COMP ESTATE Studio D Folio

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Nicole Farnell 102102092 Studio D Thesis Masters of Architecture & Urban Design Semester 2 2022 Canhui Chen & David O’Reilly


We respectfully acknowledge the Wurundjeri People of the Kulin Nation, who are the Traditional Owners of the land on which Swinburne’s Australian campuses are located in Melbourne’s east and outer-east, and pay our respect to their Elders past, present and emerging. The City of Ballarat acknowledges the Traditional Custodians of the land we live and work on, the Wadawurrung and Dja Dja Wurrung People, and recognises their continuing connection to the land and waterways. We pay our respects to their Elders past, present and emerging and extend this to all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. We also acknowledge and respect the Traditional Owners of lands across Australia, their Elders, Ancestors, cultures and heritage, and recognise the continuing sovereignties of all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nations.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF COUNTRY �������������������������������������������������������������������� 2 CONTENT �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4 TOPIC INTRODUCTION ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6 Site Selection ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Thesis Statement ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9

CHAPTER 1A: GLOBAL RESEARCH ���������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 Circular Economy in Urban Design �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������12 ReSOLVE Framework �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������13 Case Study: Schoonschip Prague, Netherlands �����������������������������������������������������������������������14 Circular Business Models for the Built Environment ���������������������������������������������������������������16 First Steps Towards A Circular Built Environment ���������������������������������������������������������������������18 Building A Circular Future 3XN & GXN �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 ZERO WASTE DESIGN GUIDELINES ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22

CHAPTER 1B: LOCAL RESEARCH ������������������������������������������������������������������������ 24 MONASH ZERO WASTE ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������26 Mirvac Zero Waste ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������27 ZERO WASTE, SELF SUSTAINING HOUSE INSTALLATION �����������������������������������������������������������28 RECOVERING AND REPROCESSING RESOURCES FROM WASTE �����������������������������������������������30 Ballarat Net Zero �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������32 Ballarat Commonwealth Games 2026 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 Ballarat Council Plan 2021-2025 �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������34 Ballarat Council Plan Towards 2040 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������35 Live at the Cape- Cape Paterson Victoria ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������38 The Paddock- Castlemaine Victoria �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39 Eco Villages Australia- Maleny Queensland �����������������������������������������������������������������������������40 Water Sensitive Urban Design ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������41 Sustainable Development Goals �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������42 Urban Heat ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������43

CHAPTER 2: SITE �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 44 Site Location �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������46 Cardigan Profile ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 Ballarat Profile �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������49 Planning Zones ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������50 Planning Overlays �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������51 Icons/ Context �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52 Elevation �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������53 Whats Nearby �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������54 Size Comparison �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 Lake Federation Resort Masterplan �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 Lake Federation Resort Uses �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������57 Noise Guidelines �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60 Speed Limits �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������61 Road Networks & Water �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������62 Highway Retail �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������63

CHAPTER 3: PROBLEMS, VISION, OBJECTIVES, STRATEGIC DIRECTION ���������� 64 Problems �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������66 Vision �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������80 Objectives �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������81 Strategic Directions ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������82 Implementation Schedule ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������83

CHAPTER 4: DEVELOPMENT ������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 84

CDZ1 Schedule 2 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������86 Design Development Overlay (DDO) �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������92 Existing Road Typologies �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������94 Transport Networks �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������95 Proposed Road Typologies �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������96 Future Railway Station �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������100 Future Skipton Rail Trail �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������101 Town Center Precinct Structure Plan ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������102 Town Center Urban Design Framework ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������103 Housing Competition: Health Homes �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������104 Diversity of Housing: Low Density �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������105 Diversity of Housing: Medium Density �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������106 Diversity of Housing: High Density �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������107 Athletes Village/ Affordable Housing �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������108 Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������110 Constructed Wetlands �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������111 Vegetated Swales ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������112 Energy Harvesting ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������113 Masterplan �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������114 Stages �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������115 Functions / Use �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������118 Precinct Structure Plans �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������120 Permeability �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������121 Housing Density/ Diversity �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������122 Housing Availability (Stages) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������124 Residential Lot Sizes �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������125 Street �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������126 Low Density Residential �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������127 Tiny Village �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������128 Athletes Village/ Affordable Housing �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������129 AC Town Center �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������130 AC Highway Retail ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������131 Wetlands �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������132 Public Open Space �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������133 Masterplan 3D Model ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������134 Final Overview ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������136

CHAPTER 5: BIBLIOGRAPHY ���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 138 References ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������140 5


Waste not want not, Designing for Circularity (Unit Outline) Concerns around the negative impacts directly attributable to the building sector globally intensify as population growth surges and natural material resources deplete. The building industry remains the largest global consumer of raw materials and is a major contributor to the negative environmental impact. As noted in various studies, the construction sector is accountable for approximately 40% of the world’s annual energy consumption, up to 39% of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide and 40% of the solid waste generated in many developed nations (Comstock et al. 2012; DNV GL, Sustainia, & United Nations Global Compact 2018; Global ABC, IEA, & UNEP 2019). To combat the rapid rate of environmental deterioration, a continuous effort to foster carbon literacy and direct architectural design and construction towards a more sustainable practice is imperative. Contrasting to the current ‘take-make-waste’ linear economy, a circular economy (CE) is an economic system that aims to limit or eliminate waste by promoting a continual use of resources. CE has been defined by the Industrial Development Organization of the United Nations (UNIDO n.d) as ‘a new way of creating value, and ultimately prosperity, through extending product lifespan and relocating the waste from the end of the supply chain to the beginning - in effect, using resources more efficiently by using them more than once.’ In recent years, the concept of CE has gained increasing popularity and traction around the globe amongst economists, policymakers, businesses and researchers as an approach to the sustainable development of our society (Brennan, Tennant & Blomsma 2015; Geissdoerfer et al. 2017; Korhonen et al. 2017; Lieder & Rashid 2016 ). In this studio, you will be introduced to the emerging circular economy concepts and design approaches for architecture and urban design. You will be asked to conduct research into the material flow in our local economy, identify challenges and opportunities, that cater for a circular future for the built environment and finally synthesize the research into a hypothetical architectural or urban design project.

Site Selection

Ballarat was chosen as it is close to home and I am passionate about completing a project in a more rural setting. Many sites and design opportunities were looked upon to complete the thesis project for studio D at Swinburne University Masters of Architecture and Urban Design. The site was chosen as it provides ample opportunity for sustainable development and use of circular economic resources from the district of Ballarat. The site is located along Remembrance Drive, Cardigan, West of Ballarat’s City Center, and was proposed as a ‘Resort’ in terms of its zoning and planning regulations. I aim to tackle this site under a Comprehensive Development Zone, and create a sustainable development for Ballarat. Emissions across the City of Ballarat were estimated at 1.5 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) in 2020. (Draft Ballarat Net Zero Emissions Plan 2022) 8

Thesis Statement

The Current plans have failed and CO2 emissions are rising, Ballarat West needs a new vision of sustainable practices designed for equality, affordability and accessibility.

West Ballarat, is in crisis with industrial areas taking over(BWEZ) and residential being pushed further out from the main activity centers. The Comprehensive Development Zone(CDZ1) has failed and has not progressed since the 2004 plans. The area lacks housing diversity in terms of typology, availability and affordability; lacks transport options such as public transport, cycle and walking routes; and has excessive water management issues with flooding on site. Alongside this emissions across the City of Ballarat were estimated at 1.6million tonnes CO2e(2020). My thesis project will solve these issues and make west Ballarat foster accessibility, equality and sustainability creating short and long term solutions for the community and the 2026 Commonwealth Games Athletes. It presents opportunity to utilize the existing zones with ability to engage in community and adapt to changing conditions overtime. 9


Circular Economy in Urban Design

Circular economy usually seen in architecture through the use of material recycling and reuse, material passports, design for disassembly, however the framework is seen fully at neighborhood and city scale. Self sufficiencies and policies set by governments, guide principals of circular economy through urban scale projects. From energy production, waste management, food production, process and operations that govern these design methods inform circularity. Cities are resource consumers and producers of greenhouse gas emissions, specifically seen in the linear model of manufacture , use and end of life. Resource scarcity is upon us with a demand for raw materials to double over the next 20-30 years. Creating self sufficient cities with their own ecosystem is one way to apply circular economic principals. The image shown identifies a broad circular system of a city. Climate change is already a large issue in architecture and urban design, with cities, buildings and people, playing their part to reduce the effects they have on the environment. 12

(Andreea Cutieru 2022)

ReSOLVE Framework

ReSOLVE framework is a key output of the Ellen MacArthur Foundations research. It outlines 6 actions to guide the transition towards a circular economy. This can be applied to products, buildings, neighborhoods, cities, regions and communities. The work of the Ellen Macarthur foundation is referenced in all readings about circular economy and architecture. • • • • • •

Regenerate Share Optimise Loop Virtualise Exchange


Case Study: Schoonschip Prague, Netherlands

Schoonschip is a community driven project featuring decentralized and sustainable energy, water and waste systems. Co-Designed by space and matter a sustainable floating city on the waters in Amsterdam came alive. “Living on the water offers a great solution for places where climate change and a rise in sea levels are a looming hazard. It not only protects people against nature, but it also protects nature itself.” (Sascha Glasl, Co-founder Space&Matter) The project has been going for over a decade starting its life in 2010, with a creative and inspiring group of people whom all wanted their dream home. Completed in 2021, Schoonschip is home to more than 100 residents, 30 water plots, with 46 houses all uniquely designed by their owners. The small scale prototype city explores and applies innovative solutions to challenges of climate change. Living an Eco-friendly and efficient lifestyle, sharing belongings such as cars, bikes and energy creates a small circular community model. 14

(Schoonschip — Space&Matter 2021)


Circular Business Models for the Built Environment Intro CBM = Circular Business Models “Perceived as cost effective and convenient to dispose of resources after first use rather than to reuse them” “New technology and advanced design approaches, additional value could be created” Benefits in financial, social and environmental aspects globally By 2050 66% of the global pop to live in urban areas. Was 54% in 2014. Opportunity for construction Industries Highly recyclable waste materials. UK saw more than 90% of construction and demo waste diverted from landfill in 2014. Adopting a CBM will shift focus to sourcing sustainable, maintain material productivity, and reduction in losses of non renewable materials. Landfill taxes= reduction in waste going to landfill 3 categories for value adding: Design, Information, Collaboration. Implications for construction ecosystem Global economy spending 30% more on natural resources than it can actually afford. Buildings not used to their full capacity. Eg office buildings used to 65% cap. High loss of material value in demolition as components are not made to be disassembled, therefore go to landfill as materials are hard to segregate to be reused or recycled. Buildings are not adaptable for different uses 16

Need to view projects long term to see potential for circular economy benefits. Material databases to store information required to facilitate reuse. Already used in automotive and aerospace. BIM, Building Information Modeling, combines processes and tech to improve performance. Already seen a reduction in waste in the construction process. Product passports, create traceability about materials and components. 3D printing on site with new materials for a reduction in waste. A new value chain Traditional business models do not favor collaboration through value chain. All stakeholders need to contribute towards a outcome that achieves the best value for all parties, therefore minimizing losses from the system Increase adaptivity of space to reduce time a site is vacant. Doing this will benefit users and managers for a more efficient, productive and adaptive space. Life cycle assessments Modular approach to design for future longevity, flexibility, reuse and deconstruction Lack of transparency in supply chain Conclusion Points of consideration: Long term thinking, design for deconstruction, innovative, flexibility vs durability, utilize new models of production and consumption, collaborate.

Circular business models Innovation and collaboration through supply chain Creation of services that capture valuable products/ resources Circular approach where products are recycled, upcycled and reused. CBM: Circular design, circular use, circular recovery. All need to be implemented to see a CBM value chain Solutions to improve how assets are maintained, repaired, upgraded, refurbished or re-manufactured. Circular Design Designed to last longer and easy to maintain, repair, etc. Risk with reused or recycled products Circular Use Keep control of asset and retain its value. Trace and market secondary raw materials Customers pay more for higher quality. High interest/ loan rates due to long term cash flows. Circular Recovery Revenue generated by transforming existing products into new ones and adding value, reducing costs and waste. Rely on material reuse and recycling being more cost effective than extracting new material.


First Steps Towards A Circular Built Environment Introduction • Construction plays a crucial role in global economy representing 13% of GDP and employing 7% of worlds working age population. • ⅔ of population will live in urban areas in next 30 years • Urban environment size set to double, pressure on systems such as water, energy, waste networks. • Take- make- dispose model • Built environment is worlds largest consumer of raw materials and resources, and major producer of waste and carbon emissions • Construction and demolition accounts for 2530% of all waste in EU. • Cement and steel production account for 10% global CO2 emissions • 3 principals: designing out waste and pollution, keeping products and materials in use, regenerating natural systems • New technology, business models, partnerships could lower industry costs, reduce negative environmental impacts and make urban areas more livable, productive and convenient. • New approaches and thinking to how we design, operate and maintain built environment. Extension of holistic approach


PHASE 1 METHODOLOGY • 1. Develop a Vision, 2. Learn from existing case studies, 3. Stakeholder engagement, 4. Combined Analysis • Economic, environmental and social impact • Stakeholder groups: policy makers, investors, construction, clients, designers, contractors, supplier, end of life contractors, built environment users. PHASE 2 NEXT STEPS • •

Relationships to follow each stage of projects. Valuation to calculate value of built environment, not just finance option.

• Key influences to shift thinking. Vision • Regenerative, accessible and abundant by design • Support human wellbeing and natural systems (improved outcomes, living standards) • Guided by systems thinking (guided by feedback, interactions) • Leveraged bt digital technology (facilitate asset sharing, innovate practices) • Holistic urban planning (resilience and thriving design, nature becomes part of urban design areas) • Continuous material cycles (reuse of materials, low new material consumption) • Design for maintenance and deconstruction (enable maintenance, repair and reuse, modular methods) • Flexible productive buildings (meet own needs for energy and water, flexible or modular spaces) • Integrated infrastructure systems (integrated networks for waste, energy and water, smart management at peak times)

Key Insights • Put principals into practice. Collaboration, knowledge, policy, leadership, finance • Fragmented nature of industry means approaches not used • Finance seen as barrier to start and employ circular methods • First Movers in Detail • Policy Makers- lake of awareness of circular economy concepts. See changes in policy and restrictions. 70% identified that policy changes that support transition was the most important first step. • Investors- investors find twice as many barriers then opportunities. Work to be done to demonstrate benefits of a circular economy. 40% of investors noted the construction industry as a barrier. 30% noted collaboration as a critical role. • Construction clients- 25% would consider adopting a new circular approach. 50% stated the legal and procedural complication were a barrier of taking a new approach. Features/ Case Study • Design build and operate maintain contracts • Public private partnerships • Circular gemeente Amsterdam • The toolkit for policymakers forth replacement bridge • Environmental, social and governance investment • Believe in better building • Communicating the business case • Circularity city • Alliander HQ


Building A Circular Future 3XN & GXN

Prerequisites for reuse Material passport, circular economy, design for disassembly • Short term gains • Improved flexibility, faster construction, optimized maintenance • Eliminate the concept of waste • Building becomes a material graveyard • Almost all building waste is being down-cycled to the lowest value possible • Resource scarcity • Complexity to design for disassembly • Use of BIM & VDC (Virtual design construction) • Buildings will function as material banks • “Design for disassembly… allows the different components to fit into a closed material cycle, where they can be reused, reassembled and recycled to new products of a similar or higher value” (page 41) • Connections must be reversible • Disassembly only looked at in small scale such as houses, pavilions and temporary structures where resources are scarce. • Positive effects on disassembly • Quicker and simpler construction, optimized operation and maintenance, less waste, optimized up-cycling and recycling and reuse, released pressure on resource scarcity, Buildings as material; banks • Material passports provide security for next life •


• • • •

Provides all relevant information about a product or component that is intended for reuse. Must represent current state of material. Materials need to be certified, healthy and pure. Save time documenting Building industry responsible for 40% of materials produced globally and responsible for 35% waste. Focus on recycling rather than down-cycling



• • • • • • • • • •


Waste is a design flaw! Trash 99% of materials extracted from the earth within 6 months. New York set goal of 0 waste to landfill by 2030. Need to better manage material flows, building design, resources. Required integrated approach with architects, planners, building operators. Todays architects strive to reduce embodied and ongoing energy and water usage in design. Need to start to design for minimal waste Design needs to change human behavior Reduce, share, reuse, recycle Neighborhood recycling plants Incentives such as money for recycle collection points of certain materials

Collection and Urban design: Plan for waste collection on our streets Strategies • Material Flows • Resilient Systems • Collaboration (public and Private Networks) Neighborhood Scale • Door to door collection services moving waste to a central location • Centralized facilities • Network of infrastructure • Responsible actions and maintenance Pneumatic tube network to central terminal • Minimize trucks • Available 24/7 • Chutes in buildings, courtyards or streets • Multiple chute uses (recycle, organic, landfill)

(Zero Waste 2016)




• • • • • •


7 step strategy 2023 targets of 0 waste to landfill, and only valuable recycling. Organics, plastics, eliminate methodology Approach to reduce consumption Materials kept at highest value 49% of landfill is organic waste.

Mirvac Zero Waste • • • •

Move away from take, make, use, dispose model Consider lifestyle of materials Avoid, reduce, reuse, recycle, regenerate Built environment is a big contributer of global material extraction and waste • Utilize design and construction techniques to minimize waste • 92 Billion tonnes of materials extracted globally annually, 50% of this is building materials • 11.2 Tonnes of waste is sent to landfill globally each year • Principals of circularity • Design out waste upfront • Focus on environmentally harmful materials and buy more recycled content • Innovative construction methods • Extended life in value chain • Re-purpose in operation • Ensure we maintain the value of materials as long as possible • Spent $6 million to remove 28,000 tonnes of tenant generated waste from managed assets. • Spent $8.5 Million to remove waste from construction sites. • 9,280 Tonnes of operational and construction waste to landfill, the other waste was recovered, reused, recycled. Australia stats • Generate 67 million tonnes of waste annually, which equates to 2.7 Tonnes per person per year • Only 8.6% Of waste generated annually is recycled.

(Mirvac’s plan to send zero waste to landfill by 2030 - Supply Chain Sustainability School Limited 2020)

• National waste policy action plan • NABERS • Planet positive Principles • Extend our focus from waste diversion and recycling to whole of life material use. • Identify key points of influence in our cycle where we can have the biggest impact. • Set clear, measurable milestones towards success. • Leverage our existing processes, progress and influence to inspire wider action

Strategies • Material focused design • Procure reused, recycled and rapidly renewable materials • Innovative construction • Efficient and responsible operation • Restoration and regeneration • Collaborate to enable the circular economy • Transparent reporting



• • • • • •


An installation in Federation Square by Joost Bakker, is a self sustaining house. It shows that homes can provide shelter, produce zero waste and food, and generate energy. Features an aquaponics system, charcoal tank, digester and a closed loop shower and water oxygenation system. All waste is used to power the house in the digester, and therefore grows nutrient dense produce. Materials in the building are recycled, and recyclable. No toxins, chemicals or glue being held together with natural lime, organic compressed straw wall panels and recycled concrete tiles.

(Zero-waste, self-sustaining house installation opens at Fed Square 2021)

(About — Future Food System 2014)



In 2016-17 Victoria generated and managed 12.9 million tonnes of waste. Metro Melbourne accounts for 80% of this. Sustainability Victoria estimates 67% was recovered for recycling whilst the other 33% went to landfill. 23% municipal solid waste, 35% commercial and industrial waste, 42% construction and demolition Agencies are not maximizing the recovery and reprocessing of recyclables DELWP lack of leadership means there is no statewide policy or plan to manage waste Organics accounts for 40% of waste. 3/4 of plastic and 1/2 paper is exported overseas Many people don’t know exactly what is recyclable Waste education programs are needed In a circular economy, materials, energy, and other resources are used productively for as long as possible to retain value, maximize productivity, minimize greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce waste and pollution.

Maps show landfill sites in Victoria. Map 1 identifies operating landfill sites noted by the EPA, and shows the waste that is accepted. Many landfill sites accept Putrescible waste, that is waste to be decomposed by bacterial action and solid inert waste, which is a hard waste that has negligible activity or effect on the environment. 30

(Recovering and Reprocessing Resources from Waste | Victorian Auditor-General’s Office 2020)

(NationalMap 2022)

Putrescible Waste Solid Inert Waste Industrial Waste All Waste Unknown/ Uncontrolled

Site assessment of all waste stockpiles in Victoria, sees many are at a high or extreme risk, whilst others remain unreadable in terms of data capture or have not yet been assessed. How do we collate these into a few central waste facilities with a lower risk factor?

(Recovering and Reprocessing Resources from Waste | Victorian Auditor-General’s Office 2020)


Ballarat Net Zero

Co2 equivalent across ballarat was estimated at 1.6 million tonne in comparison to Victoria’s 91.3 million tonnes co2e, ballarat contributes 1.78% across the states 79 municipalities. This figure is broken down into waste, agriculture, gas, transport and electricity. So how to we reduce this number and achieve the requirements of the studio on an precinct scale? To reach net zero emissions by 2030 requires a bold and challenging approach and requires substantial action by the Victorian and Australian Governments beyond currently planned actions and targets, as well as from the Ballarat community. The plan identifies 5 key areas of focus in the home, business, developments, transport and waste. • • • •

Major activity center 19k tonnes of CO2e waste in landfill 16k tonnes of Co2e in water management 1.5million tonnes of CO2e in 2020 • 61% electricity • 17% transport • 16% natural gas • “Community message for a collated facility to house a number of circular economy organizations” (Patricia 2022) (Ballarat, VIC - CO2 Emissions Snapshot 2019)


Ballarat Commonwealth Games 2026

The commonwealth games for 2026 is coming to Victoria’s regional towns in a mutli-city model alongside Bendigo, Gippsland and Geelong. Being connected by rail, road and air the games aim to bring $3billion to the states economy. Ballarat will require an athletes village to house 1750 people, which could be transformed following the net zero plans into affordable housing. • • Economic Boost To Regional Towns • Multi City Model (Bendigo, Gippsland, Geelong, Ballarat) • Mars Stadium To Hold Athletics Events • Athletes Village For 1750 People • Village To Be Transformed Into Affordable And Social Housing Following The Games • $3 Billion To States Economy. • Connected By Rail, Road And Air (Why the Victoria 2026 Commonwealth Games marathon should be in Ballarat | City of Ballarat 2022) (Ballarat to Host the 2026 Commonwealth Games | Juliana Addison MP 2022)


Ballarat Council Plan 2021-2025

The 2021-2025 Council Plan outlines “strategic direction for the next four years and details the strategic objectives, initiatives and priorities – as well as the indicators for measuring progress” to achieve the goals set below.(City of Ballarat 2015) Vision: “Ballarat, Victoria’s heritage city: leading the way as a sustainable, innovative and inclusive community.”(City of Ballarat 2015)

The Plan focuses on these goals: • An environmentally sustainable future • A healthy, connected and inclusive community • A city that fosters sustainable growth • A city that conserves and enhances our natural and built assets • A Strong and innovative economy and city • A council that provides leadership and advocates for its community

(City of Ballarat 2015)


Ballarat Council Plan Towards 2040

The plan for 2040 focus on broad topics and narrows down with objectives for each area and specific sites in Ballarat providing strategic directions into the future. This Plan incorporates the 2021-2025 Council Plan as its 4 year goals. In Summary the plan focuses on Climate, Transport, Environment and Housing under 5 themes. Key Themes: • Productive Ballarat • Settlement for a highly Livable Ballarat • Housing Ballarat • Connected Ballarat • Sustainable Ballarat

(City of Ballarat 2021)


Integrated Water Management Plan (IWM)

The IWM explores and sets out recommendations for future water management delivering broader liveability and community benefits by considering the whole urban water cycle. The Plan aligns with the Victorian Water Plan considering a number of goals. Vision: “A greener, more liveable and prosperous water future for the city and towns of the Ballarat region” (City of Ballarat 2010)

Objectives: • Support river health priorities and mitigate flooding risks. • Optimize the use of local water sources. • Maintain and influence water efficiency. • Support a safe and secure urban water supply and demand future. • Generate improved liveability outcomes, recreational opportunities and increase green infrastructure. • Support a sustainable and productive economy. • Deliver strategic direction to enhance IWM outcomes within land use planning. • Develop a plan that reflects community and stakeholder values and outlines clear implementation pathways. (City of Ballarat 2010)


Caring For Country

I will be guided by the reconciliation action plan provided by Ballarat City Council and elements from the Wadawurrung Healthy Country Plan. I aim to recognise and understand culture in my proposal better that the previous urban developments in Ballarat and what was proposed for the site, which really did not care for country. Our shared Vision of a healthier future for Wadawurrung people and Country

Our 9 Values, the really important things we need to look after to achieve our vision

16 Threats we need to reduce to make our Values healthy

3 Programs and 18 strategies what we have decided to focus on to reduce the threats and improve the health of our values.

(Reconciliation Action Plan 2022-2024 2022) (Resources | Wadawurrung Aboriginal Corporation | 2015)


Live at the Cape- Cape Paterson Victoria

" Our vision is to create a benchmark for sustainable living in a location unlike any other. The Cape at Cape Paterson brings together the expertise of local builders and sustainability experts, to create a modern community that is one with the environment" • Energy Efficient Design • Precious Water • Clean Energy • Food Gardens • Active Lifestyle • Protecting Natural Habitats (Live at the Cape 2021)


The Paddock- Castlemaine Victoria

“Our vision is to create a new standard for sustainable living that fosters a sense of community and closer connection to nature. The Paddock: offering an outstanding lifestyle that is sustainable, connected and in touch with nature.” • 27 Homes • Community Center • Food & Native Gardens • Wetlands (Paddock 2019)


Eco Villages Australia- Maleny Queensland

Connected Living, Sustainable Living “Social disconnection has hit epidemic proportions. Now is the time to find a way to connect with self, each other and the earth. Our eco villages seek for sustainable living in collaborative housing, that encompass the following values:” • • • • • •

Collective Stewardship of Land Collaborative Housing Radical Sustainability Legal Model Financial Model Membership Model

(Eco Villages Australia - Living Simply, Living Connected 2015)(Maleny Eco Village 2019)


Water Sensitive Urban Design

“WSUD is the integration of urban planning with the management, protection and conservation of the urban water cycle that ensures that urban water management is sensitive to natural hydrological and ecological processes.” • Protect water quality in waterways • Reduction on runoff • Minimise potable water consumption • Blue-green infrastructure • Water sensitive communities • Ecosystem services (Water sensitive urban design (WSUD) 2022)


Sustainable Development Goals

The sustainability Development Goals will help guide levels of sustainability and all aspects where sustainability can be seen.


Urban Heat

Urban areas become heated very quickly, with dark roads and pavements, vehicles and lack of greenery or shade from buildings. One way to reduce urban heat is to introduce greenery. The images compare 2 streets and temperates. Urban Heat Effect increases energy costs, air pollution, heat related illness and mortality. (LinkedIn 2022)



Site Location



The site is located on the Western Fringe of Ballarat in a township Called Cardigan. The site is 675Ha and has been zoned as Comprehensive Development Zone 1(CD1Z). The main road running through the site Remembrance Drive is a key pathway through ballarat as a war memorial leading up to the Arch of Victory. The Southern parcel continues South to meet Cuthberts Road bordering the Skipton rail trail to the East and finishes just off Whites Road in the West before the small housing development. The Northern parcel extends up to Blind Creek road, and borders Draffins Road and Dowling Road. This Northern Parcel also houses the Railway from Wendouree to Ararat. As we can see from the photos, the site is vast and large with a multitude of open space.






















Cardigan Profile


Population 1589

Population Density 0.42 Person/Ha

Employment 593 People

Low Density 100% 510 Households

Medium Density 0% 0 Households

High Density 0% 0 Households

Drive 78.4%

Public Transport 1.4%

Walk 1%

Bike 0%

Work From Home 4.5%

Average Bedrooms 4

(Home | City of Ballarat | Community profile 2021)

Ballarat Profile

Population 113,482

Population Density 1.54Person/Ha Highest area 14.93 P/Ha

Employment 44,716 People

Low Density 84% 42,164 Households

Medium Density 15% 7,619 Households

High Density 0.3% 134 Households

Drive 75%

Public Transport 3.1%

Walk 3%

Bike 0.6%

Work From Home 3.9%

Average Bedrooms 3

(Home | City of Ballarat | Community profile 2021)


Planning Zones

The site consists of Comprehensive Development Zone and is bordered with Farming, Rural Living, Public Parks and Recreation, Urban Growth, Low Density Residential and a Special Use. This zone was planned to house the Lake Goldfields Resort master planned in 2004, however a lack of enthusiasm set it to be forgotten and undeveloped.











(Geocortex Viewer for HTML5 2022)

CDZ1-Comprehensive Development Zone 1 LDRZ-Low Density Residential FZ-Farming Zone TZ-Township Zone PUZ-Public Use Zone SUZ-Special Use Zone RLZ-Rural Living Zone UGZ-Urban Growth Zone GRZ-General Residential Zone PCRZ-Public Conservation And Recreation Zone

Planning Overlays

There are some significant overlays on the site including an Floodway, Land Subject to Inundation, Erosion Management, Significant Landscape and has a Heritage Overlay along Remembrance drive. FO DDO



FO- Flood Overlay LSIO- Land Subject to Inundation Overlay ESO- Environmental significance Overlay EMO- Erosion Management Overlay DDO- Design Development Overlay HO- Heritage Overlay DPO- Development Plan Overlay





(Geocortex Viewer for HTML5 2022)


Icons/ Context

Ballarat Airport Wendouree Railway Station Mars Stadium Health District Civic Hall Ballarat Gov Services Ballarat Railway Station Kryal Castle Wildlife Park Bridge Street Mall Sovereign Hill Federation Uni Her Majesty's Theatre Art Academy Arch of Victory Botanic Gardens Skipton Rail Trail Lake Wendouree BWEZ



Here we see an elevation map which shows that the site is fairly flat with a max change in elevation of approximately 40m from the far north west to the east. This elevation change will play a major role with the previous overlays of flood areas, as lower areas are subject to water management issues.

(Ballarat topographic map, elevation, relief 2022)


Whats Nearby

The site is a fair distance away from any amenities, meaning there is a reliance on private vehicular movements to get people around. Mapped are transport options, public spaces, educational facilities, shops, and attractions. There are many more that have been missed, however these are the most frequently used by residents of Ballarat.

Transport Public Space Education Shopping Attraction 54

Size Comparison

Ballarat Site

Melbourne CBD

In comparing the site with Melbourne CBD people can closer compare the size of the project. The site is a massive 2 times the Melbourne CBD, showing the sheer size of the site and also the city of Ballarat.


Lake Federation Resort Masterplan

Here we see the existing proposal of the site from 2004 showing the development plan in stages and the overall masterplan. An integrated resort compromising residential, commercial, tourism and recreational facilities in a manner to achieve social, environmental and water sustainability. The comprehensive development zone was created in 2004 for the lake federation resort, but nothing has changed, and its been 18 years therefore i think there is something severely wrong with the zone and its location. The table of uses investigates if a permit is required or not and if a function is prohibited. This list is massive and has a mix of uses from accommodation, mining, railway station, even a cemetery. To add to the failed potential a prohibited use is agriculture which is its current use. In further investigation of this zone i feel there is a need for a change in clause requirements or zoning type to meet the current needs of the community and the area.

Development Plan (Stages)


Lake Federation Resort Facilities • 2 Resort Golf Courses, Golf Clubhouses, Golf Driving Range, Golf Academy • Shopping Center And Retail Village • Private School • <3200 Residential Lots • Recreational Boat Facility • 2 Hotels • Tennis Courts • Sales And Marketing Office • Lakes • Railway Station • Associated Roads, Utility Services, Recreation, Maintenance Facilities. (Incorporated Documents Planning Scheme Ballarat 2004)


Lake Federation Resort Uses

Permit Not Required • Accommodation • B&B • Child Care Center • Dwelling • Education Center • Function Centre • Hall • Home based business • Informal outdoor recreation • Library • Mineral exploration • Mining • Office • Outdoor recreation facility • Place of worship • Recreational Boat facility • Railway station • Retail premises • Search for stone • Service station • Utility installation • Any listed use in clause 62.01

Permit Required • Car wash • Cemetery • Crop raising • Extensive animal husbandry • Leisure and recreation facility • Mineral,stone or soil extraction • Place of assembly • Transport terminal

Prohibited • Adult sex product shop • Agriculture • Amusement parlor • Brothel • Camping and caravan park • Corrective institution • Crematorium • Drive-in theatre • Extractive industry • Industry (other than Car wash) • Manufacturing sales • Motor racing track • Motor racing track • Motor vehicle, boat or caravan sales • Primary produce sales • Timber production • Warehouse


Comprehensive Development Plan

Comprehensive development plan (CDP): An alternative to a structure plan is a Comprehensive Development Plan. To ensure the future development of strategic sites is undertaken in a coordinated way, the preparation of a Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) will be required prior to any land rezoning. The plan will address land use, built form, landscaping, transport and access, drainage and other infrastructure requirements to support the delivery of staged development. A CDP is incorporated in the Planning Scheme through the application of a Comprehensive Development Zone (CDZ). CDPs and the CDZ are most commonly applied to large or complex developments. This differs from a structure plan which generally applies a range of planning controls including a mix of zones and overlays. Must meet requirements of clause 56. • Compact and walkable neighbourhoods • Activity center • Planning for community facilities • Built environment • Neighbourhood character


Clause 56: Residential Development

To implement the Municipal Planning Strategy and the Planning Policy Framework. To create liveable and sustainable neighbourhoods and urban places with character and identity. To achieve residential subdivision outcomes that appropriately respond to the site and its context for: • Metropolitan Melbourne growth areas. • Infill sites within established residential areas. • Regional cities and towns. To ensure residential subdivision design appropriately provides for • Policy implementation. • Liveable and sustainable communities. • Residential lot design. • Urban landscape. • Access and mobility management. • Integrated water management. • Site management. • Utilities.

(@planninginformationservicesvicgov/planning-schemes-portal 2022)


Noise Guidelines

80m from center of railway- building apartments permitted (freight and passengers) Relates to train timetable

(DELWP 2021)


Speed Limits

40km/h • Activity Centres, including shopping precincts and school zones • Local streets in built-up (urban and rural) areas 50km/h • Local streets in built-up (urban and rural) areas where streets are unsigned and use the State ‘built-up area’ default speed limit • Rural and outer metropolitan town centres with abutting development, low level pedestrian movement and kerbside parking 60km/h • Most undivided arterial roads in built-up (urban and rural) areas • Divided arterial roads in built-up (urban and rural) areas with a high number of access points or significant pedestrian or cyclist activity • Some higher movement classified local streets

(Speed Zones : VicRoads 2021)


Road Networks & Water

As per the Ballarat IWM Report Figure 12 identifies Stormwater distribution pipe and collection pipes on the site. The Masterplan road network follows a similar path to identified in this report. The report identifies $25.5mil Capital Costs and $0.2mil operating costs over a 50 year lifetime.

(Morgan et al. 2018)


Highway Retail

Large retail outlets that can be placed on a busy road • Bunnings • Ikea • BCF • Spotlight • Harvey Norman • Good Guys • Spotlight • Pet Barn/ Pet Stock




Water Management Issues

Lack of Housing Diversity

Absence of transport Options


Problem 1 is water management. From the photos we can see the issue of water on the surface of paddocks, and the edge of roads. This excess water flow affects the development potential of the site. There are substantial environmental overlays on the site including a erosion management, land subject to inundation and flood overlays. There are areas of environmental significance nearby which are affected by the water course on the site. I will keep this in mind when exploring problems and solutions for the site. FO- Flood Overlay LSIO- Land Subject to Inundation Overlay ESO- Environmental significance Overlay EMO- Erosion Management Overlay DDO- Design Development Overlay HO- Heritage Overlay DPO- Development Plan Overlay






ESO5 (Geocortex Viewer for HTML5 2022)


On the left we see an elevation map which shows that the site is fairly flat with a max change in elevation of approximately 30m from the far north west to the east. This elevation change will play a major role with the previous overlays of flood areas, as lower areas are subject to water management issues the water flow is indicated by the arrow. The map on the right shows that the water table is extremely high for the site with some areas just less than 5m below the surface. From the map we can identify that this is also the case for nearby surrounding areas, some of which are already developed.

(Ballarat topographic map, elevation, relief 2022)


(Visualising Victorias Groundwater (VVG) 2013)

Annually Ballarat receives approximately 647mm of rain. This is plotted on the graph monthly. The images were taken August which is one of the wettest months of the year.

(Ballarat climate, averages and extreme weather records - 2022)


Next up Housing diversity or lack thereof. Most housing is detached family sized dwellings on larger blocks. To the east of the site we have a smaller urban growth zone with houses on 600m2 or smaller blocks, and to the west we have low density residential on large 2000m2+ blocks. How do we find a happy medium and solve the issue of large houses that are unaffordable and unsustainable.


Here we see a context map with housing typologies around ballarat. We can see different materials, block sizes and density including weatherboard and brick older style houses and some architectural designed homes near the lake and new estates. These housing options are un efficient, un affordable and technology has not evolved to accommodate mass growth from the old character of 1850s housing.



FZ (In Site)














CDZ1 PPRZ UGZ (Geocortex Viewer for HTML5 2022) (Google Earth 2022)

Currently the site is zoned as comprehensive development and borders farming zone, low density residential, public parks and recreation, rural living, special use, and urban growth zones. The multitude of different zones means there is not a set type of development in this area creating multiple housing typologies and block sizes. CDZ-Comprehensive Development Zone LDRZ-Low Density Residential FZ-Farming Zone TZ-Township Zone PUZ-Public Use Zone SUZ-Special Use Zone RLZ-Rural Living Zone UGZ-Urban Growth Zone GRZ-General Residential Zone PCRZ-Public Conservation And Recreation Zone 71



Population Density 0.42 p/Ha

Dwellings Density 0.14d/Ha


Population Density 10.84 p/Ha

Dwellings Density 5.37d/Ha

Comparing people and dwellings per hectare in cardigan and wendouree we can see how long the housing numbers are for the site and its census area. We can identify that wendouree has 2500% more people and 3800% more housing than cardigan. This means the site has ample opportunity to increase its housing density (Home | City of Ballarat | Community profile 2021)



Use / Function

The current use is residential on acreage being used as agriculture. The transport consists of roads and a railway line that runs through the North of the site. Possibilities include adding commercial and retail, adding extra transport and changing the residential type to increase density.

Residential Density

Looking at density we can identify that the current site is very low with 0.42 dwellings/ha. The possibilities include densify the area with a mix of low, medium and high densities. This will be done by Eco villages, townhouses, tiny homes, apartments and some small block residential alike the neighboring development of Lucas estate.


13.4% of Victorians live in poverty and ballarat tops that at 14%. Regional Victoria has a higher poverty rate than Melbourne Metropolitan regions.

Only 5% of housing in Ballarat is classed as affordable, which shows a need for housing in one of Victoria’s biggest regional centers. “Everyone deserves a safe place to call home and these new homes in Ballarat will provide just that, allowing people to live a life of stability.” (Minister for Housing - Danny Pearson)

Lucky the government is realizing that through ‘The Big Housing Build’ which is investing $1.25 billion in regional areas, with a minimum investment guarantee of $80 million for Greater Ballarat, ensuring economic and social benefits are felt in communities across the state. “We are building 305 new homes across Ballarat to support people in need of social and affordable housing. These new developments will deliver homes for families today and for generations to come.” (Member for Wendouree Juliana Addison)


One of the biggest issues with alternative transit methods is the distance between amenities near the site. I have mapped super markets, major transport options, and education near the site. There are minimal options available nearby for people to use methods of travel that are environmentally friendly such as walking, cycling or public transport, thus the reason for so many cars. Train / Bus routes


Shopping Centre

Education / School 75

The last problems is a lack of transport options. People of cardigan are car dependent with 84% of households owning more than 1 car and we can see why with the changing road conditions and lack of alternative transport methods. But what are the alternatives in ballarat and how heavily are we as a city reliant on cars? Comparing the percentage of cars per household we can see that the profile of the site has multiple cars to get around per household in comparison to the city of ballarat. But what are the alternatives and how heavily are we reliant on cars?


No Car 5 1%

1 Car 72 15%

2 Cars 194 40%

3+ Cars 213 44%

No Car 2,721 6%

1 Car 16,951 38%

2 Cars 16,686 37%

3+ Cars 8,126 19%

City of Ballarat

(Home | City of Ballarat | Community profile 2021)


Looking at methods of travel to work we can see that 75% of people chose to drive which identifies that there is a lack of alternative transport options,when comparing ballarat and cardigan half use public transit and only a 3rd of people walk or ride a bike.


Drive 78.4%

Public Transport 1.4%

Walk 1%

Bike 0%

Drive 75%

Public Transport 3.1%

Walk 3%

Bike 0.6%

City of Ballarat

(Home | City of Ballarat | Community profile 2021)


Ballarat is the only regional area to test the scooter trial over a 12 month term however they are restricted to the main shopping and township areas, thus having reliance on other means of transport outside this area. Could these scooters become a larger part of Ballarat’s transport system? $1 to unlock scooter then 45c/minute. Other Hire Options: Three‐day ($25) Weekly ($33) Monthly ($45) Parking Stations


(How to explore Ballarat on an e-scooter 2021)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Stockland Wendouree Mars Stadium Botanical Gardens Lake View Victoria Park City Oval Ballarat Station Gov Hub Armstrong Street Sturt & Dawson Street Sturt & Lydiard Street Sturt & Dawson Street Town Hall Federation University Bridge Mall East Ballarat Shops Eureka Pool and Stockade Museum Ballarat Wildlife Park Sovereign Hill Sebastopol Shops

A test route to get from the center of the site to the Wendouree Railway Station was mapped to identify possible transport routes and methods and their viability. The fastest route is the car with just 9 minutes of time spent. There is also no sole public transport option unless walking and catching a bus, which uses 1 hour 8 minutes. The shortest route is walking as it cuts of corners, and passes through walking only areas.

9 min (9.3km)

26 min (7.9km)

1 hr 30 min (7.4 km)

Walk- Bus 1 hr 8 min (9.5km) 79


“Comp Estate will be a unique area of affordable living servicing the needs of the community longterm and the Commonwealth Games Athletes in 2026 for the games.” 80


Encourage Healthy Lifestyles

Create Connections

Foster a Sustainable Environment


Strategic Directions

Development • Create a policy (DDO) to regulate built form controls. Develop a staged masterplan to. • Integrate diverse housing typologies to meet the needs of the com games and future community. • Develop a plan for the Athletes Village for long term use. • Create a Schedule to the zone.


Access & Movement • Develop an active transport priority network. • Create a compact urban area/ settlement • Develop a street hierarchy to complement the modern development style of Ballarat

Public Space • Enhance Landscapes. • Manage surface flows, stormwater harvesting and water treatment systems.

Implementation Schedule



CDZ1 Schedule 2






I have created a schedule 2 to the Comprehensive development zone noting what is allowable and where. The changes have been made to schedule 1 from the Lake Goldfields Resort to suit my project and the change in lifestyle since the last amendments. These changes are shown in red.


Design Development Overlay (DDO)

1. Applicable Streets

2. Height Limits

3. Parking 45o

Max Building height 18.3m or 6 stories

Laneways minimum 6m



Off site parking within 300m of building


4. Setbacks Built form 0-10m from street boundary

1:1 ratio to dwelling/ commercial unit

5. Active Frontages Built form on street boundary

6. Passive Surveillance

Plumbing at rear


$ Retail capable ground floor level

Passive Surveillance

7. Access Front and Rear pedestrian Access All residents with access to rear shared spaces


Adding a Design development overlay ensures the development follows the requirements set out in the zone schedules and masterplan for the site. It looks at applicable streets, height limits, parking, setbacks, active frontage, passive surveillance and access.

Speed Limits


100 Speed limits are currently 100km/h on global roads. As a new road network is being proposed, new limits will apply, such as 60km/h on main roads, 50km/h for local streets and 40km/h for school and activity center zones. This will ensure safety for active transport users.






Existing Road Typologies





Dowling R d






s Rd

Above: Draffins Road Right: Remembrance Drive 94

Dr Finchs Rd

Currently Remembrance drive from fence to fence is 57m which is a substantial amount of underutilized land. It would be good to get some of it back or create more public uses alongside the Avenue of Honor. This road is also a major highway with 100km speed zones to connect Ballarat with Cardigan and beyond.



There is a range of different road typologies bordering the site. The aim would be to keep these road as main roads with a width of 18m allowing cars to pass with tree plantings to separate the bike and pedestrian paths from the road, adding an element of safety. Currently Draffins and Finchs Road are 12m wide, Dowling and Cuthberts Road are 18m, Blind Creek Road is 24m and Remembrance Drive is 57m.

Cr ee

Transport Networks

The proposed Road Typologies include new smaller streets to connect the eco village together and provide access to all users, whilst also housing medium and high traffic streets such as main roads and highways. The road typologies range from 6-24m wide with different uses including vehicular access, bike lanes, pedestrian paths and street planting to encourage a sustainable and lively environment. The street network comprises of irregular grids, curvilinear or loops streets and suburb style networks. This mix enables mid block connections but adds an element of safety throughout smaller streets where traffic is forced to go slower. Typology • Irregular Grid • Curvilinear/ Loop • Suburban Primary Roads (60km/hr) • Main Streets • Highway • Large block connectors and existing roads Secondary Roads (50km/hr) • Small Streets • Connect Blocks Tertiary Roads (50km/hr) • Small Streets (Local Traffic) • Laneways


Proposed Road Typologies Highway/ Remembrance Drive The only highway seen on site is Remembrance Drive which will be downsized on the green space between fences and the road. The existing trees will remain as heritage value to the site. The new road width will be 24m, which is a substantial cut from the street however this space can be made more productive and valuable to the residents and community.

Global Roads Global roads are 18m wide, featuring a median strip and slightly larger pathways than small streets. The main roads will feature in connecting areas such as activity centers and the existing road structures.

Connector Roads Connector Roads link global roads, whilst still prioritizing pedestrian and cyclist activity. These are 18m wide. 96

Global Roads

Connector Roads


Small Streets Small streets are the smallest of the main access routes being streets seen in neighborhood residential areas where cars start to become dependent. These streets are 12m wide, whilst employing separated bike and pedestrian lanes, sheltered from vehicular traffic. These will be the main street typology added to the site.

One Way Streets One way streets will be used in more built up areas where traffic flow is low. These areas may be seen in the eco village where people use other transport methods and get away from cars. These streets are 7.4m wide allowing trucks and buses to access the space, and harmonize with cyclists also using the road space. The pedestrian and public space is a key focus in theses areas.

Bike & Pedestrian Paths Bike and pedestrian paths will connect areas that are not accessible to vehicular traffic. These will be boarded with some public open space to allow a welcoming transition between spaces and enable space nearby all homes for people to play off the roads. 98

Local Streets

Pedestrian & Bike Paths


Future Railway Station

The existing railway line will be utilized as a transport corridor with a future station proposed for the long term growth of the area.


Future Skipton Rail Trail

The rail trail will continue to be used as a bike route but will also house trackless trams during peak travel periods to link people to wendouree.


Town Center Precinct Structure Plan

The first activity center precinct structure plan is shown as this is the first precinct to be staged in the Southern part of the site. It will become the major center of activity consisting of Highway retail, a shopping mall, offices, a town square, community infrastructure and services.

0 102




Town Center Urban Design Framework

Here is a urban design framework showing allocated heights for this area. It can be seen that there is a range of heights from low for commercial districts bordering the shopping mall, and higher 6 stories for the residential athletes village/ affordable housing. No of Stories 6













Housing Competition: Health Homes

(healthy-homes-design-competition 2022)


To get a diversity of housing types and achieve high levels of sustainability a housing competition will be run. I have shown the Healthy Homes Competition here as it follows similar ideas to what could be seen on the site. To suit the needs of the site a couple categories will be proposed including: Low, Medium and High Density, as well as an athletes village/affordable housing.

Diversity of Housing: Low Density

• • •

Family homes Sustainable methods Sustainable Rated

In the low density category there are larger family style homes on their own blocks, all built using sustainable methods and materials. The precedent is from “Live at the Cape” a eco-village using only sustainable rated homes, all of which are available to be built on site. Having multiple homes in the category creates street diversity and enables a range of homes for people to choose from.

(Coast residence, Cape Paterson - Biofilta 2021)(Stewart 2013)


Diversity of Housing: Medium Density

• • •

Affordable Housing (Some) Townhouses Different sizes for families and individuals

The medium density category will be townhouses and small apartment blocks. These will be more affordable and will be a diversity of sizes accomodating induviduals and families.

(Aliento 2016)(Mixed-Income ‘Eco-Village’ Planned in Michigan 2022)


Diversity of Housing: High Density

• • • • •

Low Cost Apartments Customizable designs Relocatable Community

High density will consist of extremely small lots or large lots to house lots of people. There tend to be more affordable. A tiny home village will enable people to own a home whist being transportable if they choose to relocate. The second option will be apartment style with a maximum of 6 stories, that can be privately of government owned.

(tinyhousegiantjourney 2020) (Bicester Eco-Village Elmsbrook Town Centre 2022)


Athletes Village/ Affordable Housing

• • • • •

Big housing build Diversity of Sizes Communal facilities Centrally Located 1800 Athletes, Staff & Officials

An athletes village is also required to house 1800 athletes, staff and officials for the ballarat commonwealth games. It will then be turned into affordable housing after the games. In turn it will create the housing diversity ballarat is lacking.

(Wikramanayake 2022)(Pert 2021)



Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD)

Accepted • Rainwater tanks • Gross Pollutant traps • Buffer Strips • Vegetated Swales • Infiltration Systems • Bioretention Systems • Sediment Systems • Constructed Wetlands • Stormwater Harvesting As per Ballarat’s storm water management plan some Water sensitive urban design elements are accepted under certain conditions. My site has a massive water problem and some of these elements can be implemented to help mitigate water, these are highlighted/bolded.

(City of Ballarat 2010)


Constructed Wetlands

• • • • • • • •

Improve quality of life Valuable resource Permeable Surfaces Cooling: Eases Urban Heat Island Effect Naturally Stored Water Highly Sought after Land Decrease Flood Risk Biofilter

Constructed Wetlands will help mitigate flooding elsewhere on site, whilst also hitting the targets listed. Water Sensitive urban design is an essential component to sustainable urban developments.

(What is Water Sensitive Urban Design? 2021)


Vegetated Swales

Swales are everywhere. Ive collected a range of images to show some you may have seen. These Vegetated swales will appear along many streets and pathways to collect water and divert to the constructed wetlands and storm water management areas.


Energy Harvesting

To achieve net zero the site has potential to harvest energy. Water can be used from the wetland and bores for gardening, washing and general non drinking uses. Solar for energy and hot water to power homes and businesses. And a possibility for hydrogen harvesting by taking the hydrogen out of water.





Masterplan 1



North 1. Activity Center 2. Railway Station 3. Low and Medium Density Housing 4. School 5. Recreation South 6. Activity Center 7. Eco Village 8. Wetlands 9. Athletes Village / Affordable Housing 10. School 11. Tiny Village 12. Skipton Rail Trail 13. Sports Recreation


5 7 6 8 13

The masterplan breaking down into north and south of remembrance drive. And key features including activity centers, recreation grounds and the athletes village.

11 10




Stage 1 (Completed 2024) • Define watercourse • Upgrade Remembrance Drive and Finchs Road Stage 2 (Completed 2026) • Activity Center • Athletes Village Stage 3 • Residential • Upgrade Existing Roads Stage 4 • Activity Center • Residential Stage 5 • Residential Stage 6 • Residential Stages for development allow incremental change and adaptation to community and city needs.


Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 1 focus on the big problem of water management

Stage 2 links us to the goal of an athletes village for the 2026 commonwealth games.

Stage 3 open up some residential lots in the southern part of the site


Stage 4

Stage 5

Stage 6

Stage 4 provides opportunity for a second activity center as a community heart and busy district

Stage 5. More residential lots, to the North around this heart

Lastly stage 6 with final residential lots. This could be the vision for 20-30 years time


Functions / Use

Function and use of the site. Broken down into 4 topics residential, activity centers, transport, and public space. Public space is scattered so that each dwelling is within 400mm Residential • Low • Medium • High Activity Center • Commercial • Retail • Education Transport • Railway • Bus/ Tram- Skipton Rail Trail • Roads Public Space • Education • Parks/ Gardens/ Recreation • Wetlands/ River • Biofilter/ Treatment Plant


Residential Activity Center Public Open Space Transport Agriculture

An indication of the change of use from high agriculture to a mix of residential, commercial and public open space.


Precinct Structure Plans

Precinct 1: South Precinct 2: North Activity Center School Community Infrastructure There are 2 main precincts of the site, the north and south of the wetlands. The arrows indicate growth and change starting from the activity districts.



12+ min walk


6-12 min


2-5 min walk


2 min walk


Permeability can be looked at through the distance from intersection to intersection. Many blocks are limited to 200m to prioritize active transport modes such as walking, these are showing in the green.


Housing Density/ Diversity

Low Medium High A map of where the housing densities will be seen.


Very Low: Detached on large blocks Low: Eco Village, Detached Medium: Town Houses, Tiny Homes, Semi Detached High: Apartments Identifying change in housing diversity from very low density to a mix of densities.


Housing Availability (Stages)


0.14 D/ha


28.40 D/ha

Housing availability and density plays a major role in the effectiveness of my proposal. With a possible 28.4 dwellings per hectare. I have also broken this down into stages to identify how quickly this can advance.


























Residential Lot Sizes

Large Blocks (2000+m2) Medium Blocks (1000-1900m2) Small Blocks (100-999m2) Large lots have the potential for larger buildings therefore higher densities whereas small and medium sized blocks may only have room for a detached house or a couple townhouses therefore a lower density. The larger block sizes allows future proofing of the site enabling lots to be subdivided



The streets were narrow gravel roads with tall grass, weeds and the occasional tree. The proposed streets are paved 2 lane roads, with a focus on the pedestrian and cyclist safety and space. Trees will border streets keeping a the urban heat island effect to a minimum and providing protection and shelter to those outdoors.


Low Density Residential

The site had minimal residential lots, with the land being used for agriculture. The proposal has a range of densities, creating affordable and available housing options for Ballarat. Houses have the option to be setback from the street following the DDO, creating a small front yard and parking space.


Tiny Village

The research indicted a need for low cost housing. One of the options was a tiny village allowing people to own their own house, rent a small lot and be able to move if required. The tiny village can house, 450 homes.


Athletes Village/ Affordable Housing

An Athletes Village is required for the commonwealth games and can be used for long term affordable housing. The central location adjacent to the activity center provides amenities and local job opportunities for residents. The 6 story building height creates a sense of enclosure that is different to anywhere else in Ballarat.


AC Town Center

The activity center is the heart of the development. From grassy paddocks to a build up hub, which will be required to support the residents and urban development. Pictured is one of the commercial street trading spaces, with a large shopping mall. Trees will help mitigate urban heat island effect, whilst creating a welcoming environment.


AC Highway Retail

The main road Remembrance drive is a busy road, and does not welcome small traders, housing or community facilities. The best use is highway retail such as Bunnings, Ikea, The Good Guys and many other large format shops. These border Remembrance drive creating a advertising frontage, whilst keeping activity away from busy streets.



The wetlands are currently surface flows of water effecting the use of the site, even for agriculture. A constructed wetland will consolidate water to a singular path through the site, creating a bio filter for water use on and around the site.


Public Open Space

Public Open Space alongside the wetlands. This area houses a mix of trees, grasses and shrubs, creating a bio filter and welcoming environment for fauna. A large walking and cycling track enables people to utilize the space.


Masterplan 3D Model

The 3D model of the site shows heights across the section following the DDO and schedule to the zone and enables people to see and measure scale in person. There are zoomed in photos to assist finding areas on the larger map, and show the allowable height maximums. The colours represent wetlands in blue and excluded agricultural areas in brown, which could be part of the site in years to come. Having these areas included on a map shows their scale and how they affect the site boundaries with develop-able land being able to border the areas, especially South of Remembrance Drive.


Close up photos of the key areas of the site including: • Wetlands • Athletes Village/ Affordable Housing • Activity Center • Eco Village • Sports Precinct & Traffic School • Tiny Village


Final Overview

Encourage Healthy Lifestyles

Water Management Issues

Lack of Housing Diversity

Absence of transport Options


“Comp Estate will be a unique area of affordable living servicing the needs of the community longterm and the Commonwealth Games Athletes in 2026 for the games.”

Create Connections

Foster a Sustainable Environment

Development • Create a policy (DDO) to regulate built form controls. Develop a staged masterplan to. • Integrate diverse housing typologies to meet the needs of the com games and future community. • Develop a plan for the Athletes Village for long term use. • Create a Schedule to the zone.


Access & Movement

Public Space


Access & Movement • Develop an active transport priority network. • Create a compact urban area/ settlement • Develop a street hierarchy to complement the modern development style of Ballarat

Public Space • Enhance Landscapes. • Manage surface flows, storm water harvesting and water treatment systems.



References • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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