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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

AULA 8 THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS The past perfect continuous reigns desta vez. Veja a conjugação dos verbos to walk (r.v.) (= andar, caminhar) e to give (i.v.) (= dar) AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS I had been walking You had been walking He had been walking She had been walking It had been walking We had been walking You had been walking They had been walking

I had been giving You had been giving He had been giving She had been giving It had been giving We had been giving You had been giving They had been giving

O past perfect continuous é formado pelo past perfect do auxiliar to be (had been em todas as pessoas) + the ...ing form of the principal verb. NEGATIVE STATEMENTS I had not been walking You had not been walking He had not been walking She had not been walking It had not been walking We had not been walking You had not been walking They had not been walking

I had not been giving You had not been giving He had not been giving She had not been giving It had not been giving We had not been giving You had not been giving They had not been giving

A forma negativa se obtém pela colocação de not após o verbo auxiliar had. Note: had not or hadn’t

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QUESTIONS Had Had Had Had Had Had Had Had

I been walking? you been walking? he been walking? she been walking? it been walking? we been walking? you been walking? they been walking?

Had Had Had Had Had Had Had Had

I been giving? you been giving? he been giving? she been giving? it been giving? we been giving? you been giving? they been giving?

Basta inverter o auxiliar had com o sujeito para formar a interrogativa. USES OF THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Basicamente este tempo verbal é usado para indicar que a ação em progressão num tempo passado é anterior a outra também no tempo passado. A tradução usando o tempo composto do tipo ‘tinha estado acontecendo’ fica muito estranha. Basta você usar algo como ‘vinha ou estava acontecendo’ antes da outra ação no passado para ter, a meu ver, uma expressão bem mais clara. Passemos a alguns exemplos: Philip had been working as a system analyst for some years when he changed course and decided to set up his own business. O Felipe estava trabalhando como analista de sistemas há alguns anos quando mudou de rumo e decidiu abrir o seu próprio negócio. Ronaldo had been playing for Inter de Milão when he had a serious knee injury and had to be operated on. Ronaldo vinha jogando pela Inter de Milão quando sofreu uma lesão séria no joelho e teve que ser operado. When the new manager took over, he changed some practices that had been going on in our firm for ages. Quando o novo gerente assumiu. ele mudou certas práticas que vinham acontecendo na nossa empresa há muito tempo. Who had been working as the volleyball team head coach at the time Brazil won its first gold medal in Barcelona? Quem estava trabalhando como treinador da equipe de vôlei do Brasil na época da conquista da primeira medalha de ouro em Barcelona?

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Text 1: Official inflation index was 0.21% in April

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The Broad Consumer Price Index (IPCA) rose 0.21% in April, a slackening down from March's 0.43% pace. Over the first four months of the year, the cumulative increase in the index totaled 1.65%, substantially lower than the 2.68% registered during the same period last year. In April, 2005, the IPCA, which the government uses to fix its inflation targets, was 0.87%. These data were released today by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. According to the IBGE, the deceleration in April was mainly the result of a more abundant supply of agricultural goods and a settling down of fuel alcohol prices. Commercialization of the sugarcane harvest led to a 0.11% drop in fuel alcohol prices, which had been climbing since July of last year, to the extent that in March of this year consumers were paying 27.41% more than in December, 2005. Following the trend in alcohol prices, gasoline prices also decreased. In March, gasoline, which had been increasing in price in function of both the rise in alcohol prices and the temporary hike in the gasoline content of the gasoline-alcohol mixture sold at the pumps, was the item that most contributed to the rise in inflation. Gasoline cost consumers 4.50% more in March than in December, 2005. (From Agência Brasil, by Cristiane Ribeiro, Translation: David Silberstein) Access 10/05/2006 VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A consumer price index a slackening down from fix its inflation targets settling down of prices. temporary hike in content mixture sold at the pumps

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) aumento temporário no volume ) índice de preços ao consumidor ) afrouxamento em relação a ) mistura vendida nas bombas ) estabilização dos preços ) fixação das metas de inflação

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Escreva 2 exemplos do texto de verbos no past perfect continuous. _______________________________________________________

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2. Escreva 3 exemplos pelo menos do texto de verbos no past simple. _______________________________________________________ 3. Escreva 1 exemplo do texto de verbo no past continuous. _______________________________________________________

KEY WORD: USE From text 1: “… the IPCA, which the government uses to fix its inflation targets… o IPCA que o governo usa para fixar as metas de inflação... No exemplo acima aparece o verbo regular to use [pronunciado com som de ‘z’] (=usar, utilizar). Which textbook are you using this year? Que livro texto você está usando este ano? En passant quando falamos dos suffixes –FUL # -LESS mencionamos os adjetivos useful (=útil/ úteis) e useless (inútil / inúteis] Dictionaries are useful tools but they must be used carefully. Dicionários são ferramentas úteis, mas devem ser usados com cuidado. Neil’s cell phone is off. He’s in class and it’s useless to call him. O celular do Neil está desligado. Ele está em aula e é inútil ligar. Pertencendo a the same family temos os adjetivos usual # unusual, os advérbios usually # unusually e a famosa expressão que eu uso toda hora as usual (e não as usually) que é sinônimo de as always (=como sempre). Estude estes exemplos: Maybe there are exceptions to the rule, but this is the usual pattern. Talvez haja exceções à regra, mas este é o modelo mais comum. It’s so unusual to see my Dad at home so early on a week day. É tão incomum ver o papai em casa tão cedo num dia de semana. Usually I watch a soccer game on TV on Sunday afternoon. Geralmente vejo um jogo de futebol na TV no domingo à tarde.

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We’ve been having unusually hot days this winter in Rio. Temos tido dias estranhamente quentes neste inverno no Rio. My son is surfing the net right now as usual. Meu filho está navegando agora na Internet como sempre. Existe também o substantivo use(s) [pronunciado com som de ‘s’] muito comum e que faz parte de uma série de expressões e collocations que devemos estudar: a) make use of (=usar, fazer uso de) Advanced students make use of sophisticates structures in their reports. Alunos avançados usam estruturas sofisticadas em seus relatórios. b) it’s no use (= não adianta) It’s no use crying over spilled milk. (proverb) Não adianta chorar sobre o leite derramado. (provérbio) c) in use (= em uso) Typewriters are no longer in use in modern businesses. Máquinas de escrever não estão mais em uso nas modernas empresas. d) what’s the use of … (= de que vale, de que adianta...) What’s the use of making long lists of false cognates if you don’t know how to use them in sentences? De que adianta fazer longas listas de falsos cognatos se você não souber usá-los numa frase? Por fim, vale a pena lembrar do substantivo user(s) [= usuário(s)] Users of public phones must be careful with them as if they were their own. Usuários de telefônicos públicos devem ter cuidado com eles como se deles fossem os donos. Haverá um exercício no final desta aula, as usual, para ajudá-lo a praticar estas palavras e expressões.

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KEY WORDS // CONFUSABLE WORDS From text 1: “The Broad Consumer Price Index (IPCA) rose 0.21% in April…” (L-1) O Indice Geral de Preços ao Consumidor (IPCA) subiu 0,21% em abril a) rise or raise? Muitos alunos se confundem com relação aos verbos rise e raise. No entanto, basta atentar para uma característica básica: a transitividade ou intransitividade. Estude os seguintes exemplos: a.1) rise (rose, risen)–verbo intransitivo, daí nada de passive voice. Unemployment is rising all over the world. O desemprego está aumentando no mundo todo. Inflation was rising at such alarming rates that a devaluation of our currency was inevitable. A inflação estava crescendo a taxas tão alarmantes que a desvalorização de nossa moeda era inevitável. a.2) raise (r.v.) –verbo transitivo, pode aparecer na passive voice. Raise your hand if you have any question. Levante a mão se você tiver uma pergunta. Every candidate says that he will not raise taxes if elected president. Todo candidato diz que não vai elevar os impostos se eleito presidente. “Taxes will not be raised in my administration’, said the president. Impostos não serão elevados no meu governo, declarou o presidente. b) used to & be used to b.1) used to – (followed by bare infinitive) = costumava fazer algo I used to play chess a lot when I was in College. Eu costumava jogar xadrez bastante quando estava na faculdade. My wife used to smoke a few cigarettes a week. Then she got pregnant and quit smoking for good. Minha esposa costumava fumar alguns cigarros por semana. Aí ficou grávida e parou de fumar de vez. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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b.2) be used to – (followed by the ... ing form) = estar acostumado a fazer algo. It took me a long time to get used to cold showers, but now I’m used to taking them even in the winter. Levei um bom tempo para me acostumar aos banhos frios, mas hoje estou acostumado a tomá-los até no inverno. Dr. Dawson is used to sleeping just a few hours at night. A Dra. Dawson está acostumada a dormir umas poucas horas à noite. c) rise and fall words Em inglês temos diversos verbos e substantivos para indicar os ups and downs das cotações de ações, da alta e queda dos índices ou taxas aqui e ali. It’s up to you anotar estes exemplos. No text 1 há vários exemplos interessantes que podem servir de ponto de partida para você: c.1) rise (rose risen) (=aumentar, subir) // rise (n.) aumento, subida) The Broad Consumer Price Index (IPCA) rose 0.21% in April, a slackening down from March's 0.43% pace. O índice amplo de preços ao consumidor (IPCA) aumentou 0,21% um afrouxamento em relação ao andamento de 0,43% de março. “was the item that most contributed to the rise in inflation…” (L-18/19) foi o item que mais contribuiu para o aumento da inflação c.2) Increase ( r.v) (=aumentar) // increase (n.) (= aumento) “Over the first four months of the year, the cumulative increase in the index totaled 1.65%, …” (L- 2/3) Ao longo dos quatro meses do ano, o aumento acumulado do índice totalizou 1,65%. c.3) decelerate (r.v) (=desacelerar) // deceleration (n) (=desaceleração) According to the IBGE, the deceleration in April was mainly the result of a more abundant supply of agricultural goods and a settling down of fuel alcohol prices. (L-8/10) De acordo com o IBGE, a desaceleração em abril foi principalmente resultado de um suprimento mais abundante de produtos agrícolas e de uma estabilização dos preços do álcool.

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c.4) to drop (r.v) // drop (n.) (=queda) Commercialization of the sugarcane harvest led to a 0.11% drop in fuel alcohol prices,… (L-11/12) A comercialização da safra de cana de açúcar levou a uma queda de 0,11% nos preços dos combustíveis derivados do álcool. c.5) to decrease (r.v) (= diminuir // decrease (n.) (= diminuição) “Following the trend in alcohol prices, gasoline prices also decreased …” (L-15) Seguindo a tendência dos preços do álcool, os preços da gasolina diminuíram ... c.6) climb (r.v.) (=subir, escalar) // climb (n.) (= subida, escalada) “alcohol prices, which had been climbing since July of last year…”(L-12) os preços do álcool que vinham subindo desde julho do ano anterior… c.7) hike (n.) (=aumento [uso informal]) “… in function of both the rise in alcohol prices and the temporary hike in the gasoline content of the gasoline-alcohol mixture sold at the pumps,… (L-16/18) …em função tanto do aumento dos preços do álcool e do aumento temporário do volume de gasolina nas misturas do álcool com gasolina vendidas nas bombas ... Há seguramente uma dezena de outros verbos indicando aumentos e diminuições, altas e quedas, enfim para descrever esses ups and downs de que falei. Aos poucos iremos estudando outros exemplos. Get organized!

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO WORD FORMS From text 1: “According to the IBGE, the deceleration in April was mainly the result of a more abundant supply of agricultural goods…” (L-8/10) De acordo com o IBGE a desaceleração em abril foi principalmente resultado de uma oferta abundante de produtos agrícolas... Deceleration (n) é da mesma família de decelerate (r.v). Observe que o prefixo DE- é usado (e não DIS-). Veja outros exemplos de verbos (aos substantivos em geral acrescenta-se o sufixo -ATION): Verb/ Noun value form grade moralize inflate

#Verb devalue deform degrade demoralize deflate

Translation desvalorizar deformar degradar desmoralizar esvaziar

Muitas vezes é comum se acrescentar o prefixo DIS- ao verbo para formar outro verbo com sentido oposto Verb like cover place charge organize

#Verb dislike discover displace discharge disorganize

Translation desgostar descobrir deslocar descarregar desorganizar

Como você vê não é para sair colocando DIS- diante de tudo quanto é verbo porque simplesmente não existem palavras como dismoralize*, disinflate*, erc. Portanto, nestes casos, antes de sair preenchendo sua tabela com outros aparentes exemplos, cabe um estudo criterioso e muitas vezes uma consulta cuidadosa ao seu dicionário de fé em busca de guidance. Verb

#Verb

Translation

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Text 2: April Fool’s Day

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In sixteenth-century France, the start of the new year was observed on April first. It was celebrated in much the same way as it is today with parties and dancing into the late hours of the night. Then in 1562, Pope Gregory introduced a new calendar for the Christian world, and the new year fell on January first. There were some people, however, who hadn't heard or didn't believe the change in the date, so they continued to celebrate New Year1s Day on April first. Others played tricks on them and called them 'April fools." They sent them on a "fool's errand" or tried to make them believe that something false was true. In France today1 April first is called "Poisson d'Avril." French children fool their friends by taping a paper fish to their friends' backs. When the "young fool" discovers this trick, the prankster yells "Poisson d’Avril!" (April Fish!) Today Americans play small tricks on friends and strangers alike on the first of April. One common trick on April Fool's Day, or All Fool's Day, is pointing down to a friend's shoe and saying, ! “Your shoelace is untied." Teachers in the nineteenth century used to say to pupils, 1'Look! A flock of geese.1" and point up. School children might tell a classmate that school has been canceled. Whatever the trick, if the innocent victim falls for the joke, the prankster yells, "April Fool!" The "fools' errands" we play on people are practical jokes. Putting salt in the sugar bowl for the next person is not a nice trick to play on a stranger. College students set their clocks an hour behind, so their roommates show up to the wrong class - or not at all. Some practical jokes are kept up the whole day before the victim realizes what day it is. Most April Fool jokes are in good fun and not meant to harm anyone. The most clever April Fool joke is the one where everyone laughs, especially the person upon whom the joke is played. (From Celebrate! Holidays in the USA) Visit: http://www.usemb.se/Holidays/celebrate/labor.html VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A into the late hours play tricks on untied shoelaces flock of geese set their clocks meant to harm nobody

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) bando de gansos ) até altas horas ) não visam a machucar ninguém ) acertar seus relógios ) sapatos desamarrados ) pregar peças em

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ANALYSIS OF TEXT 2 1. Escreva 5 exemplos do texto de verbos no past simple. _______________________________________________________ 2. Escreva 1 exemplo do texto de verbo no past perfect: _______________________________________________________ 3. Escreva 5 exemplos do texto de verbos no present simple. _______________________________________________________ 4. Escreva 2 exemplos do texto de verbos no past simple passive. _______________________________________________________ 5. Escreva 2 exemplos do texto de verbos no present simple passive. _______________________________________________________ 6. Após a leitura rápida do text 2 você é capaz de traduzir seu título? _______________________________________________________ 7. Explique o que você entende da seguinte citação do American humorist Mark Twain: "The first of April is the day we remember what we are the other 364 days of the year”. _______________________________________________________ FALSE COGNATES From text 2: “Some practical jokes are kept up the whole day before the victim realizes what day it is.” (L-23/24) Algumas brincadeiras de mau gosto são mantidas o dia inteiro até que a vítima perceba que dia é. O verbo regular realize tem o significado de perceber, notar. È verdade que o substantivo realization poderá ser traduzido por realização, desenvolvimento de potencial como em: professional realization (= realização profissional). Mas é muito raro. Outro exemplo com realize: Can’t you realize how much I love you? Você não percebe o quanto eu te mo? No final desta aula você encontra um exercício com mais alguns false friends selecionados. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO WHATEVER & OTHER –EVER WORDS From text 2 “Whatever the trick, if the innocent victim falls for the joke the prankster yells, "April Fool!" Qualquer que seja a peça, se a vítima inocente cair nela feito um pato o autor da brincadeira grita: Caiu primeiro de abril!” Além dos pronomes interrogativos que eu denominei de indispensable tais como: what (= o que), who (= quem), when (= quando), which (=qual), where (= onde) é importante saber também: a) whatever (= o que quer que) Whatever she says do not listen to her. She’ll be lying. O que quer que ela diga não lhe dê ouvidos. Ela estará mentindo. b) whenever (= sempre que) Whenever my wife sees this film she cries softly. Sempre que minha mulher assiste a esse filme ela chora baixinho. c) whichever (= qualquer um que) Whichever play you choose is fine to me. Qualquer peça teatral que você escolher para mim está bom. d) whoever (= quem quer que) Whoever Mr. Hanks chooses for the position will get a good salary. Quem quer que o Sr. Hanks escolha p/ cargo receberá um bom salário. e) wherever (= onde quer que) Wherever you go take this lucky charm with you. Onde quer que vá leve este amuleto com você. f) However (=não importa de que modo, não importa o quão) However interesting the program may be it’s time to go to bed, boys. Não importa quão interessante seja o programa está na hora de dormir, meninos.

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Try it. It’s fifty-fifty, Você tem sempre 50% de chances de acertar! PICTURE TEST 8

Poor, Mr. Silva! He had been hearing so [a) many / b) much] complaints for so long that he got stressed out.

USEFUL TIPS Vocabulary só pode ser considerado realmente absorvido quando se é capaz de reconhecer um item num texto de imediato – se o seu objetivo é o simples reconhecimento da palavra ou expressão – ou quando se é capaz de usá-lo fluentemente numa conversação. Para isso, você precisa ter o seu notebook (= caderno de anotações). Suponhamos que você encontre a expressão to foot the bill e admitamos que você saiba o significado de foot (= pé) e bill (= conta). A tentação para traduzir como algo parecido com ‘dar um chute na conta’ é grande. No entanto, trata-se da expressão ‘pagar a conta’. [só conheço o verbo to foot usado nessa expressão] Moral da história: se você encontrar uma collocation deste tipo com todo esse aspecto particular, não hesite em incluí-la no seu notebook. Quem sabe um dia it will pay off!

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EXERCISES I. Complete the sentences with a word deriving from the one in bold type. Number 1 has been done for you. 1. DISCOVER Sleep and dream affect the way people feel. That has been one of scientists’ recent discoveries. T: _______________________________________________________ 2. DREAMS Alice was taken to a ___________ land where there were dwarfs, fairies and wizards. T: _______________________________________________________ 3. STRONG From her childhood the girl showed signs of great ____________ of character. T: _______________________________________________________ 4. CHARACTER Everyone has some type of dream that ______________ him. T: _______________________________________________________ 5. EFFECT One of the most ___________ aspects of one's dreams is the presence of many people in them. T: _______________________________________________________ 6. MANIPULATE The ____________ of sleep by scientists will permit them to control the way people perform and feel. T: _______________________________________________________ 7. INVESTIGATION Hercule Poirot was Agatha Christie's brilliant ____________. T: _______________________________________________________ 8. GROWING Banana ____________ have had a record crop recently . T: _______________________________________________________

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9. EXPLAIN Scientists believe such information will provide an ____________ of the origin of the solar system. T: _______________________________________________________ 10. MEAN The word comet comes from Greek. Its ____________ is a "hairy object”. T: _______________________________________________________ II. Practice making up questions. Você pode fazer o exercício seguinte por escrito ou apenas praticar oralmente. Compare com as minhas respostas no final. 1. Paul and Susan had been dating for years when they suddenly decided to end their relationship. a) “Who _________________?” “Paul and Susan had.” b) “What ____________________?” “Dating for years.” c) “How long __________________________?” “For years.” d) “What __________________________?” “End their relationship.” 2. All the employees had been working overtime for quite some time in an effort to save the company from going bankrupt. . a) “Who _________________?” “All the employees.” b) “What ____________________?” “working overtime.” c) “How long __________________________?” “For quite some time.” b) “Why ____________________?” “To prevent bankruptcy.”

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3. Oil prices had been climbing in world markets for months in a row, as a result of the conflict in Iraq. a) “What ____________________?” “Oil prices.” b) “Where ____________________?” “In world markets.” c) “How long __________________________?” “For months in a row.” d) “Why ____________________?” “Because of the conflict in Iraq.” 4. Prisoners in the camp had been waiting for news from home since they had been caught. a) “Who _________________?” “Prisoners in the camp.” b) “What ____________________?” “For news.” c) “How long __________________________?” “since they had been caught.” b) “Where ____________________?” “From home.”

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III – Flashback – more collocations with make or do? 1. How come you’re watching TV? Don’t you have any reading to ______? T: _______________________________________________________ 2. Instead of criticizing him overtly the boss _____ a subtle reference to John’s tardiness problem. T: _______________________________________________________ 3. Our economy has ______ very well in the last 2 years. T: _______________________________________________________ 4. Does a woman ______ as much money as a man for doing the same job in this country? T: _______________________________________________________ 5. Those lethal weapons they showed us are the ones which were in store. It ______ me wonder how many more may be in the ______ T: _______________________________________________________ 6. At uncle Billy’s farm, it was uncle Billy himself who ______ the milking of the cows. T: _______________________________________________________ 7. In a modern language classroom, students - not the teacher - should ______ most of the talking. T: _______________________________________________________ 8. The couple ______ a very polite request. My friends and I moved away in order not to disturb their reading. T: _______________________________________________________ 9. So moved was the speaker that she had to ______ a pause before she could go on ______ her speech. T: _______________________________________________________ 10. The ad on TV says this shampoo can ______ wonders to dry hair. T: _______________________________________________________ 11. It will take Caroline some time to ______ the adjustments necessary to living abroad. T: _______________________________________________________

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12. We just can’t afford to ______ a trip to Europe now. T: _______________________________________________________ 13. Valerie says she just can’t ______ without Cable TV. T: _______________________________________________________ 14. Joanne used to live in a world of ______ believe. T: _______________________________________________________ 15. ______ business with your firm has always been a pleasure, Sir. T: _______________________________________________________ IV. Translate the sentences with the word USE and ‘family’. 1. We used to say ‘live and let live’ now we say ‘live and let die’. T: _______________________________________________________ 2. That is a useless tape recorder, its magnetic head has been damaged. T: _______________________________________________________ 3. Sonia is unusually tall according to Brazilian standards. T: _______________________________________________________ 4. That slang expression is no longer in use. Nobody uses it any more. T: _______________________________________________________ 5. What will happen to this planet when man has used up all its drinking water resources. T: _______________________________________________________ 6. What the use of crying now that damage has been done? T: _______________________________________________________ 7. There used to be more solidarity among men. T: _______________________________________________________ 8. My uncle has been working as a used-car dealer since he got to Rio. T: _______________________________________________________ 9. The meaning of a word depends on the intention of the user. T: _______________________________________________________ 10. It was shameful to see how they made use of child labor on the farm. T: _______________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO V. Consulte um bom dicionário e traduza os false cognates in bold. It goes without saying que todas estas são confusable words para o estudante brasileiro. 1. There were some extenuating circumstances in Marion’s case. ______________________________________________________ 2. Theresa is adept at distorting my words. ______________________________________________________ 3. Holly’s mother had always told her not to talk to strangers. ______________________________________________________ 4. The criminal was soon released on bail. ______________________________________________________ 5. Jules has always been a dependable employee. It’s highly unlikely that he will change his behavior now. ______________________________________________________ 6. I would like to say that I sympathize with the leader’s ideas. ______________________________________________________ 7. Little Johnny saw the cartoon and found it terrific. ______________________________________________________ 8. Mrs. Higgins is a woman of exquisite tastes. ______________________________________________________ 9. Not many students were present at Prof. Hal’s lecture. ______________________________________________________ 10. Since elementary school Edgar has never been good at figures. ______________________________________________________ 11. When the president travels abroad, his duties devolve upon the vice president of the republic. ______________________________________________________ 12. During the trial, the prosecutor presented conclusive evidence of the defendant’s crime. ______________________________________________________

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ANSWERS Vocabulary Pre Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A broad consumer price index a slackening down from fix its inflation targets settling down of prices. temporary hike in content mixture sold at the pumps

B a. (5) aumento temporário no volume b. (1) índice de preços ao consumidor c. (2) afrouxamento em relação a d. (6) mistura vendida nas bombas e. (4) estabilização dos preços f. (3) fixação das metas de inflação

Analysis of Text 1 1. past perfect continuous: had been climbing (L-12) // had been increasing (L-16) 2. past simple: rose (L-1) // totaled (L-3) // was (L-9) // led (L-11) // decreased (L-15) 3. past continuous: were paying ( L-13) Text 2: Vocabulary Pre Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A into the late hours play tricks on untied shoelaces flock of geese set their clocks meant to harm nobody

B a. (4) bando de gansos b. (1) até altas horas c. (6) não visam machucar ninguém d. (5) acertar seus relógios e. (3) sapatos desamarrados f. (2) pregar peças em

Analysis of Text 2 1. past simple: introduced (L-4) / fell (L-5) / didn’t believe (L-6) / continued (L-6) / played (L-7) / sent (L-8) / tried (L-8) / called (L-8) 2. past perfect: hadn’t heard (L-6) 3. present simple: discovers (L-11) // yells (L-12) // play (L-13/20) // falls (L-19) // are (L-20) // set (L-22) // show (L-23) 4. past simple passive: was observed (L-1) // was celebrated (L-2) 5. present simple passive: is called (L-3) // is untied (L-15) // are kept (L-24) // is played (L-27) 6. Traduzindo a citação de Mark Twain: ���O 1º de abril é o dia em que nos lembramos do que somos nos outros 364 dias do ano”. Como sempre Mark Twain é cáustico no seu humor. Tudo bem que você não precisa tomar o significado ao pé da letra, mas se servir para você se lembrar que não devemos nos levar muito a sério já valeu, in my opinion, lógico! www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Picture Test 8 Poor, Mr. Silva! He had been hearing so many complaints for so long that he got stressed out. Pobre Sr. Silva vinha ouvindo tantas reclamações por tanto tempo que acabou estressado. Complaints (=queixas, reclamações) é um substantivo contável em inglês portanto many deve ser usado. EXERCISES I. Word Formation. 1. Sleep and dream affect the way people feel. That has been one of scientists’ recent discoveries. O sono e os sonhos afetam o modo com que as pessoas se sentem. Esta foi uma das descobertas dos cientistas. 2. Alice was taken to a dreamy land where there were dwarfs, fairies and wizards. Alice foi levada a uma terra de sonhos onde havia anões, fadas e magos. 3. From her childhood the girl showed signs of great strength of character. Desde a infância a menina demonstrava sinais de grande força de caráter. 4. Everyone has some type of dream that characterizes him. Toda pessoa tem algum tipo de sonho que a caracteriza. 5. One of the most effective aspects of one's dreams is the presence of many people in them. Um dos aspectos mais efetivos dos sonhos é a presença de muita gente nele. 6. The manipulation of sleep by scientists will permit them to control the way people perform and feel. A manipulação do sono pelos cientistas permitirá controlar o modo como as pessoas agem e sentem. 7. Hercule Poirot was Agatha Christie's brilliant investigator. Hercule Poirot era o brilhante investigador de Agatha Christie. 8. Banana growers have had a record crop recently. Os plantadores de banana tiveram um plantação recorde recentemente. 9. Scientists believe such information will provide an explanation of the origin of the solar system. Os cientistas acreditam que tais informações fornecerão uma explicação para a origem do sistema sola. 10. The word comet comes from Greek. Its meaning is a ‘hairy object’. A palavra cometa vem do grego. Seu significado é: um ‘objeto peludo’.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO II. Practice making up questions: 1. Paul and Susan had been dating for years when they suddenly decided to end their relationship. Paul e Susan estavam namorando há anos quando de repente decidiram terminar seu relacionamento. a) “Who had been dating for years?” “Paul and Susan had.” b) “What had Paul and Susan been doing?” “Dating for years.” c) “How long had Paul and Susan been doing?” “For years.” d) “What did Paul and Susan decide to do?” “End their relationship.” 2. All the employees had been working overtime for quite some time in an effort to save the company from going bankrupt. Todos os empregados estavam fazendo horas extras há bastante tempo num esforço para salvar a companhia da falência. a) “Who had been working overtime for quite some time?” “All the employees.” b) “What had all the employees been doing?” “Working overtime.” c) “How long had all the employees been working overtime?” “For quite some time.” b) “Why had all the employees been working overtime?” “To prevent bankruptcy.” 3. Oil prices had been climbing in world markets for months in a row, as a result of the conflict in Iraq. Os preços do petróleo vinham aumentando nos mercados mundiais por meses em seqüência como resultado da guerra no Iraque. a) “What had been climbing in world markets for months in a row?” “Oil prices.” b) “Where had oil prices been climbing for months in a row?” “In world markets.” c) “How long had oil prices been climbing?” “For months in a row.” d) “Why had oil prices been climbing for months in a row?” “Because of the conflict in Iraq.”

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

4. Prisoners in the camp had been waiting for news from home since they had been caught. Prisioneiros no campo estavam esperando por notícias de casa desde que haviam sido presos. a) “Who had been waiting for news from home?” “Prisoners in the camp.” b) “What had the prisoners in the camp been waiting for?” “For news.” c) “How long had the prisoners in the camp been waiting for?” “Since they had been caught.” b) “Where had the prisoners been waiting for news from?” “From home.” III – Flashback – more collocations with make or do? 1. How come you’re watching TV? Don’t you have any reading to do? Como você está vendo TV? Não tem nenhuma leitura para fazer? 2. Instead of criticizing him overtly the boss made a subtle reference to John’s tardiness problem. Ao invés de criticá-lo abertamente, o chefe do John fez uma referência sutil ao seu problema de atrasos. 3. Our economy has done very well in the last 2 years. Nossa economia se saiu muito bem nos últimos 12 meses 4. Does a woman make as much money as a man for doing the same job in this country? Uma mulher ganha o mesmo que o homem p/ mesmo serviço no seu país? 5. Those lethal weapons they showed us are the ones which were in store. It makes me wonder how many more may be in the making. Aquelas armas letais que nos mostraram são as que estavam em estoque. Faz-me pensar quantas mais estarão em processo de fabricação. 6. At uncle Billy’s farm, it was uncle Billy himself who did the milking of the cows. Na fazenda do Tio Billy era ele próprio que fazia a ordenha das vacas. 7. In a modern language classroom, students - not the teacher - should do most of the talking. Numa aula de idiomas moderna, são os alunos e não o professor que devem falar a maior parte do tempo. 8. The couple made a very polite request. My friends and I moved away in order not to disturb their reading. O casal fez o pedido educadamente. Meus amigos e eu nos afastamos a fim de não perturbar sua leitura. 9. So moved was the speaker that she had to make a pause before she could go on making her speech. Tão comovida estava a oradora que teve que fazer uma pausa antes que pudesse continuar a fazer o seu discurso. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

10. The ad on TV says this shampoo can do wonders to dry hair. O anúncio na TV diz que este xampu pode fazer maravilhas com cabelos secos. 11. It will take Caroline some time to make the adjustments necessary to living abroad. Caroline levará algum tempo para fazer os ajustes necessários para viver no exterior. 12. We just can’t afford to make a trip to Europe now. Simplesmente não temos dinheiro para fazer uma viagem à Europa agora. 13. Valerie says she just can’t do without Cable TV. Valeria diz que não consegue passar sem TV a cabo. 14. Joanne used to live in a world of make-believe. Joanne costumava viver num mundo de faz-de-conta. 15. Doing business with your firm has always been a pleasure, Sir. Fazer negócios com sua empresa sempre foi um prazer, Senhor. IV. The key word USE and ‘family’. 1. We used to say ‘live and let live’ now we say ‘live and let die’. Costumávamos dizer: viva e deixe viver. Agora dizemos: viva e deixe morrer. 2. That is a useless tape recorder, its magnetic head has been damaged. Aquele gravador é imprestável. A cabeça magnética dele foi danificada. 3. Sonia is unusually tall according to Brazilian standards. A Sônia é incomumente alta para os padrões brasileiros. 4. That slang expression is no longer in use. Nobody uses it any more. Aquela expressão de gíria não é mais usada. Ninguém a usa mais. 5. What will happen to this planet when man has used up all its drinking water resources. O que acontecerá a este planeta quanto o homem tiver usado completamente todas as suas fontes de água potável? 6. What’s the use of crying now that the damage has been done? De que adianta chorar agora que o mal já está feito? 7. There used to be more solidarity among men. Costumava haver mais solidariedade entre os homens. 8. My uncle has been working as a used-car dealer since he got to Rio. Meu tio vem trabalhando como revendedor de carros usados desde que chegou ao Rio. 9. The meaning of a word depends on the intention of the user. O significado de uma palavra depende da intenção de quem a usa. 10. It was shameful to see how they made use of child labor on the farm. Foi vergonhoso ver com exploravam o trabalho infantil na fazenda.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO V. false cognates in bold 1. There were some extenuating circumstances in Marion’s case. Há algumas circunstâncias atenuantes no processo da Marion. 2. Theresa is adept at distorting my words. Teresa é perita em distorcer minhas palavras. 3. Holly’s mother had always told her not to talk to strangers. A mãe da Holly sempre disse para ela não falar com estranhos. 4. The criminal was soon released on bail. O criminoso logo foi solto sob fiança. 5. Jules has always been a dependable employee. It’s highly unlikely that he will change his behavior now. . Jules sempre foi um funcionário confiável. É muito improvável que ele mude seu comportamento agora. 6. I would like to say that I sympathize with the leader’s ideas. Gostaria de dizer que me solidarizo com as idéias do líder. 7. Little Johnny saw the cartoon and found it terrific. O Joãozinho viu o desenho animado e achou-o maravilhoso. 8. Mrs. Higgins is a woman of exquisite tastes. A Sra. Higgins é uma mulher de gostos refinados. 9. Not many students were present at Prof. Hal’s lecture. Não muitos alunos estavam presentes à conferência do Prof. Hal. 10. Since elementary school Edgar has never been good at figures. Desde a escola primária que o Edgar não é bom com números. 11. When the president travels abroad, his duties devolve upon the vice president of the republic. Quando o presidente viaja para o exterior seus deveres são transmitidos ao vice-presidente. 12. During the trial, the prosecutor presented conclusive evidence of the defendant’s crime. Durante o julgamento o promoter apresentou provas conclusivas da crime praticado pelo réu.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 8 foram alcançados. OBJECTIVES (OBJETIVOS) Draw your attention to the following essential points: Chamar sua atenção para os seguintes pontos essenciais: I. Study of Verb Tenses: Past Perfect continuous / its uses Estudo dos tempos verbais: passado perfeito contínuo e s/ usos II. Analysis of text 1 ‘Official Inflation Index was 0.21% in April” Análise do texto ‘’Indice Oficial da Inflação foi 0,21% em Abril” III. Key Word: USE A palavra-chave: USE IV. Confusable Words Palavras-que confundem V. Word Forms – The prefixes DE- // DISFormação das palavras – Os prefixos DE- // DISVI. The study of text 2: “April Fool’s Day” Estudo do texto 2: “O Primeiro de Abril” VII– False Cognates - note + exercise Falsos Cognatos - nota + exercício VIII. Whatever and other –ever words Whatever e outras palavras terminando em ‘ever’ IX. Picture Test 8 & Useful Tips Teste com gravuras – 8 & Dicas úteis X. Exercise Section Seção de Exercícios

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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08 -ThePastPerfectContinuous