg;ghL - 1 ve;j xU Njrpaj;jpYk; cl;fhaq;fs; ,Uf;fyhk;. mjw;F <oj; jkpo;j; NjrpaKk; tpjptpyf;fy;y. rhjp> rkak;> gpuhe;jpak; Nghd;w tpupry;fisj; jtwhff; ifahs;tjhy; Vw;gLk; ,e;j cl;fhaq;fis Mw;wpj; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;ijg; Glk; Nghl;Lr; nry;yNtz;ba nghWg;G vk; Kd;dhy; cs;sJ. <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpak; vd;why; vd;d? <oj;jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpw;nfd;nwhU murpaw; ghuk;gupaKk; gupzhk tsHr;rpAk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,J jkpo; ,iwikiar; ruzhfjpailr; nra;a khl;Nlhk; vd;w khz;gpw;FupaJ. msg;gupa mHg;gzpg;GfSf;Fk; tpiynfhLg;Gf;fSf;$lhfTk; Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;lJ. murpay; NgRfpd;wNghJ mbg;gil Mtzq;fisAk; [dehaf kf;fs; Miz iaAk; Kd;dpiyg;gLj;jNtz;ba fhyfl;lj;jpy; ,d;W ehk; rQ;rupf;fpd;Nwhk;. ehk; fle;Jte;j ghijapd; gytpjkhd mHg;gzpg;Gf;fis kdjpy; ,Uj;jpa nghWg;GzHr;rpNahL Njrpa murpaiy Kd;ndLf;fNtz;Lk;. nkhopahy; ,ize;j> kjq;fshNyh> rhjpfshNyh> gpuNjrq;fshNyh jdpNtwhff; fzpf;fg;glhj> jhafj;jpYk; Gyj;jpYk; thOfpd;w> jkpo; ,iwikf;Fupa jhafj;ijj; jkJ jha;epykhf tupj;Jf;nfhs;gtHfNs <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpdH vd;w tiutpyf;fzj;ij ehk; tl;Lf;Nfhl;ilj; jPHkhdj;jpy; ,Ue;J ca;j;Jzu KbAk;. 2002 brk;gH khjg; Ngr;RthHj;ijapd; NghJ mOj;jk; fhuzkhf x];Nyhtpy; ‘jkpoPo tpLjiyg;Gypfspd; jiyikapd; Ntz;LNfhSf;fpzq;f cs;sf RaepHza cupikapd; mbg;gilapy; xU rk\;bj; jPHitg; gupNrhjpf;fj; jahuhapUg;gjhf’ Ngr;RthHj;ijapy; milahsk; fhzg;gl;l ,zf;fq;fs; gytw;Ws; xd;whf xU ,zf;fk; ,U jug;Gj; jiyikg; Ngr;RthHj;ijahsHfspilNaAk; Vw;gl;lJ. MapDk; jkpo;j; Njrpaj; jiyikahy; x];Nyhj; jPHkhdk; vd;W miof;fg;gLk; Nkw;Fwpj;j guPl;rhHj;jg; Gupe;JzHT Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. eilKiwapy; x];Nyhj; jPHkhdj;jpd; ghij epuhfupf;fg;gl;L> Nlhf;fpNahr; re;jpg;igg; Gwe;js;sp> jkpo; ,iwikiaf; iftplhj epiyapy; ,ilf;fhyj; jPHTj; jpl;lj;jpw;fhd tiuG xd;iw 2003 etk;gupy; Kd;itf;Fk; efHitNa jkpo;j; Njrpaj; jiyik iff;nfhz;lJ. ,ilf;fhyj; jPHTf;fhd khjpupia jdJ rpwpyq;fh vDk; mur ,iwikia kPw Kw;gLk; efHthf rpq;fsj; Njrpak; fUjpaJ. ,ijg; NghyNt Rdhkp mdHj;jj;jpd; gpd;dhd nghJf;fl;likg;Gf;fhd cld;ghl;il NehHNt kj;jpa];jk; tfpj;J cUthf;f Kw;gl;lNghJk; jkpo;j;jug;gpd; epiyg;ghL rpwpyq;fhtpd; ,iwikia kPWtjhf ,Ue;jJ vd;w tplaNk kpFe;j rHr;irf;Fupajhf ,Ue;jJ. MapDk;> ,U jug;gpdhYk; ,Wjpapy; xj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl;L Rdhkp xg;ge;jk; ifr;rhj;jplg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH rpwpyq;fhtpd; ,iwikia kPWk; nraw;ghL vd;W mjd; caHePjpkd;wpy; tof;Fj; jhf;fy; nra;ag;gl;L me;j kdpjhgpkhd xg;ge;jKk; fplg;gpy; Nghlg;gl;lJ. rHtNjr r%fKk; fplg;gpy; Nghlg;gl;l Rdhkp cld;gbf;if Fwpj;J vJtpjkhd fhj;jpukhd eltbf;ifiaAk; Nkw;nfhs;stpy;iy vd;gijAk; ,q;F ehk; ftdpf;fNtz;Lk;. mjhtJ> Rdhkp cld;gbf;ifiaf; nfhz;LtUtjpy; NehHNt nrytpl;l rf;jpapy; fpQ;rpj;jsitNaDk; Fwpj;j cld;gbf;if fplg;gpy; Nghlg;gl;ljw;Fg; gpd;dH mjw;fhff; Fuy; nfhLg;gjw;fhf NehHNtNah my;yJ ,izj; jiyik ehLfNsh Kd;tutpy;iy. mnkupf;fh ,e;j xg;ge;jj;ij tuNtw;wNghJk; mjd; J}jufk; ntspapl;l mwpf;if jkpo;kf;fis mjpHr;rpf;Fs;shf;fpaJ. ,izj;jiyik ehLfSf;Fg; gpd;dhy; ,Ue;J mOj;jk; nfhLf;Fk; rf;jpahf ,Ug;NghH ,e;jpahtpd; gpioahd ntspAwTf; nfhs;iftFg;ghsHfNs vd;w fUj;J jkpoH kj;jpapy; tYg;gl;lJ.

7


epiyg;ghL - 1 ,d;W rpy murpay;thjpfs; ‘cs;sf RaepHza cupikiaf; Nfhup> mJ kWf;fg;gl;lhy; ntspaf RaepHza cupik Nfl;fyhk;> mjw;F cldbahf rHtNjrk; Fuy; nfhLf;Fk;’ vd;W jkpoHfSf;Ff; ‘fhjpNy g+ itf;Fk;’ Nghf;fpyhd jtwhd fUj;Jepiy xd;iw Vw;gLj;JfpwhHfs;. mg;gbnad;why; rpwpyq;fhtpd; [dhjpgjpaplk; nrd;W cs;sf RaepHza cupikia mtH Vw;fpwhuh vd;W Nfl;L mtH mij Vw;f KbahJ vd;W nrhd;dhy; cldbahfNt mijr; rHtNjr rKfj;Jf;Fj; njupag;gLj;jp mtHfsplk; ntspaf RaepHza cupikf;F Mjutspf;Fk;gb Nfl;fyhNk. mjw;fhf Vd; cs;sf RaepHza cupikapd; mbg;gilapyhd jPHTj;jpl;lk; xd;iw tiue;J itj;Jf;nfhz;L kf;fsplk; Miziag; ngw Kaw;rpf;fNtz;Lk; vd;w Nfs;tpia tpkHrfHfs; Kd;itf;fpwhHfs;.

‘cs;sf RaepHza cupik’ vd;w nrhw;gjj;jpy; ‘RaepHza cupik’ vd;gJ ,Ue;jhYk; mjd; rl;l mHj;jk; Njrpak; vd;w mbg;gilia mq;fPfupf;fhj Kuz;ghlhd epiyiaf; nfhz;lJ. cs;sf RaepHza cupik vd;gJ Vw;fdNt Fwpg;gplg;gl;lijg; Nghy jkpoHfis ‘rpWghd;ik’> ‘kf;fs;’> ‘kf;fs;fs;’> ‘rKfk;’ vd;gJ Nghd;w vkJ Njrpa murpaypd; mg;giliar; rupahf vLj;Jf;nfhs;shj> jkpo; ,iwikf; Nfhl;ghl;bw;F Kw;wpYk; Kuzhd tiutpyf;fzq;Fs;Sk; vy;iyfSf;Fs;Sk; js;sptpLfpwJ. Mf> vkJ murpaw; jug;G jhNk cs;sf RaepHza cupik vd;gij Kd;itf;Fk;NghJ> Njrpak; vd;w epiyg;ghl;il ehNk iftpl;L NtW gug;gpy; rQ;rupf;fpNwhk; vd;w epiyf;F vk;ik ehNk nfhs;ifuPjpahf ,wf;fpf;nfhs;tjhfptpLk;. ,J xU Mgj;jhd murpaw; nghwp MFk;. nka;elg;G muR xd;iw elhj;jpathW> ,uhZtg; gyj;Jld; ,Ue;j epiyapy; murpay; uPjpahf guPl;rhHj;jg; gupNrhjidfisr; nra;tjw;F kiwe;j Njrj;jpd; Fuy; md;ud; ghyrpq;fk; mtHfs; Kide;jijf; $l xUtifapy; Gupe;Jnfhs;syhk;. Mdhy; mJ $lj; jtwhdJ vd;w fUj;ij kiwe;j khkdpjH rptuhk; rkfhyj;jpNyNa jhd; vOjpa jkpo;f; fl;Liufspy; Mzpj;jukhf Kd;itj;jpUe;jhH. cs;sf RaepHza cupik Fwpj;J jkpoPo tpLjiyg;Gypfspd; jiyikg; Ngr;RthHj;ijahUlNdNa gfpuq;fkhff; fUj;J Kuz;gl;l rptuhk; mtHfis ,d;W jkpo;j; Njrpaf; $l;likg;gpd; jiyikg; nghWg;gpy; ,Ue;jthW cs;sf RaepHzak; NgRNthiu epahag;gLj;Jtjw;fhfr; rpyH jtwhf vLj;jhs;fpwhHfs;.

‘x];Nyhg; gpufldk; vd;W xd;W ,y;iy’ vd;W jpU ghyrpq;fk; mtHfNs gpd;dhspy; mijf; fhyhtjpahf;f Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gl;lJ vd;gijAk; ,q;F epidtpw; nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. mjhtJ> jkpoPo tpLjiyg; Gypfshy; eilKiwapy; kl;Lky;y> me;j ,zf;fg;ghl;ilr; nra;jtuhNyNa Fwpj;j tplak; epuhfupf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. jkpo; ,iwikiaj; jhiu thHj;Jtplhj xU rf;jpahf gyr;rkepiyNahL ,Ue;j epiyapy; Fwpj;j gupNrhjidfis eilKiwapy; fhyhtjpahf;ff;$ba epiyapy; jkpo;j;Njrpak; md;W ,Ue;jJ vd;W$l xUtifapy; ehk; ,ijg; ghHf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> ,d;iwa epiyNah NtW. rpy ‘Njhy;tpepiy’ vOj;jhsHfs; Fwpg;gpLtJ Nghy jkpoHfs; ,d;W murpay; ‘epHthzkhf’ epw;Fk; epiy Vw;gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;W vLj;Jf;nfhz;lhy;$l mt;thwhd epHthz epiyapy; vQ;rpapUf;fpd;w ‘Nfhtzj;’ Jz;ilf; $l ehkhff; fise;J tpl;L epw;gjw;F xg;ghdNj ,e;j cs;sf x];Nyh mbg;gilia ,g;NghJ ehkhff; iff;nfhs;tjhFk;. Njhy;tp kdg;ghd;ikapypUe;J vkJ Njrpa murpaiyf; fl;b ehk; Kd;Ndhf;fp efu KbahJ. vjpHePr;ry;NghLk; kdepiyapy;> jiyKiw khw;wj;NjhL fl;lg;gLtNj jw;Nghija fhyj;Jf;Fj; Njitahd murpay;.

8


epiyg;ghL - 1 ,jw;Fk; mg;ghy;> XH ,d mopg;Gg; NghH rHtNjrg; NghH newpfSf;F khwhf kl;Lky;y KO kdpj ehfupfj;jpw;FNk Gwk;ghd Kiwapy; ele;NjwpapUf;fpwJ. ,e;j epiyapy; cs;sf RaepHza cupik vd;W fijf;fNtz;ba epiyg;ghl;ilj; jkpoHfs; vLf;f KbahJ vd;gij rHtNjr rf;jpfs; $l kWj;Jiuf;fKbahJ. mg;gb kWj;jhy;$l ehk; ,bj;Jiuj;jhy; mtHfs; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sNtz;ba epiy cUthUFk;.

‘Njhy;tp’ vd;w epiyg;ghL khia Nghd;wJ. ahH Njhw;whHfs; vd;w Nfs;tpia vOg;gpdhy; Gjpa gy tpilfs; fpilf;Fk;. ,e;j tpilfSf;fhf mQ;Rk; rf;jpfNs mtrug;gl;L vkJ rl;ilg; igf;Fs; rpy cs;sf RaepHzaj;ij kPz;Lk; jpzpf;f Kay;fpd;wd. kPz;Lk; 1977 ,w;F Kw;gl;l fhyj;jpw;F Nfhl;ghl;L uPjpahf ehk; nry;yNtz;Lkh vd;gNj ,q;F Nfl;fg;glNtz;ba Nfs;tp. je;ij nry;thNt iftpl;l gioa jiyKiwf; Nfhl;ghLfis ‘Gjpa tbtpy;’ fhl;Ltjw;F ,e;jr; rf;jpfs; gfPujg; gpuaj;jdq;fis Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wd. 2009 Mz;L kdpj ehfupfj;jpw;F Kw;wpYk; Kuzhd NghHKiwfs; %yk; jkpoupd; nka;elg;G muR rpwpyq;fh murpdhy; ,uhZt uPjpahf mopf;fg;gl;lJ. MapDk;> me;jg; Nghupd; Xa;tpw;$l Nghuhl;lr;rf;jpahdJ jkpoupd; ,iwikia vt;tifapYk; rl;luPjpahd ruzhfjpf;F cs;shf;ftpy;iy vd;gijAk; ehk; epidtpw;nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. Mdhy;> jw;Nghija #oypy; Vw;fdNt fhyhtjpahfpg;Nghdjhf jkpo;j;jiyikahy; njuptpf;fg;gl;l cs;sf RaepHza cupikapd; mbg;gilapyhd rk\;bj; jPHT Fwpj;j jpl;lnkhd;iwj; jkpoHfspd; murpay;thjpfisf; nfhz;L Kd;itf;fr;nra;aNtz;Lk; vd;W ntspr;rf;jpfs; gfPujg; gpuaj;jdj;ij Nkw;nfhs;tJ vjw;F vd;gij ehk; Gupe;Jnfhs;sNtz;Lk;. jkpoHfs; jk; ,iwikiaj; jhkhfNt ruzhfjpailar; nra;aitf;fpd;w> cs;sf RaepHza cupik vd;w mbg;gilf;Fs; mwpe;Njh mwpahkNyh vkJ murpaw;jiytHfSk; fl;likg;Gf;fSk; rpf;Fz;Ltplf;$lhJ. 

x];Nyh efupd; Mf;fH gpupf;f flw;fiuapy; 2002 ,y; ,Ue;J xspUk; ‘epiyNgwhd mikjpr; Rthiy’.

9


epiyg;ghL - 1 jkpou; jPu;khdq;fs;: jpUkiy> ty;ntl;bj;Jiw> ky;yhfk;> tl;Lf;Nfhl;il

je;ij nry;th jOtpa ,iwikf; nfhs;if  nty;kjp jkpouRf;fl;rpahy; 1956 ,y; jpUNfhzkiyapy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;l jPHkhdk; jkpo; NgRk; gpuNjrj;jpd; njhlH mwhj (geographically contiguous areas) tifapy; xd;W my;yJ xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l jkpo; NgRk; $l;lhl;rp myFfshd muR my;yJ muRfisf; nfhz;l rk\;bj; jPHit ,yq;iff;Fs; NfhupaJ. Nkw;Fwpj;j jPHkhdj;NjhL jkpo;NgRk; kf;fspd; ghuk;gupaj; jhafj;jpy; rpq;fsf; FbNaw;wf; fhydpj;Jtj;Jf;F Kw;Wg;Gs;spitf;FkhWk;> jkpo; nkhopf;Fr; rkTupik NfhupAk;> midtUf;Fk; gpu[hTupik toq;fg;glNtz;Lk; vd;Wk; nkhj;jk; ehd;F jPHkhdq;fisj; jkpouRf;fl;rp epiwNtw;wpapUe;jJ. jkpo; ,iwikf; Nfhl;ghL Neubahf Kd;dpiyg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; mjd; mbg;gilfspy; xd;whd njhluwhj Gtpapy; xUq;fpizT typAWj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;jj; jPHkhdq;fspy; RaepHza cupik gw;wpg; Ngrg;gltpy;iy. RaepHza cupik vd;w gjk; jdpehl;Lf; Nfhupf;ifNahLjhd; md;iwa fhyfl;lj;jpy; NrHj;Jg; ghHf;fg;gl;lNj md;wp rk\;bNahL NrHj;Jg; ghHf;fg;gltpy;iy. Vw;fdNt> jkpoPok; vd;w nrhw;gjj;ij NrH nghd;. mUzhr;ryk; mtHfs; 1921 ,y; ifahz;bUf;fpwhH. gpd;dhspy;> 1960 ,y; rp. Re;juypq;fk; mtHfs; fUj;JuPjpahf jkpoPof; Nfhl;ghl;il ntspf;nfhzHe;jpUf;fpwhH. MapDk;> 1969 ,y; je;ij nry;thTld; mf;fhyk;tiu NrHe;jpaq;fpa tp. etul;zk; mtHfspd; jkpouRf;fl;rpapypUe;jhd ntspNaw;wj;NjhL mtH mikj;j jkpoH Rahl;rpf; fofk; ‘jkpo; ,iwikia rpq;fstHfsplk; ruzhfjpahf;f KbahJ’ vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il Kd;itj;jJ. md;iwa ,yq;ifapd; ,iwikapd; cr;rg; gpujpepjpahf gpupj;jhdpahtpd; kfhuhzpahH vt;thW FwPaPl;lstpy; ,Ue;jhNuh mNj FwpaPl;Lg; ngWkhdj;Jld; mT];jpNuypah> fdlh> epA+rpyhe;J Nghy> jkpoHfSk; jk;ikj; jhNk MSk; Ra ,iwiknghUe;jpa xU rkhe;ju muR vd;gij murpaw; Nfhl;ghlhfj; jOtpf;nfhs;tjhf jpU. etul;zk; mwptpj;jhH. ,e;j tifapy; jkpo; ,iwikf; Nfhl;ghl;ilr; nrOikahf Kd;itj;jtH kiwe;j ehl;Lg;gw;whsH etul;zk;. Mdhy;> ‘jkpouRf;’ fl;rp jdJ 1970 Vg;uypy; ntspapl;l NjHjy; tpQ;Qhgdj;jpy; rk];b NfhUtjhfNt njhlHe;Jk; njuptpj;jJ kl;Lky;y> gpuptpidia vjpHg;gjhfTk; mJ gfpuq;fkhfNt njuptpj;jJ. RaepHza cupik vd;w gjj;ij mtHfs; gfpuq;fkhf vLj;jhsj; jaq;fpajw;F ,e;jg; gpd;dzpNa fhuzkhapUf;fNtz;Lk;. ‘cs;sf RaepHza cupik’ vd;w Nfhl;ghL md;W ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mg;gb ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; rpyNeuk; mtHfs; mij vLj;jhz;bUf;ff;$Lk;. rk\;b mbg;gilapyhd Gjpa ahg;G %yNk gpur;ridiaj; jPHf;fyhk; vd;W jkpouRf;fl;rp ek;gpaJ. 1970k; Mz;Lg; nghJj; NjHjypy; mjPj rpq;fsg; ngUk;ghd;ikiaf; fz;l ,iwgf;jpAs;s je;ij nry;th> ‘flTs; jhd; ,dpj; jkpo; kf;fisf; fhg;ghw;wNtz;Lk;’ vd;W tug;NghFk; rpq;fs Nkyhz;ik ahg;gpd; Mgj;ij Kd;DzHe;jthuhf mq;fyha;j;jhH. ,e;jf; $w;iw ntspapLk;NghJ je;ij nry;th jkpo; kf;fspd; vjpHfhyk; Fwpj;J ek;gpf;if ,oe;jpUe;jhH vd;W jtwhd mHj;jj;jpy; tpsq;fpf;nfhs;tjw;Fg; gjpyhfj;> jhd; mJtiu gazpj;j ghij Fwpj;j rpj;jhe;jj; Njliyj; jdf;Fs; vOg;gpajd;

10


epiyg;ghL - 1 FwpaPlhf mijg; ghHg;gNj nghUj;jkhdJ. 1972 Nk 22 ,y; jkpoHfspd; xl;Lnkhj;j vjpHg;Gf;F kj;jpapy; rpwpyq;fhtpd; FbauR ahg;G mwpKfkhfpaJ. ,e;j ahg;igf; fLikahf vjpHj;j jkpouRf; fl;rpapdH> mjd; jtpHf;fKbahj tutpd; gpd;dH FbauR ahg;gpd; fPo; rj;jpag;gpukhzk; nra;Ak; epiyf;F [_iy khjk; nrd;wdH. Mdhy;> 1972 FbauR ahg;Gf;nfjpuhd jkpo;r; r%fj;jpd; vjpHg;G> Fwpg;ghf ,isa jiyKiwapd; mOj;jk;> jkpouRf;fl;rpapd; Nghf;if khw;wpaJ. je;ij nry;th jdJ ghuhSkd;wg; gjtpapy; ,Ue;J tpyfp xf;NuhgH khjk; 2k; jpfjp me;j ahg;Gf;nfjpuhf xU rthiy Kd;itf;fpwhH. rpwpyq;fhtpd; FbauR ahg;igj; jkpo; kf;fs; vjpHf;fpwhHfs; vd;gij epWTtjw;F jdJ NjHjw;njhFjpahd fhq;Nfrd;Jiwj; njhFjpapy; ,ilj;NjHjiy elhj;JkhWk; mj;NjHjypy; jhd; ntd;why; jkpo; kf;fs; rpwpyq;fhtpd; ahg;ig epuhfupj;Jtpl;ljhf mJ nghUs;gLk; vd;gNj mtH Kd;itj;j kf;fshiz ngWk; rthyhFk;. FbauR ahg;Gf;nfjpuhd rthYf;Fk; 1975 nrg;uk;gupy; mj;NjHjy; Vwj;jho %d;W tUl ,Oj;jbg;gpd; gpd;dH elhj;jg;gl;ljw;Fk; ,ilapyhd fhyg; gFjpNa mtiug; nghWj;jtiu jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpd; mbg;gilfis murpay; nkhopapy; njspthd Kiwapy; ntspg;gLj;jpa fhyk; vdf; nfhs;syhk;. 1971 ,y; gq;fshNj\; gpuptjw;F Kd;dH mtHfs; MW mk;rf; Nfhupf;if xd;iw Kd;itj;J> mf; Nfhupf;iffs; ghfp];jhdpa murhy; epiwNtw;wg;glhj epiyapNyNa jdpehl;Lf; Nfhupf;ifia Kd;itj;jdH. 1972 Nk khjk; jkpo; If;fpa Kd;dzp (TUF) vd;w ngaupy; jpUNfhzkiyapy; je;ij nry;thtpd; jiyikapy; vy;yhf; fl;rpfisAk; xd;W NrHj;J cUthf;fg;gl;bUe;j $l;likg;ghdJ> gq;fshNj\; Kd;Djhuzj;ijg; gpd;gw;wp XH MW mk;rf; Nfhupf;ifia ty;ntl;bj;Jiwapy; $b Kd;itj;jJ. ,it kpff; Fiwe;j Nfhupf;iffshf ,Ue;jd. ,tw;wpYk; RaepHza cupik vd;w gjk; gad;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy. gpd;dhspy; (1976) ,e;j mikg;Ng jkpo; If;fpa tpLjiy Kd;dzp (TULF) vd;W ngaH khw;wg;gl;L> jkpouRf; fl;rpapd; njhlHr;rpahf>jkpoH murpaiy Kd;ndLf;Fk; fl;rpahapw;W. ‘tpLjiy’ vd;w nrhw;gjk; jkpoHfspd; Rje;jpuj;jpw;fhd FwPaPlhfpaJ. 1972 xf;Nuhgupy; ,ilj;NjHjiyf; Nfhupa NghJ RaepHza cupik vd;w nrhw;gjj;ij Neubahf je;ij nry;th ifahz;likia cWjpg;gLj;jKbahtpl;lhYk; mtH ntspapl;l fUj;J RaepHza cupik vd;gijj; njspthf ntspg;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpy; mike;jpUe;jJ vd;gij murpay;tuyhw;W E}yhrpupauhd V.N[. tpy;rd; cWjpnra;fpd;wdH. %d;W tUl ,Oj;jbg;gpd; gpd; 1975 nrg;uk;gupy; elhj;jg;gl;l fhq;Nfrd;Jiw ,ilj;NjHjypy; ntd;wjd; %yk; jdJ epiyg;ghl;il je;ij nry;th epiyepWj;jpf; fhl;bdhH. ,e;j ,ilj;NjHjy; eilngWtJtiuahd ,ilntspf;fhyj;jpy;> 1973 nrg;uk;gH 9k; jpfjpad;W ky;yhfj;jpy; eilngw;w jkpouRf;fl;rpapd; 12 tJ tUlhe;j khehl;by; ,aw;wg;gl;l jPHkhdj;jpNyNa Kjy; Kjyhf mf;fl;rpahy; RaepHza cupik vd;w gjk; vLj;jhsg;gLfpwJ. $lNt> ‘jdpNtwhd Njrpak;’ vd;w nrhw;gjKk;> Njrpaj;jpypUe;J ‘NtWgLj;jg;gl Kbahj RaepHza cupik’ vd;w fUj;Jk; mj;NjhL jkpoupd; kuG topj; jhafj;jpy; Rahl;rp (self-rule) vd;w nrhw;gjKk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. Rahl;rp vd;w nrhy; rk\;bj; jpl;lk; xd;wpd; jdpahd myFfspy; xd;iwf; Fwpf;fTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLtjhFk;. jkpouRf; fl;rpapdH RaepHza cupik> Njrpak;> Rahl;rp vd;gtw;iw xd;whf ,izj;Jg; gad;gLj;jpaNghJ Rje;jpukhd jdpauR vd;w nghUspNyNa ifahz;ldH. fhyg; Nghf;fpy; RaepHza cupik vd;gNj rHtNjrr; rl;lq;fSs; fLikahd tpthjj;jpw;Fupa tplakhf khw;wg;gl;lNghJ> mJTk; Fwpg;ghf gpuptpid vd;gJ vJtpjkhd jPHTk; rhj;jpakhfhj epiyapd; gpd;dhd jtpHf;fKbahj

11


epiyg;ghL - 1 ,WjptopahfNt fzpf;fg;gLk; vd;w fUj;Jepiy rHtNjr Xl;lj;jpd; tpisthfj; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ljd; gpd;dH njhlHe;Jk; RaepHzak;> Njrpak;> Rahl;rp vd;w $l;Lr; nrhw;gpuNahfk; jdpauirf; Fwpf;fNtz;ba mtrpak; ,y;iy vd;whfptpl;lJ. ,d;Wk; vk;kj;jpapy; Rahl;rp vd;w njspthd murpay; tbtk; vijAk; Fwpf;fhj ,e;jr; nrhy;iy kaf;fkhd mHj;jj;jpy; gad;gLj;JNthH cs;sdH. ,iwikAk; Rje;jpuKk; nfhz;l muR vd;W nrhy;tJ ‘fLk;Nghf;Fthjk;’ vd;W jkf;Fj; jhNk fw;gpjk; nra;Jnfhz;L njsptw;w nrhw;fisf; ifahstNj ,uh[je;jpuk; vd;W fUJk; Nghf;Nf ,J. Rahl;rp vd;w gjk; ,iwik nfhz;l murhl;rpf;Fupa gjkhf ,Uf;fNtz;bajpy;iy. ,jpy; vtUf;NfDk; IakpUe;jhy; ‘kj;jpapy; $l;lhl;rp> khepyj;jpy; Rahl;rp’ vd;W ePz;lehl;fshfNt nrhy;yptUgtHfsplk; Nfl;lhy; ,ijg; gw;wpj; njspthf tpsf;FthHfs;! fhq;Nfrd;Jiw ,ilj; NjHjYf;F Kd;dH> kl;Lefupy; je;ij nry;th 1975 Nk khjk; Mw;wpa ciu xd;wpy; ‘jkpo; ehL mikf;Fk; tiu filrptiu NghupLNthk;’ vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. mNjtUlk; nrg;lk;gH khjk; ,ilj; NjHjypy; ntd;w gpd;Gk; jdf;Ff; fpilj;j Miz jdpehl;Lf;fhdJ vd;w fUj;ij mtH Kd;itf;fpwhH. jkpoHfs; jkJ ,iwikiar; rpwPyq;fh muRf;Fj; jhiu thHj;Jf;nfhLf;ftpy;iy. mtHfsJ tpUg;Gf;F khwhf mtHfsplkpUe;J ,iwik mgfupf;fg;gl;lnjd;gjhy; je;ij nry;thtpd; jkpoH jiyik rpq;fs Nkyhjpf;fj;ijg; Gjpa fhydpj;Jt rf;jpahfNt fUjpaJ. 1972 ,y; FbauR ahg;G mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l gpd;dH KjyhtJ ehlhSkd;wj; NjHjy; 1977 ,NyNa eilngw;wJ. mj;NjHjypy; jkpo; kf;fs; gq;Fgw;w Kd;dNu> 1976k; Mz;L Nk 14k; jpfjpad;W tl;Lf;Nfhl;ilj; jPHkhdk; epiwNtw;wg;gl;lJ. ,J jkpoH jug;gpypUe;jhd rk\;bj; jPHT (federal solution) NfhUk; Nghf;Ff;Fj; njspthf Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itj;jJ. mJ kl;Lkd;wp ,e;jj; jPHkhdNk jkpoupd; ,iwikf; Nfhl;ghl;il [dehaf uPjpahf ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;F mbNfhypa MtzKkhFk;. ,e;j Mtzj;jpNyNa jkpoupd; ,iwikf;Nfhl;ghL njspthf vLj;jhsg;gLfpwJ. Rje;jpuKk; ,iwikAk; nfhz;l jkpoPo muR vd;w ,yl;rpak; jPHkhdkhf ntspg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. jkpoHfisg; nghWj;jtiu RaepHza cupik vd;gJ gpupe;JNghFk; cupik nfhz;l jkpo;j; Njrpak; jdJ jiytpjpiaj; jhNd epHzapf;Fk; cupik nfhz;lJ vd;gijAk; ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ. mjhtJ> jw;Nghija murpay; nkhopapy; nrhy;tjhdhy; jkpouRf;fl;rp 1949 brk;gupy; Muk;;gpf;fg;gl;ljpy; ,Ue;J cs;sf RaepHza cupikia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;Lte;j> jkpoH rk\;b Nfhupa murpaiy 1976 ,y; je;ij nry;th KbTf;Ff;nfhz;Lte;jpUe;jhH. ,jd;%yk; jkpo; ,iwikapd; MSikia epiyepWj;Jk; mLj;jfl;l murpaw; gupzhk tsHr;rpf;fhd murpay; mbg;gilia mtH epWtpdhH. ,ijj; njhlHe;J ele;j NjHjypy; [dehaf uPjpahf <oj;jkpoupd; mjPj ngUk;ghd;ikapdH rpq;fsf; FbauR ahg;ig epuhfupj;J> jkpo; ,iwikf;fhd jkJ [dehaf kf;fshizia toq;fpdhHfs;. ,ijNa njhlHe;J ele;j mHg;gzpg;Gf;fSldhd Nghuhl;lKk; mbg;gilahff; nfhz;bUe;jJ. jdJ kiwTf;F Kd;djhfNt rpwpyq;fhg; ghuhSkd;wj;jpYk; jkpoHfs; ,dpNky; rk\;bj; jPHitj; jhkhf Kd;itf;fg; Nghtjpy;iy vd;w njspthd epiyg;ghl;ilAk; je;ij nry;th gjpTnra;jhH. 25 tUlq;fshf xd;wpize;j ,yq;iff;Fs; rk\;b Nfhup elhj;jpa Nghuhl;lj;jpy; vijAk; ntd;nwLf;fKbahJNghd epiyapy; je;ij nry;th tuyhw;iw Kd; Nehf;fp efHj;Jk; epiyg;ghl;ilj; jPHf;fjuprdj;NjhL Nkw;nfhz;lhH vd;gNj mtupd; Fzhjpraq;fis ed;F mwpe;jtHfs; njuptpf;Fk; fUj;jhFk;. mtH xUNghJk; mOj;jq;fSf;F cl;gl;L KbTfis Nkw;nfhs;gtH my;y> jdJ rpe;jidA+lhd

12


epiyg;ghL - 1

njspTepiyapNyNa KbTfis Nkw;nfhs;gtH vd;gij mtNuhL 1969 tiu murpay; nra;j jpU tp. etul;zk; Fwpg;gpLfpwhH. ve;jf; fl;lj;jpYk; MAjg; Nghuhl;lj;ijj; je;ij nry;th gfpuq;fkhf Mjupj;Jg; Ngrpajhfj; njupatpy;iy. MdhYk;> jpahfp nghd;. rptFkhudpd; rpiyf;F Neupw; nrd;W khiyapl;lJk;. jkpofj;jpw;Fr; nrd;W mq;Fs;s Kf;fpa jiytHfsplk; jdJ kdf;;fplf;ifiaj; njuptpj;jJk; ,q;F Fwpg;gplg;glNtz;bait. mjhtJ> jhdhfj; njspe;j xU epiyg;ghl;Lf;F te;J> ,isa jiyKiwia mq;fPfupj;jtz;zNk mtH jdJ KbTfis Nkw;nfhz;bUf;fpwhH vd;gij ehk; Cfpj;Jf;nfhs;syhk;. eilKiwr; rhj;jpakh ,y;iyah vd;w Nfs;tpfSf;Fs; rQ;rykile;J kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; tuyhw;wpy; gpd;Ndhf;fpr; nry;tjh> ,y;iyNay; tuyhw;iw Kd;Ndhf;fp efHj;Jtjw;fhd murpaw; nfhs;if tFg;ig Nkw;nfhs;tjh vd;gNj mtH Kd;dhypUe;j Nfs;tpaha; ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. ,J ,d;iwa epiyf;F xg;ghdjhFk;. je;ij nry;thtpd; fhyj;jpy; jkpo;j; Njrpag; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; epahag;ghLfSf;F cyfshtpa gupkhzk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Mdhy;> ,d;Nwh epiyik mg;gbay;y. xg;gPl;lstpy;> kdpj tYit ehk; ePz;l NghupD}lhfTk; mjd; tpisthd Gyg;ngaHT ClhfTk; ,oe;jpUe;jhYk;> rpwpyq;fhtpd; ,uhZtkakhf;fy; cr;rkile;jpUe;jhYk;> njhlH ,lg;ngaHTfSk;> ehshe;j tho;Tf;Nf RKfkpy;yhj #oYk;> rpiwtho;f;ifAk; vk;ik tijj;Jf;nfhz;bUe;jhYk;> vOgJfspy; ,y;yhj jw;NghJ cs;s xU tpj;jpahrkhd mk;rk; vkJ rpf;fy; rHtNjrkag;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gNj. vkJ rpf;fy; rHtNjrg; gupkhzj;jpw;Fs; nrd;wJ ,Jtiu vkf;Fr; rhjfkhfg; gad;gl;ljh ,y;iyah vd;w tpthjj;jpw;F mg;ghy;> vkf;Fr; rhjfkhf ,r;#oiy khw;wpaikf;ff;$ba tha;g;G vk; ifeOtpg; Ngha;tpltpy;iy vd;gijAk;> khwhf mjw;fhd rpj;jhe;j uPjpahd jsk; ,g;NghJ NkYk; tYg;gl;bUf;fpwJ vd;gijAk; ehk; fUj;jpnyLf;fNtz;Lk;. mj;NjhL Gyk;ngaH jkpoHfs; jkpo; ,iwikapd; Fuyhf xypf;Fk; gupkhzj;ijj; jw;NghJ ngw;wpUf;fpwhHfs; vd;gijAk; ehk; fUj;jpw;nfhs;sNtz;Lk;. mJkl;Lky;y <oj;jkpoHfspd; Njrpag; Nghuhl;lk; jkpof murpay;thjpfspd; jsj;Jf;F mg;ghw;gl;L jkpofj;;jkpoHfspd; xd;wpj;j ,jaj;Jbg;Gf;F cs;shf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gJk; cz;ikahdJ. vdNt> jhafj;jpd; jw;fhy #o;epiyapy; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpd; murpaw; gupzhk tsHr;rpia Kd;Ndhf;fp efHj;j Kbahtpl;lhw;$l mijf; nfhs;ifuPjpahfg; gpd;Ndhf;fpf; nfhz;Lnry;yhj> gf;FtKs;s> rpj;jhe;juPjpahfr; rpe;jpj;Jr; nrayhw;Wk; jpwd; vkJ murpay;thjpfSf;F ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;. ï&#x201A;®

13


epiyg;ghL - 1 cUtfk;

fOijay;y fl;nlWk;G! “fOij Nja;e;J fl;nlWk;G Mapw;W!” “vd;ndlh ghLfpwha;? ” mjl;lyha; vOe;j ,f;Nfs;tpahy; fhw;W mre;Nj Ngha;tpl;lJ! ahNuh $wpa gonkhopiag; ghbf; nfhz;L te;j fhw;Wf;F> ,e;j vjpHghuh mjl;ly; jpifg;igj; je;jJ cz;ikNa! fhw;W fPNo ghHj;jJ. Nfs;tpia vOg;gpa fl;nlWk;Gk; jiyia epkpHj;jpagb fz;nzjpNu epd;wJ! fl;nlWk;Gk; fhw;Wk;Nghy; my;y - JzpTk; jpfpYk; Nghy; mitapuz;Lk; fhl;rp mspj;jd! kuj;jpd; Nkw; nfhg;gpypUe;j fhfk; ,tw;iwg; ghHj;J “Mfh” vd urpj;jJ! mJ Rje;jpug; gpuhzp. jiyia mirj;Jtpl;L kPz;Lk; ghHj;jNghJ vWk;G vq;Nfh tpiue;Jtpl;lJ. fhw;W fdjp tbtj;jpy; jaq;fpf;nfhz;bUe;jJ. “fOij Nja;e;J fl;nlWk;ghapw;W vd ehd; ghbaJ cz;ik. mJ gonkhop. mjpy; vd;djhd; gpio? vWk;Gf;F Vd; ,e;j Mj;jpuk;.” ,t;tpjk; fhw;W jd;idj; jhd; Nfl;Lf;nfhz;l NghjpYk; VNjh xU jtiw mjd; cs;kdk; czHj;jpw;W. “,jid ahuplk; Nfl;lwpNthk;? ” jpBnud xU Nahrid Njhd;wpw;W. “fOijaplNk Nfl;NghNk!” ,e;j vz;zj;NjhL mJ gwe;jJ. J}uj;Nj xU fpuhkk;. me;j CHkidapy; xU fOij epd;wJ. mjd; KJfpy; xU ghur; Rik. vrkhd; thspapy; nfhz;Lte;j fQ;rpia itj;jhd;. mjidj; jiy Fdpe;jgb fOij Fbj;jJ. mtd; th vd;W $wpa topNa mJ gpd;nrd;wJ! fhw;W ,jidg; ghj;jJ. VsdNk gpwe;jJ! fOijAld; fijf;f mjw;F kdk; votpy;iy. fl;nlWk;gpd; cUtNk mjd; fz;Kd; njupe;jJ. “fOij NtW> fl;nlWk;ghfpa ehq;fs; Ntwlh! vk;ik vtUk; gpbf;f KbahJ. itj;J tsHf;fKbahJ. mbikg;gLj;jTk; KbahJ!” vWk;gpd; gyj;j Fuy; ,t;tpjk; Nfl;lJ. kpd;dypd; gpd; vOk; Kof;fk; Nghy; mJ ,Ue;jJ. fhw;W jd;Ds; njspe;Jnfhz;lJ. “fOij Nja;e;jhYk; fl;nlWk;G MfhJ” vd;w cs;sf; fspg;Gld;> mJ caHe;J vOe;jJ. “fOijapd; ke;j epiy NtW fl;nlWk;gpd; kOq;fhj jd;khdk; NtW” vd;w Gjpa ,ir> mJ nrd;w topNa gue;Jnfhz;bUe;jJ!

(ehf. gj;kehjdpd; cUtfq;fs;> mjpHr;rpNeha; vkf;fy;y> %yk;: rpupj;jpud;> Mb Mtzp 1991> Xtpak;: jah)

14


epiyg;ghL - 1 rha;T murpay; vd;why; vd;d?

njsptw;w nrhw;fspd; njhlu;fij  nty;kjp

rk\;b vd;gJ xU gutyhd> gytpjkhd tbtq;fisf; Fwpf;Fk; xU gjk;. rk\;b vd;W nrhy;yg;glhj ‘rk\;b’ KiwfSk; rpy xw;iwahl;rp ehLfspy; cz;L vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gLksTf;F rk\;bnad;gJ xU jpl;ltl;lkpy;yhj> mfykhd nrhw;gjkhFk;. rk\;b vd;w epiyf;F ehk; nfhs;ifastpy; fPopwq;FtJ jkpo; ,iwikia ehkhfr; ruzhfjpahf;Fk; nraw;ghlhfptpLk;. xw;iwahl;rp (unitary) vd;gJ NtwhfTk;> xd;wpizT my;yJ If;fpak; (united) vd;gJ NtwhfTk; Njhd;wpdhYk;> xw;iwahl;rp vd;w nrhw;gjKk; If;fpak; vd;w gue;j nrhw;gjj;jpw;Fs; mlq;ff;$ba xU njsptw;w nrhw;gjNk. If;fpa ,uhr;rpak; (United Kingdom) XH xw;iwahl;rp ehL. If;fpa mnkupf;fh (United States) xU rk\;b Kiw. Mf> If;fpak; vd;w nrhy; xU jpl;ltl;lkhd mur tbtj;ijf; Fwpj;J epw;ftpy;iy. rpwpyq;fhtpd; 13k; rl;lj;jpUj;jk; vd;gJ xd;wpizT my;yJ If;fpak; vd;gij xw;iwahl;rpahfNt ghHf;fpwJ. rHtNjr r%fKk; xd;wpize;j ,yq;iff;Fs; jPHT fhzg;glNtz;Lk; vd;Nw ngaustpy; nrhy;yptUtijAk; ehk; mtjhdpf;fNtz;Lk;. mJkl;Lky;y> vq;nfy;yhk; ,ij mtHfs; nrhy;fpwhHfNsh mq;nfy;yhk; ‘,j; jPtpd; vy;yhr; r%fq;fshYk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba jPHT’ vd;Wk; mtHfs; Fwpg;gpLfpwhHfs;.

‘xd;wpize;j’ vd;gijr; rpq;fsj; Njrpak; jdf;NfAupa ghzpapy; ‘If;fpakhd xw;iwahl;rp’ vd;Wk;> jkpoHfspw; rpyH jkf;Nfw;wtifapy; ‘xd;wpize;j rk\;b’ vd;Wk; tpsq;fpf;nfhs;s KidfpwhHfs;. xd;iw ,d;ndhd;Wf;Fs; cs;slf;Fk; gue;j nrhw;gpuNahfq;fisf; ifahs;tjd; %yk; rHtNjr r%fKk; Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fspy; ,Ue;J jg;gpj;Jf;nfhs;fpwJ. ,e;jg; Nghf;if nfhs;if epiyg;ghL vd;W Gupe;Jnfhs;tjw;F mg;ghy; ‘gzpj;Jiw ,uh[je;jpuk;’ (bureaucratic diplomacy) vd;Nw ehk; Gupe;Jnfhs;sNtz;Lk;. NkYk;> tYg;gq;fPL (power sharing) mjpfhug;gfpHT (devolution) Nghd;w nrhw;gjq;fs; Nfhl;ghl;L uPjpahdit. ,uz;ilAk; NtW Ntwhdit vd;W ehk; thjpl Kbe;jhYk;> ,d;ndhU tifapy; tYg;gq;fPL vd;gJ mjpfhug;gfpHitAk; cs;slf;Ffpd;w mfd;w nrhw;gpuNahfkhfNt ,Ug;gjhy;> murpay; tYg;gfpHT vd;W rHtNjr r%fk; Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ mJTk; eilKiwapy; ntt;NtW mHj;jq;fSf;F ,lkspg;gjhfNt mikfpwJ. tYg;gq;fPL> mjpfhug;gfpHT vd;gtw;iwnay;yhk; xw;iwahl;rpf;Fl;gl;ljhfNt rpq;fsj;Njrpak; Nehf;fp> eilKiwapy; ephthfg; gutyhf;fk; (administrative decentralisation) vd;w FWfpa tl;lj;jpw;Fs;NsNa epd;Wtpl vj;jdpf;Fk; vd;gNj fle;jfhy tuyhW. mjhtJ> ,uz;L Njrpaq;fs; vt;thW jkf;Fs; rkurk; nra;Jnfhs;tJ vd;w mbg;gilapy; gue;j Nehf;fpy; mZFk; Mw;wy; rpwPyq;fhtpd; murpay;thjpfSf;F ,Ue;jjpy;iy vd;gNj tuyhW jUfpd;w gbg;gpid. njsptw;w nrhw;gjq;fis tpLjiyf;fhfg; NghuhLk; kf;fspd; murpaiy Kd;ndLg;NghH ‘,uh[je;jpuk;’ vd;W epidj;Jf;nfhz;L Kd;itg;gJ Mgj;jhdJ.

15


epiyg;ghL - 1 mt;thW nra;tJ ‘gzpj;Jiw ,uh[je;jpuj;ijAk;’ tplTk; juf;Fiwthd ‘ruzhfjp ,uh[je;jpuk;’ MfptpLk;. ,e;epiyapy; ehk; vOg;gNtz;ba Nfs;tp vd;dntd;why; Fog;gkhd nrhw;gjq;fisj; jhk; gad;gLj;Jk; mNjNtis jkpoHfis khj;jpuk; cs;sf RaepHza cupik Nghd;w jkpo; ,iwikiag; Gwf;fzpf;Fk; njspthd tiuaiwfSf;Fs; js;sptplyhk; vd;W ntspr;rf;jpfs; vj;jdpg;gJ ve;j tifapy; epahak; vd;gNj. gy tpjkhd tpsf; fq; fSf; F k; jpupGfSf; F k; toptFf; F k; Fog; g khd murpaw;g jq;fis Njrpa tpLjiy Nehf; fpg; gazpf; F k; xU Njrpak; jdJ murpaypy; gad;g Lj; j KbahJ. Fog; g khd nrhw; g jq; f Sld; jP H Tj; j pl; l q; f is ehk; gpNuupg; g jw; F g; gjpyhf> kj; j pa]; j k; tfpf; F k; xU rf; j pNah my; y J NtnwhU %d; w hk; jug; g pd; jpl; l khfNth jP H Tj; jpl; l k; xd; i wg; gpNuupf; F khW Vd; Nfl; f KbahJ? eilKiwg; g Lj; j g; g Lk; vd; w cWjpnkhopAld; xU jpl; l j; i j mtHfs; Kd; i tj; j hy; ehk; mijg; guprP y pf; f yhk; . Mdhy; > mijtpLj; J ehkhfNt vkJ Nfhl; g hLfistpl; L f; fP o pwq; f p tuNtz; L k; vd; W vjpHghHg; g jd; Nehf; f k; vd; d ? ,f; N fs; t pf; f hd gjpy; ,Jtiufhy <oj; jkpo; j ; N jrpaj; j pd; gupzhk tsHr; r piag; ‘ g+r; r pag; g Lj; J jy; ’ vd; g ijj; jtpu NtnwJthfTk; ,Uf; f KbahJ. njsptw;w tiutpyf;fzq;fs; Fwpj;j tpkHrdq;fs; vOk;NghJ ‘Njrpaj;ij ehk; iftpltpy;iyNa’ vd;W nrhy;gtHfs; eilKiwapy; gazpf;fpd;w ghij rha;thdjhfTk; njsptw;wjhfTk; ,Ug;gij milahsk; fhzyhk;. njsptw;w Nfhl;ghLfSf;Fs;Sk; nrhw;gjq;fSf;Fs;Sk; jhKk; rpf;fpf;nfhz;L KOj; Njrpa ,dj;ijAk; mtw;Wf;Fs; rpf;fitf;Fk; Ntiyfspy; <LgLk; ,tHfisr; ‘rha;T murpay;’ (‘45 ghif murpay;’) GupNthH vd;W nghJthff; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,tHfspw; gyupd; Mo; kdjpy; xU tpjkhd nghJthd vz;zk; GiuNahbf; fplf;fpwJ. ‘,Jtiu ele;jnjy;yhk; gpio’ vd;w vz;zNk mJ. ele;jtw;wpy; gpiofs; ,Uf;fyhk;> Mdhy; ele;jnjy;yhk; gpioahf ,Ug;gnjd;gJ jtwhd vz;zf;fU. ,e;jr; rpe;jidapy; ,Ue;J tpLjiy ngw;w gpd;Ng Njrpa tpLjiy Fwpj;Jj; njspthd Njliy ,tHfshy; Nw;nfhs;sKbAk;. ,dpNky;jhd; Gjpjhf murpay; tpLjiyf;fhd ‘gbf;fl;by;’ Vwg;Nghtjhf ,tHfs; epidf;fpwhHfs;. ‘rHtNjrj;jpw;F Vw;w Kiwapy;’ vkJ nraw;ghL ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W Fwpg;gpLNthUk; ,tHfspilNa cs;sdH. ‘nfhs;iff;Nfw;w eilKiway;y> eilKiwf;Nfw;w nfhs;ifNa Njit’ vd;W ‘rpj;jhe;jkpy;yhj rpj;jhe;jk;’ NgRtij mtjhdpf;fyhk;. jw;Nghij ‘gpd; etPdj;Jt’ fhyj;jpy; ‘rpj;jhe;jkpy;yhj rpj;jhq;fSf;Fk;’ Gjpa ‘gbf;fl;Lf;fhuUf;Fk;’ vkJ Njrpa murpaypYk; ,lkpUf;fj;jhd; Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> mtHfs; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpd; ‘Miz ngw;w ehafHfshf’ jhafj;jpYk; Gyj;jpYk; rha;T murpaiy Nkw;nfhs;sKaw;rpg;gNj tpNehjkhdJ. ,J Fwpj;j tpopg;GzHT kf;fs; kj;jpapy; mtrpakhfpwJ. Fwpg;ghf> rpwpyq;fh muR vd;gij mq;fPfupj;Jf;nfhz;L mjd; ahg;gpy; rpy

16

,g;gbAk; ,Uf;fyhk; mg;gbAk; ,Uf;fyhk; vg;gbAk; ,Uf;fyhk;. gytpjkhd Nfhzq;fspy; fhl;rpaspf;ff;$ba xU ngl;bapd; tiuglk;. Rtpw;rHyhe;ijr; NrHe;j Louis Albert Necker vd;gtuhy; 1832 ,y; Kjd;Kjy; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. Necker Cube vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.


epiyg;ghL - 1 khw;wq;fisr; nra;J mjpfhug;gutyhf;fYf;Fs;shd rk\;b Kiwfis cUthf;fptplyhk; vd;w njhdpgLk; tifapy; vkJ murpay;thjpfs; NgRtJ jkpo; ,iwikf; Nfhl;ghl;Lf;F KuzhdhJ vd;gijj; jkpo; kf;fs; njspthf czHe;jpUf;fNtz;Lk;.

‘gfpug;gl;l ,iwik’ (shared sovereignty)> ‘$l;L ,iwik’ (pooled sovereignty) Nghd;w ,d;Dk; rHtNjrr; rl;lq;fspy; njspthf tiuaWf;fg;glhj Gjpa nrhw;gjq;fisf; ifahSk;NghJ ,iwik Fwpj;j fUj;ij ehKk; ntspf;fhl;LfpNwhk; vd;W rpyH epidf;ff;$Lk;. Mdhy;> ,yq;ifj; jPitg; nghWj;jtiu ,uz;L Njrpaq;fSf;fpilNa ‘,iwikiar; rkurk; nra;jy;’ vd;w tpthjj;Jf;Fupa mbg;gil Fwpj;J ve;jj; njspthd fUj;ijAk; Kd;itf;fhJ ,e;jr; nrhw;gjq;fis ntWk; Nfhrq;fshf khj;jpuk; ifahs;tjpy; gadpy;iy. gfpug;gl;l my;yJ $l;L ,iwik Fwpj;Jg; NgRgtHfs; mjw;fhf ahH vd;d nra;aNtz;Lk; vd;w fUj;ij ,d;Dk; njspthf Kd;itf;fNtz;Lk;. gfpug;gl;l ,iwik vd;gJ INuhg;gpa A+dpad; Nghd;w fl;likg;Gf;fs; Fwpj;J Ngrg;gLfpwJ. ehLfSf;fpilapy; rl;l cld;gbf;iff;F (treaty) cl;gLj;jg;gl;l epiyapy; Fwpf;fg;gl;l rpy tptfhuq;fspy; Fwpj;j cld;ghl;Lf;Fupa xU ehl;bd; ,iwikrhHe;j nghJf;fl;likg;Gf;fspd; KbTf;F tpLfpd;w xU xOq;iff; Fwpf;fTk; ,e;jr; nrhy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. cjhuzkhf> ,uz;L Njrpaq;fSk; jkJ ,iwikiaj; jf;fitf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; XH cld;gbf;if xd;iwf; nfhz;LtUk; nghWg;G rHtNjr r%fj;jpw;F cz;L vd;gijAk;> fhydpj;Jt rf;jpfshapUe;j NghHj;Jf;fy;> xy;yhe;J> gpupj;jhdpah Mfpa %d;W ehLfSk; xd;wpizfpd;w INuhg;gpa A+dpaDf;F> mjpYk; Fwpg;ghfg; gpupj;jhdpahTf;F> ,e;jj; jhHkPfg; nghWg;G ,Uf;fpwnjd;gijAk; Rl;bf; fhl;Ltjhff; $l vkJ fUj;Jepiy mikayhk;. Mf> njspthd eilKiw mHj;jq;fis ntspg;gLj;Jk; epiyg;ghL mtrpakhfpwJ. ehk; Njrpa tpLjiyiaf; NfhUk; xU kf;fs;. Njrpa tpLjiyf;fhd ghijapy; ehk; njspthd Nfhl;ghLfis Kd;itj;Nj vkJ murpaiy Kd;ndLj;Jr;nry;yNtz;Lk;. njsptw;w Nfhl;ghLfis Kd;itg;gJ tpsf;fkpd;ikiaAk; Njitaw;w rpf;fy;fisAk; cUthf;Fk;. rha;T murpay; nra;tjpy; jtNwJk; ,y;iy. Mdhy;> rpf;fYf;Fs; khl;btpLtJk;> tuyhw;iwf; nfhs;ifastpy; gpd;Ndhf;fpj; js;sptpLtJkhd rha;T murpay; Mgj;jhdJ. mJTk; murpaw; jiyikahf kf;fshiz ngw;W Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLtJ mjdpYk; Mgj;jhdJ. 

Fog;gkhd nrhw;gjq;fSld; jPHTj;jpl;lq;fis ehk; gpNuupg;gjw;Fg;gjpyhf> kj;jpa];jk; tfpf;Fk; xU rf;jpNah my;yJ NtnwhU %d;wh jug;gpd; jpl;lkhfNth jPHTj; jpl;lk; xd;iwg; gpNuupf;FkhW Vd; Nfl;fKbaJ? eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; vd;w cWjpnkhopAld; xU jpl;lj;ij mtHfs; Kd;itj;jhy; ehk; mijg; guprPypf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> mijtpLj;J ehkhfNt vkJ Nfhl;ghLfistpl;Lf; fPopwq;fp tuNtz;Lk; vd;W vjpHghHg;gjd; Nehf;fk; vd;d? ,f;Nfs;tpf;fhd gjpy; ,Jtiufhy <oj; jkpo;j;Njrpaj;jpd; gupzhk tsHr;rpiag; ‘g+r;rpag;gLj;Jjy;’ vd;gijj; jtpu NtnwJthfTk; ,Uf;fKbahJ. 17


epiyg;ghL - 1 ehk; nra;aNtz;baJ vd;d?

Njrpa murpaypd; epiyg;ghL  nty;kjp Njrpa murhf tpioAk; rf;jp (aspiring nation-state) vd;w mbg;gilapy; ehk; ,yq;ifj; jPtpy; ,uz;L Njrq;fSf;fpilNaahd xU jPHit Kd;nkhopAkhW rHtNjr r%fj;ijf; NfhuyhNk md;wp ehkhf rk\;b vd;Nwh> mjpfhug;gfpHT vd;Nwh my;yJ njsptw;w Nfhl;ghLfis Kd;itj;Njh nfhs;ifg;gpufldk; nra;tJ nghUj;jkw;wJ. ,iwikAk; Rje;jpuKk; nghUe;jpa jdpauNr jkpoupd; murpay; Ntzth. ,JNt jkpoH tpUk;Gk; jPHT. ,e;j NtzthTf;F Kuzhd jPHTj; jpl;lq;fis jhafj;jpy; vkJ murpaw;fl;rpfs; Kd;itf;fNtz;ba mtrpak; cz;ikapy; ,y;iy. Mdhy;> jkpoHfs; xU jPHTj;jpl;lj;ij Kd;itf;fNtz;Lk; vd;w epHg;ge;jk; ,Uf;fpwnjd;why; vt;thwhdnjhU jpl;lj;ij Kd;itf;fyhk; vd;w Nfs;tp vOg;gg;gLfpwJ. <oj;jkpoHfs; xU jdpj;Jtkhd Njrpak; vd;gij Vw;Wf;nfhz;L mtHfspd; KOikahd RaepHza cupikia mq;fPfupj;j epiyapy; ,uz;L Njrpaq;fs; jj;jkf;NfAupj;jhd KOikahd ,iwikiar; rk me;j];Jldhd Ngzf;$ba xU jPHT Kiwiag; gw;wpNa Fiwe;jgl;rkhf ehk; fUj;JKd;itf;fyhk;. vkJ Fiwe;jgl;rj; jPHthf jkpo; ,iwikiar; ruzhfjpahf;fhj ,uz;L muRfspd; $l;LKiw (confederacy) gw;wpNa fUj;J Kd;itf;fyhk;. rk\;b (federation) vd;gJ NtW> muRfspd; $l;L (confederation) vd;gJ NtW. jdpehL vd;gjw;Ff; Fiwe;j gbahf muRfspd; $l;L vd;gJ xU jpl;ltl;lthd tbtkhf jkpo; ,iwikiar; rkurk; nra;ahjjhf mikfpwJ. mjdpYk; Fiwe;jjhfNt rk\;bapd; Vida tbtq;fs; mikAk;. vdNt ehkhfj; jPHTj;jpl;lk; vijAk; tiuaNtz;Lk; vd;w epHg;ge;jk; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mJ ,uz;L muRfspd; $l;Ltbthkd confederation KiwahfNt miktJ nghUj;jk;. ehk; Kd;itf;f Kw;gLk; Ntnwe;jj; jPHT KiwAk; rpwpyq;fh muR vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il ehk; mq;fPfupg;gjhfTk; mikAk; vd;gjhy; mt;thwhd jpl;lq;fis ehNk Kd;itg;gJ vkJ ,iwikia ehkhfNt ruzhfjpahf;Fk; rl;l uPjpahd nraw;ghlhfptpLk;. kj;jpa];jk; tfpf;f tUk; vtNuDk; jhkhf xU jPHTj; jpl;lj;ij Kd;itj;J> mij eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd cj;juthjq;fis toq;Fkplj;J mj; jPHTj; jpl;lk; Fwpj;J guprPypf;f ehk; jahuha; ,Ug;Nghk; vd;W njuptpj;Jtpl;L rHtNjr r%fj;jpd; nghWg;igr;; Rl;bf;fhl;Lk; epiyg;ghl;il vLg;gNj jw;Nghija epiyapy; kpfTk; nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;. rHtNjr r%fk; rpwpyq;fhtpd; Nghf;Ffisf; fz;L ntJk;gpg; NghapUf;Fk; ,r;#oypy; ahNuh vtiuNah fhg;ghw;Wtjw;fhf x];Nyhg; ge;ij vkJ rl;ilg;igf;Fs; itj;Jtpl;Lj; jpirjpUg;g Kw;gLfpwhHfs;. Ks;sptha;f;fhypd; gpd;dH jkpo; kf;fisf; fhf;Fk; jhHkPff; flik rHtNjr r%fj;jpdJ nghWg;ghFk; vd;gijAk; ehk; Rl;bf;fhl;lNtz;Lk;.

18


epiyg;ghL - 1 <oj;jkpoupd; ,iwikf;fhff; Fuy;nfhLg;gtHfshf Gyk; ngaH jkpoHfSk; xl;Lnkhj;jkhd cyfj;jkpoHfSk; xd;wpize;J ghLglNtz;Lk;. Nkw;Fwpj;j ,uz;L Kidfspd; nraY}f;fj;Jf;fhd nfhs;ifuPjpahd mbg;gilfisj; jhafj;jpypUf;Fk; jkpo; murpay;thjpfshy; mtHfSf;fpUf;Fk; tuk;GfSf;Fs;Sk; neUf;fbfSf;Fs;Sk; epd;wgbNa El;gkhf Kd;itf;fKbAk;. kdpjhgpkhdj; jiyaPL (humanitarian intervention) vd;w nghWg;igNa ruptur; nra;aKbahj epiyapypUe;j rHtNjrk; ghJfhg;Gf;fhd nghWg;Gupik (The Responsibility to Protect, R2P) vd;w mbg;gilapy; rpwpyq;fhtpd; mur ,iwikiag; nghUl;gLj;jhJ jiyaPL nra;aj; jahuhf ,Uf;fNtz;Lk; vd;W $lj; j h H k P f u P j p a h d N f h u p f ; i f i a e h k ; K d ; i t f ; f y h k ; . jkpo; ,iwikiag; gw;wpg; Ngrj; jaq;FfpwtHfs;; ghJfhg;Gf;ftrk; VJkpd;wpapUf;Fk; jkpoHfis rpwpyq;fhtpd; mur ,iwik vt;thW ghjpf;fpwnjd;whtJ Fuy; nfhLf;fyhk;. jkpo; ,iwikapd; mbg;gilfspy; xd;W mjd; Gtpapay; xUikg;ghL (territorial integrity). <oj;jkpoupd; ghuk;gupa jhafj;jpd; Gtpapay; xUikg;ghL gw;wpr; rpuj;ij fhl;lNtz;ba fhyk; ,J. jkpo; ,iwikiaf; iftpLtjw;fhd mOj;jq;fs; vijAk; vk;kPJ jpzpf;fhJ jkpoH jhafj; j pd; Gtpapay; xUikg; g hL Fwpj; j epiyg; g hl; i l ,e; j pahTk; rHtNjr r%fKk; gfpuq; f khf ntspg; g Lj; j Ntz; L k; vd;W ehk; Nfl;fNtz;baJ cldbj; NjitahFk;. jtpuTk;> jhaf kf;fspd; kPs;FbNaw;wk;> ,uhZt kakhf;fiy mfw;Wjy; Nghd;w cldbf; ftdj;jpw;Fupa tplaq;fis Kd;dpiyg;gLj;jNtz;ba jUzk; ,J. Gyk;ngaH kf;fSk; jkpo;j;Njrpaj;jpd; XH mq;fk; vd;gij 33 tUlq;fSf;F Kd;Ng tl;Lf;Nfhl;ilj; jPHkhdk; milahsk; fz;lJ. ,d;W fzprkhd vkJ kf;fs; ehl;iltpl;L neUf;fbahd ,uhZtr; #oyhy; ntspNawpapUf;Fk; epiyapy; <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpd; XH fhj;jpukhd mq;fkhapUf;Fk; mtHfspd; murpay; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;Jf;F Kd;diu tplTk; ghupa gupkhzk; ,Uf;fpwJ. Gyk;ngaH kf;fspd; ,e;j Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijr; rHtNjr r%fk; njspthfNt ,dq;fz;Ls;sJ. mJkl;Lky;y> <oj;jkpoupd; ,iwikia ,d;iwa #oypy; Gjpa gupkhzj;jpy; [dehaf uPjpapy; gpujpgypg;gtHfshf Gyk;ngaH <oj;jkpoNu tpsq;FfpwhHfs; vd;gij 2009 Nk-10 njhlf;fk; mtHfs; Nkw;nfhz;LtUk; [dehafuPjpahd nghJthf;nfLg;GfNs epWtpAs;sd. <oj; jkpo;j; Njrpaj;jpd; jiytpjpiaj; jPHkhdpf;Fk; murpaw; jPHtpy; Gyk;ngaH kf;fSk; ,izahd ghj;jpujhupfs; vd;gijj; jhafj;jpd; vkJ nrhe;j murpaw; rf;jpfs; Kjypy; mq;fPfupf;f Kd;tuNtz;Lk;. ,yq;ifj; jPtpYs;s 18 kpy;ypad; rpq;fstHfspd; GtprhH murpay; (geopolitics) jkpoHfspd; nka;elg;G muir (de facto state) mopj;Jtpl;lJ. mjw;F Kd;ida ,uhZtg; gyr;rkepiyia ,dpNkYk; ehk; kPz;Lk; milaKbAkh vd;W gyH Nfs;tp vOg;GfpwhHfs;. ,e;epiyapy; jhd;> njd;dhrpag; gpuhe;jpaj;jpy; 70 kpy;ypad; jkpoHfspd; ehbj;Jbg;Gk; xNutpjkhfNt Jbf;fpwJ vd;w cz;ikia czHe;j murpaiy ehk; fl;bnaOg;gNtz;Lk;. <oj;jkpo; ,iwikapd; nka;elg;G muR jdJ epyg;gug;ig mq;Fyk; mq;Fykha; ,oe;J cyfj; jkpoupd; kdg;gug;igf; ifg;gw;wpajd; tpistpdhy; ,e;jg; Gjpa gupkhzk; Njhd;wpAs;sJ. ,e;jg; gupkhzj;jpy; GjpanjhU nka;elg;G epiyikia (de facto situation) epWtp> jkpo; g ; GtprhH murpaY}lhf (Tamil geopolitics) <oj; j kpoupd; ,iwikg; Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhd murpaiy ntw;wpfukhf Kd;ndLf;fKbAk;.

19


epiyg;ghL - 1 jhafj;jpYk; rup> Gyj;jpYk; rup> cyfj; jkpoH kl;lj;jpYk; rup Gjpa jiyKwapd; murpay; tuNt ,ij cWjpnra;Ak;. jhafj;jpy; Fok;gpapUf;Fk; %j;j murpay;thjpfSk;> Gyj;jpy; Fog;gpf;nfhz;bUf;Fk; FOthj rf;jpfSk;> jkpofj;jpy; ntWkNd jPHkhdq;fis epiwNtw;wpf;nfhz;bUf;Fk; murpay;thjpfSk; ,af;fj; jiytHfSk; jiyKiw khw;wj;jpw;fhd fhyk; te;Jtpl;lij mq;fPfupj;Jr; nraw;glNtz;Lk;. fLikahfg; ghjpf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; kf;fsplkpUe;Nj cyf xOq;if khw;Wk; mbg;gilj; jj;Jtq;fs; cUthfpd;wd. 

jhafj;jpy; Fok;gpapUf;Fk; %j;j murpay;thjpfSk;> Gyj;jpy; Fog;gpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; FOthj rf;jpfSk;> jkpofj;jpy; ntWkNd jPHkhdq;fis epiwNtw;wpf;nfhz;bUf;Fk; murpay;thjpfSk; ,af;fj; jiytHfSk; jiyKiw khw;wj;jpw;fhd fhyk; te;Jtpl;lij mq;fPfupj;Jr; nraw;glNtz;Lk;.

,af;fk;

,uT. flypy; te;Jnfhz;bUe;j glFfspy; xd;W kw;wijg; ghHj;j;Jf; Nfl;lJ:"mNjh... flw;fiuapy; jd;de;jdpahf epd;W xsptPRk; fyq;fiu tpsf;fj;ijg; gw;wp eP vd;d epidf;fpwha;? ” “njupatpy;iyNa...” vd;wJ ,uz;lhk; glF. Kjy; glF nrhd;dJ:“$l;lkhfj;jhd; gzp Mw;wyhk; vd;gjpy;iy - jd;de;jdpahff; $l xUtH njhz;lhw;wyhk; vd;W ekf;F mJ $wtpy;iyah? ” thHj;ijfis mJ eWf;fp itj;jJ:“jdp vd;wpUg;gpDk; gzp vd;wpU.” (fhrp Mde;jd; fijfs;> khHfop 1992> Xtpak;: tPu re;jhdk;)

20


epiyg;ghL - 1 ehr;rpkhu; topghL

td;dp ehl;il muR Gupe;j tdpijau;  Nguhrpupau; f. fzgjpg;gps;is (1962 ,y; ntspahfpa <oj;J tho;Tk;> tsKk; E}ypy; ,Ue;J)

aho;;g;ghzj;jpy; eilKiwapypUe;JtUk; topghLfSs; eha;r;rpkhH topghLnkhd;W. mq;F gyg;gy CHfspYk; eha;r;rpkhH Nfhapy; cz;L. mf;Nfhapy;fspy; kq;fykhd ehl;fspy; kf;fs; nghq;fy; nghq;fpAk; tpsf;F itj;Jk; topghlhw;WthHfs;. ,t;topghL aho;g;ghzj;jpw;F ve;jf;fhyk; te;jJ vd;gJ Muhaj;jf;fJ. mjNdhL eha;r;rpkhH vd;w flTs; itjpf irt rkaj;jpy; ,y;iy. MfNt> ,J jkpo; kf;fSf;Fs; itjpf rkaj;jpw;Fg; Gwk;Ng vOe;j topghlhFk;. vdNt> ,t;topghl;LKiwia MuhAKd;dH eha;r;rpkhH vd;Dk; nrhy;iyr; rpwpJ Muha;Nthk;. ehr;rp vd;Dk; ngaHr; nrhy;Yf;F khH vd;Dk; caHjpizg; gd;ik tpFjpiar; NrHj;J te;jNj eha;;r;rpkhH vd;Dk; nrhy;yhFk;. ehr;rp vd;Dk; nrhy;iy vLj;Jf;nfhs;Nthk;. ehr;rp vd;Dk; nrhy; vl;lhtJ E}w;whz;Ltiuapy; jkpo; kf;fs; tof;fpypUe;jJ. ngupaho;thUila kfs; Mz;lhisr; #bf;nfhLj;j ehr;rpahH vd;W mioj;jy; ,jw;F vLj;Jf;fhl;lhFk;. ehr;rp vd;Dk; nrhy; “eP” vd;Dk; rq;fj (rk];fpUjk;) tpidabahfg; gpwe;j caHjpizg; ngaH. “eP” vd;gjw;F topfhl;Ljy; vd;gJ nghUs;. vdNt> ehr;rp vd;gjw;F topfhl;Lgts; my;yJ jiytp vd;gJ nghUs;. ehr;rp vd;gjw;F Mz;ghy; ehad;.1 Mdhy;> ,yq;if td;dp ehl;bNy td;dpaH Mjpf;fQ; nrwpe;jpUe;jNghJ> td;dpaH FLk;gj;ijr; NrHe;j ngz;fis ehr;rpkhH vd mioj;jy; kuGNghyj; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ. td;dpehl;bw; fz;nlLf;fg;gl;l gioa Vl;Lg; gpujpnahd;wpy; gpd;tUk; tuyhW fhzg;gLfpd;wJ:“mWgJ td;dpakhH ,e;jpahtpypUe;J ,yq;iff;F te;J ‘muR’ Gupe;Jnfhz;bUe;jdH. mtHfs; ,q;F tUk;NghJ jk;Kila kidtpkhiu

NguhrpupaH f. fzgjpg;gps;is (1903 - 1968) ,yq;ifg; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpd; ,uz;lhtJ jkpo;g; NguhrpupauhfTk; fiyg; gPlhjpgjpahfTk; ,Ue;j NguhrpupaH fe; j rhkpg; g ps; i s fzgjpg; g ps; i s jiyrpwe; j Muha; r ; r pahsH. jkpo; MHtj;ij jdJ khztupilNa gug;gpatH. Muha;r;rp khztUf;F xg;gpyhj topfhl;baha;j; jpfo;e;jtH. rpwe;j xU ehlf MrpupaH. ftpQUk; $l. rhrdtpay; Muha;r;rpapy; ngUk; Gyik ,Ue;jJ. <oj;J kf;fs; fiy kWkyHr;rpapd; <L ,izaw;w Kd;Ndhbahfj; jpfo;e;jtH. gd;nkhopg; Gyikngw;w ,tUf;F Mq;fpyk;> gpuQ;R> nrHkd;> rpq;fsk;> ghsp> tlnkhop> njYq;F> JS> kiyahsk; Mfpa nkhopfs; njupe;jpUe;jJ. <oj;Jj; jkpopay; Muha;r;rp NkYk; tsuNtz;Lk; vd;gjpy; ngupJk; <LghLilatH NguhrpupaH. jhKk; Muha;e;J vOjpdhH. kw;wtiuAk; Muha;e;J vOJk;gb J}z;bdhH. fpl;lj;jl;l 40 Muha;r;rpf;fl;Liufisg; gy;NtW ,jo;fSf;F mt;tg;NghJ vOjpAs;shH. (Nguhrpupaupd; khzhf;fUs; xUtuhd j. rz;KfRe;juk; mtHfs; vOjpa fiyaUtp fzgjpg;gps;is vDk; fl;Liuiaj; jOtpa Fwpg;G) Ma;tpay; Jiwapy;> jkpopw; fy;ntl;lhuha;r;rp> nkhop Ma;T - Fwpg;ghf xypapay; gw;wpa Ma;T> <oj; jkpoH tho;tpay;> tuyhW> <oj; jkpopyf;fpa tuyhW> ehl;lhupay; vd;W gy Jiwfspy; Ma;T <LghL nfhz;bUe;jhH. Ma;Tj;Jiwia tpl gilg;Gj; JiwapNy ,tUf;F kpFe;j <LghL ,Ue;jJ. gilg;Gj;JiwapNy ehlfNk ,tuJ gpujhd Mf;fj;Jiw vdyhk;. ,tuJ ftpijg; gapy;T kuGg;Gyikapd; nra;Aspaw;ww; ghuk;gupaj;jpy; tUtJ vdyhk;. ahg;Gf; ifahSifiag; Gyikr; rthyhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;L ftpghba ,tH aho;g;ghzj;J tho;f;if kugpidAk; nra;As; tbtpy; je;Js;shH. ,uz;L ehty;fisAk; vOjpAs;shH. NguhrpupaH fzgjpg;gps;isapd; kpfg;ngupa rhjid mtH Njhw;Wtpj;j Gyikg; ghuk;gupaNk. gpd;dhspy; jkpopay; Ma;tpy; <oj;jpy; Kd;dzpapy; epd;w Ma;thsHfs; gyH NguhrpupaH fzgjpg;gps;isapd; khztHfNs. (Nguhrpupaupd; khzhf;fUs; xUtuhd NguhrpupaH fhHj;jpNfR rptj;jk;gp <oj;J tho;Tk; tsTk; (1962) vd;w E}Yf;F vOjpa Kd;Diuiaj; jOtpa FwpgG ; )

21


epiyg;ghL - 1 kJiuapy; tpl;Ltpl;L te;jdH. mf;fhyj;jpNy tl ,yq;ifapd; gy ghfq;fisg; gwq;fpf;fhuH ifg;gw;wj; njhlq;fpdH. mg;nghOJ me;j td;dpakhH mWgJ NgUk; gwq;fpf;fhuNuhL NghH Gupe;jdH. mtUs; 54 NgH Nghupy; khz;ldH.” (Nky; tUk; gFjp Neubahf Vl;Lg; gpujpapypUe;J vLf;fg;gl;ljhFk;). “Mdhy;> mf;$l;lj;jpy; ItH gwq;fpf;fhuNuhL ngUk; NghH epfo;j;jp jhk; ,Uf;Fk; td;dp ehl;ilf; ifg;gw;w tplhJ mtiu Kwpabj;J> Ks;spatis Kidahf me;j ehLfisAk; muR gz;zpdH. xUtd; fz;b ,uhrDf;Fj; jpir (jprhth)2 ahfg; Ngha;tpl;lhd;. mjd;gpd;dH vQ;rpa Ie;J td;dpakhHfs; kJuhGupf;Fg; Ngha;j; jkJ kidtpkhiu ,l;L tUk;gbXlNkwpr; nrd;wdH. mtH NghFk;NghJ mtH Nghd Xlk; flypy; Mo;;e;Jtpl;lJ. mjdhy;> mtH khz;ldH.” “,J ,t;thwpUf;f me;j td;dpakhH mWgJ NgUila ngz;rhjpkhH kJiuapNy ,Uf;Fk;NghJ xU ehs; me;j ehl;lurd; mtHfspUf;Fk; njUtPjpapNy Fjpiu kPNjwp> ngz;fs; ,Uf;Fk; njU vd;Wk; ftdk; ghuhJ jd; Fjpiuia Xl;b te;jhd;. mt;thW mtd; te;jgbapdhy; mtH> ‘,dpNky; ehq;fs; ,q;fpUe;jhy; vq;fSila khdk; nfl;Lg; NghFk;. vq;fs; KjyhspkhH ,yq;if ehl;bw;Fg; Ngha; ,uhrhf;fshf ,Ug;gjhy; ehq;fSk; mt;tplk; Nghf Ntz;Lk;’ vd vz;zpdH. jkJ gazj;jpw;F Ntz;ba Maj;jq;fisr; nra;Jnfhz;L jq;fs; gzpahl;fSld; XlNkwp tl ,yq;iff;F te;jhHfs;. gpd;dH td;dpa ehl;Lf;F tUk;NghJ td;dpakhH ,we;j Nrjpnfhz;L J}jd; gpd;tUkhW nrhy;Ythd;: “vq;fs; KjyhspkhHfs; 60 NgupNy 54 NgH gwq;fpf;fhuUld; nghUJgl;Lg; NghdhHfs;. xUtH fz;bapy; ,uhrhTf;Fj; jpirahf epw;fpd;whH. kw;w 5 NgUk; gwq;fpf;fhuiuAk; ntd;W td;dpia Ie;J gw;whfg; gpupj;J muR gz;zpdhHfs;. mg;gb muR gz;zptpl;L me;je;jg; gw;Wf;F me;je;j Ntshsiu Kjd;ikahf;fpg; Nghl;L Ks;spatisapNy ,sQ;rpq;f khg;ghzid Kjd;ikahf;fpg; Nghl;L kJiuf;F te;jhH. mjd; gpd;G mtH fij ahnjhd;We; njupahJ” vd;wdH. “,t;thW J}jd; nrhy;y mJ Nfl;L Kd;dNk ,we;j 54 td;dpakhHfSila ngz;rhjpkhHfSk; njy;ypr;rp tha;f;fhypNy3 jPapNy tPo;e;J kuzkile;J NghdhHfs;. mg;NghJ mtHfSf;F ehr;rpkhH vd;W ngauhapw;W. mtHfSf;Ff; Fjpiu tpl;Lte;j ks;sUk; mWgJ NgUk; tPuf; FLk;gd; Kjy; Mupa FLk;gd; Kjyhfj; jPapy; tpOe;Jtpl;lhHfs;. md;WKjy; mtHfSf;F mz;zkhnud;Dk; ngauhapw;W. xU td;dpr;rpkhUk; td;dp Ie;J gw;wpYkpUe;J muR Gupe;jhHfs; mjd; fhuzj;jhy; ngz;fSf;F td;dpik vd;Wk; Mz; gps;isfSf;F ‘Ijhe;jp’ vd;Wk; ngauhapw;W.” ,t;td;dpehl;L tuyhW xUGwkpUf;f aho;g;ghzj;jpy; ehr;rpkhH topghbUf;Fk; rpy gFjpfspy; toq;Fk; tuyhw;iw ,q;F jUthk;. mJ gpd;tUkhW: MW td;dpikg; ngz;fs; td;dp ehl;bypUe;J Ml;rp Gupe;J te;jdH. gwq;fpf;fhuH tl ,yq;ifapd; xU gFjpia ifg;gw;wpa gpd;dH td;dpiaAk; ifg;gw;w Kad;wdH. xt;nthU KiwAk; mtH Kaw;rp gypf;fhky; Nghupy; Njhy;tpAw;W td;dpehl;bdpd;Wk; jpUk;gNtz;batuhdhH. VNjh xU tifahfj; jhk; ntw;wp ngwNtz;Lnkdg; ngUk; Cf;fj;Jld; jkJ gilia mzptFj;Jg; gpd;dUk; nrd;wdH. mq;F Ngha; td;dpehl;Lg; gilfSld; ngUk; Nghuhw;wpdH. ,k;Kiw td;dpehl;ltH gil rpwpJ jsHTw;wdH. mijf; fz;l me;j ehl;bid MSk; td;dpikg; ngz;fs; mWtUk; mtuJ gzpg;ngz; xUj;jpAk; Mz;fisg;Nghy;> mk;G> tpy;Y> ths;> rjq;if Kjypa giljhq;fpj; jkJ Nridia elhj;jpg; gwq;fpaH Kd;dH te;jdH. ,UgilapdHf;fpilapYk; ,JfhWk; ele;j NghHfisf; fhl;bYk; ngupaNjhH NghH %z;lJ. ,g;ngz;fs; gwq;fpaH gil vjpupy; epd;W kpFe;j tPuj;NjhL NghH nra;jdH. mjdhy;> gwq;fpaH KJFfhl;b XlNtz;ba epiyAk; te;jJ. vdpDk; VNjh #o;r;rpahy; gwq;fpaH jiytd; Nghiu ntd;wdd;. mjdhy;> td;dpg;gilapdH kdKile;jdH. mg;ngz;fs; VONgUk; gwq;fpaupd; iffspy; mfg;gl;lhy; khdgq;fk; mila NeupLk; vd cs;sk; gijj;jdH. khdkpoe;J tho;tijf; fhl;bYk; capH ePj;jNy rhyr;rpwg;Gilj;J vd cWjp nfhz;ldH. clNd mg;ngz;fs; vOtUk; eQ;Rz;bwe;jdH. mijf;fz;l td;dpehl;ltH mtiuj; nja;tkhf;fpdH. fw;gpdpw; rpwe;J tpsq;fpa fz;zfpiaf; flTshf;fp topgLk; jkpo; kf;fshfpa td;dpehl;ltupil tPuj;jpw; rpwe;J jpfo;e;j ,t;ntOngz;fisAk; topgLk; tof;fk; vspjpw; gutpaJ> ehsiltpy; ,t;topghL td;dpehl;by; kl;Lkpd;wp Vida ,lq;fSf;Fk; gutpaJ. aho;g;ghzj;jpNy tlkuhl;rp fpof;Fg; gFjpiar; NrHe;j ehfHNfhapy; vd;Dk; CupYk; gUj;jpj;Jiw> rhsk;ig4

22


epiyg;ghL - 1 tl;lhuj;jpYk;> fhq;Nfrd;Jiw td;dpadhH tstpYk; muhypapYk; aho;g;ghzk; ehr;rpkhH NfhapybapYk; ,t;topghL ,d;Wk; eilngWfpwJ. ,f;Nfhapy;fspy; elf;Fk; topghl;L Kiwfis vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. nghJthf Vida Nfhapy;fspy; elf;Fk; topghL NghyNt ,q;Fk; topghL elf;Fk;. Mdhy;> ,f;Nfhapy;fspy; xU jdpr;rpwg;ghd topghl;L KiwAz;L. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> gUj;jpj;Jiwr; rhsk;ig tl;lhuj;J ehr;rpkhH Nfhapypy; giwKoq;Fk;NghJ tpl;Ltpl;L> NtW NtW jhsj;Jld; VO Kiw Koq;Fjy; kuG. ,J gz;il ehs; njhl;L te;j tof;fk; vd;gH. ijg;nghq;fy;> rpj;jpiug; Gj;jhz;L Kjypa ngUehl;fspy; mq;F kf;fs; Ngha;g; nghq;FtH. fhq;Nfad; Jiw td;dpadhH tsTf; NfhapypYk; cs;s topghl;L KiwAk; ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. ,q;Fk;> ijg;nghq;fy; Kjypa ngUehl;fspy; kf;fs; nghq;fpg; gilg;gH. ,ijtpl Mz;Lf; nfhUKiw mq;Fr; rpwg;ghd topghnlhd;W eilngWk;. mt;topghl;Lehsd;W gUtkhfhj ngz;fSs;s VO tPl;bypUe;J VO jhk;ghsk; epiwag; nghUl;fs; itj;J J}a ntz;rPiyapdhy; %b mt;tPLfspYs;s VO gUtkhfhj rpWkpfs; mf;NfhapYf;F vLj;Jr; nry;tH. ,j;jhk;ghsq;fSf;Fs;Ns kpsF> ,Q;rp> kQ;rs;> vs;S> rPufk;> gdq;fl;b> nrq;fy;Y> Fd;wpkzp Mfpatw;iwr; NrHj;J ,bj;j ghF> mk;G> tpy;Y> rjq;if Mfpa nghUl;fis itg;gH. ,j;jhk;ghsq;fisf; NfhapYf;Ff; nfhz;L nrd;wJk; mq;F epw;Fk; Nfhapy; kuq;fSf;Ff; fPo; xt;nthd;whf itg;gH. MW kuq;fSk; fpl;lf;fpl;l cs;sd. Mdhy;> VohtJ kuk; mtw;wpw;Fr; rpwpJ J}uj;NjAs;sJ. fpl;lf;fpl;l cs;s MW kuq;fSf;Fk; fPo; xt;nthd;whf itf;fg;gLk; MW jhk;ghsq;fSk; MW fd;dpikg; ngz;fSf;Fk; J}uj;NjAs;s kuj;jpd; fPo; itf;fg;gLk; xU jhk;ghsk; gzpg;ngz;Zf;Fk; MFk;. mk;G> tpy;Y mtH NghH nra;jijAk;> Fd;wpkzp nrq;fy;Y mtH eQ;Rz;bwe;jijAk; Fwpf;Fk;. jhk; nfhz;Lnrd;w jhk;ghsq;fis itj;j gpd;dH VO rpWkpaUk; VO tse;Jg;ghidia5 mLg;gpNyw;WtH. ,jd; gpd;dNuNa mq;F topghlhw;w te;jpUf;Fk; Vida kf;fs; nghq;fy; nra;aj; njhlq;FtH. nghq;fp Kbj;j gpd;dH ahtUk; jhk; nghq;fpa ghidfspypUe;J nghq;fw; Nrhw;iw vLj;J VO kuj;jpd; fPOk; thioapiyapw; gilg;gH. tajpy; KjpHe;j xUtH ,sePH cilj;Jr; rhk;gpuhzp> fw;g+uk; nfhSj;JtH. ahtUk; Fk;gpl;L topgl;l gpd;dH ,r;rpWkpaH vOtUk; jhk; nfhz;L te;j jl;lq;fisf; ifapy; Ve;jp epw;gH. mg;nghOJ mq;Nf nghq;fpAs;NshH xt;nthUtUk; jkJ ghidfspypUe;J rpwpJ rpwpJ Nrhw;iw vLj;J mj; jhk;ghsq;fspw; NghLtH. mjd; gpd;dH mr;rpWkpaH mf;NfhapYf;Fg; gf;fj;NjAs;s Nfzpf;Fs; VO Fz;Lf;Fs; jhk; nfhz;L te;j jhk;ghsj;jpYs;s nghUl;fisf; nfhl;LtH. ,j;Jld; topghL KbtilAk;. jPuhj tUj;jKs;NshH ahUk; mq;fpUg;gpd; mtUf;F mr;rpWkpaH nghq;fpa ghidfspypUe;J nghq;fw; Nrhw;iw vLj;Jf; nfhLg;gH. ,J mtH Neha;f;F kUe;jhFk; vd;gJ ,tH ek;gpf;if. ,q;F Kjyhtjhff; $wpa td;dpehl;L tuyhw;;wpw;Fk; ,uz;lhtjhff; $wpa aho;g;ghz tuyhw;wpw;Fk; rpwpJ NtWghbUg;gijf; fhzyhk;. td;dpehl;Lf; fijapy; td;dpikg; ngz;fs; ItH jkJ fztd;khH ,Ue;J Ml;rpnra;j ,lj;jpypUe;J Ml;rpGupe;jjhff; $wg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy;> fhq;Nfad;Jiw tuyhw;Wg;gb MW td;dpikg; ngz;fSk; mtupd; gzpg;ngz; xUj;jpAk; gwq;fpf;fhuUld; Nghuhw;wpj; Njhy;tpaile;j gpd;dH eQ;Rz;L khz;ldH vdj; njupaf;fplf;fpd;wJ. md;wpAk; gUj;jpj;Jiwf; Nfhapy; tuyhw;wpd;gb ehr;rpaH vOtH vd;gJ ntspg;gil md;wpAk; td;dpehl;L tuyhw;wpd;gb ghz;b ehl;bypUe;J td;dpikg; ngz;fs; te;jdH. mtUs; 54 NgHfs; jkJ fztd;khH Nghupy; khz;lijf; Nfl;Lj; jPapy; tPo;e;jpwe;jdH. xU td;dpikg; ngz; jdJ jprhitf; fztuplk; nrd;whH. kw;w ItUk; td;dpapy; Ml;rp Gupe;J tejdH. Mdhy;> fhq;Nfad;Jiwf; Nfhapy; topghl;L tuyhw;W Kiwg;gb MW td;dpikg; ngz;fs; Mz;ljhfTk; mt;thW ngz;fSk; mtUila gzpg;ngz; xUj;jpAk; gwq;fpaUld; NghH Gupe;J Njhy;tpaile;jikahy; eQ;Rz;bwe;jjhfTk; njupatUfpd;wJ. ,f;fhuzk; gw;wpNa fhq;Nfad;Jiw tpohtpy; vLf;Fk; VO jhk;ghsj;jpy; tpy;Y> mk;G> rjq;if Mfpatw;iw itg;gH. mtHfs; eQ;Rz;bwe;jjif; Fwpg;gjw;fhfr; nrq;fy;iyAk; Fd;wpkzpiaAk; ghfpw; NrHj;Jf;nfhs;tH. Nghupy; ,we;j tPuiu topgLk; tof;fk; gz;ilf; fhyk; njhlf;fk; jkpo; kf;fspilNa epytp tUfpd;wJ. ,g;gz;ila Kiwiag; gpd;gw;wpNa vOe;jJ eha;r;rpkhH topghL. xt;NthuplKk; ,t;topghL kuq;fSf;Ff; fPNoNa eilngWfpd;wJ. tlkuhl;rp fpof;fpYs;s ehfHNfhapypy; jhio kuj; j pdbapYk;

23


epiyg;ghL - 1 gUj;jpj;Jiwapy; rhsk;ig kuj;jpdbapYk; fhq;Nfad;Jiwapy; Ntk;G> muR Kjypa kuj;jpdbapYk; muhypapy; Mykuj;jpdbapYk; ,t;topghL eilngWk;. ,t;topghl;L KiwAk; nkhfQ;rjhNuhf; fhyk; njhlf;fk; jpuhtplUf;Fs;spUe;J te;j kutopghl;L KiwahFnkdf; $wyhk;. gz;ilj; jpuhtpl topghl;L Kiw ,q;qdkpUf;f> itjpf rkaf; $l;lj;jhH ,f;Nfhapy;fis vy;yhk; khw;wp kutopghbUe;j ,lq;fspw; fl;llq;fis vOg;gp mjw;Fs;Ns cUtr;rpiyfisj; jpzpj;J> ,y;yhj gj;jjp Kiwfisnay;yhk; nfhz;Lte;J NrHj;jdH. mJkl;Lkd;wpg; ghHg;gdiuf;nfhz;L ,y;yhj Kiwfisr; rq;fjj;jpy; RNyhfq;fshf Mw;wp ,f; Nfhapy;fspy; g+irfs;> tpohf;fs; elj;jptUfpd;wdH. ,tH nra;if> gz;ilf;fhyj; jkpoH tof;Ff;Fk; mtH topghl;L Kiwf;Fk; khwhdJ. ehr;rpkhH topghl;bd; tuyhw;iwAk;> mt;topghl;L KiwiaAk; Xuhw;whd; vLj;Jiuj;jdk;. ,jd; cz;ik KOtJk; rupahff; fpilf;ftpy;iy. td;dpehl;bYk; aho;g;ghzj;J NtW gFjpfspYk; ,t;topghL eilKiwapypUj;jy; $Lk;. mtw;iwj; jpul;lKbahkypUf;fpwJ. mtw;iwj; jpul;br; rupj;jpu Kiwg;gb Muha;jy; mwpQH fld;. ï&#x201A;® epiyg;ghl;bd; mbf;Fwpg;Gfs;: 1: eha;r;rp> ehad;: jha;> Qha;> eha;> Ma; Mfpait goe;jkpopy; rknrhw;fs;. vdNt eha;r;rp vd;w nrhy; rq;fj nkhop mbahfg; gpwe;jJ my;y> jha; vd;w nghUs;nfhz;l jkpo;r;nrhy;. jha;top kuG ,Ue;j fhyj;jpy; ,r;nrhy;ypd; Mz;ghy; ehad; Mf ,Ue;jJ vd;w fUj;Jk; cz;L. jha;top kuigf; filg;gpbf;Fk; kiyahsj;J ehaH vd;w Fyg;ngaH ,t;thwfNt te;jnjd;gH. NguhrpupaH rq;fjk; vd;W Fwpg;gpl;bUg;gJ rk];fpUj nkhop. jkpo;kugpy;> rk];fpUjk;> gpuhfpUjk; Mfpa nkhopfis KiwNa rq;fjk; vd;Wk; ghfjk; vd;Wk; vOJtJz;L. 2: jpir> jprht> jprhit: <oj;jpy; rpq;fs kugpYk; jkpo; kugpYk; xU jpiria Ms;gtH vd;w nghUs; nfhz;lJ. 3: njy;ypr;rp tha;f;fhy;: rptpif J}f;FgtHfs; FbapUg;ig (njy;yp) NrHe;j xU ngz;zpd; ngauhy; te;j tha;f;fhy;. ,d;W njy;yp tha;f;fhy; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. 4: rhsk;ig: <oj;Jf; fhLfspy; gutyhff; fhzg;gLk; xU kutif. rpq;fsj;jpy; ]y; my;yJ `y; vd;W miof;fg;gLtJ (Vateria acuminata or Vateria indica). 5: tse;Jg;ghid: xUtifg; ghid.

td;dpeha;r;rpkhH khd;kpak; fl;LiuahrpupaH kiwe;j NguhrpupaH f. fzgjpg;gps;is mtHfSila Kjd;ik khzhf;fUs; xUtuhd j.rz;KfRe;juk; mtHfs; ,wq;fzpatis FUehjHNfhapy; filrpg; g+rhupahuhftpUe;j tpdhrpj;jk;gpmUzhryk; vd;gtupd; kfdhd mUzhryk; tpdhrpj;jk;gpaplk; ,Ue;J ngwg;gl;l Vl;Lg;gpujpapy; ,Ue;J mr;rpy; ntspapl;Ls;shH (td;dpeha;r;rpkhH khd;kpak;> 1981). GJf;FbapUg;gpy; ngwg;gl;l tl;lthfy; eha;r;rpahH Nfhapy; Vl;Lg;gpujp VOkhjhf;fs; topghl;Lld; (rg;j fd;dpaH topghL) njhlHG gLj;JtjhfTk; ,e;jg; gpujp tw;whg;gis fz;zfpahH kyupy; (tw;whg;gis fz;zif mk;kd;> gf;. 71> 1978) ,lk;ngw;wpUg;gjhfTk; jpU. rz;KfRe;juk; mtHfs; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH. Muha;r;rpahsH jpU. etuj;jpdk; (The Wanni and The Wanniyas - C.S. Navaratnam, page 36) tz. fhl;kd; (Hinduism in Ceylon, Rev. cartman, page 78) MfpNahUk; ,J Fwpj;J Ma;e;Js;sjhfTk; mtH Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

24


jdpauR jkpoH jhafj;ij me;epaH te;J> mepahak; nra;J> ,U Njrj;ij xU Njrkha;> xd;iw rpur;Nrjk; nra;jdH. jk; eyDf;fha;.

thoyhk;. jLf;f cyfpy; rl;lq;fs; ,y;iy. ,j;jid Mapuk; kf;fs; Rakha; thotpUk;g cyf rl;lk; ,lk; juhjhk;?

jdpj; jkpo; Njrj;ij eLf; flypy; jj;jspf;f tpl;Lr; nrd;wdH. jj;Jg; gps;isahf;fp. jk; epyj;ij> jk ,dj;ij jhNk Msy; jtwh? jdpauR Ntz;lhkhk;. juzp vq;Fk; jdpauRfs; jhd; jwp nfl;Lr; nrhy;fpd;wd.

jkpoupd; tho;Tupik gaq;futhjkh? me;jupj;j Foe;ijfSf;fha; fQ;rp tupirapy; epd;wtiuf; nfhd;wtHfs; ,d;W lhf;lHfs;.

thOk; ,dj;jpd; capiuf; fhf;f cj;juthjk; juhky;> ehSk; gwpNghFk; epyj;ij kPl;Lj; juhky;> mkpyk; Cw;wp mupf;Fk; fyhrhuj;ij ghJfhj;Jj;juhky;> fUfpf; fplf;Fk; Gd;dif Kfq;fis fhzhjJ Nghy; jiyia cs;nsLf;fpd;wd Mikfs;. jhia Gijj;j g+kp> kz; ms;sp tpisahba g+kp> ghuk;gupa g+kp ghJfhg;G tiyakhk;. nrhe;j CH jpUk;Gk; fdT edthfhkhy; capHfs; Nghapw;W Vf;fj;NjhL. jhafj;jpYk; Gyj;jpYk; jdpauR cj;juthjk; [dehaf nkhopapy;. I.eh. fz;Lnfhs;stpy;iy. ,uz;L yl;rk; kf;fspd; capHfs; capuhfj; njupatpy;iy. Kg;gj;ijahapuk; tpj;Jly;fs; fhuzk; mwpa I.eh. Kaytpy;iy. gps;is Rthrpf;f Rje;jpuf; fhw;W ,y;iy mgptpUj;jpg; g+r;rhz;b. Nk[H ,UtH tpUk;gpdhy; Rakha; jpUkzk; nra;ayhk;>

gUe;jplkpUe;J Nfhop FQ;Rfisf; fhf;Fk;. gUe;NjhL fOFk; NrHe;J te;jpw;W. FQ;RfNshL NfhopAk; fhypahapw;W. Raeyj;jpDs; RUq;fpatH tpupjy; Ntz;Lk;. Rik jhq;f ,d;Dk; ,d;Dk; mjpf Njhs;fs; Ntz;Lk;. md;Gf;fhf tho;jYk; tho;jNy md;Gf;fhdJkhd fhyk; kPsf; fhzy; Ntz;Lk;. mq;faw;fd;dpfs;> Kj;Jf; FkhuHfspd; Mj;kh rhe;jpaila Ntz;Lk;. rpy Gs;spfspypUe;J ehL tpupAk;. rpd;d thapypUe;J Gd;dif gpwg;gJ Nghy. - RUjp (ftpijapd; MrpupaH td;dp Ks;sptha;f;fhypy; 18 Nk 2009 tiuapy; epd;W ntspNawpatH. %yk;: leo-malar.blogspot.com )

Nilaippadu  

A publication representing the opinion from Eelam Tamil Sovereignty School of Thought. Website URL: nilaippaadu.org

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you