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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

AULA 7 THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE The spotlight falls on the past perfect desta vez. Veja a conjugação dos verbos to walk (r.v.) (= andar, caminhar) e to give (i.v.) (= dar) AFFIRMATIVE I had walked You had walked He had walked She had walked It had walked We had walked You had walked They had walked

I had given You had given He had given She had given It had given We had given You had given They had given

O past perfect é formado pelo past simple do auxiliar to have (sempre had) + the past participle of the principal verb. É fundamental, aqui, saber a terceira forma dos verbos irregulares para domínio deste tempo verbal. NEGATIVE STATEMENTS I had not walked You had not walked He had not walked She had not walked It had not walked We had not walked You had not walked They had not walked

I had not given You had not given He had not given She had not given It had not given We had not given You had not given They had not given

A forma negativa se obtém pela colocação de not após o verbo auxiliar had. Note: had not or hadn’t

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QUESTIONS Had Had Had Had Had Had Had Had

I walked? you walked? he walked? she walked? it walked? we walked? you walked? they walked?

Had Had Had Had Had Had Had Had

I given? you given? he given? she given? it given? we given? you given? they given?

Basta inverter o auxiliar had com o sujeito para formar a interrogativa. USES OF THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Procuro fazer um verdadeiro bombardeio com relação ao entendimento do past perfect com meus alunos. Primeiro martelando a idéia de que é um past before past e, segundo, porque sua tradução para o português, na esmagadora maioria dos casos, é tranqüila e corresponde ao nosso tempo composto mesmo. Vamos analisar alguns exemplos: Before Mr. Jay worked here, he had worked for another insurance company. Antes de o Sr Jay trabalhar aqui, ele havia trabalhado para outra seguradora. My mother had never worked as an elementary school teacher until she came to live in Rio de Janeiro. Minha mãe nunca havia trabalhado como professora primária até que veio morar no Rio de Janeiro. Guess what! Last night I ate something I had never eaten in my whole life: Bolivian salteñas. Adivinhe! Ontem à noite comi algo que nunca havia comido na minha vida: salteñas bolivianas. Had you seen something that amazing before tonight’s show? Você já havia visto algo tão surpreendente antes do show desta noite? Now and then no text 1 a seguir surgem vários exemplos de verbos no past simple e no past perfect.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Text 1: The Making of a Holiday Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr’s death did not slow the Civil Rights Movement. Black and white people continued to fight for freedom and equality. Coretta Scott King is the widow of the civil rights leader. In 1970, she established the Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center in 5 Atlanta, Georgia. This living memorial consists of his boyhood home and the Ebenezer Baptist Church, where King is buried. On Monday, January 20, 1986, in cities and towns across the country people celebrated the first official Martin Luther King Day, the only federal holiday commemorating an African-American. A ceremony which took 10 place at an old railroad depot in Atlanta Georgia was especially emotional. Hundreds had gathered to sing and to march. Many were the same people who, in 1965, had marched for fifty miles between two cities in the state of Alabama to protest segregation and discrimination of black Americans. All through the 1980's, controversy surrounded the idea of a Martin 15 Luther King Day. Congressmen and citizens had petitioned the President to make January 15, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s birthday, a federal holiday. Others wanted to make the holiday on the day he died, while some people did not want to have any holiday at all. (Excerpt from Independence Day, in Celebrate! Holidays in the USA) Visit: http://www.usemb.se/Holidays/celebrate/independ.html VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A fight for freedom boyhood home old railroad depot had gathered to sing protest segregation controversy surrounded

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) lar de sua infância ) velho armazém da ferrovia ) protesta contra a discriminação ) lutar pela liberdade ) pairavam controvérsias ) reuniram-se para cantar

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Escreva nas linhas abaixo as formas de past simple encontradas no text 1: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

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2. Escreva nas linhas abaixo as formas de past perfect encontradas no text 1: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS Indispensable question words: What…? Who…? Where…? When…?

O que...? Quem...? Onde....? Quando...?

Why…? How…? How many…? How often…?

Por que...? Como...? Quantos...? Quantas vezes...?

Answer the following questions using complete sentences just to practice using mainly past simple & past perfect constructions: 1. What did Martin Luther King’s widow establish after his death? _______________________________________________________ 2. Where did she establish it? _______________________________________________________ 3. What does it consist of? _______________________________________________________ 4. When did people celebrate the first official Martin Luther King Day? _______________________________________________________ 5. How many people had gathered in Atlanta to attend the ceremony? _______________________________________________________ 6. What had many of those people done in 1965? _______________________________________________________ 7. Who had petitioned the president to make January 15 a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King? _______________________________________________________ 8. Why did controversy surround the idea of a Martin Luther King Day? _______________________________________________________

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KEY WORD: SAME From text 1: “Many were the same people who had marched for fifty miles…” (L10/11) Muitos eram os mesmos que haviam marchado por 50 milhas … No fragmento do text 1 a palavra ‘same’ funciona como um adjetivo, podendo ser traduzida por mesmo/ a, mesmos/ as. Veja outros exemplos: This is absolutely true. I have a student who always goes to the same restaurant with his wife when he wants to celebrate something. Isto é absolutamente verdade. Tenho um aluno que vai sempre ao mesmo restaurante com a esposa dele quando quer celebrar algo. My uncle Joseph has lived in the same house all his life. Meu tio José sempre viveu na mesma casa toda a sua vida. Pode também a palavra ‘same’ funcionar como um pronome ou advérbio. Veja as seguintes dialog exchanges: “Are you talking about John who runs the car rental near our house? “Yes, the same.” - Você esta falando do João que dirige a locadora de automóveis perto da nossa casa?” - Sim, ele mesmo (o próprio). Vera and Jessica are sisters. Though they look the same, they are not twins. A Vera e a Jéssica são irmãs. Embora pareçam idênticas, não são gêmeas. “Have a nice weekend, Miss Lavinia.” “The same to you, Professor Hart” -Bom fim de semana para você, Senhorita Lavinia. -O mesmo para o senhor, professor Hart. There are a few expressions with ‘same’ really worthwhile studying:

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO a) just the same (= mesmo assim) “Why are you going to Eve’s birthday? You two don’t get along.” “Just the same. She invited me to her party and I’ll be there.” - Por que você vai ao aniversário da Eva? Vocês duas não se dão bem. - Mesmo assim. Ela me convidou para sua festa e eu estarei lá. b) all the same (= tanto faz, não faz diferença) You may wear your red dress or the blue one. It’s all the same to me. Você pode usar o vestido vermelho ou o azul. Para mim, não faz diferença. c) the same as (= o mesmo que / os mesmos que) How could you make the same mistakes as your brother on the exam? Como você pode cometer os mesmos erros que o seu irmão no teste? I would like to change my diet. I don’t want to eat the same as usual. Gostaria de mudar a minha dieta. Não quero comer o mesmo de sempre. d) to be on the same boat (= lit. estar no mesmo barco, ou seja, estar na mesma situação) “I know it’s not easy to pay all those taxes and fees, but where else could I go.” “We’re definitely on the same boat, my friend.” - Sei que é duro pagar tantos impostos e taxas, mas para onde mais eu poderia ir?” - Definitivamente estamos no mesmo barco, meu amigo. d) on the same vein (= lit. na mesma veia, no sentido de na mesma linha de raciocínio, de pensamento) First we started talking about light subjects and the conversation went on the same vein for a while, until I decided to change to the main subject. Primeiro começamos a falar sobre assuntos leves e a conversa seguiu na mesma linha por um tempo até que decidi mudar pro assunto principal.

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Text 2: St. Patrick's Day (I)

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Many people who immigrated to the United States have come from Ireland. More than one- half of the soldiers who fought in the Revolutionary War had Irish ancestors. Today, it is said, Irish descendants in the United States put on a noisier and bigger St. Patrick's Day celebration than the people in Ireland. Every year on March 17 or the preceding Saturday, cities with a large population of Irish Americans have parades. Green is one of the national colors of Ireland and also one of the signs of spring. Green stripes are painted on the streets where the parade will travel. People wear green shirts, ties, hair ribbons and hats. Many American bars even serve green beer on that day! Just like many other holidays in the United States, St. Patrick’s Day has its origins in ancient times. A young boy named Patrick lived in the British Isles, a land that had been invaded and conquered first by the Romans and then by Germanic tribes. Patrick was captured and taken as a slave from the British Isles to what is now Ireland. He lived there for several years herding sheep. He was a religious boy and he prayed that he would someday return to his homeland. Legend has it that one night while he was praying, a voice told him to escape from the farm, and find a ship that was waiting for him two hundred miles away. Patrick got to the ship, sailed to Europe, and disembarked in what is now probably France. He led several of the ship’s crew through a dangerous forest, praying all the time. Neither Patrick nor any member of his crew was captured. When some of the men were about to die of starvation, wild animals appeared for them to eat. Events such as these appeared to be miracles and gave rise to later legends surrounding Patrick. At home, Patrick felt that he was called by God to perform an important mission. He believed it was his duty to go back to Ireland and convert the Celtic people to the Christian religion. Patrick arrived in Ireland and became a missionary, traveling from village to village and talking about his faith. Once, several members of a tribe approached Patrick and told him that they found it difficult to understand and believe in the Holy Trinity. Patrick thought a moment, then stooped down and picked one of the plentiful shamrocks growing wild around Ireland. “Here are three leaves,” he said, “yet it is one plant. Imagine the Father, Son and the Holy Spirit as each of these leaves. Here they are, yet they are one plant.” The tribesmen understood, because Patrick had used a familiar object to explain. From that time on, the shamrock has been a revered symbol of Ireland. (From Celebrate! Holidays in the U.S.A)

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VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A put on a noisier celebration green stripes are painted was taken as a slave legend has it that it was his duty stooped down and picked

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) listras verdes são pintadas ) foi aprisionado como escravo ) fazem uma festa mais ruidosa ) curvou-se a apanhou ) era seu dever ) diz a lenda que

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 2 1. Uma vez mais, por se tratar de um relato histórico, o texto 2 está repleto de exemplos no past simple tanto com regular quanto com irregular verbs. Escreva abaixo quantos exemplos você reconhecer: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. Há também diversos exemplos no present simple. Escreva-os: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. Há também diversos exemplos no present perfect. Escreva-os: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 4. Procure 3 (três) construções no past simple passive. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5. Extraia do text 2 uma construção verbal no past perfect simple e uma no past perfect passive: _______________________________________________________ 6. No trecho em que S. Patrício explica o mistério da Santíssima Trindade por duas vezes aparece a palavra ‘yet’, nas linhas 32 & 33, explique qual a idéia que ela está expressando e em que sentido ela é usada no texto. Traduza-a: _______________________________________________________

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WORD FORMS From text 2: “Today, it is said, Irish descendants in the United States put on a noisier and bigger St. Patrick's Day celebration than the people in Ireland. Hoje, diz-se que os descendentes irlandeses nos EUA fazem uma comemoração do Dia de São Patrício mais ruidosa e maior do que a dos irlandeses na Irlanda. a) Sem dúvida alguma quando falamos de países e nacionalidades o sufixo mais comum é –(I)AN a começar pelo nosso Brasil, em inglês Brazil – Brazilian; e também Canadá – Canadian, Bolívia - Bolivian, Germany – German, Colombia - Colombians e muitos, muitos outros. Porém, é bom observar os casos com o final –ISH. Veja os seguintes exemplos: Country Sweden Britain Turkey Denmark Poland

Adjective Swedish British Turkish Danish Polish

Translation Sueco / a Britânico / a Turco /a Dinamarquês / esa Polonês /esa

b) the suffix –ISH - usado para formar adjetivos do tipo: Noun child green yellow

Adjective childish greenish yellowish

Translation infantil esverdeado amarelado

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KEY WORD: TIME From text 2: From that time on, the shamrock has been a revered symbol of Ireland. Daquele momento em diante o trevo se tornou um símbolo reverenciado da Irlanda. Como já dissemos antes, existe o noun ‘time’, uncountable, as in: How much time have you put into studying the matter? Quanto tempo você dedicou ao estudo do assunto? Você tem também o noun ‘times’ (=vezes), countable: How many times do I have to tell you that I won’t let you use the car tonight? Quantas vezes tenho que lhe dizer que não deixarei você usar o carro esta noite? Observe também a família do ‘time’: a) the regular verb to time Could you time my reading? I’ll try to read as fast as you. Pode cronometrar minha leitura? Tentarei ler tão rápido quanto você. b) the noun timing Most often timing is crucial when making a decision. Freqüentemente a questão do tempo é crucial ao tomar uma decisão. c) the adjectives: timely / untimely A bigger fire was prevented by the timely intervention of the fire fighters. Um incêndio maior foi evitado pela oportuna intervenção dos bombeiros. Prof. Gray was visibly affected by such untimely interruptions during his lecture. O Prof Gray estava visivelmente afetado pelas interrupções inoportunas durante sua palestra.

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d) ‘time’ em compostos É muito comum o uso da palavra ‘time’ em compostos. Veja alguns exemplos e passe a anotar outros extraídos de suas leituras: The examiner called our attention to the time-limit. O examinador chamou nossa atenção para o limite de tempo. Modern technology has brought us many time-saving devices. A moderna tecnologia nos trouxe muitos aparelhos p/ poupar tempo. I would not opt for that activity. It’s too time-consuming. Não optaria por aquela atividade. É muito demorada. Last but not least, basta olhar para os inúmeros verbos e adjetivos that go together with time & times para comprovar como seu campo colocacional é valioso. Veja estes exemplos. All of us spent a wonderful time on the farm. Todos nós passamos um tempo maravilhoso na fazenda. My father had lost his job then. Those were hard times. Meu pai tinha perdido seu emprego na época. Aqueles foram tempos difíceis. Use the skimming technique to read the exam texts if you feel you’re pressed for time. Use a técnica do skimming com os textos da prova se sentir que está pressionado pelo tempo. Devote your spare time to activities that give you great pleasure. Dedique seu tempo livre a atividades que lhe dêem grande prazer. We have gone through rough times recently. Passamos por momentos terríveis ultimamente. No final desta aula você encontra um exercício sobre collocations e expressões comuns com a palavra time(s).

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THE MODAL VERB WOULD From text 2: He was a religious boy and he prayed that he would someday return to his homeland. Ele era um rapaz religioso e rezava para que um dia retornasse a sua terra natal. a) O modal would é o passado de will em termos puramente gramaticais. Fica visível esta mudança quando se passa para o discurso indireto: “I pray that you will get there safe and sound”, my grandma said. - Rezo para que você chegue lá são e salvo. Minha avó disse. My grandma said that she prayed that I would get there safe and sound. - Minha avó disse que rezava para que eu chegasse lá são e salvo. b) Conditional sentences – corresponde ao nosso futuro do pretérito I would become a millionaire if I won the big lottery prize. Eu me tornaria um milionário se eu ganhasse o grande prêmio da loteria sozinho. c) would – com ações que se repetiam no passado The musician would get back home late at night, he would take off his clothes; next, he would take a shower and then go to bed. Every Sunday my brother and I would go to Maracanã to watch soccer games when we lived in Rio. Todos os domingos meu irmão e eu íamos ao Maracanã assistir aos jogos de futebol quando morávamos no Rio. d) Would rather – expressão indicando preferência I would rather stay home than go to the beach with you. Prefiro ficar em casa a ir à praia com vocês. I would rather you didn’t smoke here. Prefiro que não fume aqui.

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e) would have +past participle of main verb in if-clauses (past unreal situations) We would have visited you but we didn’t know where you lived. Nos teríamos visitado você, mas não sabíamos onde você morava. I would have invited you to the party if I had known you were in town. Teria convidado você para a festa se tivesse sabido que você estava na cidade. You would have met Alice if you had gone to the show. Você teria encontrado a Alice se tivesse ido ao show.

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PRINCIPAL PARTS OF IRREGULAR VERBS Uma boa maneira de praticar o the past simple & the past perfect é usar os diversos verbos abaixo para inventar novos diálogos como esse que segue: S1: S2: S1: S2:

Did you see the film on TV last night? No, I didn’t. Yesterday I saw something I had never seen before. Oh, really! What did you see? I saw a hockey game.

Complete the missing past form of the following irregular verbs, then make up other dialogues with a partner. Infinitive

Past Simple

Past Participle

buy catch choose do draw drink eat feel fly hear hit leave lose make run sell spend spread steal teach tell throw understand wear

bought _________ chose _________ drew _________ ate _________ flew _________ hit _________ lost _________ ran _________ spent _________ stole _________ told _________ understood _________

_____________ caught _____________ done _____________ drunk _____________ felt _____________ heard _____________ left _____________ made _____________ sold ______________ spread _____________ taught _____________ thrown _____________ worn

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Come on, try it. It’s fifty-fifty, Você tem sempre 50% de chances de acertar! PICTURE TEST 7

The widow was mourning for her dead husband who [a) had / b) has] been a famous opera singer.

USEFUL TIPS Continue a desenvolver sua collocation awareness, ou seja, sua conscientização quanto à importância dessas locuções. Aproveito o espaço para dar mais uma dica útil. Às vezes nos surpreendemos quando duas palavras comuns – no exemplo a seguir o verbo go (i.v.) + bad (adj). Veja esta frase: Bananas go bad easily in the summer. As bananas estragam facilmente no verão. Portanto nunca take for granted any words, nem mesmo as palavras mais corriqueiras você deve presumir que já sabe; pois elas podem ter um campo colocacional precioso.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO EXERCISES I. Complete the mini text below with one of the words in the box: different // patron // wide // custom // famous Stories of Saint Patrick, for by then he was a saint, reached far and __________ (1). His most __________ (2) feat is forcing the snakes out of the entire country Ireland. Even though there are many __________ (3) stories about how he accomplished such a task, it is probably not true. St. Patrick died on March 17 and the Irish people set aside the day to mourn. He became the __________ (4) saint of Ireland. Mourning turned to commemorating him and celebrating his life. Americans have inherited this __________ (5). On St Patrick's Day in the United States, millions of people celebrate whether they are Irish or not! (Excerpt from St Patrick’s Day in Celebrate! Holidays In The U.S.A) II. Practice making up questions: Você pode fazer o exercício seguinte por escrito ou apenas praticar oralmente. Compare com as minhas respostas no final. 1. Bianca’s parents had lived in Italy before they came to Brazil. a) “Who _________________?” “Bianca’s parents.” b) “What ____________________?” “Lived in Italy.” c) “Where __________________________?” “In Italy.” d) “When __________________________?” “Before they came to Brazil.”

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2. Vanessa had done some shopping very close to the World Trade Center, hours before the terrorist attacks on September 11th. a) “Who _________________?” “Vanessa had.” b) “What ____________________?” “Done some shopping.” c) “Where __________________________?” “Very close to the World Trade Center.” d) “When __________________________?” “Before the terrorist attacks on Sep. 11th” 3. Brazilian soccer players had never played so badly in World Cup games as they did in Germany in 2006. a) “Who _________________?” “Brazilian soccer players.” b) “What ____________________?” “Played so badly in World Cup games.” c) “Where __________________________?” “In Germany.” d) “When __________________________?” “In 2006.” 4. Lola had not drunk mango juice before she visited Brazil. a) “Who _________________?” “Lola.” b) “What ____________________?” “Drunk mango juice.” c) “Where __________________________?” “Nowhere.” d) “When __________________________?” “Before visiting Brazil.”

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III. Fill in the correct prepositions that follow the underlined verbs From text 2: St. Patrick’s Day Every year on March 17 (L- 4/5) Todos os anos em 17 de março Many American bars even serve green beer on that day! (L-9) Muitos bares nos EUA servem cerveja verde neste dia When some of the men were about to die of starvation… (L-21) Quanto alguns dos homens estavam morrendo de fome Patrick arrived in Ireland and became a missionary. (L-27) Patrick chegou à Irlanda e se tornou um missionário 1. Some people rely ____ vitamin supplements to build up their body energy. T: _______________________________________________________ 2. That cat belongs _____Mrs. Chandler. T: _______________________________________________________ 3. Right now Mrs. Chandler is searching ____ her dog. T: _______________________________________________________ 4. Mrs. Hill has the habit of talking ____ her parrot. T: _______________________________________________________ 5. Strange as it may seem, her parrot seems to listen _____ her. T: _______________________________________________________ 6. How much did you pay _____ the bird food? T: _______________________________________________________ 7. What happened __ Lu the other day when she was going to the gym? T: _______________________________________________________ 8. What are you laughing ____? T: _______________________________________________________ 9. Who are you looking _____? T: _______________________________________________________ 10. Mr. Lawrence cares ____ his pets very much. T: _______________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO IV. Use the Past Perfect Tense or the Past Simple to complete the sentences: 1. When Mrs. Jenkins _____________ (arrive) at home the maid _____________ (leave) already. T: _______________________________________________________ 2. Helen _____________ (begin) working as a secretary before she _____________ (finish) College. T: _______________________________________________________ 3. They _____________ (tell) us about the existing danger before we _____________ (get) there. T: _______________________________________________________ 4. Dr. Nelson’s secretary _____________ (write) five reports before 2 p.m. yesterday. T: _______________________________________________________ 5. We _____________ (get) to the movie theater in time for the movie. Vendors _____________ (sell) candy and pop corn. T: _______________________________________________________ 6. Sandra _____________ (offer) me some delicious cookies but I _____________ (just - have) my lunch. T: _______________________________________________________ 7.

The room _____________ (smell) of cigarettes. The maid _____________ (smoke) there for sure. T: _______________________________________________________ 8. I’d rather you ..................... (open - neg.) the window. I’m cold. T: _______________________________________________________ 9. Mario _____________ (be) no longer working for the company in 1989, he _____________ (retire) already. T: _______________________________________________________ 10. Yesterday I _____________ (drink) a fruit juice that I _____________ (taste - neg.) in my life: “Açaí”. T: _______________________________________________________

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V. Complete the sentences with a word deriving from the one in bold type. Follow the example: Her novel was an immediate success. Her novel immediately became a success worldwide. 1. Crossword puzzles are the most popular form of recreation. Crossword puzzles are appreciated by their ____________ value. T: _______________________________________________________ 2. In the US there are an estimated 30 million fans. The experts’ ____________ is that there are 30 million fans in the US. T: _______________________________________________________ 3. Experts don’t believe crossword puzzles can teach anything. Solving those puzzles requires some ........................ . T: _______________________________________________________ 4. Fans want to test their speed and perseverance. Some ____________ fans wish to test their speed as well. T: _______________________________________________________ 5/7. Most fans hope to improve to meet the challenge of more difficult puzzles. The ____________ fans get, leads them to more ____________ puzzles which present increasing ____________. T: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 8. It is impossible to say how popular crossword puzzles are. It is ____________ how popular this form of recreation has become. T: _______________________________________________________ 9. Most forms of recreation require a partner. Mr. Andrews’ ____________ with his nephew proved disastrous. 10. Most experts doubt that puzzles can teach anything. Experts suggest the educational value of puzzles is ____________ T: _______________________________________________________

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VI. Translate the sentences containing ‘time’ expressions: 1. T: 2. T: 3. T: 4. T: 5. T: 6.

You still have half an hour to do your test. So, take your time. ______________________________________________________ As a rule, how do you pay for the things you buy: cash or on time? ______________________________________________________ The head coach was right in asking for a time- out at that moment. ______________________________________________________ From time to time I call on my parents on Sundays. ______________________________________________________ I’ll have to do some shopping, in the meantime you can do the dishes. ______________________________________________________ The British prefer the word ‘timetable’ while the Americans use ‘schedule’ more often. T: ______________________________________________________ 7. What does she do when closing time catches her in the middle of some task at work? T: ______________________________________________________ 8. At times my secretary arrives late to work, but nearly always she gets here on time. T: ______________________________________________________ 9. Joe looked stressed, so his boss told him to take some time off. T: ______________________________________________________ 10. Whether the new measures will prove effective only time will tell. T: ______________________________________________________ 11. In 1992 I had the time of my life during my vacation in Europe. T: ______________________________________________________ 12. At least for the sake of making up this exercise I can say I literally have time on my hands. T: ______________________________________________________ 13. My watch is neither fast nor slow, it keeps good time. T: ______________________________________________________ 14. Our flight has been delayed. It’s almost one hour behind time. T: ______________________________________________________ 15. The movie is about a guy who did time in prison unjustly. T: ______________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 16. We had nothing to do in between classes so we were just killing time. T: ______________________________________________________ 17. It’s pretty hard to work and study at the same time. T: ______________________________________________________ 18. We thought we’d get bored at Laura’s party, but we had a good time. T: ______________________________________________________ 19. For the time being, let’s restrict ourselves to these ‘time’ pieces. T: ______________________________________________________ 20. When will you learn all these expressions? I tell you, in no time. T: ______________________________________________________ VII. Use can, could, will would, should, must in order to complete the following sentences. The translations can help you. 1. If I were you I _______ buy a new car. Se eu fosse você compraria um carro novo. 2. If you plan to pass the exam, you ________ study these topics. Se você planeja passar na prova, deveria estudar estes tópicos. 3. When I was much younger I ______ swim very fast. Quando eu era bem mais jovem eu conseguia nadar muito rápido. 4. If you want to get to the airport on time you ________ hurry up. Se quiser chegar ao aeroporto na hora, vocês têm que se apressar. 5. If you want to start your own business you _______ need honest people to work with you. Se você quer abrir seu próprio negócio precisará de pessoas honestas trabalhando com você.

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ANSWERS Text 1: Vocabulary Pre Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A fight for freedom boyhood home old railroad depot had gathered to sing protest segregation controversy surrounded

B a. (2) lar de sua infância b. (3) velho armazém da ferrovia c. (5) protesta contra a discriminação d. (1) lutar pela liberdade e. (6) pairavam controvérsias f. (4) reuniram-se para cantar

Analysis of Text 1 a) past simple: did not slow (L-1) // continued (L-2) // established (L4) // celebrated (L-8) // took place (L-9/10) // was (L-10) // were (L11) // surrounded (L-14) // wanted (L-17) // died (L-17) // did not want (L-18) b) past perfect: had gathered (L-11) // had marched (L-12) // had petitioned (L-15) Reading Questions 1. What did Martin Luther King’s widow establish after his death? She established the Martin Luther King Jr Memorial. O que a viúva de Martin Luther King Jr fundou após a morte dele? Ela fundou o Memorial Martin Luther King Jr 2. Where did she establish it? In Atlanta, Georgia. Onde ela o estabeleceu? Em Atlanta, Geórgia. 3. What does it consist of? It consists of his boyhood home and the Ebenezer Baptist Church where he is buried. Em que consiste o Memorial? Consiste da casa de sua infância e da Igreja Batista Ebenezer onde King está enterrado.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 4. When did people celebrate the first official Martin Luther King Day? On Monday, January 20, l986. Quando as pessoas celebraram o primeiro dia official em honra a Martin Luther King Jr? Numa segunda-feira, 20 de Janeiro de 1986. 5. How many people had gathered in Atlanta to attend the ceremony? Hundreds of people. Quantas pessoas se reuniram em Atlanta para assistir à cerimônia? Centenas de pessoas. 6. What had many of those people done in 1965? They had marched for 50 miles between two cities in Alabama. O que muitas destas pessoas haviam feito em 1965? Haviam caminhado por 50 milhas entre duas cidades no estado do Alabama. 7. Who had petitioned the president to make January 15 a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King? Congressmen and citizens had done so. Quem havia requerido ao presidente para fazer do 15 de Janeiro um feriado nacional? Congressistas e cidadãos o fizeram. 8. Why did controversy surround the idea of a Martin Luther King Day? While some people want the holiday to be on Martin Luther King’s birthday, others wanted it to be on the day of his death and still other did not want any day at all. Por que a idéia de um Dia em honra de Martin Luther King estava envolta em controvérsia? Porque enquanto alguns queriam que o feriado caísse no dia do nascimento de King, outros queriam o feriado no dia de sua morte; e outros até não queriam o feriado em dia nenhum. Text 2: Vocabulary Pre Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A put on a noisier celebration green stripes are painted was taken as a slave legend has it that it was his duty stooped down and picked

B a. (2) listras verdes são pintadas b. (3) foi aprisionado como escravo c. (1) fazem uma festa mais ruidosa d. (6) curvou-se e apanhou e. (5) era seu dever f. (4) conta a lenda que

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Analysis of Text 2 1) past simple: immigrated (L-1) // fought(L-2) // had (L-2) // lived (L-11 &14) // was (L—14) // prayed (L-15) // told (L-16 & 29) // got (L-18) // sailed (L-18) // disembarked (L-18) // led (L-19) // were (L—21) // appeared (L-21 & 22) // gave (L—22) // felt (L—24)// believed (L—25)// was (L—25) // arrived (L-27) // became (L-27) // approached (L-28) // told (L-29) // found (L-29) // thought (L-30) // stooped (L-30) // picked (L-30) // said (L-32) // understood (L-34) 2) present simple: put on (L-3) // have (L—6) // wear (L—8) // serve (L—9 ) has (L—10 & 16) // are (L—31 & 33) // is (L-32) 3) present perfect: have come (L-1) // has been (L-35) 4) past simple passive: have come (L-1) // has been (L-35) 5) a) past perfect simple: had used (L-34) // b) past perfect passive: had been invaded (L-12) 6) a palavra yet aqui não tem o significado comum ‘ainda’; ela é usada aqui como discourse marker, uma conjunção que expressa contraste ou oposição com o significado de contudo, sinônimo de however. Principal Parts Of Irregular Verbs verb chosen: drink. (Invent other dialogs!) S1: Did you drink guaraná last night? S2: No, I didn’t. Yesterday I drank something I had never drunk before. S1: Oh, really! What did you drink? S2: I drank ginger ale. Picture Test 7 (a) The widow was mourning for her dead husband who had been a famous opera singer. A viúva chorava por seu falecido marido que tinha sido um famoso cantor de ópera.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

EXERCISES I. Complete the mini text (1) reached far and wide (= alcançava lugares distantes) // (2) most famous feat (= mais famoso feito) // (3) different stories (= histórias diferentes) // (4) became the patron saint of Ireland (=tornou-se o santo pafroeiro da Irlanda) // (5). have inherited this custom (= herdaram este costume). II. making up questions: 1. Bianca’s parents had lived in Italy before they came to Brazil. Os pais da Bianca haviam vivido na Itália antes de virem para o Brasil. a) “Who had lived in Italy before they came to Brazil?” “Bianca’s parents.” b) “What had Bianca’s parents done before they came to Brazil?” “Lived in Italy.” c) “Where had Bianca’s parents lived before they came to Brazil?” “In Italy.” d) “When had Bianca’s parents lived in Italy?” “Before they came to Brazil.” 2. Vanessa had done some shopping very close to the World Trade Center, hours before the terrorist attacks on September 11th. Vanessa tinha feito compras bem próximo do World Trade Center horas antes dos ataques terroristas de 1l de setembro. a) “Who had done some shopping very close to the World Trade Center?” “Vanessa had.” b) “What had Vanessa done very close to the World Trade Center?” “Done some shopping.” c) “Where had Vanessa done some shopping?” “Very close to the World Trade Center.” d) “When had Vanessa done some shopping very close to the World Trade Center” “Before the terrorist attacks on Sep. 11th .”

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3. Brazilian soccer players had never played so badly in World Cup games as they did in Germany in 2006. Os jogadores de futebol do Brasil nunca haviam jogado tão mal em jogos de Copa do mundo como o fizeram na Alemanha em 2006. a) “Who had never played so badly in World Cup games?” “The Brazilian soccer players.” b) “What had Brazilian soccer players never done before?” “Played so badly in World Cup games.” c) “Where had Brazilian soccer players played so badly?” “In Germany.” d) “When had Brazilian soccer players played so badly?” “In 2006.” 4. Lola had not drunk mango juice before visiting Brazil. Lola nunca tinha bebido suco de manga antes de visitar o Brasil. a) “Who had not drunk mango juice before visiting Brazil?” “Lola.” b) “What had Lola not done before visiting Brazil?” “Drunk mango juice.” c) “Where had Lola drunk mango juice before visiting Brazil?” “Nowhere.” d) “When had Lola never drunk mango juice?” “Before visiting Brazil.” III. the correct prepositions 1. Some people rely on vitamin supplements to build up their body energy. Algumas pessoas confiam em suplementos vitamínicos para aumentar sua energia corporal. 2. That cat belongs to Mrs. Chandler. Aquele gato pertence a Sra. Chandler. 3. Right now Mrs. Chandler is searching for her dog. Neste momento a Sra Chandler está procurando por seu cachorro. 4. Mrs. Hill has the habit of talking to her parrot. A Sra Hill tem o hábito de conversar com seu papagaio. 5. Strange as it may seem, her parrot seems to listen to her. Estranho quanto pareça seu papagaio parece ouvi-la. 6. How much did you pay for the bird food? Quanto você pagou pela comida do passarinho?

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 7. What happened to Lu the other day when she was going to the gym? O que aconteceu com a Julia quando ia para a academia? 8. What are you laughing at? De que você está rindo? 9. Who are you looking at? Para quem você está olhando? 10. Mr. Lawrence cares about his pets very much. O Sr. Lawrence cuida dos seus animais muito bem. IV. Past Perfect Tense or the Past Simple? 1. When Mrs. Jenkins arrived at home the maid had left already. Quando a Sra Jenkins chegou em casa sua empregada já havia saído. 2. Helen had begun working as a secretary before she finished College. Helena havia começado a trabalhar como secretaria antes de terminar a faculdade. 3. They had told us about the existing danger before we got there. Eles nos haviam prevenido do perigo existente antes de chegarmos lá. 4. Dr. Nelson’s secretary had written five reports before 2 p.m. yesterday. A secretária do Dr. Nelson havia escrito cinco relatórios antes das 2h. 5. We had gotten to the movie theater in time for the movie. Vendors had sold candy and pop corn. Chegamos ao cinema a tempo de ver o filme. Vendedores tinham vendido doces e pipoca. 6. Sandra offered me some delicious cookies but I had just had my lunch. Sandra me ofereceu biscoitos deliciosos mas eu tinha acabado de almoçar. 7. The room smelled of cigarettes. The maid had smoked there for sure. O quarto cheirava a cigarro. A empregada tinha fumado com certeza. 8. I’d rather you didn’t open the window. I’m cold. Preferiria que você não abrisse a janela. Estou com frio. 9. Mario was no longer working for the company in 1989, he had retired already. Mario não estava mais trabalhando na companhia em 1989. Já havia se aposentado. 10. Yesterday I drank a fruit juice that I had not tasted in my life: “Açaí”. Ontem provei um suco de fruta que jamais provara antes: açaí.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO V. word formation Model: Her novel was an immediate success. Her novel immediately became a success worldwide. Seu romance imediatamente se tornou um sucesso mundial. 1. Crossword puzzles are the most popular form of recreation. Crossword puzzles are appreciated by their recreational value. Palavras cruzadas são apreciadas por seu valor recreativo. 2. In the US there are an estimated 30 million crossword puzzles fans. The experts’ estimate is that there are 30 million fans in the US. A estimativa dos especialistas é de que há 30 milhões de fans nos EUA. 3. Experts don’t believe crossword puzzles can teach anything. Solving those puzzles requires some expertise. Resolver problemas de palavras cruzadas requer alguma perícia. 4. Fans want to test their speed and perseverance. Some perseverant fans wish to test their speed as well. Alguns fans perseverantes desejam testar sua velocidade também. 5/7. Most fans hope to improve to meet the challenge of more difficult puzzles. The improvement fans get, leads them to more challenging puzzles which present increasing difficulty. O progresso que os fans obtêm os leva a problemas mais desafiadores que apresentam grau de dificuldade maior. 8. It is impossible to say how popular crossword puzzles are. It is puzzling how popular this form of recreation has become. É surpreendente o quão populares as palavras cruzadas se tornaram. 9. Most forms of recreation require a partner. Mr. Andrews’ partnership with his nephew proved disastrous. A parceria do Sr. Andrews com seu sobrinho provou ser desastrosa. 10. Most experts doubt that puzzles can teach anything. Experts suggest the educational value of puzzles is doubtful. Peritos dizem que o valor educacional das palavras cruzadas é duvidoso. VI. Translate the ‘time’ expressions. 1. You still have half an hour to do your test. So, take your time. Vocês ainda têm ½ h para fazer a prova. Portanto, não tenham pressa. 2. As a rule, how do you pay for the things you buy: cash or on time? Geralmente como você paga as coisas que compra: à vista ou a crédito? 3. The head coach was right in asking for a time-out at that moment. O treinador estava certo em pedir tempo naquele momento. 4. From time to time I call on my parents on Sundays. De vez em quando visito meus pais aos domingos.

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5. I’ll have to do some shopping, in the meantime you can do the dishes. Tenho que fazer compras, nesse ínterim você pode lavar os pratos. 6. The British prefer the word ‘timetable’ while the Americans use ‘schedule’ more often. Os britânicos preferem a palavra ‘timetable’ enquanto que os americanos usa mais freqüentemente ‘schedule’ (=horário). 7. What does she do when closing time catches her in the middle of some task at work? O que ela faz quando a hora da saída a surpreende no meio de uma tarefa no trabalho? 8. At times my secretary arrives late to work, but nearly always she gets here on time. Às vezes minha secretária chega tarde para trabalhar, mas quase sempre ela chega na hora aqui. 9. Joe looked stressed, so his boss told him to take some time off. O Joe parecia estressado, logo seu chefe disse para tirar uma folga. 10. Whether the new measures will prove effective only time will tell. Se as novas medidas serão eficazes só o tempo dirá. 11. In 1992 I had the time of my life during my vacation in Europe. Em 1992 me diverti muito durante minha viagem à Europa. 12. At least for the sake of making up this exercise I can say I literally have time on my hands. Pelo menos, para efeito de fazer este exercício posso dizer que literalmente tenho ‘tempo’ sob o meu controle. 13. My watch is neither fast nor slow, it keeps good time. Meu relógio não está nem adiantado nem atrasado, marca a hora certa. 14. Our flight has been delayed. It’s almost one hour behind time. Nosso vôo atrasou. Está com quase uma hora de atraso. 15. The movie is about a guy who did time in prison unjustly. O filme é sobre um cara que cumpriu um tempo na cadeia injustamente 16. We had nothing to do in between classes so we were just killing time. Não tínhamos nada para fazer entre uma aula e outra, portanto estávamos fazendo hora. 17. It’s pretty hard to work and study at the same time. É muito duro ter que trabalhar e estudar ao mesmo tempo. 18. We thought we’d get bored at Laura’s party, but we had a good time. Pensamos que iríamos nos chatear na festa da Laura mas nos divertimos. 19. For the time being, let’s restrict ourselves to these ‘time’ pieces. Por enquanto, vamos nos restringir a estas expressões com ‘time’. 20. When will you learn all these expressions? I tell you, in no time. Quando você aprenderá todas estas expressões? Logo, eu garanto.

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VI. Use can, could, will would, should, must in order to complete the following sentences. The translations can help you. 1. If I were you I would buy a new car. Se eu fosse você compraria um carro novo. 2. If you plan to pass the exam, you should study these topics. Se você planeja passar na prova, deveria estudar estes tópicos. 3. When I was much younger I could swim very fast. Quando eu era bem mais jovem eu conseguia nadir muito rápido. 4. If you want to get to the airport on time you must hurry up. Se quiser chegar ao aeroporto na hora, vocês têm que se apressar. 5. If you want to start your own business you will need honest people working with you. Se você quer abrir seu próprio negócio precisará de pessoas honestas trabalhando com você.

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Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 7 foram alcançados. OBJECTIVES (OBJETIVOS) Draw your attention to the following essential points: Chamar sua atenção para os seguintes pontos essenciais: I. The study of Verb Tenses: The Past Perfect tense & its uses O estudo dos tempos verbais: O passado perfeito e seus usos II . Analysis of text 1 ‘The Making of a Holiday’ Análise do texto ‘’A Criação de um Feriado III. Key Words: SAME Palavras-chave: MESMO/A IV. The study of text 2: “St. Patrick’s Day” Estudo do texto 2: O Dia de São Patrício V. Word Forms – The suffix –ISH Formação das palavras – o sufixo -ISH VI– Modal auxiliaries - WOULD Os auxiliares modais - WOULD VII. Key Words : TIME Palavras-chave: TEMPO VIII. Study of irregular Verbs – Dialog Exchanges Estudo dos Verbos Irregulares - Diálogos IX. Picture Test 7 Teste com gravuras 7 X. Exercise Section Seção de Exercícios

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07 -ThePastPerfectSimple