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White Cross Children’s Home Property

Background Objectives Methods Survey Discussion Summary Recommendation


Spanish Colonial Rule and Encomiendas Encomiendas were introduced in 1570, when conquered lands were distributed to loyal Spanish subjects. The encomendero or the person assigned to that piece of land or area would collect tributes. Three types: Royal — belonging to the King Ecclesiastical — belonging to the Church Private

Conversion of Natives North and Central Luzon were less threatened by Moro Retaliation, and so village inhabitants were more participative in the development of colonial towns. Once converted, inhabitants were given incentives such as exemptions from tributes and personal services to allow them to build churches and convents to “meet their spiritual needs.” Quarry sites were designated, but they were often times too far from the “mother town” where converted inhabitants could practice religion, and so new towns would be made.

Sanctuario Del Santo Cristo Parish

History of San Juan City Part of the Rizal Province before the creation of Metro Manila. Before it had become an encomienda in 1590, San Juan was only a village. The pre-colonial village was part of Kingdom of Namayan, ruled by King Lacantagean and his wife Bouan

History of San Juan City Reclassified as a barrio. Name after “San Juan de Bautista” or “Saint John the Baptist.” In full, referred to as “San Juan del Monte”, or “Saint John of the Mountain” because of its hilly terrain. Said to be the site of the first battle in the Philippine Revolution in 1898.

Geography One of the smallest cities in the Philippines, at the center of the Metro. Quezon City on the north and east. Mandaluyong on the south. City of Manila on the west. Territory was once much larger. Parts of District 1, 2, and 4 of Quezon City Parts of Mandaluyong


Background of the Study White Cross Children’s Home is located along the old Santolan street, now Bonny Serrano street, in Little Baguio (San Juan Hills).

Background of the Study Beyer Divided Metro Manila into three districts. San Juan or the “San Juan River Valley� being in the central district with Marikina, Pasig, and Santa Ana. Another significant site called the Tuason Site is located in the area, although it is not specified if it counts as being part of San Juan.

Background of the Study

Beyer Mentions Late Neolithic “stations� along the river. After the Neolithic, no sign of human occupation in the area until the 15th Century, where he believes another small village existed.

Background of the Study

Peralta and Salazar Discusses the geological formation of the Manila area. Significant because it gives support as to how the grounds of Mandaluyong, San Juan and San Francisco del Monte are layered by substantial amounts of volcanic deposit.

Background of the Study Padilla and Cabanilla Took the same geological approach as Peralta and Salazar. Concentrated on the bodies of water surrounding the areas, and how they contributed to the development of the land. “The closer the area is to the Laguna river, the older the archaeology would be.� Pasig river is key in the distribution of sites in the area.

Background of the Study Paz Considers as well and further pushes the argument as to the formation of the Pasig river system affecting site distribution, like Padilla and Cabanilla.

Background of the Study: Summary Lack of discussion with regard to San Juan in the review of previous studies show that there might not have been a systematic archaeological research done in San Juan City. “Tuason Site� might count however, difficult to pointpoint which city it falls under. Recommendation: Address the lack of knowledge and information by starting fresh research.

The Archaeological Site The extent of the site is around 40,000 square meters. For the study, efforts will be concentrated on the area earmarked by the White Cross Inc., or the western portion of the property (13,000 square meters).

Evidence of Battle Expose Building Structures





Metal Detecting Survey for Military Artefacts

Took place in the front garden of the White Cross Building. A couple of metal inclusions were found but only one high caliber rifle casing appeared.


Rice Agriculture

Disproving Military Setting




White Cross Children's Home | An Archaeological Site