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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO AULA 12 HEALTH & ILLNESS A partir desta aula desenvolveremos nosso estudo em torno de grandes temas. The first theme I chose is health and illness. Como já falei na área livre do site, na última prova para AFRF e TRF até a própria ESAF surpreendeu ao introduzir um terceiro texto que falava sobre saúde & doença (vide: A Look at Past Exams - no final desta aula) Of course, ninguém vai pensar que por causa desta seleção de um eixo temático não falaremos mais em verb tenses, key words, false friends, collocations, etc que vimos estudando até agora. Obviamente que não. É só olhar o conteúdo desta aula. Só para exemplificar, citaremos algumas collocations imaginando uma resposta a uma pergunta de médico do tipo: ‘What seems to be the trouble with you? Restringindo as respostas somente aos verbos have e feel: have a fever (estar com febre) // have a hangover (estar de ressaca) // have a headache (ter dor de cabeça) // have a heart attack (ter um ataque do coração // have high blood pressure (ter pressão alta) // feel fine (sentir-se bem) // feel sick (estar doente) // feel dizzy ( sentir-se tonto) // feel queasy (nauseous) (sentir-se enjoado) // feel sleepy (sentir-se sonolento) // feel nervous ( sentir-se nervoso / a) // feel tense ( sentir-se tenso) Mas a grande shift ocorrerá no foco maior - que visivelmente passará a ser na estruturação do texto em si. Conseqüentemente, você notará que a ênfase se transferirá para a construção dos parágrafos, para os recursos que o autor utiliza para pular de um parágrafo para outro, e, assim, enfatizaremos o estudo dos discourse markers (transitions), das clauses (if-clauses, time clauses, etc) e demais tipos de orações. Os modal verbs com suas nuances de sentido emprestadas ao verbo principal terão mais destaque. Think about it: “I am disturbed when I see a cigarette between the lips or fingers of some important person upon whose intelligence and judgment the welfare of the world in part depends.” (Linus Pauling) “Perturba-me ver um cigarro entre os lábios ou nos dedos de um personagem importante de cuja inteligência e tirocínio o bem estar da humanidade em parte dependem.”



Text 1: Hangover or Stress?








The night before, I had drunk a little too much at Hank’s. My doctor had already told me to draw the line at heavy drinking, but this time I think I must have gotten carried away. Here I was at the office searching for some antacid to cure my hangover. Furthermore, I felt somewhat queasy, too. It was harder than ever to keep up with my morning tasks. During the coffee break, I remember, Erika kept raving about an astrology book she had bought. She used to say that her astrology books were her best friends in her solitude. Doris was talking about a batteryoperated electronic chessboard she had bought. She kept challenging me to pit my wits against her electronic partner. Joel, who usually prattled on and on, this time was telling us about a thrilling movie he had seen on the lives of daring stuntmen, about all the risks they had to take when standing in for movie actors or actresses. Suddenly he turned up to me and asked if I was feeling well. Joel came up to me, unbuttoned my collar, and I hardly remember anything else. I had to be taken to the Medical Department on the 8th floor right away. When I came to, Dr. Schwanck said that Joel had done his utmost to make me feel at ease. I had fainted and fallen over some flimsy cartons which were piled up in the corner of the room. In fact, when I looked at them again, they were all crumpled up. Dr. Schwanck recommended I do a check-up – something I had been putting off for quite a while. Her words of advice kept ringing in my ears. She sounded as if she were my father. My father who had kept urging on the need for a check-up, but, you know, when parents talk we have a tendency to believe they’re just picking on us. I felt so ashamed. This time I decided to heed her warning. After all, I had been feeling a little run down lately – due to overwork perhaps. Besides the usual blood tests and other ordinary exams, it was necessary for me to have an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) of my right knee taken because it got bruised and swollen after my fall over the cartons. On reading the doctor’s prescriptions, my boss suggested that I take a vacation in order to try to get my mind off my work. Now when I look back on everything that happened to me I wish I had consulted a doctor way before this embarrassing incident. Incidentally, I’m leaving for Palma de Majorca with my family in a couple of days. I expect I can have the time of my life during my vacation, away from hangovers and stress.



VOCABULARY PRÉ-TEST Choose the best completion or substitution: 1. That morning, in the office, I felt somewhat queasy. a) shaken

b) intrigued

c) depressed

d) nauseous

2. Joel usually ............... on and on and never said anything meaningful. a) prattled

b) challenged

c) switched

d) bubbled

3. Get some antacid for your ..................... . a) hang-up

b) hangover

c) hanger

d) handicap

4. In the end, Joel made me feel at ease. a) comfortable b) insecure

c) flabby

d) uneasy

5. I decided to ................... Dr. Schwanck’s warning and do a check-up. a) heel

b) house

c) heed

d) hurdle

6. ..................... replace movie actors in dangerous scenes. a) Pilots

b) Flyers

c) Stuntmen

d) Pitchers

7. It was hard for me to carry out my morning ................. at the office. a) overwork

b) stacks

c) tasks

d) rituals

8. I had fallen over some flimsy cartons in the corner of the room. a) heavy

b) small

c) thin

d) stiff

9. She ................... up the sheet of paper into a ball and threw it away. a) crumpled

b) crippled

c) carved

d) curbed

10. She was so pale that I felt as if she were going to..................... . a) flop

b) fade

c) fake

d) faint



Reading Comprehension Questions Choose the best option: 1. It is stated that the narrator of this story ... a) had not done a check-up for some time already. b) used to faint very frequently. c) did not heed his doctor’s advice customarily. d) had refused to take his vacation before. 2. “Joel was a very .......................... friend I had at the office.” Based on information contained in the story you can complete the above sentence with any of the following adjectives, except for ... a) talkative and trustworthy. b) considerate and reliable. c) easygoing and opinionated. d) loyal and caring. 3. It can be inferred that the narrator of this story ... a) used to have trouble keeping up with his morning tasks. b) had been feeling a little depressed lately. c) used to go to Hank’s to have a few drinks. d) was surprised at the reaction of his boss. 4. By putting off doing his medical check-up the narrator shows ... a) absent-mindedness. b) negligence. c) boldness. d) lack of organization. 5. In order to get his mind off his work for a while the narrator of the story decided to ... a) heed Dr. Schwanck’s advice. b) thank Joel for his invaluable help. c) pit his wits against a computer chessboard. d) leave on vacation for Palma de Majorca.



WORD FORMS Choose the best word in bold to complete the sentences: 1. Drink / drunkard / drinking/ drunk The reckless driver was completely _________ at the time of his arrest. __________________________________________________________ 2. Astrology / astrologer / astrological The one who’s an expert on astrology is an ______________. __________________________________________________________ 3. Stuntmen / stunted/ stunts At the park we saw a show where actors performed a number of ______. __________________________________________________________ 4. Risk / risking / riskier / riskiest / risky Stuntmen replaced the leading actors because the scene was too ______. __________________________________________________________ 5. Flimsy / flimsier / flimsiest / flimsiness Doris came up with a ____________ excuse than mine. __________________________________________________________ 6. Recommend / recommendable / recommendation Our new maid came through the personal __________ of my aunt Claire. __________________________________________________________ 7. Advice / advised / advisor Dr. Shepherd ____________ me to do a check-up. __________________________________________________________ 8. Urging / urgency / urgently There was a tone of ____________ in the spokesman’s words. __________________________________________________________ 9. Prescriptions / prescribed / prescribing Dr. Novak ____________ some antibiotics and a pain reliever. __________________________________________________________ 10. Happened / happening/ happened / mishap Now when I look back on the incident at the office that morning, I realize it was nothing more than a _____________. __________________________________________________________



COLLOCATION STUDY: SAY OR TELL? From text 1: “My doctor had already told me to draw the line at heavy drinking” Minha médica já havia me dito para limitar a bebida em excesso. In English you tell tales (= conta histórias) but you say your prayers (= faz suas preces, suas orações) for example. Just like we did with ‘make’ & ‘do’, it is indispensable to know how to use ‘say’ or ‘tell’ correctly. The basic distinction between the two verbs can be summarized as follows: To tell somebody something To say something (to somebody) However, there are many idiomatic uses of ‘say’ and ‘tell’, so you must practice exhaustively. Look at some examples: Next week is my birthday. It goes without saying that I want all of you at my party. Na semana que vem é meu aniversário. Não é preciso nem dizer que quero todos vocês na minha festa. The two brothers look alike. It’s hard to tell them apart. Os dois irmãos são muito parecidos. É difícil distinguir entre os dois. I’m you partner, too. I’d like to have a say in this matter. Sou seu sócio também. Gostaria de participar da decisão nesse caso. After such a brilliant speech there’s not really much left to be said. Depois do tão brilhante discurso não sobrou muito para dizer. ‘Better late than never’ is a popular saying. ‘Antes tarde do que nunca’ é um ditado popular. All told there must have been 25 teachers at the seminar. Incluindo todos devia haver uns 25 professores no congresso. I don’t know about you, but I don’t believe in fortune tellers and people who allegedly have supernatural powers. Não sei quanto a você, mas não acredito naqueles que lêem sua sorte e outros que alegam ter poderes sobrenaturais.



GRAMMAR TIPS: INDIRECT SPEECH From text 1: Suddenly Joel asked me if I was feeling well. De repente Joel perguntou-me se eu estava me sentindo bem. The sentence above in direct speech (DS) should read: “Are you feeling all right?”, Joel asked me suddenly. - Você está se sentindo bem? – Joel perguntou de repente. When we report other people’s words we need to make use of indirect speech (IS). Quando reproduzimos as palavras de outras pessoas precisamos usar o discurso indireto. Except for pronoun changes, nothing happens to the verb tenses when the verb in the introductory clause is in the present simple. Com exceção de variações pronominais nada mais acontece com os tempos verbais se o verbo da oração introdutória estiver no presente. DS: How do you feel now? (present simple) Como você se sente agora? IS: The doctor wants to know how I feel now. (present simple) O médico quer saber como me sinto agora. However, if the verb in the introductory clause were in the past, a verb tense change would occur. Contudo se o verbo da oração introdutória estive no passado variações verbais ocorrem. IS: The doctor wanted to know how I felt then. O medico queria saber como eu me sentia naquele momento. Study some of the main changes (verbal and non-verbal): Estude as principais variações verbais e não verbais. a) Questions/Statements present simple becomes past simple presente simples muda para passado simples DS: “Where does Lucy study French?”, Fred wanted to know. Onde a Lucy estuda francês?, queria saber o Fred. IS: Fred wanted to know where Lucy studied French. O Fred desejava saber onde a Lucy estudava francês.



past simple becomes past perfect passado simples muda para passado perfeito DS: “How did you go to work?”, Mona asked. Como você foi para a escola? - perguntou a Mona. IS: Mona asked me how I had gone to work. Mona perguntou como eu tinha ido para escola. future simple becomes conditional futuro simples muda para futuro do pretérito DS: “Will you come to visit me tomorrow?”, Rosa asked. Você virá visitar-me amanhã? – indagou a Rosa. IS: Rosa asked me if I would come to visit her the next day. Rosa perguntou-me seu iria visitá-la no dia seguinte. present perfect continuous becomes past perfect continuous presente perfeito continuo muda passado perfeito contínuo DS: “How many years has Mr. Hill been living in Brazil?”, Helen asked. A quantos anos o Sr. Hill está vivendo no Brasil? –perguntou Helena. IS: Helen asked me how long Mr. Hill had been living in Brazil. Helena indagou a quanto tempo o Sr. Hill estava vivendo no Brasil. present continuous becomes past continuous presente continuo muda para passado contínuo DS: “I'm leaving today”, Joanna said. Estou de partida hoje – disse Joana. IS: Joanna said that she was leaving that day. Joana disse que estava de partida naquele dia. b) Commands DS: “Go to bed now”, Tom's mother ordered. (imp. affirm.) Vá já para cama. – ordenou a mãe do Tom. IS: Tom's mother ordered him to go to bed then. A mãe do Tom ordenou-lhe que fosse para a cama.



DS: “Don't stay up late!”, Milton's wife advised him. (Imperative) –Não fique acordado até tarde – aconselhou a esposa do Milton. IS: Milton’s wife advised him not to stay up late. A esposa do Milton aconselhou-o a não ficar acordado até tarde. c) Special Cases Here are a few more complex examples: Eis aqui alguns casos mais complexos: DS: Let's go to the beach. (sby. invited us) Vamos à praia. IS: We were invited to go to the beach. Nós fomos convidados a ir a praia. DS: “I'm sorry I'm late, teacher”, the student apologized. Lamento se estou atrasado, professor – desculpou-se o aluno. IS: The student apologized to the teacher for being late. O aluno desculpou-se com o professor por estar atrasado. DS: ‘I will kill you, Mr. Thompson, I swear I will.” Those were the prisoner's threatening words. Eu o matarei, Sr. Thompson, eu juro. Estas foram as palavras ameaçadoras do prisioneiro. IS: The prisoner threatened to kill Mr. Thompson. He swore he would. O prisioneiro ameaçou matar o Sr. Thompson. Jurou que o faria. DS: “I can't affirm whether Marie left today or yesterday”, Ruth said. – Não posso afirmar se Marie partiu hoje ou ontem – disse Rute. IS: Ruth said she could not affirm whether Marie had left that day or the day before. Rute disse que não podia afirmar se Maria havia partido naquele dia ou no dia anterior.



VOCABULARY BUILD UP KEY WORD: HAVE From text 1: I expect I can have the time of my life during my vacation, away from hangovers and stress. (L-38) Espero que eu possa me divertir como nunca nas minhas férias, longe do estresse e das ressacas. Choose the option that forms the most suitable expression with the verb ‘to have’. In parentheses you are given brief equivalents. 1. When I was a kid I remember I had a ____________ (= a strong liking for) for marbles and tops. I used to play with them every day. a) relapse b) green thumb c) a real thing T: ______________________________________________________ 2. Uncle Jonas takes care of his garden. He devotes most of his spare time to this hobby. Uncle Jonas has ____________ (=he knows how to take care of plants, flowers, ...) a) a green thumb b) an ax to grind c) a real thing T: ______________________________________________________ 3. My brother will do whatever I tell him, don’t worry. I have him ____________ (=I control him) a) crushed b) under my thumb c) by the nose T: ______________________________________________________ 4. So far, in the dispute between the union leaders and the company owners, the latter seem to have ____________ (= be at a more advantageous position) a) a relapse b ) the real thing c) the upper hand T: ______________________________________________________



5. Influential politicians seem to have a ____________ (= take part in everything that is going on) a) relapse b) finger in every pie c) the real thing T: ______________________________________________________ 6. If I were you I’d stay in bed all day to get over this cold. It’s no fun going out in this rain and risk having a ____________ (= start to feel all the symptoms again) a) a relapse b ) the real thing c) the return T: ______________________________________________________ 7. All the interest the couple showed in buying the old house makes me suspect they have ____________ considering all the restoration work that it requires. (= have some hidden interest in sth.) a) a real thing b ) an ax to grind c) know the ropes T: ______________________________________________________ 8. Greg has always had ____________ Sylvia. He’s been in love with her for ages. (= had a soft spot for) a) the real thing for b ) a crush on c) the upper hand on __________________________________________________________ 9. Just when Gerald thought he had ____________ at the party, he got messed up and couldn’t say a word to Linda. (= had it prepared in advance) a) his story down pat b ) the real thing c) the relapse __________________________________________________________ 10. I’m sorry to say the conclusion you drew has ____________ the body of your composition. (= bears no relation with) a) nothing to do with b ) a crush on c) an ax to grind with __________________________________________________________



VOCABULARY POST TEST Read text 1 again, then complete the sentences that follow with one of the idiomatic expressions in the box:

draw the line at come to feel run down look back on

pit one’s wits against pick on get carried away get one’s mind off

keep up with rave about put off do one’s utmost

1. Sometimes it is hard for your kid to _________________ (=maintain the same pace as) his classmates, Mrs. Daniels. T: _________________________________________________ 2. Sandra has the impression that her boss _________________ (=nagging, criticizing) her. T: _________________________________________________ 3. Well-trained tourist guides will _________________ (=make all efforts) to help you enjoy the best restaurants in Rio where you can taste the delicacies of the Brazilian cuisine. T: _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. How can you _________________ (=postpone) seeing your dentist? To go on feeling the pain seems totally irrational to me. T: _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. Renée had been _________________ (= in poor health) lately. She really needed to take a few days off. T: _________________________________________________ 6. Erika kept _________________ (=talking enthusiastically) an astrology book she had just bought. T: _________________________________________________


CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 7. Last night at the concert, Hilda fainted unexpectedly and had to be taken to the hospital. When she _________________ (= revived) she said that she could hardly remember anything about the concert. T: _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. One cigarette or two a day, that’s how far he gets now. The doctor told me to _________________ (= set a limit) at heavy smoking. T: _________________________________________________ 9. You should have seen Peter at the party. He told some really dirty jokes in front of Pat’s grandparents. It seems he _________________ (= lost control) and just couldn’t stop. How embarrassing! T: _________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. My doctor told me to devote my free time to a hobby; something to _________________ (= make me forget it) my work. T: _________________________________________________ 11. Sometimes I __________________ my elementary school days and I realize that those were the good old days. (= think about the past) T: _________________________________________________ 12. My friend Glenda, an exceedingly good chess player, kept challenging me to _________________ her electronic chessboard. (try to defeat) T: _________________________________________________



Text 2: Daily Aspirin Therapy









In recent years, you may have seen television ads promoting aspirin's ability to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in certain groups of people. You should know that deciding to take an aspirin a day is not as simple as it may seem. The Federal Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) has launched a public education campaign to remind consumers that aspirin is not without risk; the decision to use aspirin to prevent a heart attack and stroke is safest when made in consultation with a health professional. It's been about 100 years since aspirin was created. And in that time, it has played a major role in treating headaches, fever, and minor aches and pains for millions. Now there are studies showing that aspirin is helpful in lowering the chance of a heart attack and clot-related stroke. Still, most health professionals agree that long-term aspirin use to prevent a heart attack or stroke in healthy people is unnecessary. If you are using aspirin to lower the risk of heart attack and stroke and you have not talked with a health professional about it, you may be putting your health at risk. Aspirin can help prevent a heart attack or clot-related stroke by lowering the clotting action of the blood's platelets. But the same properties that make aspirin work in stopping blood from clotting may also cause unwanted side effects, such as stomach bleeding. bleeding in the brain. kidney failure, and other kinds of strokes. There may be a benefit to daily aspirin use if you have some kind of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have evidence of poor blood flow to the brain. But only a doctor can tell you whether the risks of long-term aspirin use may be greater than the benefits. If your health professional agrees to your use of daily aspirin treatment, you'll need his or her medical knowledge and guidance to help prevent unwanted side effects. Before deciding if daily aspirin use is right for you, your health professional will consider such factors as your medical and family history, your use of other medicines, your allergies and sensitivities, and what side effects you may experience. Some medical conditions such as pregnancy, high blood pressure, bleeding disorders, asthma, stomach ulcers, and liver and kidney disease, could make aspirin a bad choice for you. Aspirin is also a drug that can mix badly with other medicines (prescription and over-the-counter). vitamins, herbals, or dietary supplements. People who are already using a prescribed medicine to thin the blood should talk to a health professional before using aspirin, even occasionally. It’s important to discuss the use of all medicines, vitamins and dietary supplements with your health professional before using aspirin daily.



VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A prevent a stroke played a major role lowering the chance clot-related stroke unwanted side effects blood flow to the brain

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) diminuir o risco de ) derrame relativo a coágulo ) teve um papel importante ) impedir um derrame ) fluxo sanguíneo p/ o cérebro ) efeitos colaterais indesejados

Reading Comprehension Questions Write (T) in parentheses if you think it’s true or (F) if false: 1. T: 2. T: 3.

It is totally safe to take an aspirin a day. ( ) _________________________________________________ Aspirin reduces the risk of heart attacks in some cases. ( ) _________________________________________________ A health professional should be consulted if you want to take one aspirin a day. ( ) T: _________________________________________________ 4. Some medical conditions could make aspirin a bad choice for some people. ( ) T: _________________________________________________ 5. Only a doctor can tell the benefits of aspirin in the long run. ( ) T: _________________________________________________ 6. Daily use of aspirin depends exclusively on your family history. ( ) T: _________________________________________________ 7. Daily use of aspirin may benefit those who have poor blood flow to the brain. ( ) T: _________________________________________________ 8. According to most health professionals long-term use of aspirin to prevent heart attacks is not necessary. ( ) T: _________________________________________________ 9. Various kinds of stroke may be some of the unwanted side effects of continual aspirin daily use. ( ) T: _________________________________________________ 10. Aspirin hardly ever mixes badly with other medicines. ( ) T: _________________________________________________



DISCOURSE MARKERS (I) From text 2: “Still, most health professionals agree that long-term aspirin use to prevent a heart attack or stroke in healthy people is unnecessary. (L13/14) Contudo, a maioria dos profissionais de saúde concordam que o uso prolongado da aspirina para impedir um ataque do coração em pessoas saudáveis é desnecessário. “But the same properties that make aspirin work in stopping blood from clotting may also cause unwanted side effects,…” (L-19/20) Porém as mesmas propriedades que fazem a aspirina atuar impedindo a coagulação sanguínea também causam efeitos colaterais indesejados. For the time being, vamos nos concentrar nos discourse markers que indicam oposição ou contraste. Repare que eles variam na maneira conforme são usados na frase, mas guardam essa identidade semântica. Indicando oposição / contraste BUT, after all, in spite of, on the other hand, nevertheless, however, on the contrary, yet, still, in contrast, despite, notwithstanding … In spite of (Despite) the rain the boys kept on playing soccer all day. Apesar da chuva os rapazes continuaram jogando futebol o dia todo. Although it was raining the boys kept on playing soccer all day. Embora chovesse os rapazes continuaram jogando futebol o dia todo. Conforme se observa despite & in spite of são preposição e locução prepositiva respectivamente, enquanto que although é uma conjunção concessiva. Daí a diferença no uso. Veja outros casos: You may be good at languages, yet (however) you must keep practicing them constantly otherwise you forget all about them. Você pode ser bom em idiomas, entretanto é preciso praticar constantemente do contrário você esquece tudo a respeito delas. On the one hand you will be making much more money if you get the promotion; on the other hand, you will often be away on business trips. Por um lado você ganhará muito mais se for promovido; por outro lado, se ausentará freqüentemente em viagens de negócio.



CONFUSABLE WORDS I. Breath / Breathe Breath - it’s a noun (= respiração) The doctor told me to take a deep breath. O medico mandou-me respirar fundo. Use a mouthwash. You don’t want to have bad breath do you? Use um purificador bucal. Você não vai querer ter mau hálito, vai? Breathe – it’s the regular verb. (= respirtar) I don’t know, doctor. But it’s had to breathe. Não sei, doutor. Está difícil respirar. Why don’t you breathe slowly? Por que você não respira lentamente? II. Be Bound to / Be bound for be bound to (= be sure to; connected with) If you don’t practice your English, you’re bound to lose your fluency. Se você não praticar seu inglês, com certeza perderá sua fluência. From that day on Hugh’s life was inextricably bound to chemistry. Daquele dia em diante a vida do Hugo ficou inseparavelmente vinculada à química. be bound for (=be going in the direction of) The ship was bound for the Far East. O navio dirigia-se para o Extremo Oriente. At last the troops were bound for home. Finalmente as tropas estavam voltando para casa. III. be worth doing sth / be worthy of sth. be worth doing sth So, you’re telling me that his latest book is really worth reading? (= it would be a pleasure, it would be profitable if I read the book Então, você está me dizendo que seu mais novo livro vale a pena ler?


CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO be worthy of sth. Do you think the author is worthy of those praising words by the critics? (= Does the author deserve all the praise?) Você crê que o autor seja merecedor das palavras elogiosas dos críticos? IV. Remember / remind From text 1: “During the coffee break, I remember, Erika kept raving about an astrology book she had bought.” Durante o intervalo para o café, eu me lembro, Érika continuava a falar com entusiasmo sobre um livro de astrologia que ela comprara. a) to remember (r.v) (=lembrar-se) I remember my childhood days and I realize I was happy. Lembro-me da minha infância e chego a conclusão de que era feliz. From text 2: “… (CDER) has launched a public education campaign to remind consumers that aspirin is not without risk” (L-5/6) CDER lançou um campanha pública para lembrar aos consumidores que a aspirina não está livre de riscos. b) to remind (r.v) ( fazer alguém lembrar-se) Remind me to send you the review exercises for next class, OK? Lembre-me de enviar-lhe os exercícios de revisão para a próxima aula, OK?



VOCABULARY BUILD UP Complete the mini-texts with the words from the boxes. Mini-text 1: Smoking and health - Drugs and health misleading





The EU is pro-active in combating smoking. EU governments have agreed to __________ (1) most forms of tobacco advertising and event ____________ (2) by tobacco companies no later than 1 August 2005. EU rules already limit the use of additives and addictive substances, make health warnings compulsory, forbid __________ (3) claims, and set maximum levels of tar, carbon monoxide and nicotine in cigarettes. The EU’s action plan to combat drugs complements the fight against drug ____________ (4) and drug-related crime through EU policy on justice and home affairs. Over the period 2000-2004, the EU aims to reduce substantially the use of illegal drugs, including "ecstasy", heroin and amphetamines, and to combat drug-related diseases (such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, and HIV/Aids) and drug-related deaths. The watchwords are prevention, education and ____________ (5). Visit: access: 20/07/05 Mini-text 2: The environment and health links





Between one quarter and one third of illness and disease in industrial countries is the result of environmental __________ (1). Those hit hardest are children and other vulnerable groups, such as the __________ (2). A new strategy launched in mid-2003 will make a start on tackling some environmental factors responsible for public health problems. The ________ (3) for 2004-2010 have been incorporated in an Environment and Health Action Plan. They include study of the ________ (4) between environmental factors and asthma, allergies and respiratory diseases in children, childhood cancer, and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism and __________ (8) problems. Visit: access: 20/07/05



Mini-text 3: Safe medical treatments new disabilities




Safe medical treatment for all to the same quality standards is a primary EU concern, either as part of its public health or single market policies. So there are measures in place to provide: ● safe ____________ (1) and rapid dissemination throughout the EU of information on any problems ● streamlined procedures for approving ___________ (2) drugs ● development of 'orphan' drugs needed in small quantities for rare ___________ (3) ● safe medical devices These range from implants for hip replacements and pacemakers to bandages and spectacles. The EU has agreed a single EU-wide quality and safety standard for the use, distribution and ___________ (4) of blood products, tissues and cells used in medical treatment, and organs for transplants. The European Commission is also looking at whether it would make sense to have common rules for technologies which make life easier for people with ____________ (5). Visit: access: 20/07/05 Mini-text 4: What you can do to help curb antibiotic resistance multiply





Don’t demand an antibiotic when your health-care provider ___________ (1) one isn’t appropriate. Ask about ways to help __________ (2) your symptoms. Never _________ (3) an antibiotic for a viral infection such as a cold, a cough, or the flu. Take medicine exactly as your health-care provider prescribes. If he or she __________ (4) an antibiotic, take it until it is gone, even if you're feeling better. Don't take leftover antibiotics or antibiotics prescribed for someone else. These antibiotics may not be appropriate for your current symptoms. Taking the wrong medicine could delay getting correct treatment and allow bacteria to ___________ (5).



Mini-text 5: Health and Medical Care recipients lingering expectancy

extensive burden

At the turn of the century an American could expect to live to age 47; today the life __________ (1) has risen to 74. During the same period the death rate for infants has gone down steadily; now, fewer than one percent of infants die in their first year. Good medical care, numerous hospitals and __________ (2) public health services are available all over the nation. Many Americans carry insurance to help them meet medical expenses that may arise. A major health problem in the United States is care of the aged who suffer from _________ (3) illnesses. The federal government helps those 65 or older who cannot pay for health benefits. The Medicare program, authorized by Congress in 1965, assists these persons in paying for hospital care, home-nursing services and outpatient hospital diagnosis; it is financed under the national Social Security program. Medicaid is available to most public welfare __________ (4) Congress designed this system of payments to help lift the increasingly heavy ___________ (5) of health and medical costs from the shoulders of the poor and families that include aged, blind or disabled members. (From This is America, page 68, USIA publication 1990)



Try it. As usual, it’s fifty-fifty, como sempre você tem 50% de chances de acertar! PICTURE TEST 12

Tarzan must have [a) done / b) made] a strong impression on this kid.

USEFUL TIPS Decidi dar este formato novo as aulas de agora em diante para que você possa ter um arsenal de vocabulário vinculado a uma área semântica. Afinal, volto a insistir, quem imaginaria que a ESAF nos concursos de AFRF e TRF recentes iria incluir um 3º texto na prova falando sobre heart attack & smoking? Como o text 1 foi escrito por mim repare na quantidade de phrasal verbs & colorful idioms (vide vocabulary post–test) que eu inclui. Com isso pretendo chamar sua atenção para a importância desse estudo. Os examinadores são mestres em buscar determinadas expressões idiomáticas e formular catchy questions na prova. Mais do que nunca se faz necessária a organização do seu notebook.



STAYING HEALTHY A finalidade deste exercício é permitir que você alone or with a colleague possa praticar os itens de vocabulário abaixo oralmente aproveitando as dezenas de possibilidades existentes: Dialogue Exchanges Doctor: What seems to be the trouble with you? Patient: It’s my __________ (1), doctor. Doctor: How long have you been feeling like this? Patient Since yesterday. It’s (I feel) __________ (2). Doctor: You have __________ (3). I’ll prescribe __________ (4). Useful Vocabulary items to help fill in ... 1. arm (= braço), back (= costa), chest (= tórax), chin (= queixo), finger (= dedo da mão), toe (= dedo do pé), head (= cabeça), stomach (= estômago), leg (= perna), knee (= joelho), hand (= mão), neck (= pescoço), kidney (= rim), ankle (= tornozelo), throat (= garganta), liver (= fígado), lungs (= pulmões), nose (= nariz), eyes (= olhos), foot (= pé), feet (= pés), shoulder (= ombro), ... 2. aching (= doendo), swollen (= inchado), twisted (torcido), sprained (estirado), runny (= escorrendo), bruised (= machucado, c/hematoma), burned (= queimado) , dislocated (= deslocado), dizzy (= tonto), sore (= inflamado), upset (= indisposto) ... 3. a fever (= com febre), measles (= sarampo), mumps (= caxumba), small-pox (= varíola), chicken-pox (=catapora), diarrhea (= diarréia), tonsillitis (= amigdalite), backache (= dor nas costas, na coluna), cramps (= cãibra), a boil (= um furúnculo), convulsions (= convulsões), the flu (= com gripe), a cold (= um resfriado), constipation (= prisaõ de ventre), a sunburn (= queimadura de sol), heartburn (= azia), a stiff neck (= torcicolo), pneumonia (= pneumonia), food poisoning (= intoxicação alimnetar), an ulcer (= úlcera), gastritis (= gastrite), hay fever (= febre do feno) 4. an antibiotic (=um antibiótico), a pain reliever (= um analgésico), some pills (= pílulas), an injection (= uma injeção), a shot (= uma injeção), some medicine (= remédio), this syrup (= este xarope), those anti-depressants (= esses anit-deporessivos), some sedative (= um sedativo), some ointment (= pomada), ...



A LOOK AT PAST EXAMS ESAF / AFRF -2005: Your answers to questions 28 to 30 must be based on the text below entitled “The real medicine”: The real medicine People who survive a heart attack often describe it as a wake-up call. But for a 61-year-old executive I met recently, it was more than that. This man was in the midst of a divorce when he was stricken last spring, and he had fallen out of touch with friends and family members. The executive’s doctor, unaware of the strife in his life, counseled him to change his diet, start exercising and quit smoking. He also prescribed drugs to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. It was sound advice, but in combing the medical literature, the patient discovered that he needed to do more. Studies suggested that his risk of dying within six months would be four times greater if he remained depressed and lonely. So he joined a support and reordered his priorities, placing relationships at the top of the list instead of the bottom. His health has improved steadily since then, and so has his outlook on life. In fact he now describes his heart attack as the best thing that ever happened to him. “Yes, my arteries are more open,” he says. “But even more important, I’m more open.” (Source: Newsweek, Oct 17th 2005) 28. According to the text, the executive a) actually refused to eat right, exercise and avoid smoking. b) seems to have increased his risk of early death. c) agrees that medicine should focus primarily on drugs. d) declined new choices and priorities in his life. e) went further in his search for recovery and health. 29. The advice given by the doctor is defined as sound. In other words, it a) might be effective. b) is reliable and effective. c) is questionable. d) should be looked into. e) must be deeply researched. 30. The text focuses on the relevance of a) current scientific and technological advances. b) studies carried out by obscure scientists. c) preventive medicine in relation to some ailments. d) a desirable change of attitude in life. e) leading a healthy life in spite of loneliness.



EXERCISES I. Use ‘say’ or ‘tell’. Make any necessary verb tense changes. 1. Principal: “I’d like your daughter to ______ me who was responsible for that most unfortunate happening.” Mr. Kent: “You don’t expect my girl to ______ on her friends, do you? What do you take her for? A snitch?” 2. Inspector: “Any news about the robbers, Simpson?” Simpson: “There’s no _______ where those crooks may be hiding, boss.” 3. Robert: “How much is the rent, Mrs. Kendall?” Landlady: “$ 700. It goes without ______ that all utility bills are the tenant’s responsibility.” 4. Donna: “Who lives in that horrible house?’ Jill: “An old, weird witch. People ______ she’s nuts.” 5. Mario: “_______, Ann. Do you really play chess?” Ann: “Sure. But I’ve been ______ you’re a champion.” 6. Aretha: “How old is that boy?” Jane: “I don’t know exactly, but I’m sure he can _______ the time.” 7. Mrs. Bailey: “Hello, Mrs. Bailey speaking.” Dr. Burns: “Mrs. Bailey, there are a few things I ought to ______ to you. Could you come to my office this afternoon?” 8. Harry: “You’re a helpless case, Rick. You smashed the car again!” Rick: “Spare me the sermon. And don’t come with ‘I ___ you so, either.” 9. Timmy: “I don’t want this soup, Benedita.” Benedita: “Do as you were _______. Eat your soup!”



10. Bill: “Who’s that pretty girl over there?’ Fred: “Maybe it’s Lucia, but it’s hard to ______ her from her twin sister.” 11. Ted: “After all these years we bump into each other in Rio.” Carol: “Well, as the old _________ goes. It’s a small world.” 12. Rita: “Kathy and Roy are getting married on June 5.” Ben: “That is to _________, a week from now.” 13. Don: “Now that all has been _________ and done, would you have dinner with me next Friday?” Ruth: “You have the nerve to invite me to dinner after all you _________ me last week, Don?” 14. Laura: “I want the divorce, Paul. I just can’t take it anymore.” Paul: “Well, you .............. it! I’m fed up, too.” 15. Frieda: “Did you hear Mr. Davis paid a fortune for that painting at the auction?” Sandy: “And just think! To find out it’s fake. Well, I guess you never can _________.” II. Choose the correct indirect speech construction: 1. Melissa: “When do I have to hand in my dissertation, Prof. Heston?” Melissa asked Prof. Heston when [she must/ she had to] hand it in. _______________________________________________________ 2. Rupert: “Let's go for a walk, Rachel.” Rupert invited Rachel [to let them go / to go] for a walk. _______________________________________________________ 3. Sonia: “Don't you ever call me up again, Greg.” Sonia told Greg [never call / never to call ] her again. _______________________________________________________



4. Rick: “Did you meet Jane at the concert?” Dick asked me if I [had met I did meet] Jane at the concert. _______________________________________________________ 5. Boss: "You may be right, Dot. I have to admit.” Dot's boss [had to/ must] admit she might be right. _______________________________________________________ III. Rewrite the following sentences using Direct Speech. 1. Paulo asked me how long it had taken us to get there. ‘...........................................................?’, Paulo asked. _______________________________________________________ 2. Marjorie invited us to go to the music festival. ‘.........................................................’, Marjorie invited us. _______________________________________________________ 3. Mary asked me how old my granddaughter was. “............................................................?’, Mary asked. _______________________________________________________ 4. John wanted to know who that floppy disk belonged to. ..........................................................?’, John wanted to know. _______________________________________________________ 5. Doctors advise us never to leave medicines within the reach of children. ‘........................................................................’, doctors advise us. _______________________________________________________ 6. Phil asked how long I had been waiting for him. ‘......................................................................?’, Phil asked. _______________________________________________________ 7. My son wanted to know what he would get for his birthday. ‘...................................................................?’, my son wanted know. _______________________________________________________ 8. Dora asked Linda if she could remember where she had parked the car. Dora asked, ‘Linda, ....................................................................?’ _______________________________________________________



IV. Choose the best option in parentheses to complete the text. Many thousands of people in the UK today have an eye disease they don’t know they have. By the time you (1- notice / noticed / noticeable) that your vision is (2- affectionate /affected / affecting), it may be too late to save your sight. Just a thirty-minute eye test could save your sight. Eye tests can pick up certain eye diseases before you notice the (3--effect / effective/ effectiveness) on your sight. Early treatment can often prevent your sight from (4- gotten /get / getting) worse. Not all eye diseases are (5- treated / treatable / treatment), but some of the most common are. You should treat an eye test like a regular check-up with your doctor or dentist. An eye test isn’t just about getting glasses–it is a vital (6healthy / health / healthful) check for your eyes. An eye test can identify eye conditions (7- such as /such /such that) glaucoma or cataract. There are several steps in an eye health check; all are very (8- simple / simply / simplified) and do not hurt. In all eye tests your vision will be (9- checked / checking / checks) using a letter chart. This will show whether you need glasses, or if you need new ones. If you do, you'll be given a prescription. You do not have to buy glasses from the place you had your eyes (10- tests / tested/ testing) – you can shop around. Other important parts of the eye test are: The Inner and Outer Eye Test - Your eyes will be checked inside and out (11- used / using / useful) a special light. This test may detect cataract and other eye conditions, as well as changes caused by high blood pressure and diabetes. The Eye Pressure Test – This test checks the pressure in the eyes and can help identify glaucoma. The Field of Vision Test –This checks your all-round vision. You will be shown (12- patterns / patterned / pattern) of lights on a screen to test which ones you can see. The RNIB recommends that you (13- had /have /having) an eye test at least once every two years, or more often if advised. It is important to have an eye test even if you have excellent vision. Remember an eye test can pick up (14- signing / signed / signs) of diseases like glaucoma before you can tell anything is wrong with your sight. Eye tests can be (15- carrying / carry / carried) out by your local optometrists. If you are unable to get to the optometrist, it should be possible for you to have a home visit–your local Health Authority will have further information about this. If further tests are needed, your optometrist will refer you to your doctor, who will arrange for you to see the eye (16consulting / consultant /consultation) at the hospital.



RNIB has a (17-range/ ranging / ranged) of more (18- specialists / specialized / specialization) information about eye conditions available free of charge. We cannot give individual health-care (19advise /advice / advised), but we can put you in (20- touching / touch / touched) with someone in your local area. If you or someone you know has a sight problem, RNIB can help. We provide over 60 different services for people of all ages, anywhere in the country, as well as practical advice and support, everyday products and leisure activities. RNIB is here to help: Call us for information on 0345-669999. Calls are charged at local rates. (Adapted from a leaflet issued by the Royal National Institute for the Blind –RNIB – in London) Royal National Institute for the Blind 224 Great Portland Street, London W 1 N 6AA. PS: I used to do some harmful things to my nearsighted eyes: reading in subways, planes, taxis, buses, you name it. Please, heed the words of advice from my eye doctor: as much as possible, avoid reading in any moving vehicle!



V. Fill in the blanks with one of the words in the box: diarrhea fit dehydration shiver penicillin side

bout tickly relieve

wrap counter bacteria

elderly available runny

Coughs, colds and flu are caused by viruses. Each year most people suffer from at least one ................. (1) of flu or a cough and cold. The ................ (2) and school children are the more likely to get them. The reason we get coughs, colds and flu every year, is that the virus that causes them changes, so our bodies have to change every year to fight the new virus. Unfortunately antibiotics, such as................... (3), do not kill viruses. Antibiotics may actually make you feel worse. If you take an antibiotic when you do not really need one, you may suffer from ................ (4) effects of the drug; for example, you could find your headache feels worse, or you could feel sick, have ................ (5) or have other symptoms as well. This is because the antibiotic can kill protective .................. (6) in your body. So your cough, cold and flu symptoms will still be there and only your body’s natural defenses will be able to fight and kill the virus. You can .................. (7) your symptoms on the outside while your body fights the virus on the inside. If you have a temperature, do not ............... (8) yourself up, this will make you feel worse. In young children, very high temperatures can cause a ............ (9) so it is very important to keep the body temperature down. You can do this by sponging the child's body with lukewarm water (neither cold nor hot water). If you start to ................. (10), keep yourself warm. Rest as much as you can. However, if you have to carry on working, drinking plenty of water can help prevent ...................... (11). If you have a ................... (12) nose, .................. (13) throat, dry cough or aches and pains, ask your pharmacist for something that will help relieve them. These medicines are not usually .................. (14) on prescription. Remember, it is often cheaper to buy products like this over the ................ (15) than to pay for a prescription anyway. Please try not to trouble your doctor unnecessarily with symptoms of coughs, colds and flu. There is little your doctor can do that you cannot do yourself. (Adapted from a leaflet by the Department of Medicines Management – Keele University)



ANSWERS Vocabulary Pre-Test 1. (nauseous) Naquela manhã no escritório senti-me meio enjoado. 2. (prattled) Joel geralmente tagarelava sem parar e nunca dizia nada de significativo. 3. (hangover) Arranje um antiácido para essa sua ressaca. 4. (comfortable) No final Joel fez-me sentir confortável. 5. (heed) Decidi acatar os conselhos da Drs. Schwanck e fazer um check-up. 6. (Stuntmen) Os dublês substituem os atores do cinema em cenas perigosas. 7. (tasks) Estava difícil para eu conseguir executar minhas tarefas no escritório. 8. (thin) Havia caído por sobre uma caixas frágeis num canto da sala. 9. (crumpled) Ela amassou a folha de papel e jogou for a a bolinha. 10. (faint) Ela estava tão pálida que pensei que fosse desmaiar. Reading Comprehension Questions 1. (a) Afirma-se que o narrador desta história finalmente realizou um check-up que já devia ter feito antes. Não se encontra apoio para afirmar que ele desmaiava freqüentemente (b); que costumeiramente não dava atenção aos conselhos médicos (c); ou, finalmente, que havia se recusado a tirar férias antes (d). 2. (c) Não se pode dizer sobre o Joel que fosse descontraído e turrão. De tudo que é dito sobre o Joel dá para dizer que ele era tagarela e confiável (a); ou atencioso e confiável (b); e finalmente leal e atencioso (d) 3. (c) It Pode-se inferior que o narrador desta história costumava freqüentar o Hank’s para tomas uns drinks. Em (a) fala-se em costumava ter problemas para cumprir suas tarefas da manhã no trabalho; em (b), vinha se sentindo deprimido ultimamente; em (d), ficou surpreso com a reação do seu chefe. 4. (b) Ao adiar seu check-up o narrador demonstra negligência e não esquecimento (a); ou coragem (c) ou falta de organização. 5. (d) A fim de espairecer o narrador decide partir para Palma de Majorca de ferias; na (a) ouvir o conselho da Dra. Schwanck; na (b), agradecer ao Joel por sua inestimável ajuda; na (c), medir suas habilidades contra um tabuleiro de xadrez eletrônico.



WORD FORMS 1. (drunk) O imprudente motorista estava completamente bêbado no momento de sua prisão. 2. (astrologer) Aquele que é um perito em astrologia é um astrólogo. 3. (stunts) No parque nós vimos um show onde os atores realizavam uma série cenas perigosas. 4. (risky) Dublês substituíram os atores principais porque a cena era muito arriscada. 5. (flimsier) Doris saiu-se com uma desculpa mais (fraca) esfarrapada do que a minha. 6. (recommendation) Nossa nova empregada veio trabalhar para nós através da recomendação de minha tia Clara. 7. (advised) Dr. Shepherd me aconselhou a fazer um check-up. 8. (urgency) Havia um tom de urgência nas palavras do porta-voz. 9. (prescribed) Dr. Novak receitou alguns antibióticos e um analgésido. 10. (mishap) Agora quando relembro o incidente no escritório compreende que não foi mais do que um contratempo. KEY WORD: HAVE 1. (had a real thing for) Quando eu era criança me lembro que eu tinha fixação por bolas de gude e piões. Brincava com eles todos os dias. 2. (has a green thumb) Tio Jonas cuida do seu jardim. Dedica a maior parte do seu tempo livre a este hobby. 3. (have sby under one’s thumb) Meu irmão fará o que eu lhe disser para fazer. Tenho-o sob meu controle. 4. (have the upper hand) Até agora na disputa entre os líderes sindicais e os empresários, estes últimos parecem estar em vantagem. 5. (have a finger in every pie) Políticos influentes parecem ter participação em tudo que está acontecendo. 6. (have a relapse) Se eu fosse você ficaria na cama o dia todo para me recuperar desta gripe. Não tem graça nenhuma sair nessa chuva e arriscar-se a ter uma recaída. 7. (have an ax to grind) Todo o interesse que o casal demonstrou em comprar a velha casa faz-me suspeitar que tem algo esquisito nisso se consideramos todo o trabalho de reforma que ela necessita. 8. (have a crush on) O Greg sempre teve uma queda pela Silvia. Ele é apaixonado por ela há anos. 9. (have his story down pat) Logo quando o Gerald pensou que tinha sua história pronta na festa, ele se enrolou com as palavras e não conseguiu dizer nada para a Linda. 10. (have nothing to do with) Lamento lhe dizer mas a conclusão que você tirou não guarda nenhuma relação com o corpo de sua redação.



VOCABULARY POST TEST 1. (keep up with) Às vezes é difícil para seu filho acompanhar o ritmos de seus colegas de turma, Sra. Daniels. 2. (picks on) Sandra tem a impressão que seu chefe implica com ela. 3. (do their utmost) Guias turísticos bem treinados farão o possível para ajudá-lo a desfrutar dos melhores restaurantes no RIO onde você poderá degustar as delícias da cozinha brasileira. 4. (put off) Como você pode adiar a consulta a seu dentista? Continuar sentindo dor me parece totalmente insensato. 5. (feeling run down) Renée vinha se sentindo fatigada ultimamente. Precisava de uns dias de folga realmente. 6. (raving about) Erika continuava a falar entusiasticamente sobre um livro de astrologia que havia comprado. 7. (came to) Ontem à noite durante o concerto Hilda desmaiou subitamente e teve que ser levada ao hospital. Quando recobrou os sentidos mal podia se lembrar de alguma coisa sobre o concerto. 8. (draw the line at) Um cigarro ou dois por dia isso é o máximo que ele fuma agora. O doutor mandou que ele limitasse o fumo. 9. (got carried away) Você deveria ter visto o Peter na festa. Contou algumas piadas verdadeiramente pesadas na frente dos avós da Pat. Parece que perdeu o controle e não conseguia parar. Que vexame! 10. (get my mind off my work) Meu médico disse para eu dedicar meu tempo livre a um hobby, algo que me fizesse me afastar do trabalho. 11. (look back on) As vezes fico relembrando os meus dias de escola primária e chego a conclusão de que aqueles foram os bons tempos. 12. (pit my wits against) Minha amiga Glenda, uma excelente enxadrista, ficava me desafiando p/ tentar derrotar seu xadrez eletrônico. VOCABULARY PRE TEST

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A prevent a stroke played a major role lowering the chance clot-related stroke unwanted side effects blood flow to the brain

B a. (3) diminuir o risco de b. (4) derrame relativo a coágulo c. (2) teve um papel importante d. (1) impedir um derrame e. (6) fluxo sanguíneo p/ o cérebro f. (5) efeitos colaterais indesejados



Reading Comprehension Questions 1. È totalmente seguro tomar uma aspirina por dia. (F) 2. Aspirina reduz o risco de ataques cardíacos em alguns casos. (T) 3. Um profissional de saúde deve ser consultado se você quiser fazer uso de uma aspirina por dia. (T) 4. Algumas condições de saúde pode fazer com que a aspirina seja uma escolha ruim para alguns. (T) 5. Somente um médico pode dizer os benefícios da aspirina a longo prazo. (T) 6. O uso diário da aspirina depende exclusivamente dos seu antecedentes familiares. (F) 7. O uso diário da aspirina pode beneficiar aqueles que tem um fluxo sanguíneo para o cérebro. (T) 8. De acordo com a maioria dos profissionais de saúde o uso prolongado de aspirina para impedir ataques cardíacos é desnecessário. (T) 9. Diversos tipos de derrame podem ser alguns dos indesejados efeitos colaterais do uso continuado da aspirina diariamente. (T) 10. Aspirina raramente se mistura mal a outros remedies (F) Mini–Texts Mini–Text 1: 1. ban // 2. sponsoring // 3. misleading // 4. trafficking // 5. awareness Mini–Text 2: 1. factors // 2. elderly // 3. priorities // 4. links // 5. speech Mini–Text 3: 1. medicines // 2. new// 3. diseases // 4. storage // 5. disabilities Mini–Text 4: 1. determines // 2. relieve // 3. take // 4. prescribes // 5. multiply Mini–Text 5: 1. expectancy // 2. extensive // 3. lingering // 4. recipients // 5. burden



A Look at Past Exams The Real Medicine (= O Verdadeiro remédio) 28. E // De acordo com o texto o executivo foi fundo na busca da recuperação de sua saúde. Na opção (a), lê-se: na verdade o executivo se recusava a comer corretamente, fazer exercícios e evitar o fumo; na (b), parece que ele aumentou o seu risco de morte prematura; na c), que ele concorda que a medicina deva concentrar-se primordialmente em drogas, remédios; na d), que ele recusou novas escolhas e prioridades na sua vida. 29. B // O conselho dado pelo medico é definido como sound (=saudável) Quem conhecesse a expressão ‘safe and sound [=são(s) e salvo(s)] acertaria essa questão facilmente. Portanto pode-se dizer que era confiável e eficaz. Em (a) o uso do verbo modal ‘might’ estraga tudo, correspondendo a opção em português a ‘talvez pudesse ser eficaz; em (c), é questionável; em (d), deveria ser investigado; em (e), tem que ser pesquisado profundamente. 30. D // O texto enfatiza a relevância de uma desejável mudança de atitude na vida. O texto não dá ênfase ao contido nas demais opções: na (a), avanços científicos e tecnológicos atuais; na (b), estudos realizados por obscuros cientistas; na (c), a medicina preventiva em relação a algumas doenças; na e) levar uma vida saudável apesar da solidão. PICTURE TEST 12 (b) Tarzan must have made a strong impression on this kid. Tarzan deve ter deixado uma profunda impressão neste garoto.



EXERCISES I. ‘say’ or ‘tell’ 1. Diretor: (tell) Queria que sua filha me dissesse quem era o responsável por tão infeliz incidente. Mr. Kent: (tell) O Sr.não espera que minha filha venha entregar seus colegas, espera? Quem o Sr. pensa que ela é: uma dedo-duro? 2. Inspetor: Alguma notícia sobre os assaltantes, Simpson? Simpson: (telling) Não dá para dizer onde esses canalhas podem estar se escondendo, chefe. 3. Robert: Quanto é o aluguel, Mrs. Kendall?” Landlady: (saying) “$ 700. Desnecessário dizer que as contas de consumo são da responsabilidade do inquilino. 4. Donna: Quem mora naquela casa horrível? (say) Jill: Uma bruxa velha e estranha. Dizem que ela é maluca. 5. Mario: (say) Diga lá, Ann. Você joga xadrez mesmo? Ann: (told) Jogo. Mas já me disseram que você é um campeão. 6. Aretha: Qual é a idade daquele garoto? Jane: (tell) Não sei ao certo. Tenho certeza de que sabe dizer as horas. 7. Mrs. Bailey: Alô, Sra. Bailey falando. Dr. Burns: (say) “Sra. Bailey, há algumas coisas que preciso lhe dizer. Poderia vir ao meu escritório esta tarde? 8. Harry: Você é um caso sem solução, Rick. Amassou o carro de novo. Rick: (told) Poupe-me o sermão. E não venha com essa de ‘Eu te disse!’ 9. Timmy: Não quero esta sopa, Benedita.” Benedita: (told) Faça como lhe disse. Tome sua sopa! 10. Bill: Quem é aquela garota bonita lá? Fred: (tell) Talvez seja a Lucy, nas é tão difícil distinguir entre ela e sua irmã gêmea. 11. Ted: Após estes anos todos nos esbarramos aqui no Rio de Janeiro. Carol: (saying) Bem é como diz o velho ditado: ‘Este mundo é pequeno. 12. Rita: Kathy e Roy estão se casando no dia 5 de junho. Ben: (say) Quer dizer, em uma semana. 13. Don: (said) Agora que está tudo dito e claro, você jantaria comigo na próxima sexta-feira? Ruth: (told) Você tem coragem de me convidar para jantar depois de tudo que me disse na semana passada, Don?“ 14. Laura: “Quero o divórcio, Paul. Não agüento mais.” Paul: (said) Bem você bem o disse. Estou cheio também. 15. Frieda: Soube que o Sr. Davis pagou uma fortuna por aquele quadro no leilão? Sandy: (tell) Imagine só! Para descobrir que uma falsificação. Acho que não dá para prever.



II. Indirect speech constructions 1. [she had to] Quando tenho que entregar minha dissertação, Prof. Heston? Melissa perguntou ao Prof. Heston quando tinha que entregar sua dissertação. 2. [to go] Vamos dar um passeio, Rachel. Rupert convidou Rachel para dar um passeio. 3. [never to call] Nunca mais telefone para mim, Greg. Sonia disse para o Greg nunca mais lhe telefonar. 4. [had met] Você encontrou com a Jane no concerto? Rick me perguntou se eu havia encontrado a Jane no concerto. 5. [had to] Você pode estar certa, Dot. Tenho que admitir. O chefe da Dot tinha que admitir que ela podia estar certa. III. Rewriting in direct speech. 1. Paulo perguntou quanto tempo nós levamos para chegar lá. ‘How long did it take you to get there?’, Paulo asked. 2. Marjorie convidou-nos para ir ao festival de música. ‘Let’s go to the music festival’, Marjorie invited us. 3. Mary perguntou-me quantos anos tinha a minha neta. “How old is your granddaughter?’, Mary asked. 4. John queria saber a quem pertencia aquele disquete? ‘Who does this floppy disk belong to?’, John wanted to know. 5. Os médicos nos aconselham a nunca deixar remédios ao alcance de crianças. (‘Never leave any medicines within the reach of children’, doctors advise us) 6. Phil perguntou quanto tempo eu estivera esperando por ele. ‘How long have you been waiting for me?’, Phil asked. 7. Meu filho queria saber o que ele iria ganhar no seu aniversário. ‘What will I get for my birthday?’, my son wanted know. 8. Dora perguntou a Linda se ela conseguia se lembrar onde ela havia estacionado o carro. Dora asked, ‘Linda, can you remember where I parked my car?’ IV. Word formation cloze 1. notice // 2. affected // 3. effect // 4. getting // 5. treatable // 6. health // 7. such as // 8. simple// 9. checked // 10. tested// 11. using // 12. patterns // 13. have // 14. signs // 15. carried // 16. consultant // 17. range // 18. specialized // 19. advice // 20. touch V. Fill in the blanks with one of the words in the box: bout (1) // elderly (2) // penicillin (3) // side (4) // diarrhea (5) // bacteria (6) // relieve (7) // wrap (8) // fit (9) // shiver (10) // dehydration (11) // runny (12) // tickly (13) // available (14) // counter (15)



Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 12 foram alcançados. OBJECTIVES (OBJETIVOS) Draw your attention to the following essential points: Chamar sua atenção para os seguintes pontos essenciais: I. study of Verb Tenses: future perfect simple & its uses O estudo dos tempos verbais: futuro perfeito simples e s/ usos II. Analysis of text 1: “Hangover or Stress?” Análise do texto 1: “Ressaca ou Stress?” III. Word Forms: multiple choice items – words in families Fromação das palavras múltipla escolha palavras derivadas IV. Grammar tips Indirect Speech Dicas de gramática – o discurso indireto V. Collocation Study - Say or tell? Estudo de collocation – Say ou tell? VI. Expressions with ‘have’ & Colorful idioms Expressões com ‘have’ e expressões idiomáticas VII. Analysis of text 2: ‘Daily Aspirin Therapy” – True or False? Análise do texto 2 ‘Terapia da Aspirina Diária’ – Questões de Falso ou Verdadeiro VIII. Discourse Markers (I) – Opposition / Contrast Marcadores do Discurso(I) – Oposição / contraste IX Confusable words : breath / breathe // remind / remember Palavras que confundem: breath / breathe // remind / remember X. Vocabulary Build Up – Mini-texts 1 thru 5 Construção do Vocabulário – Mini textos 1 a 5 XI. Picture Test 12 Teste com gravuras 12 XII. Exercise Section Seção de Exercícios


12 -HealtheIllness