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TUESDAY, JULY 30, 2013


AS a young lady going into marriage, she never knew that when she signed her marriage register, she was signing herself to battery and assault. On that fateful day, Olawakemi, incurred the wrath of her husband after she moved out of their home due to battering. Kemi, sustained injuries after her husband bath her with hot water. The incident burned her neck down to her waist. Recounting her ordeal, the mother of three, Oluwakemi Fawowe, said “I left my husband when his beating becomes (sic) too much. I left our house in Lagos to stay with my in-laws at Ijoko in Ogun State, but he trailed me there. I was not expecting what he did next because I felt I was safe with his family and he will not hurt me in their presence.” Continuing, she said, “But I was wrong as he threw a hot stove on me and both the hot stove and boiling water splashed on me; my body was on fire. I started shouting and that was when people rushed to save me.” This case presented above, is just a tip of the iceberg and one of the avalanche of cases of domestic violence in the country. Although defining domestic violence might be cumbersome as there is no universally accepted one, it is akin to note one here. According to the US office on Violence Against Women, domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behaviour in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control. Also, the United Kingdom Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service puts domestic violence as patterns of behaviour characterized by the misuse of

power and gaining advantage over another. Although, domestic violence is seen by many as affecting or having women victims only, but experts and reports have revealed that men equally have their fair share. Statistics show that 50% of women in Nigeria, experience domestic violence. Ironically, 65% of educated women are in the horrible situation when put side by side with their low income counter-parts (55%). Further research by the National Demographic and Health Survey in 2008, revealed that domestic violence is more likely to take place in urban areas than rural dwellings. Similarly, the forms in which domestic violence comes are varied in nature. The online, encyclopaedia, Wikipedia, gave physical aggression or assault chitting, kicking, bitting, showing, restraining, slapping, throwing objects, battery, or threats thereof; sexual abuse, emotional abuse; controlling; intimidation stalking, among others, as various forms of domestic violence. It can also come via unlawful imprisonment, trespassing, harassment, mean endangerment, and criminal coercion. According to Media report, cases of domestic violence attract silence due to the shame, fear, stigma and cultural taboos. The National Demographic and Health Survey in 2008 revealed that up to 43% of women thought that wife beating could be justified on the grounds of matters as: burning the food; arguing with the husband; going out without asking permission; neglecting the children and refusal to have sexual intercourse.

Curbing Domestic Violence

Moreover, the Gender in Nigeria, 2012 report, also indicated that young women between the ages of 15 and 24, were more likely to have experienced physical violence and most likely to justify violence, including wife battery. Shockingly, 97.2% of domestic violence are not reported to law enforcement agencies with the believe that the law will not help them, as it is a “family matter.” Additionally, experts have said that poverty, drug abuse, use of alcohol, personal dispositions


and other reasons, propel. domestic violence. For the Executive Director, Project Alert, a nongovernmental organization that promote and protect the rights of women and young girls, domestic violence is a power relationship. They said it is more about men

Effects Of Asthma

ACCORDING to experts, Asthma is a chronic disease that involves inflammation of the lungs. Airways swell and restrict airflow in and out of the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. The word asthma comes from the Greek word for “panting”. People with this disease pant and sneeze because they can’t get enough air into their lungs. Normally, when somebody with asthma breathes in something irritating or does something that cause him/her to need more air like exercise, air ways relax and open. But with asthma, muscles in the airways tighten, and the lining of the air passages swells. The World Health Organization, (WHO) said Asthma is a chronic disease of the bronchial system, the air passages leading to and from the lungs. In 2011, WHO said 235 million people suffer from asthma and that it is common mostly among children than adults. This chronic disease is characterized by recurrent


attack of breathlessness and sneezing. It varies in severity and frequency from person to person. Symptoms may occur several time in a day or week in affected individuals, for some people its becomes worse during physical activity or at night. During an asthma attack, the lining of the bronchial tubes swell, causing the airways to narrow and reducing the flow of air into and out of the lungs. Some fundamental causes of asthma, according to World Health Organization WHO are a combination of genetic predisposition with environmental exposure to inhaled substances and particles that may provoke allergic reaction or irritate the airways such as. Indoor allergers (for example, House dust under carpets and stuffed furniture, pollution and pet hairs. Tobacco Smoke Chemical irritate in the workplace

Air pollution Other triggers can include; cold, air, extreme emotional arousal such as anger or fear and physical exercise. Ever certain medications can trigger asthma: aspirin and other nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and beta-blockers (which are use to treat high blood pressure, heart conditions. According to reports. Asthma symptom may flare up from time to time. There is often no apparent reason why symptoms flare up. However, it can be triggered or even made worse. Things that may trigger asthma symptoms

includes the following. Infections – Particularly colds, coughs and chest infections Pollens and mould-Asthma is often worse in the hay fever season. Exercise: it is important to note, however, sport and exercise are good for your health. If necessary, you can use an inhaler before exercise to prevent symptoms from developing. But, as a rule, exercise induce asthma often. Smoking and cigarette fumes – if you smoke and have asthma, you should make every effort to stop. See a doctor for help, if you find it difficult. Passive smoking can make asthma worse too.

and boys feeling they have power and control over women and young girls thereby sexually and physically assaulting them into submission. Apart from the above, a sociologist, Pa. Aderibigbe. Olofin, stated that violence at home could be as a result of

Other fumes and chemicals – for example fumes from paints, salvents and pollution. The increase in air pollution may be a reason why asthma is becoming more common. Certain pillows and mattresses may be a trigger. It is thought that some people develop asthma symptoms from chemical (isocyantates) methlethyl ketones etc) that are emitted in very low qualities from memory foam pillows and mattress corvers. Emotion – Asthma is not due to ‘nerves’ but such things as stress, emotional upset or laughing may trigger symptoms. According to the University of Maryland Medical Centre treatment. Avoiding asthma attack – reduces inflammation and preventing lung damages are

avoiding important issues out of fear or excessively jealous and possessive or domineering behaviour. He said, “When your partner control where you go or what you do, limit your access to money, phone or car’ destroy your belongings or property; threatens to hurt you or kill you if you opt out of the relationship or marriage could be a possible cause of domestic violence.” Reports and studies have shown that domestic violence does not only lead to physical injuries but includes emotional, financial and others. Wikipedia identified increased aggressiveness, anxiety, depression, emotional insecurity and mental disorder as part of the emotional problems associated with the menace. Regrettably, few states out of the 36 states in the country, have passed laws against domestic violence. Lagos State enacted the new law in May 2007 and has not yet received the needed awareness. Therefore, to stern the tide of this ugly trend, there is need for an all-round sensitization and awareness generation, that will target the public and other stakeholder on the menace. According to Chukwuma – Effa, “relevant agencies charged with responding and providing support services to victims, should be well trained to do their jobs efficiently and effectively.” Until these things are done, the country will not seize to harvest a plethora of domestic abuse and violence. Time to act is now!

the primary goals of treatment. The more you know about your condition, the more closely you work with your doctor to develop an asthma action plan. The Medication for asthma are prescribed for two different purposes; to stop an immediate attack, and to control inflammation and reduce lung damage over a long term. These quick relief medications are called bronchodilator which help open the airways when you have an attack. Other drugs include prednisone, p r e d n i s o l e n e , methylprednisolone, and Hydrocortisone. Drugs used in reducing inflammation are taken everyday; inhaled corticoster oids to be used when prescribered by your doctor.

“The Medication for asthma are prescribed for two different purposes; to stop an immediate attack, and to control inflammation and reduce lung damage over a long term. These quick relief medications are called bronchodilator which help open the airways when you have an attack. Other drugs include prednisone, prednisolene, methylprednisolone, and Hydrocortisone.”

Nigerian observer 30 07 2013  

Nigerian Observer digital edition

Nigerian observer 30 07 2013  

Nigerian Observer digital edition