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Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism

Program & Abstracts


PRT Graduate Research Symposium 2014 March 28, 2014 University of Utah Marriott Library, Gould Auditorium Salt Lake City, UT



PRT!Graduate!Research! Symposium!2014! !

Friday,!March!28,!2014! Gould!Auditorium,!Marriott!Library,! Department!of!Parks,!Recreation,!and!Tourism! University!of!Utah! !! ! ! !



The students of PRT 6800 would like to thank the following for their guidance and participation: The Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Dr. Matthew Brownlee, Course Instructor Dr. Gary Machlis, Guest Lecturer All who attend the symposium for their participation

Table of Contents Symposium Schedule


Symposium Poster


Guest Speaker Dr. Gary Machlis Biography and Abstract


Presenter Abstracts


Troy Bennett


Jamie Bernstein


Robert Conley


Dennis Conners


Elise Gatti


Siqi Gao


Carrie Gruwell


Harrison Kanarick


Ryan Matz


Dan Richmond


Carolina Roa


Preston Tanner


Nikki Thompson


Jetta Valentine


Kathryn White


PRT Faculty and Staff


2014 PRT Graduate Research Symposium Schedule 8:15am - 8:50am

Registration & Breakfast

9:00am - 9:05am

Welcome remarks from Dr. Matthew Brownlee, Assistant Professor, PRT

9:05am - 9:10am

Overview of program by moderator Dan Richmond, PhD Student, PRT

9:10am - 9:30am

A Research Gap Analysis of the Human Dimensions of Winter use in Yellowstone National Park - Presented by Elise Gatti Providing Different Sports and Increasing Intramural Participation Presented by Harrison Kanarick Expectancy-Disconfirmation of Sportsmanship: A Research Proposal Presented by Preston Tanner Sierra Club Military Outdoors Conservation Curriculum Presented by Dennis Connors

9:30am - 9:50am 9:50am - 10:10am 10:10am - 10:30am 10:30am - 10:45am




2014 PRT Graduate Research Symposium Schedule continued 10:45am - 11:05am 11:05am - 11:25am 11:25am - 11:45am

Maximizing Outcomes in Co-curricular Outdoor Recreation Through Program Administration - Presented by Jamie Bernstein A Proposed Framework for Evaluating Biological and Social Outcomes of Citizen Science Programs - Presented by Carolina Roa Keeping the Pocket Clean: The Keys to Pass Protection from an Offensive Lineman Perspective - Presented by Robert Conley

11:45pm - 12:40pm


12:40pm - 1:00pm

Diversity and Inclusion in Outdoor Adventure Education: A Mixed-Methods Approach Examining Group Dynamics and Peer Selection Factors - Presented by Dan Richmond The Survey of Travel Motivation to Chinese Culture Theme Park Presented by Siqi Gao Facilitating Center Expansion Presented by Jetta Valentine Risk Management for Guided Backcountry Skiing Presented by Ryan Matz Voluntourism: Developing a Procedure Manual Presented by Nikki Thompson

1:00pm - 1:20pm 1:20pm - 1:40pm 1:40pm - 2:00pm 2:00pm - 2:20pm 2:20pm - 2:40pm

Break & Refreshments

2:40pm - 3:00pm

GPS Visitor Tracking in Indian Creek, Utah Presented by Kathryn White Sustainable Sporting Events: A Case Study for High-Volume Trail Relay Racing Presented by Carrie Gruwell Bridging the Gap: Integrating Research into Practice and Quality Improvement in Out-of School Time Programs - Presented by Troy Bennett

3:00pm - 3:20pm 3:20pm - 3:40pm 3:40pm - 3:55pm

PRT 6800 Student Debrief with Dr. Brownlee

3:55pm - 4:00pm

Introduction of Dr. Gary Machlis by Dr. Dan Dustin, Professor, PRT

4:00pm - 4:30pm

Guest Lecture by Dr. Gary Machlis, Science Advisor to the Director of the National Park Service; Professor of Environmental Sustainability, Clemson University; Faculty Fellow, Institute for Parks, Clemson University

4:30pm - 4:35pm

Closing Remarks by Dr. Kelly Bricker, Interim Chair, PRT


Post-Symposium Social, Green Pig Pub, 31 E 400 S, Salt Lake City



Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism

PRT Graduate Research Symposium 2014 Friday, March 28, 2014 Research Symposium 9:00 am - 4:40 pm Gould Auditorium Marriott Library (Level 1) University of Utah Breakfast & registration 8:15 am Pre-registration Full program & abstracts

Guest Lecture 4:00 pm - 4:30 pm

The Intersection of Science, Law, and Public Interest in National Park Stewardship

Presentations by Troy Bennett Jamie Bernstein Robert Conley Dennis Connors Elise Gatti Siqi Gao Carrie Gruwell Harrison Kanarick Ryan Matz Dan Richmond Carolina Roa Preston Tanner Nikki Thompson Jetta Valentine Kathryn White Course Instructor Dr. Matthew Brownlee

Dr. Gary Machlis

Science Advisor to the Director of the National Park Service Professor of Environmental Sustainability at Clemson University

Post-Symposium Social 5:00 pm, The Green Pig Pub 31 E 400 S, Salt Lake City

TRAX Courthouse Station

The Symposium is green-certified by the Sustainability Resource Center. Programs will only be available electronically. Please consider bringing your own reusable mugs and water bottles.

The University of Utah seeks to provide equal access to its programs, services, and activities for people with disabilities. Reasonable prior notice is needed to arrange accommodations. Evidence of practices not consistent with these policies should be reported to the University’s ADA/Section 504 Coordinator: Director, Office of Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action, 201 S. Presidents Cr., Rm 135, Salt Lake City, UT. 84112. (801)581-8365 (V/TDD).


The Intersection of Science, Law, and Public Interest in National Park Stewardship Dr. Gary Machlis Professor of Environmental Sustainability at Clemson University and Science Advisor to the Director of the National Park Service

Friday, March 28, 2014 from 4:00 – 4:30 pm The Gould Auditorium, Level 1, Marriott Library, the University of Utah Please join the Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism in welcoming Dr. Gary Machlis to the University of Utah. Dr. Machlis is a Professor of Environmental Sustainability at Clemson University, and Science Advisor to the Director of the National Park Service. As the first scientist appointed to this position, Dr. Machlis advises the Director on issues of science policy, programs, and issues. Dr. Machlis is also co-leader of the Department of the Interior's Strategic Sciences Group, which provides science-based assessments of major environmental crises, most recently Hurricane Sandy. Dr. Machlis is active in international conservation and science, having worked in China, Haiti, the Galapagos Islands, and most recently in Cuba. His newest book is entitled Warfare Ecology: A New Synthesis for Peace and Security (2011). In 2010, Dr. Machlis was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Presentation Abstract Stewardship of the National Park System requires a constant series of decisions about managing resources, both natural and cultural. Many of these decisions are complex and high profile; all involve resources that stakeholders care about and that the NPS is charged with conserving for future generations. Are there a set of foundational principles that can guide these decisions? And if so, what would these principles include, and how might they be transformed into practical and effective public policy? This presentation strives to answer these questions, important to the future of America's national parks.




Elise Gatti Elise Gatti is a first-year doctoral student. Her research interests integrate her background in sustainable planning with the promotion of active living through nature-based urban outdoor recreation. Prior to moving to Salt Lake City, she worked and studied in Toronto, Quebec City, Pittsburgh and Frankfurt, Germany.

! A Research Gap Analysis of the Human Dimensions of Winter Use in Yellowstone National Park Winter use in America’s first national ‘pleasuring ground’ has been characterized by decades of conflict and legal challenges over management actions concerning the regulation of motorized vehicles within the park (Mansfield, Phaneuf, Johnson, Yang, & Beach, 2008). Every winter use plan proposed—with the exception of the most recent plan (National Park Service, 2013)—has been contested by proponents or opponents of motorized recreation within park boundaries. This battle has been fuelled by close scrutiny from national industrial and environmental interests alike (Yochim, 2006). A flurry of studies focusing to a large extent on the impacts of motorized vehicles on park resources has accompanied the legal activity. Meanwhile, the economic and social fabrics of the communities surrounding the park have continued to grow more enmeshed with the park’s identity and permitted activities (Duffield & Neher, 2007; Jobes, 1991; National Parks Conservation Association, 2006). A Research Gap Analysis of the Human Dimensions of Winter Use in Yellowstone National Park presents the first retroactive review of the social science research on winter use in Yellowstone National Park. The research synthesis will be relevant to those investigators and park managers whose realm includes winter season recreational planning and management in protected areas. By providing an inaugural survey of findings and research gaps, this presentation establishes a baseline for follow-up research as well as opportunities for new inquiry. It also makes available a rich body of work for park managers regarding the current status of knowledge about the human dimensions of Yellowstone during the winter, information that can inform future management and planning actions, as well as new research collaborations. The research presented was undertaken by seven students in a graduate-level course in sustainable tourism and protected area planning and management in fall 2013. The scope of the research encompasses the attitudes, behaviours, and processes related to how Yellowstone National Park is used by visitors, entrepreneurs, researchers, and others; how it is planned and managed; and how it is perceived by park users in relation to experiences, motivations, meanings, and other social-psychological constructs. Park users refer to visitors; park managers and staff; park concessionaires, guides and other entrepreneurs; and constituents of the Greater Yellowstone Area. Dimensions were considered at the individual, community, institutional, and societal scales.



A six-step, semi-inductive research synthesis process (Cooper, Hedges, & Valentine, 2009) was used to locate and analyze the literature related to parks and recreation and to identify research themes and gaps. The data sample was delimited to peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, technical reports and government documents published between 1972 and 2013. Eighty-two documents were located during the literature search; 59 were retained. Ninety percent of the citations were published after the year 2000, with the earliest published in 1989. Twenty-three references were from 15 peer-reviewed periodicals. The data also included two literature reviews and one meta-study. A limitation of the study concerns potentially rich sources of data, namely scholarly books, doctoral dissertations, and master’s theses, that were not included in the research parameters.

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Using an inter-rater reliability approach, the research team synthesized the findings into four thematic categories: Users and their Experiences, Impacts to Park Resources, Park Management, and Greater Yellowstone Area. The most prevalent research topics found were: Impacts of oversnow vehicles to air quality; impacts of winter use, both recreational and infrastructural, on ungulates; visitor preference surveys; and economic impact analyses of management actions. Thematic gaps were identified in part by consulting the preeminent source on social science research in parks and outdoor recreation, Robert E. Manning’s Studies in Outdoor Recreation: Search and Research for Satisfaction (2011). Thematic gaps were found in all four categories. Topics not found to be addressed include: Place attachment in winter; seasonal differences in visitor experiences; impacts to cultural resources and night sky pollution; economic impacts of wildlife tourism; economic value of Yellowstone’s ecosystem services; and studies of displacement, underrepresented populations, and relevancy. Several methodological gaps were also noted, including limited use of qualitative and mixed methods, and the absence of longitudinal studies. The use of snowmobiles and snowcoaches has fundamentally changed the nature of winter recreation and park infrastructure in Yellowstone National Park. Since their introduction in the 1960s, park visitation has increased significantly as has concern over the perceived and real negative impacts of this new technology to park resources. The result has been a period of intense philosophical debate and litigation over management actions. Consequently, Yellowstone National Park provides a fertile learning ground for researchers and practitioners seeking to gain a better understanding of the complex dynamics stemming from the trade-offs between access and access-related impacts in winter season recreational destinations. A Research Gap provides an overview of what has been learned to-date and suggests the importance of systematic reviews of the literature in assisting a community of researchers and managers in developing research directions and planning for park integrity and visitor satisfaction. References Cooper, H., Hedges, L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation. Duffield, J., & Neher, C. (2007). Regional economic impact analysis of options for Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway winter use management. Draft Supplemental Technical Memorandum. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. Jobes, P. C. (1991). The Greater Yellowstone social system. Conservation Biology, 5(3), 387-394. Manning, R. E. (2011). Studies in outdoor recreation: Search and research for satisfaction (3rd ed.). Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press. Mansfield, C., Phaneuf, D. J., Johnson, F. R., Yang, J. C., & Beach, R. (2008). Preferences for public lands management under competing uses: The case of Yellowstone National Park. Land Economics, 84(2), 282305. National Parks Conservation Association. (2006). Gateways to Yellowstone: Protecting the wild heart of our region’s thriving economy. Washington, DC: National Parks Conservation Association. National Park Service. (2013). Most Visited Parks 2012. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved from Yochim, M. J. (2006). Victims or victors: Yellowstone and the snowmobile capital of the world. Historical Geography, 34, 159-184.

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Harrison Kanarick Harrison Kanarick is a second year master’s student with an emphasis in community recreation. Something interesting about Harrison is that he loves to research and study weather and would be a storm chaser if money was never an issue.

Providing Different Sports and Increasing Intramural Participation Introduction Doesn’t having fun, exercising, and forming friendships at the same time sound great? At the University of Utah, Intramural Sports provide students with these opportunities through participation in popular, well known sports including flag football, soccer, basketball and sand volleyball. Intramural sports is under the umbrella of Campus Recreation Services. According to the Utah Campus Recreation Services website, “Campus recreation provides everything needed for a healthy mind and body,” and will, “help you get healthy and happy, with plenty of encouragement along the way,” (University of Utah Campus Recreation Services, 2011). While the Intramural Sports organization is typically popular among the college community according to The Social Benefits of Intramural Sports, participation seems to fade from Fall semester to Spring semester, potentially due to the repetition of sports offered (Artinger et al., 2006). The goal of intramural sports is to provide as many students as possible, “A great way to get involved on campus,” while hanging out with friends or making new ones in a sports environment (University of Utah Campus Recreation Services, 2011). Having participation drop from the Fall to the Spring takes away from this goal and the organization wants to fix that. With the help of the Coordinator of Intramurals and Marketing, the student supervisors, and the Graduate Assistant of Intramural Sports, the organization has offered a new array of sports and instituted new variations of the existing sports in efforts to increase participation. If offering different sports or a variation of sports work with raising participation and finding steady numbers for the Fall and Spring, the program may continue to implement leagues in this way. If the rates do not change and the opposite occurs, where the University of Utah loses participation, the staff may have to reconsider what else can be done to raise the popularity of sports during the Spring semester. Methods An individual only needs to look at the participation reports when all leagues are completed at the end of the Fall Semester (mid-late December) and the end of the Spring Semester (late April-early May). Observing the numbers at the end of both semesters is the best way to ensure a person sees the total amount of participants and is able to see the difference in participation levels from each season effectively, which is also seen in the study, Effects of Inquiry-based Learning on Students’ Science Literacy Skills and Confidence (Brickman, Gormally, Armstrong, & Hallar, 2009). For one to access the participation reports, he/she would need administration access to and once he/she is on the home page, he/she would have to click the tab “Participation Statistics.” Once on that page, a user would be able to filter the results to see the total participation in the Fall as compared to the Spring. In the end, the University of Utah will discover whether offering the variety of sports will raise participation enough throughout all of the sessions and keep the participation steady from Fall to Spring.



! Results ! The information from is incomplete since we do not have a full Spring Semester completed. With the data uncovered so far, from Fall 2012 to Fall 2013, there was a decrease from 2,820-2,193 people. But, in the ! Fall second session, the participation total was 787 while in the Spring first session the number is 750. When compared to the year before, the Fall second session total was 1100 while the Spring first session was 883. The aforementioned information is positive news because the Fall to Spring numbers in 2013-2014 are more equal than in 2012-2013. The analysis and the final report of the evaluation will take place in May of 2014 when the University of Utah will discover whether offering the variety of sports will raise participation enough throughout all of the sessions and keep the participation steady from Fall to Spring. Conclusion The University of Utah may not have been able to perfectly follow the guidelines of the project but there are positive signs for the future if we or another school wants to try this again. All of our new sports including floor hockey, battleship, and volleyball in a racquetball court had enough teams to run the leagues which show that people are interested in participating in new activities. Of all the sports run and with the space given, intramural sports had 75 % participation or more in 28 of 35 (80% of leagues) of the sports which is very encouraging and means people are willing and wanting to play the different sports we offer during all of the sessions. References Artinger, L., Clapham, L., Hunt, C., Meigs, M., Milord, N., Sampson, B., & Forrester, S. A. (2006). The social benefits of intramural sports. Naspa Journal,43(1), 69-86. Brickman, P., Gormally, C., Armstrong, N., & Hallar, B. (2009). Effects of inquiry-based learning on students' science literacy skills and confidence. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 3(2). University of Utah. (2013). Intramural Sports. IMLeagues. Retrieved from University of Utah Campus Recreation Services. (2011). General Information. Campus Recreation Services. Retrieved from University of Utah Campus Recreation Services. (2011). Intramural Sports. Campus Recreation Services. Retrieved from





Preston Tanner Preston Tanner is a second year Ph.D. student studying community recreation and sport management. Based on the conversations he has had with friends, family, and strangers, the most interesting thing about him at this point in life is his beard.

Expectancy-Disconfirmation of Sportsmanship: A Research Proposal Customer (dis)satisfaction has the ability to produce outcomes such as complaints, negative word-of-mouth (Matos & Rossi, 2008; Richins, 1983), positive word-of-mouth (Hong & Yang, 2009; Matos & Rossi, 2008; Wangenheim & Bayon, 2007), and repeat purchase intentions (Yi & La, 2004). Consequently, understanding satisfaction within recreational sports programs is of prime importance for sports administrators. Sportsmanship is one factor that may affect satisfaction of the sport experience for participants. While people value good sportsmanship, not everybody places the same importance on sportsmanship (Rudd & Gordon, 2010) or acts in accordance with their professed values of sportsmanship (May, 2001; Rudd & Gordon, 2010). Recently there is concern that sportsmanship is on the decline (Engh, 2002). There seems to be a growing trend toward unsportsmanlike and unruly behavior among athletes and spectators (Battikh et al., 2011). If sportsmanship is on the decline, it seems likely that expectations about sportsmanship could be changing as well. The expectancy-disconfirmation model of satisfaction theorizes that satisfaction is the result of disconfirmation, which is the discrepancy between expectations and performance (Oliver, 1980). Disconfirmation of sportsmanship expectations could be related to satisfaction with the sports experience. However, there appears to be little research on the expectations that athletes have about sportsmanship. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the relation between sportsmanship disconfirmation and satisfaction among recreational soccer players. The following research questions will be addressed in this study: • • •


How are sportsmanship expectations, subjective sportsmanship, and disconfirmation associated with sportsmanship satisfaction? How are sportsmanship expectations, subjective sportsmanship, and disconfirmation associated with overall satisfaction? Which variables are most predictive of satisfaction: expectations, subjective sportsmanship, or disconfirmation?

The design of this study is a nested cross-sectional design. The total sample will be a minimum of 50 male and female participants over 18 years of age from at least 25 recreational soccer teams. Sportsmanship expectations will be measured prior to soccer games by asking participants to indicate the percentage of the game that players will demonstrate excellent sportsmanship. Subjective sportsmanship will be measured by asking participants to indicate the percentage of the game that players demonstrated excellent sportsmanship during the soccer game. Participants will be asked to rate the degree to which sportsmanship in the soccer game exceeded or fell short of their expectations in order to assess disconfirmation. Lastly, satisfaction will be assessed on a Likert-type scale by asking participants to rate their overall level of satisfaction with the game as well as their satisfaction with the sportsmanship in the game. Demographic data including age, gender, skill level, income level, and education will be collected to describe the sample population. Game outcome will be measured in order to control for the score of the soccer game. These data will be collected using paper-and-pencil questionnaires at local recreational soccer facilities, and the data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling. ! !

! References ! Battikh, S., Cerimele, A., Dafilou, S., Dhanurendra, D., Gillooly, S., Marshall, J., et al. (2011). ! Marketing positive fan behavior at the Pennsylvania State University. Unpublished manuscript. Engh, F. (2002). Why Johnny hates sports: Why organized youth sports are failing our children and what we can do about it. Garden City Park, NY: Square One. Hong, S.Y., & Yang, S. (2009). Effects of reputation, relational satisfaction, and customercompany identification on positive word-of-mouth intentions. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(4), 381-403. Matos, C.A., & Rossi, C.A.V. (2008). Word-of-mouth communications in marketing: A metaanalytic review of the antecedents and moderators. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36, 578-596. May, R.A.B. (2001). The sticky situation of sportsmanship: Contexts and contradictions in sportsmanship among high school boys basketball players. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 25(4), 372-389. Oliver, R.L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17, 460-469. Richins, M.L. (1983). Negative word-of-mouth by dissatisfied consumers: A pilot study. Journal of Marketing, 47, 68-78. Rudd, A., & Gordon, B.S. (2010). An exploratory investigation of sportsmanship attitudes among college student basketball fans. Journal of Sport Behavior, 33(4), 466-488. Wangenheim, F.V., & Bayon, T. (2007). The chain from customer satisfaction via word-ofmouth referrals to new customer acquisition. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 35, 233-249. Yi, Y., & La, S. (2004) What influences the relationship between customer satisfaction and repurchase intention? Investigating the effects of adjusted expectations and customer loyalty. Psychology & Marketing, 21(5), 351-373.



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Dennis Conners Dennis Connors is a second year master’s student with a focus on adventure and outdoor programs. His studies are focused on programming designed at inspiring sustainable lifestyles in US Military Veterans. Dennis spent nine years in the Marines including four overseas deployments. Now he spends his time rock climbing, bouldering, gardening, and….is a really good cook.

Sierra Club Military Outdoors Trip Curriculum From 3 to 7 March 2014, The Sierra Club Military Outings, in conjunction with Veterans Expeditions, took group of 14 US military veterans ice climbing in Hyalite Canyon near Bozeman, Montana. The intent of the trip was three-fold; get veterans out climbing, inspire a connection to the outdoors, and inspire veterans to develop a pro-environmental attitude, which transfers to their everyday behavior at home. The program aimed to influence the veterans’ attitudes about conservation and sustainability and inspire the veterans to change their attitudes and behavior towards conservation and sustainability. To accomplish these goals a curriculum was developed to guide nightly discussions that reflected on the activities of the day. Ice climbing was selected as the appropriate medium to deliver the curriculum for two main reasons: it’s effectiveness as an environmental/experiential education program and the program’s ability to influence attitude and change behavior. The content of the program’s curriculum was delivered to the participants during nightly discussions and lessons. The curriculum focused on these topics based on the theories of place attachment and pro-social behavior. The curriculum uses the theory of place attachment to examine the meaning places have for people and represents an emotional or affective bond between a person and a particular place. In leisure literature, current understanding suggests that place attachment is composed of two components, place identity and place dependence which were fully incorporated into the curriculum (Kyle, Bricker, Graefe, & Wickham, 2004). Also some environmental behaviorists theorize that in addition to the emotional connection from place identity and place dependence, increased knowledge about a place increases the likelihood that individuals will demonstrate place-protective behaviors (Halpenny, 2010). By engaging veterans during an intensive ice-climbing trip, an emotional connection was made along with the social connection of accomplishing something difficult with people who are similar, promoting pro-environmental behavior and encouraging activism. Another benefit of adventure-based outdoor programs that could lead to increased pro-environmental behavior is the potential to increase prosocial behaviors. According to Batson and Powell (2003) prosocial behavior covers the broad range of actions intended to benefit one or more people other than oneself. Research has shown that outdoor adventure programs had positive effects on attitude, relationships/social integration, skill acquisition, and perceived lifestyle change (Anderson, Schleien, McAvoy, Lais, & Seligmann, 1997). An increase in prosocial behavior could potentially have a snowball effect on the Veterans’ place attachment, thus increasing their likelihood to be more conservation minded in their personal decisions at home, exhibit pro-environmental behaviors, and maybe even inspire activism.


Furthermore, research in the field of adventure-based outdoor programs have shown that these types of programs are effective in teaching pro-environmental behaviors and transferring this knowledge to daily life after the course is over (Sibthorp, Paisley, Furman, & Gookin, 2008). The crux of the matter is how to deliever the material to the Veterans. This project utilized a constructivist approach to teaching. Applefield, Huber, and ! !

Moallem (2001), explain that constructivism is an “epistemological view of knowledge acquisition emphasizing knowledge construction rather than knowledge transmission and the recording of information conveyed by others”. Constructivism gives the instructor the highest chance to develop true understanding of the material and the flexibility to change the learning style “on-the-fly” which was imperative on a course that has never fully developed an “official” curriculum.


This program gave the Sierra Club a preview on positives and negatives of running a structured curriculum and many lessons were learned during the trip. The curriculum is currently undergoing revision and will be incorporated into future Sierra Club Military outings. Most importantly it gave US military veterans the necessary opportunity to become close to an American wilderness location, learn through an adventure-based outdoor lesson the importance of conservation and sustainability, and how they can personally affect sustainable development both nationally and globally. References Anderson, L., Schleien, S., McAvoy, L., Lais, G., & Seligmann, D. (1997). Creating positive change through an integrated outdoor adventure program . Therapeutic Recreation Journal , 31 (4), 214-229. Applefield, J., Huber, R., & Moallem, M. (2001). Constructivism in Theory and Practice: Toward a Better Understanding. The High School Journal, 84 (2), 35-53. Batson, C., & Powell, A. (2003). Altruism and prosocial behavior. Handbook of psychology. Halpenny, E. (2010). Pro-environmental behaviours and park visitors: The effect of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology , 30, 409-421. Kyle, G., Bricker, K., Graefe, A., & Wickham, T. (2004). An Examination of recreationists’ relationships with activities and settings. Leisure Sciences, 26, 123-142. Sibthorp, J., Paisley, K., Furman, N., & Gookin, J. (2008). Long-term impacts attributed to participation in wilderness education: Preliminary findings from NOLS. Coalition for Education in the Outdoors Ninth Biennial Research Symposium, (pp. 115-117). USA.



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Jamie Bernstein Jamie Bernstein is a second year master’s student pursuing a M.S. in Parks Recreation, and Tourism with an emphasis in Adventure and Outdoor Programming. He is currently living in New Orleans, LA facilitating outdoor recreation experiences for Tulane University students. Jamie enjoys life most when he's outside playing on rock and snow.

Maximizing Outcomes in Co-Curricular Outdoor Recreation Through Program Administration Introduction Informed, high quality outdoor recreation programming is a logical strategy for schools to help keep college students engaged in their community, mentally healthy, and ecologically concerned. The Tulane Outdoor Recreation program has traditionally functioned as an outdoor recreation livery service. Trips either hire outfitters to handle technical instruction and most equipment needs, or keep to low risk/low reward activities like group berry picking or “car camping 101” trips. With any trips that involve advanced technical competence, students are limited to acting as drivers and chaperones, not as leaders, instructors, or educators. I was hired to develop a more educational, demanding, and rewarding program for the trip leaders and other participants. The first step in developing the program will be to create a handbook that contains the program’s philosophy and guiding principles, staff training progression, policies and procedures, and more. Re-writing the Tulane University Outdoor Recreation handbook will be the first and most important step in turning a university chaperone program into a comprehensive outdoor leadership opportunity for facilitating student development. Rationale Important outcomes from outdoor adventure programming participation in college can include greater retention rates for the school, greater academic potential, and environmentally responsible behavior. While participating in outdoor programming, students share meaningful experiences with each other, typically resulting in a greater sense of community (Coriell, 2013), which in turn can increase the likelihood of graduation from that particular institution for the involved students (Allen, Robbins, Casillas, & Oh, 2008), which is usually called retention. Also, these outdoor programs typically take place in restorative environments, which can help students achieve higher levels of functionality after spending time there (Kaplan & Berman, 2010). When students experience success in these voluntary recreation programs, they also tend to experience feelings of vitality, which has restorative benefits as well (Nix, Ryan, Manli, & Deci, 1999). Finally, when students are attending outings to similar places repeatedly and enjoying themselves, they are more likely to develop feelings of place attachment, which has been shown to lead to environmentally responsible behavior (Vaske & Kobrin, 2001). All of these things sum up the major goals of education – to make the world a better place by developing an educated and appreciative generation of young adults.


Methods This handbook will be an essential tool for each trip leader on staff for the Tulane Outdoor Recreation Program. All of the content has been assessed for its importance in the role of supporting proactive risk management, accurate dissemination of information, and program quality and consistency. To ensure that the information is up to date with research and industry standards, it will be created with certain documents and organizations in mind. Paul Nicolazzo’s site management model (Nicolazzo, 2007) sets a specific and ideal example of a thoughtfully and exhaustively regulated program. One of his main ideas involves constant critical evaluation and !

! self-awareness, which will be a recurring theme in Tulane Outdoor Recreation programming. There are two major professional organizations: the Association of Experiential Education and the Association of Outdoor Recreation and Education, which lead the industry in professionalization and establishing standard practices. Their publications such as Outdoor program administration: principles and practices (Erpelding & Harrison, 2012) will be invaluable throughout the creation process of the handbook. Also, many well established university outdoor programs have created incredible handbooks and manuals for their trip leaders, many of which are valuable resources and models when creating a new handbook to fit a new program. To avoid confusion with the nuances between different but equally effective handbooks, it is important to remember the reason they exist in the first place: to help maximize the positive outcomes from outdoor adventure programming as part of a holistic college education. Conclusion Creating a staff handbook based on the principles supported by the AORE, AEE, Paul Nicolazzo, and other well-established university outdoor programs will lay a solid foundation for Tulane Outdoor Recreation to provide high quality programming. With this handbook as a resource, a well thought out staff training program, and capable staff, Tulane Outdoor Recreation has the potential to make a significant positive impact on the Tulane community, and the gulf south region as a whole. References Allen, J., Robbins, S. B., Casillas, A., & Oh, I. S. (2008). Third-year college retention and transfer: Effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness. Research in Higher Education, 49(7), 647-664. Blanchard, J., Strong, M., and Ford, P. (2007) Leadership and administration of outdoor pursuits (3rd edition). State College, PA: Venture Publishing. Coriell, B. P. (2013). University students’ perceptions of the impact of a wilderness education program on their personal growth, resilience, and sense of community (Unpublished masters thesis). Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA Erpelding, M., and Harrison, G. (2012) Outdoor program administration: principles and practices. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Kaplan, S., & Berman, M. (2010). Directed attention as a common resources for executive functioning and selfregulation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(1), 43-57. DOI: 10.1177/1745691609356784 Nicolazzo, P. (2007). Effective outdoor program design and management. Winthrop, WA: Wilderness Medical Training Center. Vaske, J. J., & Kobrin, K. C. (2001). Place attachment and environmentally responsible behavior. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32(4), 16!21.





Carolina Roa !Carolina Roa is finishing her second year as a master’s student in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism. She uses her interest in birds and citizen science as tools to articulate community-based research and informal education.

A Proposed Framework for Evaluating Biological and Social Outcomes of Citizen Science Programs Citizen science programs provide opportunities for volunteers to engage in the scientific process and participate in the collection of biological data in collaboration with researchers (Dickinson & Bonney, 2012). In addition, these programs often aim to achieve broad social outcomes for citizen scientists, such as increasing their scientific literacy, stewardship values, and commitment to specific conservation efforts. For example, the North American Breeding Bird Survey, a volunteer-based survey established since1962, allows analyzing the distribution and abundance of birds at different scales (state and continent wide -North America) to infer population change and model effects of climate change, among others. Although the validity of the biological data collected by citizen scientists has received some attention, researchers have focused less on measuring and evaluating the social outcomes (e.g., increased scientific literacy) and the educational effectiveness (Phillips, Bonney, & Shirk 2012). In addition, gains in knowledge and change in attitude toward conservation have been documented in settings like museums and zoos, and not necessarily in contexts such as outdoor conservation programs (Brossard, Lewenstein, & Bonney, 2005). This presentation addresses both biological data and social outcomes and has two components; first, results from a two-year citizen science bird monitoring project that generated data on avian species using a before-after-control-impact design to assess the impact of forest management (shaded fuel break) on the avian community. Second, the discussion of an adapted framework proposed by Phillips, Bonney, & Shirk (2012) to assess citizen science projects. Volunteers conducted bird surveys from May to mid-July in 2011 and 2012 in 6-minute counts at each of the survey points; the survey method used was point-transect (Bibby, Burgess, Hill, & Mustoe). The researcher also evaluated social outcomes using the Volunteer Function Inventory (VFI) – proposed by Clary & Snyder (1999), and conducted an in-depth focus group with volunteers involved in the City Creek Citizen Science project for one or two years (n = 7; 4.5 hours). Seven volunteer citizen scientists and three agencies participated in the project; biological monitoring results revealed that 62 bird species were observed and that forest management had no significant effects on the overall avian community (p > 0.05). However, some individual bird species exhibited responses to the treatment. Results of the focus group and the VFI revealed that improving birding skills, learning about birds and their habitats, and general enjoyment, were the most prevalent motivations to participate. Results of the VFI also indicated that managers and facilitators of the program may at times misjudge citizen scientists’ motivations. For example, while managers may think that volunteers engage in citizen science projects primarily to be part of a conservation community, there could be other drivers such as meeting new people, which reinforces the importance of looking in more depth into the social dimension of citizen science projects. !



! The second portion of the presentation will involve the description of a proposed comprehensive framework ! designed to simultaneously evaluate the validity of data collected by citizen scientists’ and the complex multidimensional nature of participant outcomes, as well as recommendations for further research. Among the latter, ! the use of standardized frameworks and tools that allow comparison among citizen science projects and support future program development, arise as needs. References Bibby, C.J., Burguess, N.D, Hill, D.A., & Mustoe, H. (2000). Point counts and point transects. In C. Bibby, N. Burguess, D. Hill & S. Mustoe (Eds.), Bird census techniques (2nd ed., pp. v-302). Great Britain: Academic Press. Brossard, D., Lewenstein, B., & Bonney, R. (2005). Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project. International Journal of Science Education, 27, 1099 – 1121. Clary, E. G., & Snyder, M. (1999). The motivations to volunteer: Theoretical and practical considerations. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8, 156 – 159. Dickinson, J., & Bonney, R. (2012). Introduction. In J. Dickinson & R. Bonney (Eds.), Citizen Science. Public Participation in Environmental Research (1st ed., pp. ix-279). New York: Comstock Publishing Associates. Phillips, T., Bonney, R., and J. Shirk. (2012). What is our impact? Toward a unified framework for evaluating outcomes of citizen science participation. Citizen Science. Public Participation in Environmental Research (1st ed., pp. ix-279). New York: Comstock Publishing Associates.




! Robert Conley

Robert Conley is a second year master’s student in sport management and a former four-year starting right guard for the Utes. He just finished his second season helping coach the offensive line as a graduate assistant. Robert experienced honors as a player, making the all-Mountain West Conference first team as a senior for Utah's 2008 Sugar Bowl champion team in addition to being a co-captain on the Sugar Bowl Team. He was a third-team All-American by Conley was an honorable mention all-conference choice in 2006 and made the second-team in 2007.

Keeping The Pocket Clean: The Keys to Pass Protection from an Offensive Lineman Perspective Introduction Over the past seven decades, American Football has grown to be one of the most popular past times in United States. (Smith, 2009 p.24). American Football requires multiple physical attributes, but the majority of the game can be seen as a strategic mental battled played amongst athletes throughout the duration of the game (Smith, 2009, p.24). The average spectator watches football and does not realize how significant of a role the Offensive Line has in the game. This role is complicated and imperative to a successful offense because an offensive play cannot get started unless the offensive linemen initiates and maintain blocks on the defenders. Whether or not a play is a run or a forward pass from scrimmage dictates the style of blocking required for the execution of an offensive play. Pass protection is required when executing the task of a forward pass and can be seen as one of the more difficult requirements of an offensive lineman. The primary objective of a lineman in pass protection is to protect the quarterback or passer for three to four seconds from defenders trying to bring he or she to the ground by forceful contact. Three to four seconds is approximately the time most quarterbacks need to observe the whole field and complete a pass to the intended target. To ensure that the quarterback has an adequate amount of time to execute a forward pass; the offensive lineman naturally formulate a wall around the quarterback throughout the duration of an offensive pass play call the pocket. Pass protection consists of individual battles that may not always be favorable for an adolescent offensive lineman due to the overall athleticism of defenders. Often times these individual battles can result in physical losses that may have a negative mental effect on an young offensive lineman’s outlook of their abilities. Due to the level of difficulty required for offensive linemen to correctly execute pass protection, self –efficacy theory can be applied. A person’s belief about his or her ability and capacity to accomplish a task can be described as self-efficacy theory. (Feltz ,1984,p.2). The purpose of this project is to formulate a pass protection manual and DVD created personally that will empower adolescent offensive lineman with the self-efficacy and skills to become an efficient pass protector. Methods Offensive linemen build confidence through repetition, which will have a direct correlation with their success. In order to see if the manual will improve adolescent offensive linemen pass protection as well as increase their self-efficacy, an evaluation will be conducted on five adolescent offensive linemen on the high school level prior to and after the pass protection manual has been administered to the five linemen. In addition a self-efficacy survey will be given to the adolescents before and after they have been given the manual, rating themselves in accordance to the main three components of pass protection. The evaluation will also consist of prior stats including allowed sacks and pressures or hurries. Focus groups will be giving the evaluations and presenting the manual to the chosen offensive lineman in addition to monitoring any changes in the lineman pass protection performance. !



! Results ! The intended results of this project are to compare data from self-efficacy survey along with stats prior to the adolescents obtaining any information from the pass protection manual. The manual will provide adolescent lineman with the necessary skills and confidence to become efficient pass protectors.


Conclusion A young offensive lineman’s self-efficacy in his ability to protect the passer is critical in his overall success as an offensive lineman. The Pass Protection Manual outlines in detail the three essential elements of pass protection required to be successful in completing this task. In addition to the physical skill set, The Pass Protection Manual would empower offensive linemen with the mental capacity necessary to be efficient pass protectors. References Elliot, B. (2002). Understanding zone blocking and Florida State offensive linemen. Retrieved from http://www/ Sabino, D. (2008). OLs. Sports Illustrated, 35-38(1). White,B. (2007). Offensive line stance 23-24. Retrieved from Smith, R.A. (2002). Intercollegiate athletic football history at the dawn of new century. Journal Of Sports History. 29(2) 228-239. Feltz, D. L. (1984). Self-efficacy as a cognitive mediator of athletic performance.




Dan Richmond Dan Richmond is a second year Ph.D. student in the Department of Parks, ! Recreation, and Tourism. He currently serves as the graduate research fellow for the National Outdoor Leadership School.

Diversity and Inclusion in Outdoor Adventure Education: A Mixed-Methods Approach Examining Group Dynamics and Peer Selection Factors The group is a central yet complicated component of outdoor adventure education (OAE). Groups that work well as a team often accomplish more challenging tasks than low functioning groups (Ewert & McAvoy, 2000). Additionally, the group provides an essential mechanism for delivering many desired course outcomes, from leadership development to developing social connections (Sibthorp, Furman, Paisley, Gookin, & Schumann, 2011). While the inherent qualities of OAE programs can promote overall group cohesiveness, demographic factors may influence outcomes. There is evidence that relatively homogenous groups are more likely to have high levels of group cohesiveness (Wilkinson & Fung, 2002). Recently, Jostad, Paisley, Sibthorp and Gookin (2013) found that OAE courses composed entirely of students with low socioeconomic status (SES) – students receiving scholarships – had higher levels of cohesiveness than courses with a mix of scholarship and nonscholarship students. Furthermore, a study on OAE recreational motivations found that females are more likely to have socially oriented motives than males (Ewert, Gilbertson, Luo, & Voight, 2013), which could be a source of conflict within groups of mixed gender. This research suggests that instructors may find it challenging to provide optimal learning experiences with a diverse group of students. This study examined how demographic factors affect the task (goal-related) and social (interpersonal) aspects of group functioning proposed by Forsyth (2010). Many OAE programs are looking at ways to promote diversity in a field where students are traditionally white and male. Unfortunately, there is little research on how these initiatives affect the social and educational environment on courses. To address this gap in the literature, this study sought to a) determine if females and scholarship students were selected for social and task-based scenarios in proportions reflective of course composition; b) identify key factors for peer selection; c) detect any patterns in social networks; and, d) establish if selection ratios, peer selection factors, and social networks changed over time.


Methods Data were collected from 237 students enrolled in 30-day wilderness backpacking courses offered through the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS). Courses varied in composition in terms of number of scholarship students and gender balance. Students completed questionnaires at three times during the course: day 10, day 20, and day 30. On the questionnaire, students selected three students in two hypothetical scenarios that represented the task and social dimensions of the group. Respondents also completed open-ended questions that asked them to list reasons for their peer selections. Completed surveys went through three types of data analysis. First, a simple chi-square analysis was used to determine if females and scholarship students were selected in proportions reflecting overall course composition. Second, peer selection data were used to create visual representations, or sociograms, of relationships within the group using social network analysis (SNA; Wasserman & Faust, 1994). Third, responses to open-ended questions went through qualitative coding to identify distinct themes related to the task and social dimensions of the scenarios, and this information was then paired with SNA data. Results were reviewed to identify any time-related trends. !

Results Females made up 34.6% of the participants (n = 82) and 19.4% were scholarship students (n = 46). Chi-square analysis revealed statistically significant differences (p < .01) between observed and expected frequencies of selections for the task scenario during each survey period for both scholarship students on mixed composition courses and females on courses with both males and females. Both scholarship students and females were underrepresented in terms of selections for task scenarios based on course composition. Analysis of selections for the social scenario revealed that females were only underrepresented in time 3 (p = .047) and there were no significant differences between observed and expected frequencies of selections for scholarship students. The qualitative analysis of open-ended questions resulted in eight distinct themes for the task dimension and nine themes for the social dimension. Analysis of the sociograms is currently in progress. Qualitative data will be paired with sociograms to offer insight on key traits of those at the center of social networks.


Discussion In this study, females and scholarship students were at the periphery of groups in the task-based scenario but better represented in the social scenario. This is consistent with findings from Jostad et al. (2013). The qualitative analysis of responses revealed that there are particular reasons students select certain peers for task or social based scenarios, and that these reasons differ in relative importance based on the situation and the demographic subgroup of the respondents. Since the task-based scenario requires many leadership qualities taught on OAE courses, findings from this study might provide some insight as to what instructors can do to ensure that all students have equal opportunities to succeed in peer leadership positions. References Breunig, M. C., O'Connell, T. S., Todd, S., Anderson, L., & Young, A. (2010). The impact of outdoor pursuits on college students' perceived sense of community. Journal of Leisure Research , 43 (4), 551-572. Durland, M. M. (2006). Exploring and understanding relationships. In M. M. Durland, & K. A. Fredericks (Eds.), Social network analysis in program evaluation (pp. 25-40). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Ewert, A., & McAvoy, L. (2000). The effects of wilderness settings on organized groups: A state-of-knowledge paper. In S. McCool, D. Cole, W. Borrie, & J. O'Loughlin (Ed.), Wilderness science in a time of change conference. Volume 3: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry (pp. 13-26). USDA Forest Service Proceedings. Ewert, A., Gilbertson, K., Luo, Y.-C., & Voight, A. (2013). Beyond "Because It's There": Motivations for pursuing adventure recreational activities. Journal of Leisure Research , 44 (1), 91-111. Forsyth, D. (2010). Group dynamics (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Garvey, D., Mitten, D., Pace, S., & Roberts, N. S. (2008). A history of AEE. In K. Warren, D. Mitten, & T. A. Loeffler (Eds.), Theory and practice of experiential education (pp. 93-104). Boulde, CO: Association for Experiential Education. Glass, J. S., & Benshoff, J. M. (2002). Facilitating group cohesion among adolescents through challenge course experiences. Journal of Experiential Education , 25, 268-278. Jostad, J., Paisley, K., Sibthorp, J., & Gookin, J. (2013). The multi-dimensionality of group cohesion: A social newtwork analysis of NOLS courses. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership , 5 (2), 128-130. Jostad, J., Sibthorp, J., & Paisley, K. (2013). Understanding groups in outdoor adventure education through social network analysis (in press). Australian Journal of Outdoor Education . Lott, A. J., & Lott, B. E. (1965). Group cohesiveness as interpersonal attraction: a review of relationships with antecedent and consequent variables. Psychological Bulletin , 64, 259-309. Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2006). Designing qualitative research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Sibthorp, J., Furman, N., Paisley, K., Gookin, J., & Schumann, S. (2011). Mechanisms of learning transfer in adventure education: Qualitative results from the NOLS transfer survey. Journal of Experiential Education , 34 (2), 109-126. Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wilkinson, I. A., & Fung, I. Y. (2002). Small-group composition and peer effects. International Journal of Educational Research , 37, 425-447. !



! ! !


Siqi Gao

Siqi Gao (Sophia) is an international student who is from China. She is a second year master's student in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism. Siqi is interested in the study and research of international tourism and tourism destination development. She wants to engage in the development of tourism destination in her future. She is currently doing a project about the travel motivation to Chinese Culture Theme Park.

The Survey of Travel Motivation to Chinese Culture Theme Park Introduction Today, people's living and income standards are increasing rapidly in China. Based on the satisfaction of living expenses daily, many families have discretionary funds to spend on travel and leisure activities (Zhao, Gao, Wu, Wang, & Zhu, 2013). Meanwhile, the pursuit of personal enjoyment has become stronger (Armbrecht, 2013). This trend is evident particularly among urban residents. Weekend travel destinations have become a hot issue throughout the urban households. Weekend travel does not provide sufficient time to travel to distant destinations due to the length of travel time needed, and in China, types of city recreation are relatively monotonous, such as singing Karaoke, dining at restaurants, shopping, and visiting clubs (Dolezal, 2011). Most Chinese people prefer interesting and relaxing recreational activities. In addition, the recent Chinese political reforms have resulted in an increase in the freedom to choose and participate in Chinese cultural and historical activities. During peak seasons, such as the “Golden Week” where international travelers find it difficult to obtain transportation, lodging, restaurant access due to the overwhelming demand by domestic travelers (Zhao, Gao, Wu, Wang, & Zhu, 2013). The overcrowding that is common in popular attractions of national appeal decreases the visitor satisfaction among both international and domestic travelers. Due to the growth of international and domestic travel demands in China, there is an increasing need to better understand the differences between Eastern and Western travel motivations. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to survey the travel motivations of Chinese Culture Theme Park to domestic residents and foreign tourists. The primary research questions include: “What are the strongest travel motivations among domestic Chinese tourists?” and “What are the strongest travel motivations among the international tourists to China? Are there any significant differences between cultural related travel motivations among international and domestic tourists to China? It is very important and necessary to analyze the demand of market and then determine the availability of supply to meet that demand. In fact, the recreational market of China has prodigious space for development. On this point, the survey of travel motivation is vital to analyze the potential travel market segments for a new Chinese Cultural Theme Park. The China Folk Culture Village is located in Shenzhen, which is convenient to those travelers visiting the southern Chinese Guangdong Province. Literature Review The economists thought the motivation could be defined as “interest”. The motive stressed efficiency is maximized rationally and logically (Dann, 1981). Actually, the travel motivation can be analyzed by a "push-pull" model. The ‘push’ can be discussed from the target visitors. The domestic travelers are 'pushed' by disposable income, a sense of family togetherness, and motivated by the prospect for relaxation facilitated by their employer's sponsorship (Bui, & Lee, 2011). In terms of psychological perspective, attitude was the study core of motivation. Specifically, attitudes were based on hierarchically organized needs which were goal related (Dann, 1981). In addition, the tourists are 'pulled' by destination weather conditions, and promotional efforts of tour operators (Bui, & Lee, 2011). ! !


Through identifying image dimensions of a place that stimulate affective feelings of!visitors as revealed in their travel photos and stories, it is believed that the links can be established among image dimensions, affection and motivation (Pan, Lee, & Tsai, 2014). The images such as, culture, history and art, are mainly associated with "pleasant" feeling, which in turn helps them develop arousing and pleasant feelings toward the destination (Pan, Lee, & Tsai, 2014). !


The image dimensions of a place stimulate feelings of visitors, which through ‘pull’ to study how to ‘push’. To the contrary, through ‘push’ to analyze how to ‘pull’ also is necessary. In terms of destination marketers, visitor’s psychological state of mind was an important critical standard to influence travel motivation and intention (Jang, Bai, Hu, & Wu, 2014). Marketers can develop products and service by knowing motivation factors of travel that meet travelers’ need and expectations (Jang, Bai, Hu, & Wu, 2014). Methods A two-page questionnaire will be developed to collect the primary source of data for this study. As the questionnaires are collected the investigator will inquire if the tourist has any additional comments or recommendations regarding the study questionnaire. The questionnaires will be distributed and collected from a convenience sample of international tourists traveling with selected travel operators based out of 13 cities in China. The research questions will focus on travel motivation and interest in Chinese culture. Additionally, the questionnaires will include questions designed to obtain demographic data including the respondents’ nationality, gender, occupation and age. A pilot study will be conducted in spring 2014 to be completed no later than May 1, 2014. Conclusion It is hoped that this study will provide improved understanding of the influence of culture in the travel motivations among both domestic and international tourists in China. The rich cultural history of China has the potential of providing a wealth of opportunities but significant investment is needed to develop adequate transportation services to remote cultural attractions or the development of a Chinese Cultural Theme Park in a more central location. This study may provide critical insight into the potential for success. References Armbrecht, A. (2013). Use value of cultural experiences: A comparison of contingent valuation and travel cost. Tourism Management, 42(2014), 141-148. Bui, H. T., & Jolliffe, L. (2011). Vietnamese domestic tourism: An investigation of travel motivations. ASEASAustrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 4(1), 10-29. Dann, G. (1981). Tourist motivation: An appraisal. 1981 Annals of Tourism Research, VIII(2), 187-219. Dolezal, C. (2011). Community-based tourism in Thailand: (Dis-)illusions of authenticity and the necessity for dynamic concepts of culture and power. ASEAS-Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 4(1), 129-138. Jang, S., B. Bai, C. Hui, & C. E. Wu. (2009). Affect, travel motivation, and travel intention: A senior market. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33(1), 51-73. Pan, S., J. Lee & H. Tsai. (2013). Travel photos: Motivations, image dimensions, and affective qualities of places. Tourism Management, 40(2014), 59-69. Zhao, H., Q. Gao, Y. Wu, Y. Wang, & X. Zhu. (2013). What affects green consumer behavior in China? A case study from Qingdao. Journal of Cleaner Production, 63(2014), 143-151. !



! !

! Jetta Valentine

Jetta is a second year master’s student with an emphasis in Community Recreation. She has enjoyed implementing the things she has learned at University of Utah in her current position with Sandy Parks and Recreation. Jetta loves running, traveling and eating all things coconut!

Facilitating Center Expansion Introduction The English writer Arnold Bennett said, “Any change, even a change for the better, is always accompanied by drawbacks and discomforts.” The effective and efficient implementation of change is often required for both successful performance and management survival across a host of contemporary domains (Cruickshank & Collins, 2012). Sandy Parks and Recreation, located in Sandy, UT, is planning significant changes in the next five years. Tentative plans are in place to expand the Alta Canyon Sports Center to accommodate more programming, as well as to provide enough space to bring the rest of the Parks and Recreation Department to the Center. Unlike many Parks and Recreation departments, Sandy Parks and Recreation is not currently operated out of the recreation center. Alta Canyon Sports Center is separated from the Parks and Recreation Department by three miles, and each has its own processes, policies, and procedures. The prospect of adding a new addition to an old building is an exciting change for the better. However, this change will also bring with it drawbacks and discomforts. The associated changes and challenges could be detrimental to the department without proper change management and preparation. The purpose of this project is to create a Master Transition Plan for Sandy Parks and Recreation to follow as they make their transition to a new, updated facility. This plan will not only help the Parks and Recreation staff, but will also provide valuable information for key stakeholders who will play an important part in the approval process as well as citizens of the city who will be affected by the changes. Methods The method used during the project will resemble that of Kurt Lewin’s three-step change model. According to Lewin (1958), the first step in the process of change is to un-freeze the existing situation, the second step is the actual change or movement, and the final step is to refreeze. Before this model can begin, a great deal of information will be collected, including the current processes, policies and procedures obtained through focus groups and personal interviews with key leaders, stakeholders, customers and residents of the city. Focus groups will also be conducted to gather information from other organizations and/or facilities that have experienced a similar change. The current standards will be evaluated and changed, combined, or eliminated to unify the Parks and Recreation department as a whole. !



Results The intended result of this project is to provide Sandy Parks and Recreation with a Master Transition Plan to provide direction as they prepare for the expansion of Alta Canyon Sports Center and the resulting changes associated with that expansion.


Throughout the project, special consideration will be given to creating and maintaining team cohesion â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs (Carron & Chelladurai, 1998). Conclusion While the plans to expand Alta Canyon Sports Center are very exciting, the Sandy Parks and Recreation cannot expect to make the transition without a great deal of planning and preparation. This planning and preparation needs to happen now so plans can be put in place to foster a smooth transition. References Carron, A., & Chelladurai, P. (1981). Cohesion as a factor in sport performance. International Review of Sports Sociology, 16, 2-41. Cruickshank, A., & Collins, D. (2012). Change management: The case of the elite sport performance team. Journal of Change Management, 12(2), 209-229. Lewin, K. (1958). Group decision and social change. Readings in Social Psychology, 197-211.!!!



! !

! Ryan Matz

Ryan Matz is a third year master's student, pursuing a M.S. in Parks, Recreation, and Tourism with an emphasis in Commercial Recreation. His interests within this field focus on outdoor and adventure recreation with particular emphasis on facilitating safe, fulfilling experiences in the mountain environment. He spends as much personal time as possible with skis under his feet.

Risk Management for Guided Backcountry Skiing Over the past five years, an average of 11 people per year have lost their lives while backcountry skiing in avalanche accidents alone (Colorado Avalanche Information Center). An unknown additional number perished due to other circumstances, and countless non-fatal accidents have occurred. As such, commercial backcountry ski guide services observably face inherent risks; risks which must be addressed in effort to limit both physical injuries and related legal repercussions. A number of measures exist to mitigate this risk, including the development and utilization of organization-specific risk management documentation. This documentation, which includes a formal risk management plan, is essentially a proactive, comprehensive, management-level approach to reducing this organization-specific risk (Dougherty IV, 1998; Peterson & Hronek, 2011; Spengler, Connaughton, & Pittman, 2006). This project approaches risk management for Wallowa Alpine Huts, a company providing remote, overnight, hut-based backcountry ski experiences in northeast Oregon. Although Wallowa Alpine Huts has been in operation since 1980, the company lacks a formal risk management plan, and as such is neglecting a potential measure to limit risk. Therefore, the purpose of this project will be to develop appropriate risk management documentation for Wallowa Alpine Huts, with a focus on the risk management plan. This project seeks to reduce risk of future physical injury to Wallowa Alpine Huts clientele and staff as well as to reduce legal liability in the event of an accident, among other similar benefits. Again, Wallowa Alpine Huts provides remote, overnight, hut-based backcountry ski experiences. To understand this activity, one must understand the nature of backcountry skiing. In this case, backcountry skiing will be defined as the act of travelling on skis outside of developed ski areas. More specifically, individuals travel uphill under their own power, using specific backcountry ski equipment, with the intent of skiing back downhill. Trips provided by Wallowa Alpine Huts involve multiple-day excursions into a remote, backcountry setting in which the explicit goal is to ski untracked snow, and rustic lodging is provided in primitive huts. To investigate appropriate risk management practices and documentation for such a company, information will be gathered through a review of current and relevant literature, research, and theory. As Wallowa Alpine Huts lacks risk management documentation, current company documents are not available for review and evaluation, and original documents will be developed. Following the information gathering phase of the project, this process will begin implementing information gleaned from the literature review to approach three primary document development task areas. First, goals and objectives will be established to address company needs; second, potential risk areas will be identified and evaluated; and third, risk management policy will be developed to address the aforementioned needs and risk areas. !



! Through this process, the intended result of this project will be to create effective risk management documentation for Wallowa Alpine Huts. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this documentation extends beyond the scope of this project; however, specific outcome measures can be identified for future assessment of the degree to which this intended result is achieved. Specifically, desired outcomes include an absence or decreased presence of both physical injury, to clients as well as staff, and negative legal consequences related to accidents. Further, insurance premiums stand to be reduced by the existence of a formal risk management plan (Peterson & Hronek, 2011; Spengler et al, 2006). The business, clients, and staff of Wallowa Alpine Huts stand to benefit from the development and subsequent implementation of appropriate risk management documentation. References Dionne, R. (2012, October 30). Industry talks backcountry skiing trend. In Skiing Business. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from Dougherty IV, N. J. (Ed.). (1998). Outdoor recreation safety. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Peterson, J. A. & Hronek, B. B. (2011). Risk management for parks, recreation, and leisure services. Urbana, IL: Sagamore Publishing LLC. Spengler, J. O., Connaughton, D. P., & Pittman, A. T. (2006). Risk management in sport and recreation. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. U.S. Avalanche Fatalities. (n.d.). Colorado Avalanche Information Center. Retrieved March 10, 2014, from !



! !

! Nikki Thompson

Nikki Thompson is a second year master’s student studying sustainable tourism. She is interested in how tourism can be used to alleviate poverty. Nikki is a thrift store junkie and loves do-it-yourself projects which is demonstrated by the worst looking bookcase you have ever seen that she proudly built for her books.

Voluntourism: Developing a Procedure Manual Introduction In 2012, there were over one billion global tourist arrivals with an estimated one in every eleven jobs being tourism based (World Tourism Organization, [UNWTO], 2013). While tourism is an economic driver that creates and sustains jobs around the world, it also can be destructive. Tourism contributes to problems such as pollution, overcrowding, introduction of invasive species, loss of habitat for wildlife, inappropriate development, resource degradation, drug and alcohol issues, sex trafficking, littering, inappropriate sewage disposal, and growing crime rates (Kaseva & Moirana, 2010; Tuhin, 2011). Travelers are becoming increasingly aware of these problems and have a desire to leave a positive impact on the communities they visit. In a survey conducted by Conde Nast Traveler in partnership with MSNBC, over 80% of respondents expressed an interest in giving back to the local community when traveling (Lovitt, 2008). Voluntourism, or volunteer tourism, is a way that many are operationalizing this interest of giving back. Voluntourism is described by McGehee and Santos (2005) as “utilizing discretionary time and income to travel out of the sphere of regular activity to assist others in need” (p. 760). This type of tourism has increased in popularity in recent years (Bailey & Russell, 2010; Bailey & Fernando, 2011; Bussell & Forbes, 2001; Guttentag, 2009; Lovitt, 2008; McIntosh & Zahra, 2007; Sin, 2009). While voluntourism has great potential to meet needs of people around the globe, it can be misused and actually have negative impacts if implemented incorrectly (Lovitt, 2008; McGehee & Andereck, 2008; McGehee & Andereck, 2009; Sin, 2009). Live Life Humanitarian (LLH) is a tour operator based in Salt Lake City that offers voluntourism trips to LDS single adults ages 25-35. During these 7-9 day trips, participants have the opportunity to both be a tourist and volunteer in an area. LLH currently focuses its work in Costa Rica, a popular tourist destination receiving 1.7 million visitors a year (Embassy of Costa Rica, 2014). The purpose of this project is to help LLH minimize the negative impacts and maximize positive benefits both to participants and the host community. Methods To help LLH achieve this, a manual will be created for them that draws from industry best practices. This manual will distill down existing literature to an accessible format comprised of operational procedures, which can be easily used by LLH. The manual will draw heavily from the International Voluntourism Guidelines for Commercial Tour Operators created by The International Ecotourism Society, aiming to help LLH put the guidelines into practice.


Results The expected outcome of this project will be an operational manual that when implemented will result in the overall increase in desired learning outcomes in participants as well as an increase of lasting benefits to host communities through appropriate service rendered. It is expected that LLH will be able to better serve their participants’ and the communities in which they operate through use of this manual. ! !

! Conclusion The voluntourism market is growing rapidly and has the capacity to benefit participants and host communities if implemented correctly. Use of current guidelines and best practices will help voluntour operators such as Live Life Humanitarian maximize these benefits and minimize negative impacts. References Bailey, A. W., & Russell, K. C. (2010). Predictors of interpersonal growth in volunteer tourism: A latent curve approach. Leisure Sciences, 32(4), 352-368. doi: 10.1080/01490400.2010.488598 Bailey, A. W. , & Fernando, I. K. (2011). Decoding the voluntourism process: A case study of the Pay It Forward Tour. Journal of Experiential Education, 33(4), 406-410. doi: 10.5193/JEE33.4.406 Bussell, H., & Forbes, D. (2002). Understanding the volunteer market: The what, where, who and why of volunteering. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7(3), 244-257. doi: 10.1002/nvsm.183 Embassy of Costa Rica (2014). Costa Rica at a glance. Retrieved from Guttentag, D. (2009). The possible negative impacts of volunteer tourism. The International Journal of Tourism Research, 11(6), 537-551. Kaseva, M. E., & Moirana, J. L. (2010). Problems of solid waste management on Mount Kilimanjaro: A challenge to tourism. Waste Management & Research, 28(8), 695-704. Lovitt, R. (2008). The value of voluntourism. Retrieved from McGehee, N. G. (2002). Alternative tourism and social movements. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 124-143. doi: McGehee, N. G., & Andereck, K. (2009). Volunteer tourism and the "voluntoured": the case of Tijuana, Mexico. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(1), 39-51. doi: 10.1080/09669580802159693 McGehee, N. G., Andereck, K. (2008). 'Pettin'the critters': exploring the complex relationship between volunteers and the voluntoured in McDowell County, West Virginia, USA, and Tijuana, Mexico. In K. D. Lyons & S. Wearing (Eds.), Journeys of discovery in volunteer tourism: International case study perspectives (pp. 12-24). Cambridge, MA: CABI. McGehee, N. G., & Santos, C. A. (2005). Social change, discourse and volunteer tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3), 760-779. doi: McIntosh, A. J., & Zahra, A. (2007). A cultural encounter through volunteer tourism: Towards the ideals of sustainable tourism?. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(5), 541-556. doi: 10.2167/jost701.0 Sin, H. L. (2009). Volunteer Tourism - â&#x20AC;&#x153;Involve me and I will learnâ&#x20AC;??. Annals of Tourism Research, 36(3), 480-501. doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2009.03.001 Tuhin, G. (2011). Sustainable coastal tourism: Problems and management options. Journal of Geography and Geology, 4(1). UNWTO (2013). Tourism highlights. Retrieved from !



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! Kathryn White

Kat White is a second year masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s student focusing on Natural Resource Management. She is a traditional rock climber, loves cooking, gardening, and remodeling, and has a couple of fake teeth. Kat has run 23 marathons, and once her mom drug her through a marathon in Hell (a real town in Michigan).

GPS Visitor Tracking in Indian Creek, Utah Introduction Corporations follow employee driving habits, biologists track wildlife, and parents confirm the location of children. The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become such an integral part of modern life that it is no surprise that researchers can now monitor where recreationists travel and how much time they spend at certain locations. In GPS Visitor Tracking (GVT), a device that uses GPS is carried by a participant and records the location of the participant at regular intervals. Researchers can then use GPS data to view the temporal and spatial distribution of recreationists in complex recreation environments. One complex recreation environment that has increased in popularity in recent years is Indian Creek, Utah. Because of the perfectly parallel vertical fissures in Wingate sandstone walls, this area has become an international rock climbing destination. Rock climbers are drawn to the unique and difficult climbs as well as the open space and primitive feeling that Indian Creek provides. This newfound popularity has brought higher frequencies of climbers along with new management concerns, including land degradation, impacts to natural resources, and crowding at popular climbing areas. The landscape of Indian Creek consists of vast stretches of flat desert canyons separated by towering sandstone walls. This topographical complexity makes the task of protecting natural resources while facilitating access difficult. Consequently, the management groups of Indian Creek are beginning to realize that this increase in popularity is quickly causing natural and social impacts and that gathering information is a necessary step to understand the full scope of the issues. The purpose of this study is to inform future land management decisions by analyzing current trail systems and comparing rock climbersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; characteristics to their temporal and spatial patterns of use. The primary investigative questions for this study are 1) Do different types of rock climbers travel in different ways, 2) Which rock climbers contribute to informal trails, and 3) Spatially, how do climbers spend their time in Indian Creek? This research is important and necessary because it will inform land management decisions for future trail modifications and improvements, climber education programs, and land exchanges in Indian Creek. This research will contribute to future research by developing GPS tracking methods, providing new literature that incorporates geography, recreation, and natural resource management, and offering a foundation for GPS use in future investigations for various recreation and leisure activities. By providing information on informal trail use and formation, climber time-use, and climber type at Indian Creek, this research hopes to contribute to continued access for climbers while maintaining an acceptable impact to natural resources in many climbing and recreation areas.


Methods All study participants will be asked to complete a questionnaire with items capturing demographics, specialization, self-perceived skill level, and past use history. To analyze social data from the questionnaire, the researcher will use descriptive statistics after standard data cleaning and ensuring adequate validation of the measurements. The researcher will use a K-means cluster analysis to divide climbers based on their skill level, ! specialization, experience use history, and demographics.

specialization, experience use history, and demographics.


Component 1 will focus on analyzing climbers’ temporal and spatial patterns of use by tracking climbers for a 24-hour period. Climbers will be intercepted at their campsite in order to allow for the natural dispersion of participants to their desired climbing area. To analyze GPS data from Component 1, tracks from each participant will be clipped coming to and from the campground, to and from the parking area near the climbing wall, and to and from the climbing wall. This method will provide the times at each of these locations so that the total amount of time spent at camp, driving, hiking to the climbing wall, and at the climbing wall can be averaged and compared to the length of daylight hours as well as the entire 24-hour period. Component 2 will focus on analyzing informal trail use at three climbing walls of interest. Climbing walls of interest are areas with special management concerns including land degradation, resource overuse, informal trail proliferation, and crowding. Climbers will be intercepted at the trailhead or parking lot of each climbing wall of interest in order to focus on climber travel patterns at that particular climbing wall. The researcher will define the “who” based on the questionnaire responses to degree of specialization, self-perceived skill level, and past use history. To analyze GPS data from Component 2, only participant tracks that include sections of informal trails will be compared to the questionnaire data. A series of ANOVA tests will be performed comparing the following quartile groups: 1) climbers who spend less than 25% of hiking time on informal trails, 2) climbers who spend between 25% to 49% of hiking time on informal trails, 3) climbers who spend between 49% to 74% of hiking time on informal trails, and 4) climbers who spend between 75% to 100% of hiking time on informal trails. The variables analyzed during the ANOVA test will include skill level, experience use history, specialization, and demographics. This ANOVA test using four groups (<25%, 25-49%, 50-74%, and 75-100%) will allow the researcher to determine who (demographically and recreation characterizations) contributes most to informal trails. Results The researcher expects the results of this study to provide insight into the three investigative questions. Deliverables for this research include: 1) a map of Indian Creek that includes current trail locations, roads, land ownership, and items of recreational importance, 2) a written report of the studies’ findings that a) identify the temporal and spatial distribution of rock climbers and b) characterize the type of rock climbers that may be contributing to informal trails as well as recommendations, and 3) a verbal presentation to the BLM of the studies’ findings and recommendations. Conclusion Studies, such as this one, that examine, assess, and monitor recreationists’ impacts to protected natural areas and their relationships to influential factors can help identify and evaluate resource impacts, facilitate the understanding of causes and effects, and provide insight into the prevention, mitigation, and management of problems (Marion, 1998; Leung & Marion, 2000). Since spatial and temporal distributions of use contribute to the extent of recreation-related resource impacts (Hammitt and Cole, 1998), information gleaned from GPS Visitor Tracking in Indian Creek, Utah will provide the management of Indian Creek and other natural areas with climber distribution at climbing areas as well as insight into the causes of natural resource impacts. References Marion, J. L. (1998). Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers. In: Kirchner, H., ed. Proceedings of the National Outdoor Ethics Conference; St. Louis, MO. Gaithersburg, MD: Izaak Walton League of America: 188-196. Leung, Y. F., & Marion, J. L. (2000). Recreation impacts and management in wilderness: A state-of-knowledge review. Cole, DN, McCool, SF, Borrie, WT, O’Loughlin, J.,(comps), Proceedings: Wilderness Science in a Time of Change, 5. Hammitt, W. E., and Cole, D. N. (1998). Wildland recreation: Ecology and management, 2nd edition. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. !


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Carrie Gruwell

Carrie Gruwell is a second year master’s student. Her emphasis is sustainable tourism and hospitality management. Her goals are to coordinate and manage large scale events while abiding to sustainable practices. When she isn’t working or studying, her hobbies include snowboarding, rock-climbing, traveling and scuba diving.

Sustainable Sporting Events: A Case Study for High-Volume Trail Relay Racing Introduction This research proposal explores the sustainability certification process for trail running racing events through a case study in southern Utah. Ragnar is a Salt Lake City, Utah company that organizes road and trail relay races of up to 200 miles for teams of runners across North America. The Ragnar road series has expanded significantly over the last 10 years with upward of 2,000 individuals participating in each race and has set the trend for trail racing (Ragnar, 2014). The trail racing events include trail loops that converge in the “Ragnar Village”, a temporary overnight camp set up for the competitions. (Ragnar, 2014). Since these are trail races, they could potentially be in unprotected areas or areas susceptible to rapid resource depletion upon impact from participants, spectators and vendors. While trail racing events can bring tourism dollars to rural communities, the large number of people and support staff associated with trail races pose a management challenge. Specifically, there is a concern about negative environmental and community impacts such as trail erosion, pollution and natural resource depletion. Ragnar Trails has become focused on certifying their events as sustainable through the non-profit organization the Council for Responsible Sport (CRS). CRS has developed a standard for certifying sporting events as “sustainable” at different levels (e.g. basic, silver, gold and evergreen) (Council for Responsible Sport, [CRS], 2014). The certification requirements is integrated into the planning process of an event, and is followed by a CRS on-site evaluation and post-event reporting of sustainability indicators such as the amount of waste diverted, energy used, carbon footprint and use of local products and services. The CRS certification was initiated for the 2013 Ragnar Trail Zion race at the private Zion Ponderosa Ranch Resort (ZPRR) outside Zion National Park. The process was funded and evaluated with an onsite inspection, but the certification was never completed after the race. The purpose of this project is to complete the CRS certification standard by reporting the post-event data. Doing so will allow Ragnar Trails to set up processes and procedures for the upcoming 2014 trail series. Methods The post-event reporting phase requires close collaboration with Ragnar Trails, the CRS and ZPRR. A past survey instrument will be used to collect quantitative data from participants and volunteers from the 2013 race. In order to determine if sustainability efforts were met for the host community, retroactive documentation will be used to gauge feedback of the event from Kane County and Washington County residents and business owners. Data will also be collected from ZPRR and on-site vendors in order to estimate the amount of waste diverted, carbon footprints, renewable energy, local sourcing, and levels of recycling. !



! Results Once the measurements have been collected, sustainable practices will be evaluated through the CRS program. Indicators measured include use of renewable energy, waste diversion through recycling and composting, carbon footprints of event operations and participant travel, community benefits from the event and water conservation (CRS, 2014). In addition to the measurements collected, stakeholder meetings, participant surveys, volunteer feedback and vendor information will allow Ragnar Trails to understand areas of strength and weakness of their sustainable practices through this certification method. Conclusion Once the retroactive 2013 event certification is complete, Ragnar Trails will be able to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses in the planning process and incorporate an improved sustainability plan going forward for the 2014 season. This process recognizes what information is needed before the event in order to increase the amount of diverted waste, reduce the carbon footprint, lower water use, build community legacies and select aligned vendors. A template will be implemented for Ragnar Trails to be utilized for all seven upcoming trail events in 2014. Ragnarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s goal is to certify all of its 2014 trail racing events through CRS and set a specific standard for the future. The benefit of certification to Ragnar Trails is the ability to market their trail series as being sustainably organized and executed. References Council for Responsible Sport (2014). Certification Standards. Retrieved from Ragnar Trail Relays (2014). Sustainability. Retrieved from Zion Ponderosa Ranch Resort (2014). Index. Retrieved from




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Troy Bennett !

Troy Bennett is a second year Ph.D. student specializing in community recreation and outdoor programs for youth. He is interested in investigating the cumulative influence of recreation experiences, helping practitioners to improve program delivery and outcomes, and promoting conservation, sustainability, and healthy lifestyles through a connection to nature.

Bridging the Gap: Integrating research into practice and quality improvement in out-of-school time programs Introduction Nationwide, attention has been focusing on the importance of positive youth development outcomes such as 21st century skills, non-cognitive skills, life skills and character traits (Tough, 2012; Wagner, 2010). These types of outcomes are considered critical for youth to achieve long-term goals, overcome adversity, compete in the global economy, and succeed in school and life. Recent academic and practical research has validated the importance of positive youth development outcomes. Out-of-school time programs in the areas of afterschool, camp and community recreation have been identified places where these positive youth development outcomes can be achieved. (Durlak et al., 2010; Garst et al., 2011; Eccles et al., 2003). Program quality is an indicator of outcome achievement. Higher levels of program quality have been linked to increased youth outcomes (American Camp Association, 2005; Shernoff & Vandell, 2007; Smith et al, 2009; Wagner, 2010). Improving program quality presents an opportunity for out-of-school time programs to incorporate research evidence into their decisionmaking processes. Academic researchers interested in contributing to quality improvement and increased outcome achievement need to find ways to reach across the gap between research and practice. Bridging this gap requires an understanding of what encourages the use of research evidence by practitioners, what discourages it, and how programs are incorporating research into planning and implementation. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how out-of-school time programs in the areas of afterschool, camp, and community recreation are using research to inform their programming and quality improvement processes. Method Participating programs were chosen through consultation with the Utah Afterschool Network, the American Camp Association, and the Utah Recreation and Parks Association. Brief interviews were conducted with representatives from each of these organizations to identify a list of potential programs for in-depth interviews. Programs were identified based on the criteria that they had recently engaged in a quality improvement process.


A total of 10 programs were purposefully selected based on achieving a diverse representation of program characteristics. â&#x20AC;˘ 3 afterschool programs included a municipal program in a city park, a district sponsored school-based program, and a school-based program ran by an outside non-profit organization. â&#x20AC;˘ 4 camp programs included a community-based summer day camp, an open-enrollment overnight camp, an overnight camp partnering with a low-income school, and an agency sponsored overnight camp. â&#x20AC;˘ 3 community recreation programs included a community recreation center, a municipal parks and recreation department, and a county parks and recreation agency. ! !

Semi-structured interviews were conducted with directors and/or coordinators at each program. 7 interviews were conducted in-person and recorded for transcription. 3 interviews with camp programs were conducted by telephone and were not recorded. Extensive notes were taken during the phone interviews. These interview notes were member checked by sending them to each interviewee for review to ensure the content of the interview was accurately represented. Transcripts and interview notes were coded and grouped into common themes. Themes were analyzed for patterns and relationships within each program context. Program contexts were compared to each other to identify themes that were shared across program areas and those that were unique.


Results Results indicate that partnering with higher education, viewing programs as “laboratories” where research can be conducted, and having the assistance of an industry-specific support organization encourage the use of research by practitioners. Discouraging barriers include not being able to access relevant research, not having the time to read through academic articles and technical reports, and a perception that research conducted in specific programs is only applicable to those particular situations. Conclusion It has been suggested that in order to connect research, policy, and practice, both practitioners and researchers need to (1) create conditions for the productive integration of evidence, (2) pave two-way streets for learning, and (3) build relationships and trust (Tseng, 2014; Sibhtorp & Bocarro, 2014). In order to meet these criteria, academic researchers interested in bridging the gap will be more successful if they can develop partnerships with out-of-school time programs, publish research where practitioners have access, present results in ways that can be read and understood quickly, and provide recommendations of how research results can be practically applied by programs. References American Camp Association. (2005). Innovations: Improving youth experiences in summer programs. Retrieved from Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. K. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American Journal Community Psychology, 45, 294-309. Eccles, J.S., Barber, B.L., Stone, M., & Hunt, J. (2003). Extracurricular activities and adolescent development. Journal of Social Issues, 59(4), 865-889. Garst, B., Browne, L., & Bialeschki, D. (2011). Youth development and the camp experience. New Directions for Youth Development, 130, 73-87. Shernoff, D. J., & Vandell, D. L. (2007). Engagement in after-school program activities: Quality of experience from the perspective of participants. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 891-903. Sibthorp, J., & Bocarro, J. (2014). Leisure research and the legacy of George Daniel Butler. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(1), 1-5. Smith, C., Devaney, T. J., Akiva, T., & Sugar, S. A. (2009). Quality and accountability in the out-of-school- time sector. New Directions for Youth Development, 121, 109-127. Tseng, V. (2014). Forging common ground: Fostering the conditions for evidence use. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(1), 6-12. Tough, P. (2012). How children succeed – grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Wagner, T. (2010). The global achievement gap. New York: Basic Books. !



Department of Parks, Recreation, & Tourism Faculty and Staff



Steven A. Bell, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Therapeutic Recreation Coordinator, Cooperative Education

Kelly S. Bricker, Ph.D. Associate Professor Interim Department Chair Coordinator, Sustainable Tourism

Nathan G. Bricker, M.S. Co-Coordinator, Utah Experiential Learning Outdoor Recreation Education Program (U-EXPLORE)

Matt Brownlee, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Coordinator, Natural Resources Recreation Planning and Management

Adrienne Cachelin, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Environmental & Sustainable Studies Program; Department of Parks, Recreation, & Tourism

Betsy Cook, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Undergraduate Academic Advisor

Daniel L. Dustin, Ph.D. Professor National Park and Wilderness Policy, Environmental Ethics, Professional Issues and Academic Life

Sandy Negley, M.S. Assistant Professor Coordinator, Therapeutic Recreation

Kirk L. Nichols, M.S. Associate Instructor Liaison, National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS)

Karen Paisley, Ph.D. Special Assistant to the President & NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative Associate Dean, College of Health Associate Professor, Department of Parks, Recreation, & Tourism

Linda S. Ralston, Ph.D. Associate Professor Coordinator, Hospitality Management and Online Learning

Ed Ruddell, Ph.D. Associate Professor Natural Resources Recreation Planning and Management

Scott Schumann, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Co-Coordinator, Utah Experiential Learning Outdoor Recreation Education Program (U-EXPLORE)

Jim Sibthorp, Ph.D. Associate Professor Director, Graduate Studies Coordinator, Adventure & Outdoor Programs

Mary S. Wells, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Director, Undergraduate Studies Coordinator, Sports Management, Youth Development and Community Recreation Staff

Lorraine Brown Administrative Assistant

Richard Gill Office Assistant

Diane Stanger Administrative Officer



University!of!Utah! Department!of!Parks,!Recreation!and!Tourism! 1901!E!South!Campus!Drive! Annex!C,!Rm!1085! Salt!Lake!City,!UT!84112! 801.581.8542! !! ! !

PRT Graduate Research Symposium 2014  

Program and abstracts for the PRT Graduate Research Symposium 2014 held on March 28, 2014 in the Marriott Library at the University of Utah