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AULA 14 Text 1: The Conquest of Distance

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In 1848, pioneers who crossed the continent in their covered wagons made the trip in 109 days – if they were fortunate and strong. Today, a New York family can drive by automobile to San Francisco in less than a week, or make the trip in several days by train, or fly there in five hours. Transportation has conquered the vastness of the land and brought together people living thousands of kilometers apart. As in other, older civilizations, the first lines of settlement followed the river. Where there were no rivers, roads had to be built over land. The first of the big westward arteries was the Cumberland Road, which ran for 960 km from Cumberland, in western Maryland, over the mountains to Ohio and Illinois. More than rivers or highways, however, the railroads played a major role in uniting the far reaches of the continent. In 1830 there were only 37 kilometers of railroad track in the United States; in 1850, there was not yet a kilometer of track west of the Mississippi River. But, as the railroads were built across the eastern states, the internal river routes were joined to the coast cities. And wherever railroad lines joined, a new town quickly sprang into life. In many parts of America, distances are so great that automobiles are necessities, not luxuries. As we have noted, most American farmers do not live in villages but are sometimes kilometers from their nearest neighbor and even hundreds of kilometers from a town. Large-scale farming is common in many parts of the US today, but it did not become profitable until there were trucks and tractors. Trucks and cars go wherever there is a road and the more than 6,000,000 km of roads bring every field and barn into the circle of civilization. The family automobile has helped to bring people of the United States two other things–two things which can seldom exist at the same time: community life, and the privilege of privacy. In the early days of industrialization, factory workers lived close together, within walking distance of their jobs. As industries grew, more and more working class families lived together in crowded conditions. But, with the construction of longer and better roads and with the greater availability of automobiles and other means of transportation, proximity to the factory was no longer a necessity. New residential areas, suburbs, grew up outside the big cities and, increasingly, industry and commerce concentrated in the cities. Every morning, millions of Americans drive their automobiles to work in the city, sometimes a distance of around 100 km. At night, they drive home to houses and apartments outside the cities, surrounded by trees and lawns. But the cities themselves have also

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO remained the homes for millions of other American who, due to improved mass transportation systems, have been able to travel to their work in a short time and also enjoy the cultural amenities of big-city life. Automobiles and other methods of rapid transportation are also 45 changing American industry. Instead of continuing to concentrate in the big cities, industry is building factories in previously undeveloped areas. Because the means of transportation are available, it is not hard to transport people-as well as materials- to the places where they are needed. This factor was largely responsible for the remarkable growth of 50 the Pacific Coast during and after World War II. As industries built new factories in the Far West, Americans from all over the country moved west to take advantage of new jobs and new opportunities. (From “An Outline of American Geography”, ps.124/126, USIA, 1989 edition) I. Vocabulary Pre-Test Choose the best completion or substitution: 1. Transportation has yet to conquer the…………….of the Brazilian territory. a) grandiose b) gigantic c) huge d) vastness 2. “the railroads played a major……………in uniting the far reaches of the continent.” a) note b) role c) trump d) step 3. “In 1830 there were only 37 km of railroad………..in the United States.” a) track b) ways c) stack d) stream 4. “Whenever railroad lines joined, a new town quickly……………into life.” a) born b) jumped c) sprang d) somersaulted 5. “In many parts of America, distances are so great that automobiles are necessities, not……………….” a) fancies b) lush c) luxuries d) wealth 6. The …… where crops or animals are kept, is the big building on a farm. d) yard a) stable b) shack c) barn 7. The automobile has brought Americans community life and the privilege of ……………………. a) private b) privacy c) privatization d) privatizing 8. Besides the pool and sauna, our club offers a few other ………………. . a) amends b) appendixes c) annexes d) amenities

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9. At night, workers who live in the suburbs drive home to houses and apartments outside the cities, surrounded by …………... a) meadows b) courts c) lawns d) decks 10. A number of Asian countries have achieved ……………….economic growth in recent years. a) ample b) remarkable c) flimsy d) particular II. Reading Comprehension Questions Choose the best option: 1. The automobile helped to bring the people of the U.S. ... a) roads and industrialization. b) factories and transportation systems. c) community life and privacy. d) civilization and concentration of commerce. 2. Before the advent of cars and trucks ... a) farmers had to walk kilometers to get their neighbors’ assistance. b) not many people lived in villages. c) farming could hardly be considered a profitable business. d) long and weary rides on horseback were the alternative. 3. With better roads and the larger number of automobiles ... a) industry and commerce concentrated in the country. b) workers did not have to be close to their working place. c) millions of people have to drive 100 km to their working place. d) motorists had to begin to pay tolls. 4. To cross the country in the mid-19th century ... a) required a lot of strength and luck from the pioneers. b) pioneers had to be patient above all. c) the journey was made in half a year. d) pioneers had to open up the roads for their wagons. 5. Improved mass transportation systems .... a) allowed many big-city dwellers to enjoy the cultural amenities of life. b) permitted car factories to reduce their annual output. c) influenced the life style of millions of automobile owners. d) had an influence on the prices of brand-new automobiles.

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6. With the suburban growth outside the big cities ... a) industry and commerce concentrated on the suburbs. b) fewer people kept their homes in the big cities. c) there was concentration of industry and commerce in the cities. d) no longer did people live in crowded conditions. 7. According to the passage, automobiles are also changing ... a) transportation of materials. b) growth of underdeveloped areas. c) opportunities for employment. d) the American industry. WORD FORMS Complete the sentences with a word derived from the one in bold. 1. crossed U.S. immigration officials nowadays show great concern about illegal …………..along the Mexican border. 2. covered Detective Gomes ended up by …………………… the mysterious crime. 3. strong Our President’s visit to the sister country aims at ....................... diplomatic relations with the Paraguayan government. 4. luxuries We couldn’t afford to stay at a ………….……… hotel during our vacation. 5. crowded At the peak of the tourist season, airline companies struggle with the problem of …………………….in airplanes. 6. availability Sorry, but Dr. Stan is not ........................ at the moment. 7. surrounded Here’s the weather forecast for Rio de Janeiro and the ……………..… areas.” 8. remained I’m not asking you to do all your homework today. Do part of it now and the ……………………...you can do tomorrow morning.

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9. undeveloped Third world countries still struggle with economic …………………………... 10. responsible Mark the correct …………………….… to the questions you hear on the tape. 11. opportunities It seemed to me it was quite ……………………... time to bring out the feats of the Admiral there and then. 12. reaches Railroads made it possible to get to ………………….…..…places till then. 13. joined Mr. Jackson, the CEO, was particularly against taking part in the …………………... venture. 14. together We felt a strong feeling of ………………………….. among all the members of the team. COLLOCATION STUDY There are people who just can’t do without a car. Se você não pode passar sem o seu também, estude estas collocations relacionadas com speed, automobiles, etc... When the sports car crashed into the lamp post, the driver was going at a frantic speed. Quando o carro esporte bateu no poste o motorista vinha a uma velocidade frenética. Then the roller coaster picked up speed and soon it was going at a supersonic speed. Aí a montanha russa aumentou em velocidade e logo estava a uma velocidade supersônica. The speed limit on this stretch of the road is 55 m/h. You’re doing 65. You’d better reduce your speed. O limite de velocidade neste trecho da estrada é 80 km /h. Você está a 110. É melhor reduzir a velocidade. No final desta aula na seção de exercícios você encontra outros exemplos de collocations sobre speed & automobile.

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CONFUSABLE WORDS: WITHIN/ INNER/ INSIDE From the Unit Text: “factory workers lived close together, within walking distance of their jobs.” (L-26/27) os trabalhadores das fábricas moravam perto uns dos outros; podiam ir a pé para o trabalho. a) within (prep.), formal usage, means ‘inside’. Deep within him he knew he could win that race. Lá no fundo ele sabia que podia ganhar aquela corrida. Within the prison the mobster managed to control the organization. Dentro da prisão o gangster conseguia controlar a organização. b) Inner (adj.) - use it only before nouns; it means ‘inside’ and can be used to refer to feelings that are not shown. The opposite of inner space is outer space. O oposto de espaço interior é espaço exterior. Full of inner doubts she knelt down at the confessional. Cheio de dúvidas interiores ela se ajoelhou no confessionário. Unless her words had an inner meaning I had failed to grasp, everything was crystal clear to me. A menos que suas palavras tivessem um sentido intrínseco que eu falhara em perceber tudo estava claro como água para mim. c) innermost (adj.)- used before nouns.// opposite: outermost His innermost thoughts tormented him in his prison cell. Seus pensamentos mais íntimos o torturaram na sua cela da prisão. Joyce found it difficult to express her innermost feelings even to her closest friends. Joyce tinha dificuldade de expressar seus sentimentos mais íntimos, até mesmo para suas amigas mais chegadas.

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d) Inside (adj.) / use it before nouns & it can be used about secret information Entering the mansion would be impossible without some inside information about the alarm system. Entrar na mansão seria impossível sem informações de alguém de lá de dentro sobre o sistema de alarme. This news you won’t find on the front page of the newspapers, look for it on the inside pages. Esta notícia você não encontrará na primeira página dos jornais; procure nas páginas de dentro. d) insider (n.) An insider gave the bank robbers precious information. Uma pessoa de dentro deu aos ladrões do banco preciosas informações.

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Text 2: Vocabulary Pre-Test Before reading “Rita’s Sports Car”, learn these specific car parts. Complete the sentences with a word from the boxes. I. fender plugs windshield wipers trunk Hood dipstick rear-view mirror muffler 1. When it starts to rain you had better turn on the ............................ _________________________________________________ 2. When there is a crack in the ................................, your car gets very noisy and dangerous gases may affect the passengers. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3. To back up your car you should look in the .................................. _________________________________________________ 4/5. To check the oil you must open the. ................................ first; then, by using a ................................ check the oil level. _________________________________________________ 6. “Next time you go out and smash the right ................................ you’re going to foot the bill”, Jack’s father warned him. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 7. Suitcases, handbags, all your heavy luggage should go into the ................. _________________________________________________ 8. When the engine knocks strangely, have the spark ...................... checked. _________________________________________________ II. bumper tire treads

hoses brakes

body horn

glove compartment steering-wheel

9/10.You have one ............................. in the front and the other in the back for protection of the ............................. of the car. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 11. Some irresponsible drivers shove the owner’s manual in the ................... and there it remains till the day they sell their car. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

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12. Radiator ............... must be periodically checked for cracks. Squeeze them to see if they’re still pliable, otherwise they must be replaced. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 13/14 Putting on the ................ too hard not only produces an irritating screech but also causes your ..................... to get thinner more quickly. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 15. While driving you’d better be holding the ............... with both hands. _________________________________________________ 16. Inconsiderate drivers have the bad habit of honking the ........................ of their vehicles in front of hospitals. _________________________________________________ Text 2: Rita’s Sports Car

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My cousin, Rita, raves about her sports car. However, she does not know the first thing about mechanics. ‘What if something goes wrong with the engine? How are you going to cope with a breakdown?’, I asked her one day. ‘Well, I try to keep my car spick and span. I have it inspected regularly. I make sure the battery is charged, I have the tire pressure checked, as well as the shock absorbers. Besides, if my car breaks down for some reason or another, I can always call a tow truck, can’t I?’, she replied. On her way back from Cabo Frio – a beach resort about 150 km from Rio – Rita noticed the engine was knocking strangely. It had to happen on the two-way stretch of the road where there is no shoulder for the driver to pull up to. She left the main road in order not to cause any accident, took a side road, and asked an old man where she could find a repair shop. In a matter of minutes, she was in the middle of nowhere. Rita slowed down the car to a halt, opened the hood but the hundreds of small parts that met her eyes were simply too mind-boggling. Back to the driver’s seat, she turned on the radio. “Just today when my cell phone was stolen! Definitely this is not my lucky day”, she thought. To make things worse, it was getting dark fast. Fortunately her guardian angel was on duty that afternoon, for a few moments later a group of hikers passed by. A young man offered to help. He proved to be quite skillful at repairing motors. In about half an hour Rita had her car fixed. The youngster told her there was nothing to worry about, the fan belt had been slack, a spark plug was somewhat loose and the idle jet was choking, other than that her car was all right. “I never felt so dumb in my whole life”, she confessed later. There’s an “ABC of Mechanics” opening up at our college next month. It’s high time Rita enrolled for it.

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Reading Comprehension Check: Say whether the following statements about Rita and her sports car are true (T) or False (F): 1. Rita is dissatisfied with her sports car. ( ) _________________________________________________ 2. When Rita has learned the first things about mechanics she will be able to rave about her sports car. ( ) _________________________________________________ 3. Rita simply wasn’t able to deal with any mechanical problem that might occur. ( ) _________________________________________________ 4. When Rita says she likes to keep her car spick and span she means that she can’t maintain it properly. ( ) _________________________________________________ 5. You can affirm that the road from Cabo Frio to Rio de Janeiro is not safe. ( ) _________________________________________________ 6. If Rita had not taken a shortcut, when the car engine began to knock strangely, she would have caused an accident. ( ) _________________________________________________ 7. The moment Rita opened the hood, she got puzzled by the hundreds of small parts that she saw. ( ) _________________________________________________ 8. Rita regretted she didn’t have her cell phone with her that day. ( ) _________________________________________________ 9. It took the young man a few minutes to repair Rita’s car, which proved he was skillful at it. ( ) _________________________________________________ 10. After Rita had her car repaired by the young man, she said that she felt like a fool. ( ) _________________________________________________

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GRAMMAR TIPS - CAUSATIVE FORM From text 2: I have my sports car inspected regularly. (L-5/6) Procuro manter meu carro inspecionado regularmente. I have the tire pressure checked ... (L-6/7) Procuro fazer com que os pneus sejam calibrados. In about half an hour Rita had her car fixed. (L-22/23) Em meia hora Rita teve o seu carro consertado. When you want to indicate that an action was carried out by someone other than the subject of the sentence, you use the verbs have, make, and get causatively. Study the following examples: Quando se quer indicar que uma ação foi realizada por alguém diferente do sujeito da oração, usam-se os verbos have, make, and get na forma causativa. Estude os exemplos a seguir: a) Don: “Did I show you my new photos?” Ross: “Not yet. Oh, your wife looks different.” Don: “You’re right. She cut her hair short.” b) Don: “Did I show you my new album?” Ross: “Not yet. Hey, your wife looks different.” Don: “Sure. She had her hair cut short. In ‘a’ Don’s wife cut her hair herself, while in “b” it was somebody else who did it. Maybe she went to a beauty parlor and got a haircut. Em ‘a’ a esposa de Don cortou o próprio cabelo; enquanto que em “b” uma outra pessoa o fez. Talvez ela tenha ido a um salão de beleza. c) Dick: “Are you going to install the telephone yourself?” Fred: “Certainly. I’ll install it tomorrow.” d) Dick: “Are you going to install the telephone yourself?” Fred: “Not on your life. I’ll have a professional installer come over and do it for me.” (Or I’ll have it installed by professional.) In “c” the it is Fred himself who is going to install the phone, while in “d” he will have it done by a professional. Em “c” é o próprio Fred que irá instalar o telefone, enquanto em “d” o trabalho será feito por um instalador profissional.

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‘Make’ can be used causatively, too. However, it conveys a more forceful idea than ‘have’. ‘Make’ também pode ser usado na forma causativa. Contudo, transmite uma idéia mais coercitiva do que ‘have’. The policeman made the man park his car somewhere else. (=the policeman had the authority to demand that he park somewhere else) O policial fez o homem estacionar num outro lugar. (= o policial tinha autoridade para exigir que o homem estacionasse num outro lugar) Dad made me swear I would not tell Mom about her gift we bought together. (= he would get mad at me if I told her) Papai me fez jurar que eu não contaria nada a mamãe sobre o presente que compramos para ela. (ele ficaria furioso se eu contasse a ela) The verb ‘get’ may also be used causatively. It conveys an idea of persuading somebody to have something done for you. O verbo ‘get’ pode também ser usado na forma causativa. Transmite a idéia de persuadir alguém a fazer algo para você. Jennifer got her sister to type the letter for her. (= she persuaded her sister to work for her) Jennifer convenceu sua irmã a digitar a carta para ela. (ela persuadiu a irmã a trabalhar para ela) How did you get your husband to accompany you to that show? Como você convenceu seu marido a lhe acompanhar para o show? A diferença mais óbvia entre ‘get’ e os outros verbos (make & have) é que ele é seguido pelo marked infinitive (+to) IN SUM: You have sby. do sth. for you You make sby. do sth. for you You get sby. to do sth. for you

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STEAL / ROB From the Unit Texts: “Just today when my cell phone was stolen! Definitely this is not my lucky day.” (L-19/20) Logo hoje que meu celular foi roubado! Definitivamente este não é o meu dia de sorte. Como já vimos anteriormente en passant os verbos steal (i.v.) (stole, stolen) and rob (r.v.) both mean “roubar” in Portuguese. Diferem entretanto na maneira como são usados. Como no exemplo supracitado Rita’s cell phone (a thing, an object) was stolen. Poderíamos ter dito: She was robbed of her cell phone. (Rita was robbed) Mrs. Davis complained that the boy had stolen her purse. A Senhora Davis reclamava que o rapaz havia roubado sua bolsa. The man in an elegant suit robbed me of all my money. O homem num terno elegante roubou-me de todo o meu dinheiro. Who would want to steal your worn-out pair of sneakers? Quem iria querer roubar o seu par de tênis surrado? Veja no final o exercício sobre os diversos verbos ingleses que significam ‘roubar’ ou ‘furtar’. QUESTION TAGS From Rita’s Sports Car: If my car fails to function for some reason or other, I can always call a tow truck, can’t I? (L-7/8) Se meu carro enguiça por algum motivo eu posso sempre chamar um carro-reboque, não posso? Except for a few unusual cases, Brazilian students can deal with Question tags quite satisfactorily. The example from the text ‘Rita’s Sports Car’ can easily be handled by most students. Perhaps the most unusual case happens when we use a question tag after I am! I am making a lot of progress, aren’t I? (Believe it or not, that’s the correct tag question) Eu estou progredindo bastante, não estou?

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Let me point out a few other cases: a) Tag questions with ‘Let’s ... (=Let us ....) Let’s talk to the manager, shall we? Let’s see if you understood this lesson, shall we? b) Tag question with There is, there was,... ( there should be used in the question tag, not a pronoun ) There is always a chance he’ll drop by at night, isn’t there? Há sempre uma chance de ele aparecer à noite, não há? There were thousands of worshippers in the temple, weren’t there? Havia milhares de devotos no templo, não havia? c) Tag questions with Everyone, Someone, No one (& derivatives: everybody, something, nothing) as subjects. ‘They’ should be used in the tags) Everyone has to be there at six, don’t they? Todo mundo tem que estar lá |às seis, não tem? Someone told the story, didn’t they? Alguém contou a história não contou? No one could predict the outcome, could they? Ninguém podia prever o desfecho, podia? d) With imperative structures, affirmative or negative statements. Close that door when you leave, will you? Feche a porta ao sair, OK? Don’t slam the door when you leave, will you? Não bata a porta ao sair, OK? e) With the phrase “ used to” She used to swim a lot, didn’t she? Ela costumava nadas muito, não costumava? There used to a fountain over there, didn’t there? Havia um chafariz ali, não havia?

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f) With the verb “to have” (be sure to check if it’s used as an auxiliary or as the main verb of the sentence.) She has visited you in Rome, hasn’t she? Ela te visitou em Roma, não visitou? They have very good jobs, don’t they? Eles têm muito bons empregos, não têm? Nell has assisted Dr. Edwin in countless operations, hasn’t she? Nell ajudou o Dr. Edwin em inúmeras cirurgias, não ajudou? You have difficulty with verb tenses, don’t you? Você tem dificuldade com tempos verbais, não tem? g) With the verb “need” – you must distinguish between the regular verb to need and need the anomalous finite. I don’t need to stay, do I? Eu não preciso ficar, preciso? She needn’t come here today, need she? Ela não precisava vir aqui hoje, precisava? Haverá exercícios no final desta sobre Question Tags para você praticar.

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Text 3: Inventions, Development, and Tycoons

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The rapid economic development following the Civil War laid the groundwork for the modern U.S. industrial economy. An explosion of new discoveries and inventions took place, causing such profound changes that some termed the results a "second industrial revolution." Oil was discovered in western Pennsylvania. The typewriter was developed. Refrigeration railroad cars came into use. The telephone, phonograph, and electric light were invented. And by the dawn of the 20th century, cars were replacing carriages and people were flying in airplanes. Parallel to these achievements was the development of the nation's industrial infrastructure. Coal was found in abundance in the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania south to Kentucky. Large iron mines opened in the Lake Superior region of the upper Midwest. Mills thrived in places where these two important raw materials could be brought together to produce steel. Large copper and silver mines opened, followed by lead mines and cement factories. As industry grew larger, it developed mass-production methods. Frederick W. Taylor pioneered the field of scientific management in the late 19th century, carefully plotting the functions of various workers and then devising new, more efficient ways for them to do their jobs. (True mass production was the inspiration of Henry Ford, who in 1913 adopted the moving assembly line, with each worker doing one simple task in the production of automobiles. In what turned out to be a farsighted action, Ford offered a very generous wage -- $5 a day -- to his workers, enabling many of them to buy the automobiles they made, helping the industry to expand.) (From an Outline of American Economy – USIA) VOCABULARY PRE-TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A laid the groundwork cars were replacing carriages important raw materials mass-production methods devising more efficient ways moving assembly line

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) carros substituíam carruagens ) linha de montagem móvel ) métodos de produção em massa ) assentou as bases, fundações ) matérias primas importantes ) criando meios mais eficientes

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DISCOURSE MARKERS (III) From text 3: And by the dawn of the 20th century, cars were replacing carriages and people were flying in airplanes. (L-7/8) E ao nascer do século 20 os automóveis estavam substituindo as carruagens e as pessoas estavam voando em aviões. Todo escritor precisa das palavras de transição para levar suas idéias de uma frase para outra ou de um parágrafo para outro. A conjunção AND (= e) talvez seja a mais comum quando se quer expressar a idéia de adição ou acréscimo, mas assim como nos casos anteriores não é a única forma de fazê-lo. Indicando adição / acréscimo AND, again, besides, in addition, also, furthermore, moreover It’s worthwhile studying these, too Unfortunately I can’t go with you to the concert. Besides, I wouldn’t have anything fancy to wear. Infelizmente não poderei ir com você ao concerto. Além disso, não teria nada chique para usar. In addition to Spanish, Paula speaks English and German. Além do espanhol Paula fala alemão e inglês. Raul works hard. In addition, he’s been with us for years. Raul trabalha arduamente e, além disso, já está conosco há anos. Helen said she didn’t feel like going out tonight. Also, she said she was broke at the moment. Helena disse que não estava a fim de sair hoje à noite. Disse, também, que estava dura. You’ve been absent too many times, Ken. Furthermore, your performance has been very poor lately. Você faltou muitas vezes, Ken. Ademais, sua atuação tem sido muito fraca ultimamente.

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BRITISH/AMERICAN USAGE When an American says: ‘I have to rent a car’ (=Tenho que alugar um carro), a British citizen is likely to say ‘I have got to hire a car’. Americans take the subway (= pegam o metrô); the British, on the other hand, take the underground. Common usage in American English is the phrase ‘a flat tire’ (= um pneu furado) , the British usage is ‘to have a puncture’. In the following exercise group the words in two columns: one for American English, the other for British English: No exercício seguinte agrupe as palavras em duas colunas: uma par o inglês americano e outra para o inglês britânico. driver’s license / driving license gas / petrol license plate / number plate pedestrian crossing / crosswalk highway / motorway windshield / windscreen filling station / gas station American English

mudguard / fender bonnet / hood pavement / sidewalk lorry / truck camper /caravan trunk / boot gear lever / gearshift British English

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PHRASAL VERBS From text 3: “In what turned out to be a farsighted action…” (L-22) Naquilo que veio a ser uma ação de longo alcance... Continuemos a estudar de forma sistematizada os phrasal verbs, aqueles que vinculados a partículas adverbiais (up, away, about, for, etc) assumem um significado diverso da acepção básica. Provavelmente você já conhece expressões com o verbo turn do tipo: Turn right (= vire à direita) // turn left (= vire à esquerda) // turn pale (= ficar pálido) // He turned fifty (= Completou cinqüenta anos) // Cabe agora estudar alguns phrasal verbs com turn: Two buses departed with the tourists but one of them had to turn back. Dois ônibus partiram com os turistas mas um deles teve que voltar. Turn off the light, I want to sleep. Apague a luz; eu quero dormir. There was a dead dog on the road. My daughter turned her eyes away from it. Havia um cachorro morto na Estrada. Minha filha desviou seu olhar dele. Turn around so I can take a good look at your new dress. You look pretty! Dê uma voltinha para que eu possa ver o seu vestido novo. Você está bonita! My brother did try to get a new job, but his application was turned down. Meu irmão bem que tentou conseguir um novo emprego, mas seu pedido foi recusado. Quickly that little town turned into a prosperous metropolis. Rapidamente a pequena cidade se tornou uma próspera metrópole.

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PICTURE TEST 14 I’ve used this picture before but since it was originally meant to go with Rita’s text, I’ve decided to use it again.

Whenever she opens the [a) hood / b) trunk] the hundreds of car parts look like a maze and she simply gets puzzled. P.S: My cousin Rita is definitely more beautiful than the woman above. USEFUL TIPS Ao montar esta aula me perguntei várias vezes se este ou aquele exercício deveria ser incluído. Prefiro pecar pelo excesso. Afinal, ‘Quid abundant non nocit!’ Me lembro que a ESAF foi buscar num texto da prova para AFRF em 2003 a expressão a much tougher field to hoe (literalmente: um campo muito mais difícil para capinar com a enxada) Era uma referência à reforma tributária que se apresentava no caminho do recém empossado presidente Lula. Therefore, concluindo, quem sabe se a ESAF ou outra banca qualquer, não resolve explorar um texto onde apareçam expressões idiomáticas ou metáforas relativas a means of transportation?

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EXERCISES I. Three of the options can complete the sentences. Mark them. 1. Now the speed limit is 50 m/h. You’re doing a sensible 40 m/h. You can ..................... that speed. a) keep to b) measure c) maintain d) stick to T: ________________________________________________________ 2. Oh, oh! There’s a patrol car behind us. I’m afraid you’ve ...................... the speed limit. a) exceeded b) overcome c) disrespected d) disregarded T: ________________________________________________________ 3. There’s no need to drive so slowly. The speed limit on this highway is 65 m/h. It’s perfectly safe to .................... speed. a) develop b) pick up c) build up d) increase T: ________________________________________________________ 4. I just can’t believe we were not caught in any traffic jams on our way. We did a ............... 90 km/h most of the way. a) constant b) regular c) steady d) checking T: ________________________________________________________ 5. “Why did I get this ticket, officer? I was going at a …………………. speed.’ a) frantic b) moderate c) sound d) slow T: ________________________________________________________ II. All the following expressions mean that one is in trouble somehow or other, except for one. Spot the Odd Man Out: a) in a fix // b) in hot water // c) off duty // d) up a creek // e) in a tight corner // f) in a jam // g) have one's back to the wall // h) in the red III -Spot the only item below that does not mean "to get angry” a) blow one's top // b) lose one's cool // c) be put out // d) get into a rage // e) lose one's temper // f) blow up // g) fly off the handle // h) see eye to eye

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IV. Causative Form - choose the best completion for the dialogue exchanges: 1. “Did you carry the baskets yourself?” “Of course not. I ............................... for me. a) had the janitor do it b) got the janitor do it. c) had the janitor to do it d) made the janitor doing it. 2. “How is she getting back home tonight?” “She .............................. after the party.” a) made her boyfriend to pick her up / b) had her boyfriend pick her up c) made her boyfriend picking her up / d) got her boyfriend to pick her up 3. “What are the assistants supposed to do?” “They must ............................................. the attendance list.” a) have the students to sign b) to have the students sign c) have the students signing d) have the students sign 4. “Why are you so angry?” “Mr. Simpson ......................... reprint all the copies.” a) got me b) had me to c) made me d) would have me 5. “Did you do the work yourself?” “No, I ....................... for me.” a) had a carpenter making it c) got a carpenter to do it

b) had it to do by a carpenter d) made a carpenter to do it

V. Stealing or robbing // Complete each sentence below with one of the verbs in the box. embezzled looted

shoplifted mugged

burglarized rip-off

swindled relieved

1. The former treasurer ................. $ 10,000 from the company safes. T: _________________________________________________ 2. In spite of the recently installed cameras, most department stores in that part of the town are ………………… practically every minute. T: _________________________________________________

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3. The Watsons’ house has been ..................... so many times already that they fear it may be broken into again. T: _________________________________________________ 4. During the bloody civil war, invading troops .................. several country homes. T: _________________________________________________ 5. A purse-snatcher ...……........... the poor old lady and simply ran away. T: _________________________________________________ 6. Soon they found the house was not worth the money they’d paid for. It had been a total ....................... T: _________________________________________________ 7. The guy was really a con artist. When I found it out, it was too late. He ……………… me out of 4 10,000. T: _________________________________________________ 8. Very cynically, the pickpocket confessed that he had …………….the old man of his wallet. T: _________________________________________________ VI. Supply the appropriate question tag: 1. You study English nowadays, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 2. Jennifer didn’t study French at school, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 3. Tom could help you do your job, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 4. Teresa was reading a newspaper then , .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 5. Dennis shouldn’t miss this show, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 6. There are some mistakes in my composition, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 7. George and Karen are going to church, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 8. Your parents gave you $ 50 to spend the weekend, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 9. She met Mick Jagger in Brazil, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 10. Dot didn’t go to Spain in 1986, .........................? T: _________________________________________________

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VII. Supply the corresponding question tag: 1. There isn’t anything I can do, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 2. Mr. Thompson will make the speech, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 3. They phoned the police station, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 4. You haven’t been to the USA yet, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 5. Bill has never been to New York, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 6. Douglas studies Spanish on Saturdays, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 7. The phone rang at 3 a. m., .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 8. You don’t believe in flying saucers, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 9. All the students were present, .........................? T: _________________________________________________ 10. Jill, you’re doing nearly 80, ........................? T: _________________________________________________ VIII. Supply the corresponding question tag: 1. T: 2. T: 3. T: 4. T: 5. T: 6. T: 7. T: 8. T: 9. T:

Janette has never seen that movie, ................? _________________________________________________ We’ll be there in about an hour, .................? _________________________________________________ You waited for your luggage, ......................? _________________________________________________ We’d better stay a little longer, ....................? _________________________________________________ That’s your turn to drive, ............................? _________________________________________________ You had a hard time answering the questions, ......................? _________________________________________________ You had come for the food, ......................? _________________________________________________ I am learning this topic fast, ..................? _________________________________________________ There are many reasons to visit Paris, .....................? _________________________________________________

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10. Tim and Pat were riding their bikes in the park, ......................? T: _________________________________________________ 11. Everybody has finished eating lunch, ....................? T: _________________________________________________ 12. Let’s meet in the lobby, ......................? T: _________________________________________________ 13. Your sister used to play the flute, .................? T: _________________________________________________ 14. Both of your kids have good jobs, ......................? T: _________________________________________________ 15. No one can do anything now, ...................? T: _________________________________________________ IX. Complete com as palavras do quadro abaixo de modo a formar um phrasal verb com TURN. Um significado equivalente é dado entre parênteses: BACK

UP

OVER

ON

IN

1. Don’t try to turn _________ the car engine. The battery is run down. (= start) T: _________________________________________________ 2. If he committed the crime turn him _______ to the police. (= take) T: _________________________________________________ 3. We were supposed to meet the girls at the gym but none of them turned _________ (= appeared) T: _________________________________________________ 4. It’s raining hard. We’d better turn _______, guys. (= return) T: _________________________________________________ 5. Now I want you to turn ________ to the next page where you’ll find the instructions for doing this exercise. (change) T: _________________________________________________

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X. You will be presented with a number of means of transportation in the box below, complete the sentences with each of the words: stage coaches trucks shuttles barges

station wagons sleighs

tractors scooters

1. In the old west it was the ....................... drawn by horses which took people to far away places. 2. ..................are also drawn by horses, but they’re used to transport people or things on snow. 3. Motor ..................., two-wheeled, economical vehicles, are not as popular in Brazil nowadays as they were in the 1960s. 4. Before the Rio–Niterói bridge, vehicles were carried across the Guanabara Bay on large flat-bottomed ...................... 5. ................ are long, spacious automobiles characterized by a tail gate. 6. With the advent of space ................... it’s not at all unreasonable to think of interplanetary journeys in the near future. 7. ................ are motor vehicles usually kept in a machine shed used for pulling plows on farms and for doing a lot of other hard tasks. 8. .............. are heavy vehicles used for the transport of goods on roads. XI. Twelve words have been removed from the passage. Fill in the numbered blanks with each of the items in the box : achievements gathering

ironically heavy carried mixed

craft orbited

event staked

plaque term

Perhaps the most spectacular .................... (1) of President Nixon's first ................. (2) of office was the landing on the moon, on July 21,1969, of astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin. while astronaut Michael Collin ................ (3) the moon in the mother ship of the Apollo 11 mission. After landing their lunar.............. (4) , Armstrong and Aldrin remained for several hours ................ (5) rocks and other specimens to take back to earth for study. They also ............... (6) an American flag and a .................. (7) reading "We came in peace for all mankind." With definite ................. (8) in foreign policy overshadowing his .................. (9) performance at home, President Nixon faced the election of 1972 as a .............. (10) favorite to defeat the Democratic candidate George McGovern, Senator from South Dakota. On election day, when 18-year-olds could vote for the first time, Nixon ............. (11) 49 states and won 60.6 percent of the total vote, one of the highest percentages in American history .............. (12), the country again elected a Democratic Congress, as it had in 1968 and 1970. (Excerpt from “An Outline of American History”, p.177/178, USIA,1990) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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XII. Choose the best option in parentheses to complete the cloze: Astronauts on the space shuttle Challenger, Bruce Mc Candless and Robert Stewart, were the first humans to fly (1-a) with / b) free of / c) within / d) to freedom) a spacecraft. This took place in February, 1984. On November 12, 1984, in the first operation (-2-a) of its kind / b) whatsoever / c) of sorts / d) behind schedule ), astronauts aboard the space shuttle Discovery flew with self-propelled backpacks (-3-a) for rescuing / b) in rescuing / c) to rescue/ d) to rescuing) two (-4-a) operable / b) in operation / c) operational / d) inoperable) communications satellites. These are just a couple of the many U.S. space program remarkable (5-a) heroes/ b) losses/ c) legends/ d) feats). On January, 28, 1986, however, after 24 (-6-a) successful/ b) succeeded/ c) successive/ d) succeeding) shuttle flights the U.S. suffered a shocking setback. The space shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after takeoff, killing six astronauts and a schoolteacher (-7 -a) which was/ b) that were being/ c) who was to be/ d) from being) the first ordinary citizen flown into space. The manned space flight program was halted (-8-a) upon/ b) while/ c) towards/ d) before) a special investigation panel determined the cause: faulty seals on the shuttle’s solid rocket boosters, (-9-a) thus/ b) ever since/ c) afterwards/ d) then) began an exhaustive program before (-10-a) the resumption/ b) a resumed/ c) the resuming/ d) the résumé) of shuttle flights. Two years after the tragedy, the manned space program was revived with the flight of the space shuttle Discovery on Sep. 20, 1988. . (Adapted from This is America, USIA, 1990 edition)

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ANSWERS Text I - Vocabulary Pre-Test 1. (d) O transporte ainda tem que conquistar a vastidão do território brasileiro. 2. (b) As ferrovias desempenharam um papel primordial na unificação dos extremos do continente. 3. (a) Em 1830 havia apenas 37 km de vias férreas nos EUA. 4. (c) Onde quer as vias férreas se uniam uma nova cidade ganhava vida rapidamente. 5. (c) Em muitas áreas dos EUA as distâncias são tão grandes que os automóveis são necessidades e não luxo. 6. (c) O celeiro, onde a colheita e os animais são mantidos, é a grande edificação da fazenda. 7. (b) O automóvel trouxe aos norte-americanos a vida comunitária e o direito à privacidade. 8. (d) Além de uma piscina e de uma sauna nosso clube oferece outra instalações confortáveis. 9. (c) À noite os trabalhadores que moram no subúrbio dirigem de volta para suas casas e apartamentos fora das cidades cercados de gramados. 10. (b) A Um numero de países asiáticos alcançaram um notável crescimento econômico nos últimos anos. II. Reading Comprehension Questions 1. (c) O automóvel trouxe ao povo dos EUA a vida comunitária e a privacidade – idéia claramente expressa no texto. Na opção (a) tem-se, estradas e industrialização; na (b), fábricas e sistemas de transporte; e na (d), civilização e concentração comercial. 2. (c ) Antes da chegada dos carros e caminhões mal podia se considerar a agricultura como um negócio lucrativo. Na opção (a) tem-se, os fazendeiros tinham que caminhar quilômetros para buscar ajuda dos vizinhos; na (b), poucas pessoas viviam em aldeias; na (d), longas e cansativas cavalgadas eram as alternativa. 3. (b) Com estradas melhores e um número maior de veículos os trabalhadores não precisavam viver próximos do local de trabalho. Na (a) a indústria e o comércio se concentraram no campo; na (c) milhões de pessoas tinham que dirigir 100 km até o local de trabalho; e na (d) motoristas tiveram que começar a pagar pedágio.- idéia completamente ausente do texto.

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4. (a) Para atravessar o país em meados do século 19 era necessário muita força e sorte por parte dos pioneiros. Na (b), os pioneiros tinham que ser pacientes acima de tudo; na (c) a jornada era feita em 6 meses; na (d), os pioneiros tinham que abrir as estradas para sua carroças. 5. (a) Sistemas de transporte de massa permitiram a muitos moradores da cidade grande desfrutar dos atrativos culturais da vida; na (b) permitiu às fábricas de automóveis reduzir sua produção anual; na (c) influenciou o estilo de vida de milhões de proprietários de automóveis; na (d), tiveram uma influência nos preços dos carros 0km. 6. (c) Com o crescimento dos subúrbios fora das grandes cidades, ocorreu a concentração da indústria e do comércio urbanos. Na (a), a indústria e o comércio concentraram-se no subúrbio; na (b), poucas pessoas mantiveram seus domicílios nas grandes cidades; na (d) as pessoas não mais viveram aglomeradas. 7. (d) O autor diz que os automóveis estão mudando também a indústria americana. Na (a), o transporte de materiais; na (b), o crescimento de áreas subdesenvolvidas; na (c), as oportunidades de emprego. Word Forms 1. (crossing) Os agentes da imigração nos EUA hoje em dia se preocupam muito com a travessia ilegal ao longo da fronteira com o México. 2. (uncovering) O Detetive Gomes terminou por desvendar o misterioso crime. 3. (strengthening) A visita do presidente ao país irmão visa a fortalecer as relações diplomáticas com o governo paraguaio. 4. (luxurious) Não podíamos pagar a diária num hotel de luxo durante nossas férias. 5. (overcrowded) No auge da temporada turística as companhias de aviação lutam com o problema da superlotação das aeronaves. 6. (available) Lamento mas o Dr. Stan não está disponível no momento. 7. (surrounding) Aqui está a previsão do tempo para o RJ e regiões circunvizinhas. 8. (remainder) Não estou lhe pedindo para fazer todo o dever de casa hoje. Faça parte dele e o restante você pode fazer amanhã de manhã. 9. (underdevelopment) Países do terceiro mundo ainda lutam contra o subdesenvolvimento econômico. 10. (response) Marque as respostas corretas para as pergunta gravadas na fita.

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11. (opportune) Pareceu-me o momento oportuno para relembrar os feitos do almirante ali naquele momento. 12. (unreachable|) As ferrovias tornaram possível chegar a lugares até então inatingíveis. 13. (joint) Mr. Jackson, o diretor-presidente, em especial, era contra a participação no empreendimento conjunto. 14. (togetherness) Notamos um grande sentimento de união entre os membros da equipe. Text 2: Vocabulary Pre-Test 1. [windshield wipers] Quando começar a chover é melhor você ligar o limpador do pára-brisa. 2. [muffler] Quando há uma rachadura no silencioso seu carro fica barulhento e gases perigosos podem afetar os passageiros. 3. [rear-view mirror] Para dar a ré no seu carro você deve olhar no retrovisor. 4/5. [hood / dipstick] Para verificar o óleo você tem que abrir o capô primeiro e depois, com a varetinha medir o nível do óleo. 6. [fender] Da próxima vez que você sair e amassar o para –lama direito do carro você vai pagar – avisou o pai do Jack. 7. [trunk] Malas de viagem, bolsas de mão, toda a sua bagagem mais pesada deve ficar no porta-malas. 8. [plugs] Quando o motor estiver fazendo um barulho estranho, verifique as velas. 9/10. [bumper / body] Há um pára-choque na frente e outro atrás para a proteção da lataria do carro. 11. [glove compartment] Alguns motoristas irresponsáveis jogam o manual do proprietário no porta-luvas e lá ele fica até o dia em que vendem o carro. 12. [hoses] As mangueiras do radiador devem ser inspecionadas periodicamente por causa das rachaduras. Aperte-as para ver se estão flexíveis ainda, do contrário devem ser substituídas. 13/14 [brakes / tire treads] Pisar nos freios com força demais não só produz um barulho irritante como também causa o desgaste das bandas de rodagem dos pneus muito mais rapidamente. 15. [steering wheel] Quando estiver dirigindo é melhor segurar o volante com ambas as mãos. 16. [horn] Motoristas sem consciência tocam a buzina dos seus veículos em frente a hospitais.

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Reading Comprehension Check: 1. (F) Rita está insatisfeita com seu carro esporte. 2. (F) Quando a Rita tiver aprendido os rudimentos de mecânica será capaz de se empolgar com seu carro esporte. 3. (T) Rita simplesmente não consegue lidar com nenhum problema mecânico que possa ocorrer. 4. (F) Quando a Rita diz que gosta de manter seu carro tinindo ela quer dizer que não consegue mantê-lo apropriadamente. 5. (F) Pode-se afirmar que a Estrada de Cabo Frio para o Rio de Janeiro não é segura. 6. (F) Se a Rita não tivesse pegado um atalho, quando o motor de seu carro começou a fazer um barulho estranho, ela teria causado um acidente. 7. (T) No momento que a Rita abriu o capô, ela ficou perplexa com as centenas de pecinhas que viu. 8. (T) Rita lamentava-se de ter seu celular à mão naquele dia. 9. (T) O jovem levou alguns minutos para consertar o carro da Rita; o que provava que ele tinha muita habilidade com mecânica. 10. (T) Logo após o rapaz ter consertado o carro, Rita disse que se sentiu como uma tola. Text 3: Vocabulary Pre-Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A laid the groundwork cars were replacing carriages important raw materials mass-production methods devising more efficient ways moving assembly line

B a. (2) carros substituíam carruagens b. (6) linha de montagem móvel c. (4) métodos de produção em massa d. (1) assentou as fundações e. (3) matérias primas importantes f. (5) criando meios mais eficientes

American English / British English (carteira de motorista) driver’s license (US) // driving license (UK) // (pára-lama) mudguard (UK) / fender (US) // (gasolina) gas (US)/ petrol (UK) // (capô) bonnet (UK) / hood (US) // (placa) license plate (US) / number plate (UK) // (calçada) pavement (UK) / sidewalk (US) // (faixa de pedestre) pedestrian crossing (UK) / cross walk (US) // (caminhão) lorry (UK)/ truck (US) // (auto estrada) highway (US) /motorway (UK) // (casa sobre rodas) camper (US) /caravan (UK) // (pára-brisa) windshield (US) / windscreen (UK) // (mala) trunk (US) / boot (UK) // (posto de gasoline) filling station (UK) / gas station (US) // (alavanca do câmbio) gear lever (UK) / gearshift (US)

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PICTURE TEST 15 (a) Whenever she opens the hood, the hundreds of car parts look like a maze and she simply gets puzzled. Sempre que ela abre o capô, as centenas de pecinhas parecem um labirinto e ela fica perplexa.

EXERCISES I. Three of the options can complete the sentences. Mark them. 1. (b) Agora o limite de velocidade é 50 m / h. Você está indo a razoáveis 40 m / h. Você pode manter esta velocidade. 2. (b) Oh, oh! Há um carro da polícia atrás de nós. Temo que você excedeu / desrespeitou / desconsiderou o limite de velocidade. 3. (a) Não há necessidade de dirigir tão devagar. O limite de velocidade nesta auto-estrada e 65 m / h. É perfeitamente seguro aumentar a velocidade. 4. (d) Não posso nem acreditar que não pegamos nenhum engarrafamento no caminho. Fizemos 90 km /h constantes. 5. (a) Porque estou recebendo esta multa, guarda? Eu vinha a uma velocidade moderada / normal / baixa. II. In trouble em todas menos: Off duty (= de folga do trabalho) III. "to get angry” em todas menos: see eye to eye (= concordar, ter a mesma opinião) IV. Causative Form 1. (a) “Você mesma carregou as cestas?” ”Claro que não. Pedi que o zelador o fizesse.” 2. (d) “Como ela vai pra casa esta noite?” “Ela persuadiu o namorado a apanhá-la.” 3. (d) “O que os assistentes devem fazer?” “Eles devem fazer os alunos assinarem a lista de presença.” 4. (c) “Por que você está tão furiosa?“ “O Sr, Simpson me fez recopiar todos os relatórios.” 5. (c) “Você mesmo fez o serviço?” “Não, consegui que o carpinteiro o fizesse.”

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V. Stealing or robbing? 1. [embezzled] O tesoureiro antigo desfalcou os cofres da companhia em $ 10,000. 2. [shoplifted] Apesar das câmeras recém-instaladas a maioria das lojas de departamento são roubadas praticamente a cada minuto. 3. [burglarized] A casa dos Watsons foi invadida (arrombada) tantas vezes que eles temem que ela venha a ser invadida de novo. 4. [looted] Durante a Guerra civil sangrenta as tropas invasoras saquearam diversas casas no campo. 5. [mugged] Um ladrão de bolsas assaltou um senhora e simplesmente fugiu correndo. 6. [rip-off] Logo eles descobriram que a casa não valia o dinheiro que haviam pago por ela. Tinha sido um golpe! 7. [swindled] O cara era verdadeiramente um vigarista. Quando eu descobri já era tarde. Ele havia me roubado $ 10.000. 8. [relieved] Muito cinicamente o punguista (batedor de carteiras) confessou que havia ‘aliviado’ o velho de sua carteira. VI. Supply the appropriate question tag: 1. You study English nowadays, don’t you? Você estuda inglês hoje em dia, não estuda? 2. Jennifer didn’t study French at school, did she? Jennifer não estudou francês na escola, estudou? 3. Tom could help you do your job, couldn’t he? Tom podia ajudá-lo a fazer o trabalho, não podia? 4. Teresa was reading a newspaper then, wasn’t she? Teresa estava lendo um jornal então, não estava? 5. Dennis shouldn’t miss this show, should he? Dennis não devia perder este show, devia? 6. There are some mistakes in my composition, aren’t there? Há alguns erros na minha redação, não há? 7. George and Karen are going to church, aren’t they? George e Karen estão indo para a igreja, não estão? 8. Your parents gave you $ 50 to spend the weekend, didn’t they? Seus pais lhe deram $50 para gastar no fim de semana, não deram? 9. She met Mick Jagger in Brazil, didn’t you? Você encontrou com o Mick Jagger no Brasil, não encontrou? 10. Dot didn’t go to Spain in 1986, did she? Dot não foi à Espanha em 1986, foi?

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VII. Supply the corresponding question tag. 1. There isn’t anything I can do, is there? Não ha nada que eu possa fazer, há? 2. Mr. Thompson will make the speech, won’t he? O Sr. Thompson fará o discurso, não fará? 3. They phoned the police station, didn’t they? Eles ligaram para a delegacia de polícia, não ligaram? 4. You haven’t been to the USA yet, have you? Você não esteve ainda nos EUA, esteve? 5. Bill has never been to New York, has he? Bill nunca esteve em NY, esteve? 6. Douglas studies Spanish on Saturdays, doesn’t he? Douglas estuda espanhol aos sábados, não estuda? 7. The phone rang at 3 a. m., didn’t it? O telefone tocou às três da manha, não tocou? 8. You don’t believe in flying saucers, do you? Você não acredita em OVNI, acredita? 9. All the students were present, weren’t they? Todos os alunos estavam presentes, não estavam? 10. Jill, you’re doing nearly 80, aren’t you? Jill, você está indo a quase 80, não está? VIII. Supply the corresponding question tag. 1. Janette has never seen that movie, has she? Janette nunca viu aquele filme, viu? 2. We’ll be there in about an hour, won’t we? Estaremos lá em aproximadamente uma hora, não estaremos? 3. You waited for your luggage, didn’t you? Você esperou pela sua bagagem, não esperou? 4. We’d better stay a little longer, hadn’t we? É melhor nós ficarmos um pouco mais tempo, não é? 5. That’s your turn to drive, isn’t it? É a sua vez de dirigir, não é?

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6. You had a hard time answering the questions, didn’t you? Você teve dificuldades em responder as perguntas, não teve? 7. You had come for the food, hadn’t you? Você tinha vindo pela comida, não tinha? 8. I am learning this topic fast, aren’t I? Eu estou aprendendo este tópico rapidamente, não estou? 9. There are many reasons to visit Paris, aren’t there? Há muitas razões para visitar Paris, não há? 10. Tim and Pat were riding their bikes in the park, weren’t they? Tim e Pat estavam andando de bicicleta no parque, não estavam? 11. Everybody has finished eating lunch, haven’t they? Todos terminaram de almoçar, não terminaram? 12. Let’s meet in the lobby, shall we? Vamos nos encontrar no saguão, OK? 13. Your sister used to play the flute, didn’t she? Sua irmã costumava tocar flauta, não costumava? 14. Both of your kids have good jobs, don’t they? Ambos os seus filhos têm bons empregos, não têm? 15. No one can do anything now, can they? Ninguém pode fazer nada agora, pode? IX. Phrasal verbs com TURN: 1. [ON] Não tente ligar o motor agora; a bateria está arriada. 2. [IN] Se ele praticou o crime entregue-o para a polícia. 3. [UP] Era para nós encontrarmos as garotas na academia, porém nenhuma delas apareceu. 4. [BACK] Está chovendo forte. É melhor retornarmos, pessoal. 5. [OVER] Agora quero que mudem para a próxima página onde encontrarão as instruções para fazer este exercício. X. a number of means of transportation 1. [stage coaches] No velho oeste eram as diligência puxadas por cavalos que levavam as pessoas a lugares distantes. 2. [sleighs] Os trenós também podem ser puxados por cavalos mas são usados para transportar pessoas e coisas na neve. 3. [scooters] Lambretas, veiculo econômicos de duas rodas não são tão populares no Brasil quanto eram na década de 1960. 4. [barges] Antes da ponte Rio–Niterói, os veículos eram transportados através da Baía da Guanabara em barcaças.

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5. [station wagons] As camionetes são automóveis longos e espaçosos que se caracterizam por uma porta na traseira. 6. [shuttles] Com o advento dos ônibus espaciais não é nada inconcebível pensar em viagens interplanetárias no futuro próximo. 7. [tractors] Os tratores são veículos motorizados geralmente mantidos no galpão das máquinas usados para puxar arados em fazendas e na realização de várias outras tarefas pesadas. 8. [trucks] Os caminhões são veículos pesados usados para o transporte de mercadorias nas estradas. XI. Cloze 1. event // 2. term // 3. orbited // 4. craft // 5. gathering // 6. staked // 7. plaque // 8. achievements // 9. mixed // 10. heavy // 11. carried // 12. ironically XII. Choose the best option in parentheses to complete the cloze: 1. (b) free of // 2. (a) of its kind // 3. (c) to rescue// 4. (d) inoperable // 5. (d) feats // 6. (a) successful // 7. (c) who was to be// 8. (b) while // 9. (d) then // 10. (a) the resumption

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Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 14 foram alcançados. OBJECTIVES (OBJETIVOS) Draw your attention to the following essential points: Chamar sua atenção para os seguintes pontos essenciais: I. Analysis of text 1: “The Conquest of Distance” Análise do texto 1: “A Conquista da Distância” II. Word Forms: multiple choice items – words in families Formação das palavras: múltipla escolha - palavras derivadas III. Collocation Study - Key word: SPEED Estudo de Collocation - Palavra-chave SPEED IV. Confusable words: WITHIN / INNER / INSIDE Palavras que confundem: WITHIN / INNER / INSIDE V. Analysis of text 2: ‘Rita’s Car’ Análise do Texto 2: ‘O Carro da Rita’ VI. Grammar Tips: Causative form: verbs have, make & get // Question Tags Dicas de Gramática: forma causativa c/ verbos have, make & get // Perguntas curtas VII. Analysis of text 3: ‘Inventions, Development and Tycoons’ Análise Texto 3: ‘Invenções, Desenvolvimento e Magnatas’ VIII. Discourse Markers (III) – Addition Marcadores do Discurso (III) – Acréscimo IX. Phrasal Verbs: TURN Verbos Frásicos: TURN X. Picture Test 14 Teste com gravuras 14 XI. Exercise Section Seção de Exercícios

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