landscape + architecture increments p o r t f o l i o
2 0 1 7
n i k o l e n a
g k o l f i n o p o u l o u
[This is your land, and to build a home, you must_
EDUCATION MA in Landscape Architecture (MALA) Writtle University College, Writtle School of Design (WSD) Accredited by the Landscape Institute (LI) and the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA)
Diploma in Architectural Engineering (MArchI) National Technical University of Athens (NTUA)
Nikolena Gkolfinopoulou Architect_ Landscape Architect
Architect, Urban Energy Works [UEW] (based in Ann Arbor, Michigan) Greece [2016-2017] Job Description: concept design, strategic design, urban planning, architectural & landscape design, construction details, infrastructure, WSUDS, visual analysis, interior design, facade rennovations, space perception and analysis research, branding development, development of theoritical design tools & methods, project planning, report writing, file structure development [main client: Wuzheng Group CO., LTD, China Telesales agent  Evalue, Athens Waitress/Barista [2014-2015] Fulton’s on the Green Restaurant, Writtle, UK Waitress/Barista [2013-2014] Cafe-bar Aqua, Derveni Korinthias Assistant Architect [2013-2014] Antreas Gkolfinopoulos, Civil Engineer, Derveni Korinthias Poster Design [2012-2013, 2017] Various exhibitions & events Catalogue Design  Cafe-bar Fuerte, Lykoporia Korinthias Logo Design  Handmade soaps ‘Mesogeios’
DESIGN AND RESEARCH INTERESTS
SKILLS AutoCad 2D/3D
Resilience_theory & application
Integrated landscape and architecture design
Sustainable water management, WSUDS
Flood protection and management
Ecological restoration and climate change
Urban design and public space
Sustainable design and retrofitting
Natural and cultural heritage
Adaptive strategic and structural design
Integrated, interdisciplinary, cross-scale design
Scenario techniques and design
Future strategies and planning
3DS MAX Rhino Photoshop
English German creativity analytical thinking learning ability resiliency adaptivity excitement organizational skills
AWARDS & DISTINCTIONS •
Scholarship for postgraduate studies from the Latsis Foundation 
Representative of the University of Essex for the 9th International Biennial of Landscape Architecture Barcelona 
Representative of the NTUA for the 8th International Biennial of Landscape Architecture Barcelona 
Entered 3rd in School of Architecture of NTUA 
Awarded by the President of Democracy and Eurobank for distinguished students of the entrance exams 
Winner of the National student Astronomy Competition, awarded with a trip to the Spacecamp facilities of NASA [Huntsville, Alabama, USA, 2005]
SEMINARS Landscape Character Assesment (LCA) Landscape and Visual Impact Assesment (GLVIA) Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Coastal Erosion in North Peloponnisos MK Future Cities Conference_Milton Keynes
INTERESTS & VOLUNTEERING Graphic design & video editing model making, painting, photography astronomy, piano-guitar volunteer in ‘Painters in action for the kids’ group, member of non-profit cultural organization ‘ΕΥ ΖΗΝ’
1 2 3 4 5
CONTENTS UEW projects Dreamoon Resort _ Housing, Landscape and Infrastructure works [Location: Rizhao, China | Client: Wuzheng ]
landscape + architecture Resilient Flood Futures Of Canvey Island _ Adaptive Strategies (Design Project, WSD 2015) Resilient Urban Design _ Fluxes and Flood at Chelmsofrd Peninsula (Design Project, WSD 2016) Restoring The Greek Rural Landscape _ Landscape Interventions at the River Dervenios (Design Dissertation, NTUA 2013)
architecture + urban design Urban Planning and Residential Design in Chalkida (Design Project, NTUA 2011) Music Centre Omonoia (Design Project, NTUA 2010)
research + theoretical explorations Incremental Landscapes _ An approach to Resilience: Linking Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), Human Intelligence and Design (MALA Written Dissertation, WSD 2015)
design increments Photography, Sketches + Words
urban energy works projects
DREAMOON RESORT HOUSING, LANDSCAPE AND INFRASTRUCTURE WORKS
Dreamoon is a resort under development in Wulian, Rizhao, China for Wuzheng Group CO., LTD. The work involved included concept and strategic design, urban planning, architectural and landscape design of public and private buildings, construction details, infrastructure (green, gray, blue), WSUDS, visual analysis, landscape character assessment, interior design, facade rennovations, space perception and analysis research, branding development.
景观的电子层 值， It is an e landscape value wh
事件 设施 会议 交通 events facilities conferences transportatio
ons of technology
动智能手机应用去发掘松月湖的自 然之美 an interactive mobile on to utilize the site’s natural beauties
通过加强活动和感觉之间的联系去鼓励人们重 新走向自然 Enhance paths that connect various activities with sensory stimuli to encourage people to reconnect with the nature
层面给松月湖增加了更多公共价 ，同时保留了它的完整性 extra digital layer to the that adds more public hile leaving it intact
利用标示指引人们去看，去闻，去触碰，去 听，去尝 Use signs indicating things to see, smell, touch, hear, taste
道路和设计感知道路之间的联系 ance sensory routes
环境意识 动植物 气候节气 environmental awareness plants and animals weather and seasons
在景观上制造小的指引 Make small sensory interventions in the landscape
建立社区意识 理解人群喜好 build community spirit understand what people like
适应信息时代 吸引年轻人 休闲娱乐 adapt to digital era attract young people recreation
花 土壤 食物 flowers soil food
水果和蔬菜 fruit & vegetables cooked food
土壤，泥巴，岩石 水 植物 soil, mud, rock water plants
鸟，风 室外音乐 乐器 birds, wind outdoor musical instruments
景观 自然细节 views details of nature
part of the Landscape Character Assessment
Summary 7 separate Landscape Character Types were defined within the Study Area. Landscape Character Types are generic and have broadly similar patterns of geology, landform, soils, vegetation, land use, settlement and field systems. The 7 Landscape Character Types have been broken down into Landscape Character Areas that reflect distinctive variations in local character based on visual analysis of how different combinations of physical features and perceptual qualities such as scale, pattern, tranquility, etc. create areas of distinctive landscape character.
Structure Section 1 sets out the context for the Study. It explains the background to the Study, its aims and objectives, and highlights the importance of landscape character. Section 2 provides an overview of the Study Area and the landscape character types Sections 3.0 to 9.0 of the report provide the detailed ‘profiles’ of the Landscape Character Areas.
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Aim of the study: to provide a comprehensive assessment of landscape character within the Study Area to inform land use planning, urban planning strategies and land management decisions. The overall aim of landscape planning, design and management is reflective of Wuzheng’s perspective for the Study Area, that is to: achieve culturally, ecologically and economically sustainable landscapes that can accommodate new land uses and architectural developments. The overall direction of the analysis is guided by the need for any development to be not only long-term effective but also resilient in time.
3. Characterization 4. Evaluation
2.1 Geology, Landform and Drainage
1.5.1 Desk Study Research
Mainly comprised of undulating hills around the lake. Most of the landscape is steep and there are few flat surfaces. The lake is artificial and was constructed to function as a reservoir.
In summary, the desk work involved:
A review of existing national and local character assessments was not available Review of maps Analysis of aerial photos Identification of draft Landscape Character Types and draft Landscape Character Areas.
1.2 Study Aims and Objectives
1.5.2 Field Survey
The Landscape Character Assessment will be specifically used to inform Urban Energy Works for planning new uses and infrastructures at the resort area and developing a residential design proposal.
Field surveys were undertaken between 9th December to 20th Decemeber 2016. The aim of the surveys was to undertake a visual analysis of how different features and elements combined to create distinctive patterns in the landscape. The following elements were considered:
1.3 The Importance of Landscape Character
The European Landscape Convention defines landscape as: ‘an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors.’ The term landscape is typically synonymous with the countryside; however, landscape is everywhere and may comprise rural landscapes, urban landscapes or escapes, urban fringe landscapes, coastal landscapes or seascapes, etc. The European Landscape Convention defines ‘landscape character’ as: ‘a distinct and recognizable pattern of elements that occur consistently in a particular type of landscape.’ In England and Scotland, Landscape Character Assessment is a tool that allows landscape character to be understood, explained and described in a transparent and robust way. It does this by mapping and describing the variations in physical, natural and cultural attributes and experiential characteristics that make one area distinctive from another at a range of spatial scales. Landscape Character Assessment also recognises how landscapes have changed over time, and acknowledges the changing influences of human activities and the impacts of economic development. Landscape in China!!! missing!
1.4 Approach and Methodology The overall approach to the study is based on Landscape Character Assessment – Guidance for England and Scotland (Countryside Agency/Scottish Natural Heritage, 2002).
2.4 LANDSCAPE CHARACTER IN THE STUDY AREA
These are, as noted, areas of Distinctive Character – discrete geographical areas with a distinct and recognizable pattern of elements that occur consistently throughout the area. The following Landscape Character Types and Areas have been identified within the study area:
B - WOODED SLOPES B1 - Mountain evergreen B2 - Mountain deciduous B3 - Lakeside evergreen
B - Wooded Slopes This type refers to the mountain slopes, both lower- and higherlying that are covered by grown trees and forests.
C - TERRACED FARMLAND
In the following section of the report the detailed ‘profiles’ of Landscape Character Areas within the study area will presented as follows:
3.0 A - WATER BODIES
2. Description Natural/physical features (landform , local topography, landcover, texture) Perceptual and aesthetic features (naturalness, openness, uniqueness, diversity, views)
3. Evaluation Negative features: Sensitivities - pressures Positive features: Opportunities - potential
Landscape character types
B1 - Mountain evergreen
This is the prominent feature of the site and an inextricable part of the views.
A seasonal feature characteristic of the agricultural land uses within the study area.
There is a seasonal change in the water level that can reach up to 3m in height exposing a lower lakefront zone, as seen in the following figure. The darker colour shows the lowest water level, usually during the summer.
This traditional element could be translated into modern and ecological design. Sustainable drainage and water collection methods can be part of any development. Infiltration gardens, for example, can purify rainwater.
Key characteristics of this Landscape Character Type: Water is a very important element of the site’s landscape character. The most prominent feature is the lake, but there are also many smaller water bodies, mostly seasonal. The hydrological cycles of streams, creeks and rivers as well as the seasonal variations of rainfall and the use of water for irrigation creates a dynamic landscape with fluctuating water levels and water-related habitats. The following 2 areas within this type are described:
G - BUILT AREAS G1 - Hotel G2 - Apartments G3 - Villas G4 - Local Buildings G5 - Roads
4.0 B - WOODED SLOPES
Water quality can be improved Natural habitats could be enhanced Water purification and remediation methods could be used to improve the ecological value of the lake Constructed wetlands on the lower lakefront zone The variation of water level could be used in design to create season changes of architectural features; parts of public design could only be exposed during the dry season
A2 - Irrigation ponds
4. Suggested guidelines
F - WATERFRONT ZONE F1 - Up North F2 - Peninsula F3 - Small reservoir i F4 - Small reservoir ii F5 - North of hotel F6 - Narrow Waterfront F7 - South of the Hotel F8 - Across
G - Built areas This type refers to built and constructed areas.
A1 - Reservoir
1. Overview Location of character area (map) Boundaries of character area (map) Photograph
E - ROCK HILLS E1 - East Rocks E2 - West Rocks E3 - North Rocks
F - Waterfront Zone This type refers to the areas that are close to the lakefront and usually below the main road. These areas are of mixed land cover.
Agriculture, Land Management and Diversification Socio-Economic Characteristics Infrastructure, Transport and Traffic Built Development Recreation and Tourism Mineral Extraction and Waste Climate Change Agriculture Conservation Areas
Following are google aerial photos since 2009, showing changes in time and different seasonal conditions of the site and especially the reservoir.
D - FLAT FARMLAND D1 - Cluster D2 - Small reservoir D3 - Plateau D4 - North D5 - Narrow D6 - Surrounded D7 - South
C - Terraced Farmland This type refers to the steep terraced landforms that are a result of farming. D - Flat Farmland This type refers to relatively larger and flatter areas of farmland. E - Rock Hills This type refers to the unique rocky mountain formations of Wulian.
OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY AREA
Location of character area Photographs Key characteristics (visual, ecological, etc) Key planning and land management issues Sensitivities to change Proposed landscape strategy objectives Suggested planning guidelines
A - WATER BODIES A1 - Lake A2 - Lower lakeside zone A3 - Irrigation ponds A - Water Bodies This type refers to the lake and any smaller irrigation ponds/reservoirs.
2.2 Temperature and climate
2.4.2 Landscape Character Areas
2.4.1 Landscape Character Types As noted, Landscape Character Types are generic units of landscape with a distinct and recognizable pattern of elements that occur consistently throughout the type. After careful consideration, 7 distinct landscape character types have been identified:
The characterization stage involved the combination of the desk study research and field survey analysis to identify and map generic Landscape Character Types (A, B, C… ) and Landscape Character Areas (A1, A2…, B1, B2…).
1. Desk Study Research 2. Field Survey
Some of the key global, national and local forces for change that affect and will influence the character of the Study Area’s landscapes and need to be considered are:
Landform Rivers/drainage Land cover Field pattern and field boundaries Communication routes Building styles Scale Texture Enclosure Stimuli Sense of tranquility Movement View types and composition Landmarks Naturalness
For each Landscape Character Type, its boundaries were mapped and its key characteristics described. For each Landscape Character Area, its boundaries were mapped and the following characterization information was described:
In summary, the main stages involved in the study process were:
2.3 Key Forces for Change in the Landscape It is important to understand, manage and direct future positive change in the landscape in ways that conserve and enhance its essential characteristics and valued attributes, whilst enabling social, ecological and economic sustainability.
2.2 Weather and Climate
A1 - Lake A2 - Irrigation ponds
B2 - Mountain deciduous
B3 - Lakeside evergreen
The aim for this character type is to conserve the natural habitats. Every design intervention should be respectful to the existing landscape. Suggested land uses: hiking, exercise, outdoor exercise facilities/gym. Potentially low impact residential development. Signs for tree and plants species and info spots for local wildlife and habitats Develop ideas for augmented reality interactive app for exploring the landscape
The following 3 areas within this type are described: B1 - Mountain evergreen B2 - Mountain deciduous B3 - Lakeside evergreen
Walking uphill can be quite challenging because of the steepness. There are a few hiking trails, some of which lead to viewpoints (pavilion). The pine forest has small visual changes through the seasons Walking through the pine forest there is a sense of enclosure and isolation. There are hardly any long views towards the lake, except for a few points close to the top of the mountain.
Key characteristics of this Landscape Character Type:
Visual change through seasons and change of colours Longer views towards the lake because most of the deciduous forest lies on the ridge top. Even more open views during the winter, when leaves have fallen.
Map viewing points and construct potential hiking routes accordingly, based on the local topographies. Also resting points. Residential development: villages in the forest, cabins. Find most suitable locations (views, tree density, accessibility) Low impact infrastructure for games/exercise . Can be used by school camps
Map viewing points and construct potential hiking routes accordingly, based on the local topographies. Also resting points. Residential development: villages in the forest, cabins. This landscape area could provide sunlight through the winter and shade during the summer.
Mostly younger pine trees and smaller in size Unique landscape with pine trees growing down to the lakefront. Close to the road and the hotel.
Trails need to be constructed to make access easy
enclosure and privacy from the road, while allowing views towards the lake.
Regarding the lake forests, 4 sub-areas have been identified (i-iv).
Suggestions Residential development, especially combined with the area below.
Most of the study area is covered by steep wooded mountains of exquisite natural beauty. Dominant species: pine trees. The forest is mostly evergreen and specifically covered by pine trees, but there are also some patches of deciduous forest, as seen in the following diagram. Unique sense of remoteness and tranquillity. Within this character type views are restricted and there is a sense of enclosure
5.0 C - TERRACED FARMLAND
D1 - Cluster
6.0 D - FLAT FARMLAND
Small lake forest with unique natural beauty. Very unique landscape area Walking towards the lake the views are framed and open up at the edge which is not level with the lakefront but stops at a small cliff
Suggestions Should be conserved. No residential or other development should be built Construct access from the road Low impact landscape interventions, such as pathways, and resting points, eg at the edge of the small cliff.
D2 - Small reservoir
It offers a unique view (combined with the rock mountain) for the hotel and generally the area across the lake.
It should be conserved. Can be used for nature exploration and hiking Provide access from the other side of the lake (boat)
Key characteristics of this Landscape Character Type:
Residential development, especially combined with the area below. This forest can provide enclosure and privacy from the road, while allow houses to be built with views towards the lake.
D3 - Plateau
This area is a plateau; flat with views to the lake and the surrounding landscape Sense of openness Its location and topography mean that there is plenty of sunshine during the year
Can be used for a larger development, eg a public/shared building/space Because of its prominent location , any design should consider the visual impact it has
This area is like a cluster. It is a‘sunken’ area surrounded by terraced farmland Sense of enclosure Limited views Irrigation ponds Road access Could be used as: camping facilities, wellness park, designed in relation to a ‘village in the forest’ residential development
Description nice views to the reservoir and forest to the south. No views to the lake.
Suggestions Good area for residential development with Figure its relation to the houses/building adjacent to it
The following 7 areas within this type are described:
Smaller pine trees of relatively less landscape importance compared to b3-ii Very close access to the hotel
Support the ground with stone walls and/or other methods. Can be used for plots for producing vegetables for the villas. Can be used for larger developments because of flatness. Suggested general land uses: farming, agriculture, greenhouses, restaurant, vegetable market.
The site is characterized by the terraced land formations that are a result of agriculture. Because of the site’s steep land form, most terraces are narrow with a high average step. This landscape character type has the smallest walking accessibility for the pedestrian. Sense of remoteness and tranquillity. Visual repetitiveness due to the terraces but also the planting of trees in a grid. Significant seasonal visual variations since most of the trees are deciduous. During the winter the colour and texture of the soil is prominent.
Key characteristics of this Landscape Character Type:
This type is characterized by relatively flat farming areas. These areas can be terraced but each terrace is much wider. Sense of remoteness and tranquillity. Visual repetitiveness due to the planting of trees in a grid. Significant seasonal visual variations since most of the trees are deciduous. During the winter the colour and texture of the soil is prominent.
D4 - North
D5 - Narrow
D6 - Surrounded
Sense of openness Relatively flat, mildly terraced Open views to the lake Its location and topography mean that there is plenty of sunshine during the year
Because of its prominent location , any design should consider the visual impact it has
Mildly terraced farmland, sunken topography very narrow and extending down to the lake Direct views to the ‘bay’ formation of the lake and the pine forest across Side views to the pine forest on the north Close distance to the road which runs parallel to this area Sense of enclosure
Mild to steep terraced farmland Surrounded by dense pine forest Sense of enclosure and tranquility Restrained views
Potential uses: Camp site, residential, agriculture park
D1 - Cluster D2 - Small reservoir D3 - Plateau D4 - North D5 - Narrow D6 - Surrounded D7 - South
D7 - South
Surrounded by terraced farmland and rock formations Relatively flat large area Unique location with great views to the lake and close proximity to lake front
7.0 E - ROCK HILLS
Consider the relation with the road to any development designed
Potentially uses: greenhouse, restaurant, residential, agriculture park, farmer’s market Can be used for a larger development, eg a public/shared building/space
The aim for this character type is to conserve. Every design intervention should be respectful to the existing landscape. Different ways to construct pathways on these hills need to be considered (carve, steps, metal structure) in order to provide access while protecting the visual and ecological character of this type. Suggested land uses: hiking, climbing, exercise, observatory. Signs for tree and plants species and info spots for local wildlife and habitats
The following 3 areas within this type are described:
Key characteristics of this Landscape Character Type:
E1 - East Rocks
8.0 F - WATERFRONT ZONE
F1 - Up North
F2 - Peninsula
E1 - East Rocks E2 - West Rocks E3 - North Rocks
The rocky land formations at the study area are of exquisite natural beauty and ecological/landscape importance. They are a very important characteristic of the site. The rock hills are covered by pine trees which are smaller in size than average pine trees but of unique shape and beauty. That is due to the thinner layer of soil on which they grow. Within this character type there are plenty of views Unique and intense visual character because of the rock shapes and textures. Generally tranquil and undisturbed character Walking on these hills can be quite challenging because of the steepness as well as the rough rock formations
F3 - Small reservoir I
F4 - Small reservoir ii
It offers a unique view (combined with the pine forest) for the hotel and generally the area across the lake.
It should be conserved. Can be used for nature exploration and hiking Provide access from the other side of the lake (boat)
E2 - West Rocks
On this side of the lake the rock formations cover an extensive area reaching up the mountain and the dense pine forest
This area is ideal for natural exploration, hiking and climbing activities
When it comes to residential design, the relationship between Chinese architecture and large water bodies is an issue that needs to be considered. The lower lakefront zone could be designed at parts as a public waterfront, with increased water interactions and design elements such as game areas, water sports, ponds, park, promenade, cycling routes, small piers, constructed wetlands, swimming and fishing spots. Infiltration gardens
The following 8 areas within this type are described: F1 - Up North F2 - Peninsula F3 - Small reservoir i F4 - Small reservoir ii F5 - North of hotel F6 - Narrow Waterfront F7 - South of the Hotel F8 - Across
E3 - North Rocks (specifications: i, ii, ii)
On the north, there are a few rock formations emerging from the mountain at points These rocks are ‘edges’ of the mountain that can offer open views towards the forest or even the lake
Mostly terraced farmland. Not very good views across, because of the dam. Close to the north entrance Could be used as a complementary area to B2 (eg, parking area)
Sense of openness to the lake and also isolation towards the road because of the pine trees of area xx Mildly terraced farmland Varying views to the other side of the lake
views to the small reservoir and the pine forest across South orientation Sense of tranquility
Good location for residential
Can be used for residential development Relationship with existing building to the north needs to be considered Seasonal changes of the small reservoir need to be considered
Unique location combining water features of the small reservoir with close proximity to the lake and the road, while also close to the mountains and the pine forest Narrow zone in front of the small reservoir Sense of tranquillity and isolation
Seasonal changes of the small reservoir need to be considered Can be used for residential development
Provide access to them Can be used as observatory points and resting/sitting areas Key characteristics of this Landscape Character Type:
Variety of vegetation types such as grasslands or shrub or sparse needle leaf or farmland Very easy access to the lakefront Views of the lake. Also, views beyond the lake to the shore across and any landscape elements of the other side, which needs to be considered in any sort of proposal. This type is influenced on the lower parts by the variations of the water levels of the lake. This influence can be visual but perhaps it might also affect the micro-climate (humidity, smells, wetlands, seasonal ponds of still water)
quantitative variety uniqueness functionality harmony
Walkability o QUALIT Accessibility Accessibility Walkability of public spaces Accessibility toAccessibility services and level aa Accessibility toNoise recreation of Accessibility toUniqueness natural scen Noise level and Harmony traffic (area Harmony (visu Uniqueness of local habitat/e Harmony (visu Public (area) of Harmony natural - a of pubHarmony (visual)Amount of natural of Harmony (visual)Proximity of natural of en Amount of publicHarmony buildings Harmony of pu Proximity of houses to public Variety of st Harmony of enclosure - openen Amount of man Harmony of public scale Amount of pub Variety of streetscape design Amount pub Amount of managed greenofareas pu Amount of publicVariety outdoorofspac Amount of publicNumber views of to peo sce Variety of pl Variety of public shapes/form of pu Number of peopleVariety in public ar Variety of and ho Variety of planting plans Uniqueness of Variety of public colours and re Variety of houseVariety design of (nonVernacularity Uniqueness of residential sty Uniqueness of Variety of residential planni of lay re Vernacularity ofDensity planning Proximity to Uniqueness of residential pla Size of house Density of residences Size of garde Private to wild Proximity nature Size of house Vernacularity Size of garden Functionality of re Vernacularity ofPrivacy house layout Functionality ofFunctionality house layout Variety of co Privacy of residential views Variety of re Functionality of garden (rela Utilization o Variety of colours and materi Uniqueness of Variety of residential views Uniqueness of Utilization of unique natural Uniqueness vie of Uniqueness of residential Harmony of ho Uniqueness of interior design Harmony of re Uniqueness of facade Harmony of en Harmony of house typology (co Application o Harmony of relative scale (co Harmony of enclosure-enclosur Application of ecological des quantitative variety uniqueness functionality harmony
lity of place
planning concept masterplan
Y OF PLACE
d amenities (health, market. etc) problematic-ideal-too close problematic-ideal-too close and activities problematic-ideal-too close neries too noisy-ideal-too quiet
too common-special-extreme ecologies too few-ideal-too many artificial ratio too matching-harmony-too contrasting - artificial forms/topographies too matching-harmony-too contrasting - artificial textures too few-ideal-too many
c spaces ness
too close-ideal-too far away
n s (parks, etc) ces (squares, etc) eneries ms/topographies reas d species d materials -repetitiveness) yle ing schemes yout anning
ated to house) ials
l features ews n
ompared to human scale) ompared to surroundings) re sign/thinking
too tight-ideal-too open tight-human-overpowering too few-ideal-too many too few-ideal-too many too few-ideal-too many small-average-big dead-lively-noisy too simple-pleasant-chaotic too simple-pleasant-chaotic too uniform-average-too complex too common-special-extreme too uniform-average-too complex too traditional-balanced-too foreign too common-special-extreme too dense-ideal-too dispersed too close-ideal-too far too small-average-too big too small-average-too big too traditional-balanced-too foreign problematic-neutral-good exposed-safe-too isolated problematic-neutral-good small-average-big small-average-big
inadequate-adequate-maximum too common-special-extreme too common-special-extreme too common-special-extreme tight-human-overpowering
exposing-comfortable-overwhelming too small-comfortable-suffocating absent-good
North of hotel Up North District 上北区 超市
公共车站 Bus Stop 停车
独木舟站 Canoe Stop 钓鱼
Greenhouse Nature Centre
酒店 Islands 岛
Villages in the forest
South of hotel
the Courtyard C extreme nature
the courtyar (combined with d
th cour corr
Corridor concept extreme urbanization
rd corridors digital corridors)
he rtyard ridor
Outdoor Training Site
CANYON FOOTBRIDGE | OBSERVATORY
A N A L Y S I S
Canvey Island, The
e Thames Estuary
[Design Project, WSD 2015]
Resilient Water Futures
ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES FOR CANVEY ISLAND This project deals with the future of estuarine cities in the face of climate change, seeking an adaptive approach that will increase the possibility of establishing a stable background which will allow systems to grow in a symbiotic way by creating a flexible network of interrelations and links. Canvey Island is a town built in reclaimed land at the Thames Estuary. Its low lying topography means that the city is surrounded by 6m high seawalls. It is prone to every type of flooding and extremely vulnerable to climate change. This project seeks to propose a different approach for dealing with the flood, which is based on adaptive strategies that are designed through a holistic approach that will set a dynamic background for a range of resilient futures. In this context, everything is considered in the design process: the physical space with all its variations of forms (natural-artificial), as well as the living systems and their requirements to grow in the optimal way. Canvey Island is transformed into a continuous productive landscape that is resilient to the uncertainty of the future. Water in all its forms generates the city with a series of land uses and goods, ensuring not only its survival but also its prosperity. The landscape and urban forms are progressively transformed to respond to the effects of climate change, through a flexible plan of ecological terraforming processes and architectural adjustments. Architecture, technology and landscape are perceived as complementary aspects. The ever changing character of water elements such as tidal forces, floods and rain becomes the core of ecological, economic and public activities, towards a new, future resilient urban model.
[MEMORIES FROM TH E F U T U R E ]
STRATEGIC CONCEPTUALIZATION [2015-2115] a plan for optimal complementarity of socio-ecological systems
adaptability of spatial typologies and benefits
SURROUNDING FLOOD DEFENCES
The existing flood walls are progressively replaced by a multifunctional and topographically/ ecologically diverse flood protection zone (A) that is enhanced by biologically engineered habitats. This public zone will also restore the lost connectivity of the city with its seafront of the Thames Estuary.
The former industrial area is slowly decontaminated through processes of phytoremediation and is progressively excavated and reformed into a The gaswork tanks and facilities remind the industrial past but are modified into an area for producing local food and other goods. Most structures are adjusted to accomodate vertical farming uses. The is progressively excavated following the existing topographical and geological forms. Its entrance is placed on the east side where a gate allows water from the Thames to enter and exit the channel. Twice a day, following the tidal patterns, the water level in the channel rises and falls. This process produces from the kinetic energy of the water flows, through a set of tidal turbines, while also generating a multitude of activities (aquaculture, aqua farming, recreation, infiltration, public space). The system â€˜closesâ€™ at the tidal lagoon which also uses the water level variations in similar ways.
THE TIDAL CHANNEL
THE TIDAL LAGOON
THE URBAN FABRIC As the years of by and the flood events become more frequent, the ground level is slowly taken over by saline- tolerant wetlands, a process which is supported through the application of technology such as bioengineered interventions, nanotechnology and the Internet of Things (IoT). The residential uses progressively move to higher levels and also expand vertically to respond to the population rise. A growing network of elevated green zones and public spaces allows for the ground level to become a continuous productive urban landscape. Hence a new urban prototype arises that has public and ecological connectivity, both horizontally and vertically. At the same time, these alterations respond to the need for creating economic, ecological and social opportunities and benefits. Ultimately, this overall strategy has the potential to respond to the worst case scenario of extreme sea level rise, whereby the city could eventually let go of the ground floor and further transform into a floating city.
Evolution of the urban block
energy production systems (eg solar, microwind)
phase change materials microclimate control shading-lighting
living materials and
- reactive to climate - preserving visual/cultural/aesthetic elements of local architectural forms
elevated infiltration gardens public spaces
enhanced green roofs greenhouses and
food production units hybrid walls_structural membranes - CO2 to 02 - elements of vernacular architecture
adaptable & modular building units
local agriculture rainwater collection, filtration and distribution systems
[Design Project, WSD 2014]
Resilient Urban Design_
Fluxes and Flood at Chelmsford Peninsula Project Summary The main guideline for the project is rethinking of Chelmsford as a city and re-establishing a sense of community. Restoring the social and ecological sustainability of Chelmsford, are the principles used, to create public spaces that become places through involvement, while repairing ecosystem fragmentation and enhancing local habitats. The site is designed as a public, multifunctional place, connecting the past to the present, to create a more sustainable future. Culture, involvement and local heritage awareness are key elements in this process. The project seeks to enhance the collective appreciation of shared public space and create a sense of identity for Chelmsford by making it a part of everyday life: a place with memory where memories are created.
The concept of this project is inspired by the principle of communicating vessels and is translated to a â€˜principle of communicating peopleâ€™, to reflect a symbiotic design of natural and human systems. This approach seeks to create a dynamic network of fluxes that change throughout the year. These fluxes include movements of people, vegetation patterns and water management, all designed in relation to each other.
P L O R
F L U X E S
W A T E R
P E O P L E
V A R I A T I O N S
F L O O D
L E V E L S
graffiti wall and flood retention - infiltration gardens The existing graffiti wall is relocated to become a vital element running through the site. The wall also supports the back of the proposed amphitheatric concert area. A network of inflitration gardens is designed
riparian habitats & terraced gardens
River banks are unboxed and reformed, to create ideal condi
corridor restoration, with pathways alongside. The historic c
dynamic landscape that changes during the seasons, genera paths and sitting areas on different levels, creating a playful
the water, while also functioning as flood relief during the r
amphitheater is a place for cultural events and public dis
permeable allowing to flood when necessary. The surrounding
and provide shade during the summer and sun during the wint
itions for habitat regeneration and
canal is also reformed to create a
ating movements and pauses, with experience and allowing access to
raining seasons. The small outdoor
scussions. The materials used are
g trees create a sense of tranquility
Chelmer & Blackwater canal section
Restoring The Greek Rural Landscape Landscape Interventions at the River Dervenios [Design Dissertation, NTUA 2013]
Derveni is a coastal town in the municipality of Xylokastro-Evr
appearance of the region depicts the changes in the agricultura
of the rural landscape, which were caused by human intervent
this diploma thesis is to restore the existing fragmented land
foundation for balancing the artificial and the natural environ
with: the multidimensional and combined understanding of th and the the ways through which these elements interrelate
rostini. The current overall
The River Dervenios is the guideline for a series of interventions that are proposed. These
al and natural environment
interventions are made in an unobtrusive manner. This process uses the potential of the
tion. The main objective of
region and seeks to restore the harsh human imprint and to incorporate new land uses,
dscape and to provide the
by transforming the area into an appealing destination for visitors and a more beneficial
nment. This research deals
place for the local residents. The river functions as the key element for a walking network
he landscape, its elements
which connects the natural and cultural sites. This network consists of pedestrian
through space and time.
ways, trails, plantings, community agriculture, public gathering and exhibition spaces.
ARCHITECTURE + URBAN DESIGN
[Design Project, NTUA 2011]
Urban Planning and Residential Design in Chalkida
[Design group project, NTUA 2010)
MUSIC CENTRE OMONIA
R E S E A R C H
Landscape & Resilience: Exploratory sketches & diagrams
T H E O R I T I C A L
E X P L O R A T I O N S
[MALA Dissertation, WSD 2015]
INCREMENTAL LANDSCAPES_ An approach to resilience:
Linking Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), human intelligence and Design Introduction
This research project is an open-ended discussion about the importance of thinking and imagining, the importance of learning and our responsibility as designers to develop resilience in our design thinking to increase landscape resilience.The complexity of the contemporary world has made designing
resilient landscapes more urgent than ever. However, the need for
integrating systems thinking while also embracing uncertainty is currently at odds with the way resilience is approached. The consequences of which, not just undermine the adaptability of landscapes but also entail the risk of designing a culturally static future. This report conducts an inductive exploration of concepts related to resilience, systems thinking and uncertainty, aiming to establish common ground and investigate the essence of resilience as a transformative process. The literature review identifies the potential for integrating landscape design, Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) and concepts of human intelligence, in the search for ways to increase landscape resilience.
Incremental Landscapes: Exploratory diagrams
LINKED DIS CIPLI N ES Architecture Landscape Architecture Art, Science and the Design Process Human geography Psychogeography Social and Political geography Social Anthropology and History Social Psychology Systems Science Complexity Theory Chaos Theory Fractal Theory Non-linear Systems Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) Socio-ecological Systems (SES) Resilience Theory the Adaptive Cycle Panarchy Future Studies Trend Analysis and Forecasting Scenario Analysis and Planning Biocultural Evolution Natural and Social Science Social Philosophy Philosophy of Science Biology Neuroscience Information Theory Artificial Intelligence
_towards a theory of LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS_
a landscape theory that can potentially unify concepts from a multitude of disciplines Part of the research methods was to identify interdisciplinary concepts related to resilience and link them. The synthesis of concepts led to the establishment of a framework for landscape systems.
Complex Adaptive Systems Many natural systems (e.g., brain, immune systems, ecologies, societies) and increasingly, many artificial systems are characterized by complex behaviors that emerge as a result of interactions among a large number of component systems at different levels of organization. These are known as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). CAS are learning systems: their components (agents) interact and communicate with each other and from this mass of interactions, an overall recurring pattern of behavior appears in the system which feeds back on the system and informs the interactions of the agents; they adapt and change their rules as they gain experience (Honavar, 2001; Chan, 2001). This ability of a system for conservation and manipulation of information is reflective of a learning process which characterizes living systems and implies intelligence.
Landscape Systems Similarly, It is suggested that landscape systems can be understood as formations with behaviors reflective of the human intelligence, rather than as objective entities. Landscape systems are explored as systems of human intelligence. Landscape systems are sets of dynamically interacting components that describe all the aspects of the human perception. They do not describe a subjective reality of nature but rather represent the inhabited, experienced, remembered and devised - by the human nature - world. To describe the function of landscape systems, principles of the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) Theory are applied. In this sense, it is explained how landscape systems are composed of sets of human memories that can be physical and abstract, individual and collective and belonging to the past, the present and the future, dynamically interacting in non-linear ways.
KEY FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH ANALYSIS AND METHODS This report suggests that landscape theory can combine concepts from various disciplines under an anthropocentric perspective that examines landscapes as systems that are physical and conceptual products of the human intelligence. Thus, the resilience of landscapes can be identified in the performance of human intelligence (cognitive, perceptual, imaginative – individual & collective), rather than exist as an attribute of the landscapes. How ecosystems ‘truly’ function is irrelevant: what matters is how we understand this function and to what extent; and how we intervene and influence our landscapes. In this context, the processes of human intelligence and particularly the process of learning are established as unifying concepts that can potentially respond to the need for designing resilient landscapes. Landscape systems are resilient when intelligence is adequately capable of responding to changing conditions. Consequently, it is possible to increase landscape resilience by enhancing the processes of human intelligenc. The dissertation introduces the concept of incremental landscapes to describe landscape systems, their components and the complex processes of intelligence through which they adapt and transform. Processes of intelligence in landscape systems
RESILIENCE = OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE OF INTELLIGENCE
The concept of
incremental landscapes is an initial
proposal in order to describe the complexity of landscape systems, their attributes and function, and their inherent tendency to be resilient, through processes of conserving and manipulating memories (information). The processes of intelligence involve complex interactions between systems and subsystems of memories, nested within scales and subscales, antagonizing and co-evolving through multiple feedback processes and emergent phenomena. These transformative fluctuations of intelligence occur in all organizational levels and scales (panarchy) and allow for systems to learn and adapt by generating novelty at the so-called ‘edge of chaos’, that is a state between ‘order’ and ‘chaos’; between the known and the unknown; between science and imagination. Incremental landscapes reflect the principles of CAS through which life evolves and just like life itself they are partly incomprehensible to the human mind.
Through the research analysis and methods, the dissertation attempts to logically identify and codify the components of landscape systems (i.e. the memories), their organizational patterns, their adaptive behavior as well as the processes of intelligence that govern them through a series of diagrams. In the following page are some examples of these diagrams.
Processes of landscape formation and perception
ma t e
Adaptation Processes of CAS
ideas landscape processes spaces
ma t e
ideas landscape processes
Landscape Processes (the landscape cycle)
Increasing Complexity of Landscape Systems
Processes of human intelligence
Incremental Landscape Processes
Landscape Formation and Perception Processes
Momentary states of landscape (static processes) Past memories & memories in the process of â€˜becomingâ€™
elementary landscape Key finding in this exploration is the ‘elementary landscape’, that is a theoretical construct which represents a state of a landscape system at any given moment. It gives more concrete structure to the notion of memories and is reflective of the processes of intelligence that define it. Like the concept of elementary particles in Physics, the elementary landscape represents what landscape systems are fundamentally made of. The complex sum of elementary landscapes and all their interactions governed by human intelligence in space and time ultimately form the incremental landscapes. The report explains how resilience is the essence of incremental landscapes and how incremental landscapes can be theoretically used as a source for understanding how resilience can be achieved. Resilience is viewed as a spatio-temporal whole; resilience relies upon the understanding of the complexity of landscape systems. One of the main conclusions of the report is that, as designers, we can use imagination to think of futurity as a whole; a Panarchy in time; a landscape system composed of all the alternative future landscape systems and their subsystems. By designing alternative pieces of futures and by establishing ‘communication’, ie logical and affective links between them, eventually an ‘emergent’ behaviour will be revealed; some unifying principles, that can potentially increase our design intelligence and hence result in more resilient ‘actual’ futures to come. The design process combined with scenario techniques is noted as a potential way to ‘extract’ memories from the future and link them. The first step towards building a better understanding of landscape systems and manipulating them as design constructs for the purpose of increasing the resilience of future landscapes is the concept of the elementary landscape. The elementary landscape diagram (as the representation of a memory) is developed as a first step to practically assist in constructing these memories. In order to create this integrated tool for constructing memories this report drew ideas from a variety of sources, such as ecosystem service and the circle of sustainability, in order to specify the sub-components of landscape. 16 main categories were identified which are further subdivided in sub-elements, including the physical aspects and the experiential qualities of landscape, patterns of nature and architecture, ecosystems, socio-political systems, place attachment, values, aspirations and more.
elementary landscape = a momentary state of landscape = memory
That danced around another sun, or maybe more Bound Bound of
some to an
I walk around inside of you I dwell I tidy up the chaos S o u n d l e s s l y I return it to you, upgraded . I dwell With an alternating form With a brain that functions in parallel Indeterminable in a relative way Intangible as a whole Partly elusive. I restrain your revolutions And I increasingly suspect That with all these interventions You are switching to Chain transmission.
e tr e e s a r e mor e e l e c tr ic th an o th ers]
_be a tireless architect of memory]
Published on Aug 25, 2017