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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

AULA 6 THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Estudaremos nesta aula o present perfect continuous. Veja a conjugação dos verbos to walk (r.v.) (= andar, caminhar) e to give (i.v.) (= dar)

AFFIRMATIVE I have been walking You have been walking He has been walking She has been walking It has been walking We have been walking You have been walking They have been walking

I have been giving You have been giving He has been giving She has been giving It has been giving We have been giving You have been giving They have been giving

O present perfect continuous é formado pelo present perfect do auxiliar to be (= have been or has been) + ...ing form of the principal verb. É comum encontrarem-se as formas contraídas I have = I’ve / (S)He has = (S)He’s NEGATIVE STATEMENTS I have not been walking You have not been walking He has not been walking She has not been walking It has not been walking We have not been walking You have not been walking They have not been walking

I have not been giving You have not been giving He has not been giving She has not been giving It has not been giving We have not been giving You have not been giving They have not been giving

A forma negativa se obtém pela colocação de not entre o verbo auxiliar have/ has e o particípio been. Note: has not or hasn’t // have not or haven’t

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

QUESTIONS Have I been walking? Have you been walking? Has he been walking? Has she been walking? Has it been walking? Have we been walking? Have you been walking? Have they been walking?

Have I been giving? Have you been giving? Has he been giving? Has she been giving? Has it been giving? Have we been giving? Have you been giving? Have they been giving?

Basta inverter o auxiliar have / has com o sujeito para formar a interrogativa. USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Já mencionamos en passant que o present perfect simple e o present perfect continuous são usados indiferentemente como no exemplo abaixo. I have worked for this company since last year. (OR) I have been working for this company since last year. Trabalho (ou tenho trabalhado) para esta companhia desde o ano passado.

Basicamente o present perfect continuous será usado para indicar que a ação que começou no passado vem se desenrolando até agora e poderá continuar no futuro. Contrasta com o present perfect simple quando este é usado para ações completas num tempo não definido. Compare: Wilson has been writing his new play. He’s working hard. Wilson está escrevendo sua nova peça teatral. Está trabalhando arduamente.

Wilson has written many plays in his life. Wilson escreveu muitas peças na sua vida.

Tanto ‘for’ para indicar tempo decorrido e ‘since’ para marcar a origem da ação serão often usados com o present perfect continuous. My former teacher Mr. Patrick Finn left England many years ago and has been living in Brazil ever since. Meu ex-professor Mr. Patrick Finn deixou a Inglaterra há muitos anos e está vivendo no Brasil desde então.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Text 1: Chinese New Year (Sometime between Jan 21 –Feb 19 Gung Hay Fat Choy! This is the Chinese greeting for the New Year celebrated in the beginning of the year. From ancient times to the present, Chinese people have been welcoming in the New Year and chasing away the evil spirits by setting off firecrackers. Large crowds 5 gather in the narrow streets of Chinatown in New York, San Francisco and other cities where Chinese have settled. A huge cloth dragon sways back and forth around the street corners, chasing a red sunball or a white pearl-ball. Following the dragon are people playing drums and gongs, and lion dancers with paper lion heads on sticks. As they dance, store and 10 business owners come outside to give them money. In China, New Year is the most important holiday, and it is observed by Chinese all over the world. The holiday has added significance because every Chinese celebrates his / her birthday on New Year, regardless of the month in which he or 15 she was actually born. (From Celebrate! Holidays in the USA) Visit: http://www.usemb.se/Holidays/celebrate/labor.html

VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A chasing away the evil spirits setting off firecrackers sways back and forth large crowds gather people playing drums was actually born

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) tenham nascido realmente ) ginga de um lado para outro ) grandes multidões se reúnem ) afastando os maus espíritos ) soltando fogos de artifício ) gente tocando tambores

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Escreva um exemplo do texto de verbo no present perfect continuous. _______________________________________________________ 2. Responda se as formas have settled (L-5) & has added (L-12) poderiam ser colocadas no present perfect continuous sem prejuízo da gramática e do sentido do texto 1: _______________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

3. Escreva 3 três exemplos de verbos do texto no present simple: _______________________________________________________ WORD FORMS From text 1: “This is the Chinese greeting for the New Year” (L-1) Esta é a saudação chinesa para o Ano Novo. Vale a pena observar alguns adjetivos referentes a nacionalidades e línguas dos povos. Do text 1 tem-se: people born in China are Chinese and they speak Chinese. Outros exemplos: Country Portugal Japan Vietnam

Nationality Portuguese Japanese Vietnamese

Language Portuguese Japanese Vietnamese

WORDS IN FAMILIES From text 1: “The holiday has added significance because every Chinese celebrates his / her birthday on New Year… “ (L-12/13) O feriado tem significado acrescido pelo fato de que cada chinês comemora seu aniversário no dia do ano novo... Verb ..................

Noun significance

Adjective ...................

Adverb .....................

From text 1: “In China, New Year is the most important holiday, …” (L-10) Na China, o Ano Novo e feriado mais importante… Verb ....................

Noun .....................

Adjective important

Adverb .......................

From text 1: “… and it is observed by Chinese all over the world” (L-10/11) é e observado pelos chinês em todo o mundo Verb ....................

Noun .....................

Adjective observable

Adverb ......................

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO KEY WORD: BACK From text 1: ‘A huge cloth dragon sways back and forth around the street corners” (L-6) Um grande dragão de pano balança pra frente e pra trás nas esquinas das ruas A expressão back and forth do texto pode ser traduzida também por ‘de um lado para o outro. Se você consultar um bom dicionário, principalmente um Learner’s, cheio de bons exemplos, certamente ficará estupefato com a quantidade de expressões em que a pequena palavrinha ‘back’ pode aparecer. Aqui vamos dar uma palhinha apenas. a) ‘back’ como substantivo - na acepção de costa(s)- parte do corpo humano, é comum. Mrs. Dawn suffers from severe pains in her back. A Sra Dawn sofre de dores atrozes na coluna. b) significando atrás, no verso. On the back of the product you read ‘made in Taiwan’. No verso do produto lia-se: ‘feito em Taiwan’. c) significando ‘de volta’ My e-mail was sent back to me. Meu e-mail foi devolvido para mim. d) significando ‘em resposta’ Your wife called, Mr. Thompson. Will you call her back? Sua esposa ligou, Sr. Thompson. O Sr. ligará de volta? e) ‘back’ pode ser usado como verbo regular também: dar marcha à ré. Benny backed the car out of the parking lot. Benny deu a ré no carro para sair do estacionamento. f) backwards (adv) (= de trás pra frente) Can you spell your first name backwards? Você consegue soletrar seu nome de trás pra frente?

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

Text 2: Lula urges leaders to conclude WTO negotiating round

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Vienna (Austria) - President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva made an appeal today to the leaders attending the 4th Latin American-CaribbeanEuropean Union Summit Meeting to speed up the completion of the current round of negotiations in the World Trade Organization (WTO). According to Lula, this would be the best way for the rich countries to contribute to the war on poverty. "The WTO Round is the best opportunity we have to reduce or eliminate subsidies, open markets, increase wealth, and generate employment," Lula said, when he addressed a closed meeting of the more than 50 heads of State and government present at the summit. The Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Relations (Itamaraty) distributed copies of the president's speech to the press. "Only when trade is truly rid of barriers and subsidies will we be able to integrate millions of human beings into the world economy," he affirmed. "For this to occur, we should correct the profound imbalances that currently dominate commercial exchanges, to the detriment of the poorest countries." Lula pointed out that the negotiations must consider the countries' level of development. "The final agreement we desire for the Doha Round should incorporate a context in which concessions are directly proportional to the degree of wealth," he said. "The rich countries should be the most magnanimous. The developing countries will make significant strides, according to their possibilities. And the poorest among the poor countries will not have to make any sacrifice. Quite the opposite, they will receive concrete benefits inversely proportional to their degree of wealth." The Brazilian president declared that Brazil is willing to make concessions. "We are willing to alter our stand on questions related to industry and services, so long as there are really significant advances in the liberalization of agricultural trade," he stated. The chief item on which the rich countries must soften their position, according to Lula, is in their agricultural subsidies. "The rich countries' agricultural protectionism is one of the most unjust forms of lowering living standards in the developing world." The president recalled that he has been repeating this appeal since February, when he participated in an international meeting in South Africa, and will make it again in July, in Russia, at the meeting of the G-8 (the group formed by the world's richest countries). (From Agência Brasil, Spensy Pimentel, Translation: David Silberstein) // Access: 12/05/2006

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A make an appeal increase wealth rid of barriers profound imbalances make significant strides living standards

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. (

B ) acentuados desequilíbrios ) dar passos importantes ) padrões de vida ) aumentar a riqueza ) livre de barreiras ) fazer um pedido

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 2 1. Busque no texto uma construção verbal no present perfect continuous. _______________________________________________________ 2. Quantos verbos no past simple você consegue encontrar no texto? ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ 3. Leia o texto de novo com atenção e procure um ou mais sinônimos “he affirmed” usado para reportar as palavras do presidente Lula. ________________________________________________________ 4. Escreva nas linhas abaixo quantas collocations do tipo verb + adjective você consegue encontrar no texto e traduza-as. Já fiz a primeira para você: open markets (= abrir mercados) __________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 5.

Apesar de ainda não estarmos falando sobre reference detalhadamente, observe o pronome it em “make it again’ (L-37) e diga a que palavra ele está se referindo no texto: ________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

WORDS IN FAMILIES From text 2: Lula urges leaders to conclude WTO negotiating round “ (title) Lula pede urgência aos líderes para concluir a rodada de negociações na OMT Verb urge

Noun ……………….

Adjective ...................

Adverb ....................

From text 2: “…to speed up the completion of the current round of negotiations in the WTO.” (L-3/4) para acelerar a complementação da atual rodada de negociações na OMC Verb ...................

Noun completion

Adjective ...................

Adverb .....................

From text 2: “The Itamaraty distributed copies of the president’s speech.” (L-11/12) O Itamaraty distribuiu cópias do discurso do presidente Verb distribute

Noun ……………….

Adjective ..................

Adverb nihil

From text 2: “Only when trade is truly rid of barriers and subsidies will we be able to integrate millions of human beings into the world economy," he affirmed.” (L-13/14) Somente quando o comércio estiver verdadeiramente livre de barreiras e subsídios seremos capazes de integrar milhões de seres humanos à economia mundial, Lula afirmou. Verb affirm

Noun ………………

Adjective ....................

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Adverb …………….

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO KEY WORD: WAY(S) From text 2: “the best way for the rich countries to contribute” (L-5) a melhor maneira de os países ricos contribuírem A palavra way aparece várias vezes em textos com vários significados: a) substantivo significando manner (=modo, maneira) I like to do things my own way. Gosto de fazer as coisas ao meu modo. b) substantivo significando method (= método) She has her own way of teaching prepositions. Ela possui seu próprio método para ensinar preposições. c) substantivo significando route, road (=rota, caminho) Do you know the way to the Municipal Theater? Você sabe o caminho para o Teatro Municipal? d) informalmente como advérbio na expressão: Her clothes are way old fashioned. Suas roupas estão pra lá de fora de moda. Encontra-se a palavra ‘way’ também em várias expressões: I. By the way ... (= a propósito) By the way, do you know where Kate is? A propósito, você sabe onde está a Kate? II. In the way ... (= no caminho, obstruindo a passagem) Move that table, please. It’s in the way. Afaste essa mesa por favor. Ela está no caminho. III. On the way ... (= a caminho) I saw Ruth on the way to the bank. A caminho do banco encontrei a Rute. IV. In a way (= de uma certa maneira) In a way you have a point here. De certa maneira você tem razão nesse ponto. V. Out of the way (= fora de mão) My cousin’s house is so out of the way. A casa de minha prima é tão fora de mão. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

MODAL VERBS: MUST From text 2: “Lula pointed out that the negotiations must consider the countries' level of development..” (L-18/19) Lula destacou que as negociações têm que considerar o estágio de desenvolvimento dos países “The chief item on which the rich countries must soften their position” (L-31) O principal item sobre o qual os países ricos têm que suavizar sua posição O verbo modal must só tem essa forma, sendo substituído por uma flexão de ‘have to ‘ em diversas situações. Estude os seguintes casos: a) must (‘have to) - para expressar obrigação, algo indispensável a fazer. I must leave early today. Tenho que sair cedo hoje. Must you leave us so soon? Você tem que partir tão cedo? Do you have to leave now? Você tem que ir agora? b) ‘Must’ and ‘have to’ in negative statements. Atenção! Não se pode usar um pelo outro b.1) a forma ‘must not indica proibição) You must not enter that area. The sign says: Authorized Personnel only. Você não pode entrar naquela área. A placa diz: Só Pessoal Autorizado! b.2) Aqui ‘don’t have to’ indica que não há necessidade. You don’t have to come with us if you don’t want to. Você não precisa vir conosco se não quiser.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO c) ‘must’ - usado para tirar conclusões lógicas. Look! The lights in Gina’s room are on. So she must be awake. Veja! As luzes no quarto da Gina estão acesas. Logo ela deve estar acordada. I can’t see Bob’s car in the garage. He must be at work downtown. Não vejo o carro do Bob na garagem. Ele deve estar no trabalho na cidade. PESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS X PRESENT PERFECT PASSIVE Você deve prestar bastante atenção a essas formas para reconhecê-las nos textos: a) present perfect continuous (que estamos estudando - termina com ...ing form of principal verbs The girls have been studying German for months. As meninas estão estudando alemão há meses. Tess has been writing books for children for some time now. Tess está escrevendo livros infantis há um bom tempo já. b) passive present perfect – que termina com ... ed forms (regular verbs) or past participle of irregular verbs. Por exemplo: Many creative plays have been staged on Broadway since last year. Muitas peças criativas foram encenadas na Broadway desde o ano passado. New houses have been built in that area of the city. Novas casas têm sido construídas naquela área da cidade. Como você observa mais uma vez fica evidente que o conhecimento das três formas dos verbos irregulares é imprescindível. Faça o exercício sobre o assunto no final desta aula.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO FLASHBACK Text 3: Police investigate biggest bank robbery in Brazilian history

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Three months ago a house was rented for commercial use in Fortaleza, capital of the state of Ceará. The house was located some 80 meters away from the local Central Bank of Brazil (BC) building on a street that ran parallel to the street where the BC was located. A landscaping firm, called Synthetic Grass, opened for business in the house. For the past three months the occupants of the house have been doing some unusual landscaping. It was all underground. They dug a tunnel exactly 78 meters long, with interior lighting and air conditioning. The tunnel was dug 4 meters below the surface. It was 70 centimeters high, 70 centimeters wide and lined with canvas and wood. When the diggers reached their destination, the vault of the BC, they had to cut through 1.10 meters of solid steel-reinforced concrete before they could get to the money. That is what they did this weekend. The bank vault closed on Friday and when it was opened Monday morning a lot of money had disappeared and the robbery was discovered. The amount of money missing, in used, untraceable bills, totalled* US$65 million (R$150 million), making it the biggest bank robbery in Brazilian history, and the second biggest ever (behind only a US$72 million robbery in England in 1987). The police say they have descriptions of the men involved and have begun a manhunt. The BC president, Henrique Meirelles, has ordered the bank to make its own investigation and report back to him. Meirelles is curious about how that much money, weighing an estimated 3.5 tons, could have been moved around without anyone seeing anything. There is also the problem of an alarm system inside the vault that did not work. (From Agência Brasil, translator: Allen Bennett 09/08/2005) VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A landscaping firm dug a tunnel bank vault untraceable bills begin a manhunt

B a. ( ) notas não rastreáveis b. ( ) empresa de jardinagem c. ( ) caixa forte do banco d. ( ) iniciar uma caçada humana e. ( ) cavaram um túnel

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS 1. How much time did it take the robbers to carry out their plan? _______________________________________________________ 2. How long was the tunnel dug by the thieves? _______________________________________________________ 3. How could you describe the tunnel made by the thieves? _______________________________________________________ 4. Was it the biggest robbery ever? _______________________________________________________ 5. What was the president of the Central Bank curious about? _______________________________________________________ ANALYSIS OF TEXT 3 1. Retire do texto três exemplos de estruturas no past tense passive: _______________________________________________________ 2. Retire do texto dois exemplos de verbos no present perfect simple: _______________________________________________________ 3. Retire do texto uma construção no present perfect continuous: ____________________________________________________ BRITISH & AMERICAN ENGLISH Spelling differences: Observe que em British English escreve-se ‘totalled’, enquanto que os norte-americanos escrevem ‘totaled’, sem o duplo ‘l’ NOTE ON AGREEMENT Primeiramente traduza o título do texto: Police investigate biggest bank robbery in Brazilian history __________________________________________________________ Observe que a palavra police em inglês requer que o verbo seguinte esteja no plural para atender à concordância diferentemente do nosso português.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Come on, try it. It’s fifty-fifty, Você tem sempre 50% de chances de acertar!

PICTURE TEST 6

The man wearing a [a) long / b) top] hat has been reading the newspaper while two guys in the back keep looking at him.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

USEFUL TIPS

Uma atividade que teachers have been using for centuries, e que funciona, é pegar um texto já estudado e dele remover certas palavras e pedir que o aluno o reconstrua. No texto que já foi visto na AULA 4 em flashback do imperativo retirei as principais preposições para ver se você é capaz de reconstituí-lo. Minha sugestão: não escreva nada desta vez. Tente fazer este exercício de memória. Recorra ao material da AULA 4 onde você tem o texto na íntegra para verificação de suas respostas. Give it a try! The Prenuptial Dinner Nancy White is hosting the prenuptial dinner _______ the San Antonio Bar and Grill _______ Crystal City. You can hop _______ a taxi _______the hotel or you can walk _______ the Ritz Carlton Hotel. If you prefer to walk, go out the driveway and turn right onto Fairfax Road. Take first left onto 15th Street. Go under 2 viaducts, about 3 blocks up, and immediately following the second one, turn right onto Clark Street. You will follow the road about one block and turn left onto 18th Street. Go one block _______ dead end. Turn left onto Crystal Drive, about 100 yards. _______ the left will be Canopy Entrance _______ ‘Crystal City underground shops; go _______ that entrance. Once you enter building, The San Antonio Bar and Grill is _______ the left. Please dress casual and have a great time.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

EXERCISES I. Say when you have to use only the present perfect simple or when both the simple and continuous forms can be used: 1. Melinda has lived in Ipanema for decades. T: _______________________________________________________ 2. I have read ‘The Da Vinci Code’ twice. T: _______________________________________________________ 3. Tess has waited for you the whole afternoon, Mr. Lampard. T: _______________________________________________________ 4. We have made the shopping list already. T: _______________________________________________________ 5. Rogério has played for São Paulo for more than ten years. T: _______________________________________________________ II. Complete the sentences with the present perfect continuous using the verbs in parentheses as the main verbs. 1. Lucas _________________ (watch) this beautiful sunset for an hour. T: _______________________________________________________ 2. Our ancestors _________________ (celebrate) Christmas this way since they came to Brazil in the early 1900s. T: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. Lucinda and I ___________________ (date) for three years now. T: _______________________________________________________ 4. Roger ___________________ (have) trouble with English grammar since he started studying it. T: _______________________________________________________ 5. Economists ___________________ (try) to curb inflation for decades. T: _______________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO III. Complete the sentences with the past participle of the verbs in brackets. 1. To be honest, I haven’t ________ Paulo Coelho’s latest book. [read] T: _______________________________________________________ 2. We haven’t ___________ three weeks in Aspen this year. [spend] T: _______________________________________________________ 3. Jadel hasn’t ___________ the world record yet, but he will. [break] T: _______________________________________________________ 4. Joyce hasn’t ___________ that long dress since last year. [wear] T: _______________________________________________________ 5. Actually, we haven’t ________ Kelly very much these days. [see] T: _______________________________________________________ IV. Traduza as expressões em negrito a seguir onde aparece a palavra ‘back’; consulte um dicionário se necessário. 1. Let’s go to Miguel Pereira. I know that town like the back of my hand. ______________________ 2. Mr. Harris went to Europe and I don’t know when he’ll come back. ______________________ 3. It’s not funny to keep criticizing me behind my back. ______________________ 4. Can you count backwards from 10 to 1? ______________________ 5. If you’re not satisfied with the product, we guarantee your money back. ______________________ 6. I could hear some sounds in the background. ______________________ 7. I think I know that girl. In the back of my mind I know her face looks familiar.

______________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 8. Joe started his own business and never looked back. ______________________ 9. Everything happened during the back trip. ______________________ 10. Why don’t you write them and ask for the back issues of the magazine? ______________________ 11. You’ve taken the dictionary from the shelf, so put it back. ______________________ 12. Stop acting like a back seat driver! ______________________ V. Practice making up questions: Você pode fazer o exercício seguinte por escrito ou apenas praticar oralmente. Compare com as minhas respostas no final. 1. My neighbor has been playing his electric guitar very loud for hours all afternoon. a) “Who _________________?” “My neighbor has.” b) “What ____________________?” “His guitar.” c) “How __________________________?” “Very loud.” d) “How long __________________________?” “For hours all afternoon.”

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 2. Terence has been living in Rio de Janeiro for many years now. a) “Who _________________?” “Terence has.” b) “What ____________________?” “Living in Rio.” d) “How long __________________________?” “For many years now.” 3. Mrs. Higgins has been considering leaving Rio since last year. a) “Who _________________?” “Mrs. Stephens has.” b) “What ____________________?” “Leaving Rio.” d) “How long __________________________?” “Since last year.” 4. Police detective have been investigating the murder for months. a) “Who _________________?” “Police detectives have.” b) “What ____________________?” “Investigating the murder.” d) “How long __________________________?” “For months.”

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO VI. Traduza as expressões em negrito a seguir onde aparece a palavra way(s); consulte um dicionário se precisar. 1. On my way to school I saw a car accident. ______________________ 2. I wanted to tell her I loved her, but the words got in the way. ______________________ 3. Don’t think you’re going to take my son away from me. No way. ______________________ 4. Everybody has his/her best way of learning vocabulary. ______________________ 5. By the way, does anyone know where little Timmy is? ______________________ 6. Could you take a look at the photos of some suspects? This way, please. ______________________ 7. Sorry I can’t take you home this time. It’s too out of the way. ______________________ 8. Be careful! This is a two-way street. ______________________ 9. In a way you’re right about this point. ______________________ 10. God acts in mysterious ways. ______________________ 11. The place was so crowded that I had to elbow my way in. ______________________ 12. Debbie wants to become an actress one way or another. ______________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 13. There are better restaurants along the way. ______________________ 14. I don’t want you to come along with me. Just show me the way. ______________________ 15. We removed the dresser to give way to the baby’s cradle. ______________________ VII. Complete with the right forms of the verbs in brackets: either the ... ing forms or the past participle will have to be used. 1. No effort to reach peace has been _________ so far. [make] _______________________________________________________ 2. Actually, the heirs have not been __________ care of the property as they should. [take] _______________________________________________________ 3. Lots of time has been ________ into the implementation of the project. [put] _______________________________________________________ 4. A lot of new exercises have been __________ in the updated edition of the book. [include] _______________________________________________________ 5. For years Jones has been __________ as an assistant manager and he does not have any ambitions to achieve higher aims. [work] _______________________________________________________ 6. The beginning of the new year has been ____________ by many people in different ways. [celebrate] _______________________________________________________ 7. Chocolate eggs have been __________ to the celebration of Easter Sunday in many cultures. [connect] _______________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANSWERS Vocabulary Pre Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A chasing away the evil spirits setting off firecrackers sways back and forth large crowds gather people playing drums was actually born

B a. (6) tenham realmente nascido b. (3) ginga de um lado para outro c. (4) grandes multidões se reúnem d. (1) afastando os maus espíritos e. (2) soltando fogos de artifício f. (5) gente tocando tambores

Analysis of Text 1 1. present perfect continuous: have been welcoming (L-3 2. have settled (L-5) & has added (L-13) não poderiam ser colocadas no present perfect continuous no texto pois se referem a um tempo passado apenas não definido. 3. present simple: gather (L-5) // sways (L-6) // dance (L-9) // come (L-10) // celebrates (13) Words in families Verb signify

Noun significance

Adjective significant

Verb import

Noun importance

Adjective important

Verb observe

Noun Adjective Observance(*) observable

Adverb significantly Adverb importantly. Adverb observably

(*) poderia ter usado também observer

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Text 2: Vocabulary pre test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A make an appeal increase wealth rid of barriers profound imbalances make significant strides living standards

B a. (4) acentuados desequilíbrios b. (5) dar passos importantes c. (6) padrões de vida d. (2) aumentar a riqueza e. (3) livre de barreiras f. (1) fazer um pedido

Analysis of text 2 1. present perfect continuous: has been repeating (L-33) 2. past simple: made (L-1) // said (L-9& 21) // addressed ( L-9) // distributed (L-11) // affirmed (L-14) // pointed out (L-18) // stated (L30) // recalled (L-35) // participated (L-36) 3. sinônimos “he affirmed” // stated (L-30) // pointed out (L-18) // declared (L-27) 4. collocations: verb + adjective: open markets (= abrir mercados) // reduce subsidies (=reduzir subsídios) // increase wealth (= aumentar a riqueza) (L-8) // generate employment (= gerar emprego) // integrate human beings (= integrar os seres humanos) // dominate (commercial) exchanges (= dominar as trocas comerciais) // receive benefits (=receber benefícios) (L-25) // make concessions (=fazer concessões) (L-27) // lower living standards (= diminuir padrões de vida) [dentre outros] 5. reference:o pronome it em “make it again’ (L-37) está claramente vinculado à appeal (L-35) Words in Families Verb urge

Noun urgency

Adjective urgent

Adverb urgently

Verb complete

Noun completion

Adjective incomplete

Adverb completely

Verb distribute

Noun distribution.

Adjective distributive

Adverb nihil

Verb affirm

Noun affirmation

Adjective affirmative

Adverb affirmatively

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Text 3: Vocabulary Pre Test

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A landscaping firm dug a tunnel bank vault untraceable bills begin a manhunt

B a. (4) notas não rastreáveis b. (1) empresa de jardinagem c. (3) caixa forte do banco d. (5) iniciar uma caçada humana e. (2) cavaram um túnel

Reading Comprehension Questions 1. How much time did it take the robbers to carry out their plan? It took them three months. Quanto tempo os ladrões levaram para executar seu plano? Levaram três meses. 2. How long was the tunnel dug by the thieves? Exactly 78 meters long. Qual o comprimento do túnel feito pelos ladrões? Exatamente 78m. 3. How could you describe the tunnel made by the thieves? It had interior lighting and aircondicioning. It was 70 cm high and 70 cm wide, lined up with canvas and wood. Como você poderia descrever o túnel feito pelos ladrões? Tinha iluminação interna e ar condicionado. Tinha 70 cm de altura e 70 cm de largura revestido com lona e madeira. 4. Was it the biggest robbery ever? No, it was second to the robbery in England in 1987. Foi o maior roubo jamais realizado? Não. Fica em segundo lugar em relação ao roubo na Inglaterra de 1987. 5. What was the president of the Central Bank curious about? Meirelles is curious about how that much money, weighing an estimated 3.5 tons, could have been moved around without anyone seeing anything. O presidente do BC ficou curioso quanto a que fato? Quanto ao fato de como tanto dinheiro pesando aproximadamente 3,5 toneladas poderia ter sido movimentado sem que ninguém visse coisa alguma.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Analysis of Text 3 1. past tense passive: was rented (L-1) // was located (L-2&4) // was dug (L-9) // was opened ( L-14) // was discovered (L-15) 2. present perfect simple: have begun (L-20/21) // has ordered (L21) 3. present perfect continuous: have been doing (L-7) Note on Agreement - Translation of text 3 title Police investigate biggest bank robbery in Brazilian history A policia investiga o maior roubo de banco na história do Brasil Picture Test 6 (b) The man wearing a top hat has been reading the newspaper while two guys in the back keep looking at him. O homem usando uma cartola está lendo o jornal enquanto que dois caras ao fundo estão olhando para ele.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO EXERCISES I. only the present perfect simple or both simple and continuous 1. Melinda has lived in Ipanema for decades. (OR) Melinda has been living in Ipanema for decades. Melinda está morando em Ipanema há décadas. 2. I have read ‘The Da Vinci Code’ twice. (ONLY) Já li o Código Da Vinci duas vezes 3. Tess has waited for you the whole afternoon, Mr. Lampard. (OR) Tess has been waiting for you the whole afternoon, Mr. Lampard Tess está esperando pelo Sr. a tarde toda, Sr. Lampard. 4. We have made the shopping list already. (ONLY) Já fizemos a lista de compras. 5. Rogério has played for São Paulo for more than ten years. (OR) Rogério has been playing for São Paulo for more than ten years. Rogério vem jogando pelo SP há mais de 10 anos. II. present perfect continuous. 1. Lucas has been watching this beautiful sunset for an hour. Lucas esta olhando para o por do sol há uma hora. 2. Our ancestors have been celebrating Christmas this way since they came to Brazil in the early 1900s. Nossos ancestrais têm celebrando o Natal desta forma desde vieram para o Brasil no inicio do século 20. 3. Lucinda and I have been dating for three years now. Lucinda e eu estamos namorando há três anos já. 4. Roger has been having trouble with the English grammar since he started studying it. Roger tem tido problemas com a gramática inglesa desde que começou a estudá-la. 5. Economists have been trying to curb inflation for decades. Os economistas vêm tentando controlar a inflação há décadas. III. past participle of the verbs in brackets 1. [read] Para ser franco ainda não li o livro mais recente do Paulo Coelho. 2. [spent] Não passamos três semanas em Aspen este ano. 3. [broken] Jadel não bateu o recorde ainda, mas baterá. 4. [worn] Joyce não usa aquele vestido longo desde o ano passado. 5. [seen] Na verdade não temos visto há Kelly por estes dias.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO IV. Traduza as expressões em negrito a seguir onde aparece a palavra ‘back’; consulte um dicionário se necessário. 1. Let’s go to Miguel Pereira. I know that town like the back of my hand. Vamos para Miguel Pereira. Conheço aquela cidade como a palma da minha mão. 2. Mr. Harris went to Europe and I don’t know when he’ll come back. O Sr. Harris foi para a Europa e não sei quando voltará. 3. It’s not funny to keep criticizing me behind my back. Não é engraçado ficar me criticando pelas minhas costas. 4. Can you count backwards from 10 to 1? Você consegue contar de trás pra frente do 10 ao 1. 5. If you’re not satisfied with the product, we guarantee your money back. Se não estiver satisfeito com o produto garantimos o seu dinheiro de volta. 6. I could hear some sounds in the background. Podia ouvir certos sons ao fundo. 7. I think I know that girl. In the back of my mind I know her face looks familiar. Acho que conheço aquela garota. Lá no fundo da minha mente seu rosto me parece familiar. 8. Joe started his own business and never looked back. Joe começo seu próprio negócio e nunca olhou para trás. 9. Everything happened during the back trip. Tudo aconteceu na viagem de volta. 10. Why don’t you write them and ask for the back issues of the magazine? Por que não escreve para eles e pede os exemplares atrasados da revista? 11. You’ve taken the dictionary from the shelf, so put it back. Você tirou o dicionário da prateleira, portanto ponha-o de volta. 12. Stop acting like a back seat driver! Pare de bancar o co-piloto. V. Practice making up questions: 1. My neighbor has been playing his electric guitar very loud for hours all afternoon. Meu vizinho está tocando sua guitarra elétrica muito alto há horas a tarde toda.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO a) “Who has been playing his guitar very loud?” “My neighbor has.” b) “What has my neighbor been playing all afternoon?” “His electric guitar.” c) “How has my neighbor been playing his guitar?” “Very loud.” d) “How long has my neighbor been playing his guitar?” “For hours all afternoon.” 2. Terence has been living in Rio de Janeiro for many years now. O Terence já está morando no Rio de Janeiro há muitos anos. a) “Who has been living in Rio de Janeiro for many years now?” “Terence has.” b) “What has he been doing in Rio de Janeiro?” “Living in Rio.” d) “How long has he been doing in Rio de Janeiro?” “For many years now.” 3. Mrs. Higgins has been considering leaving Rio since last year. A Sra. Higgins está pensando em deixar o Rio desde o ano passado. a) “Who has been considering leaving Rio since last year?” “Mrs. Higgins has.” b) “What has Mrs. Higgins been considering?” “Leaving Rio.” d) “How long has Mrs. Higgins been considering leaving Rio?” “Since last year.” 4. Police detectives have been investigating the murder for months. Detetives da polícia vêm investigando o assassinato há meses. a) “Who have been investigating the murder for months?” “Police detectives have.” b) “What have the police detectives been doing?” “Investigating the murder.” d) “How long have the police detectives been investigating the murder?” “For months.”

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO VI. key Word ‘way’ 1. On my way to school I saw a car accident. A caminho da escola eu presenciei um acidente. 2. I wanted to tell her I loved her, but the words got in the way. Queria lhe dizer que a amava, mas as palavras me impediram. 3. Don’t think you’re going to take my son away from me. No way. Não pense que vai tirar o meu filho de mim. De jeito nenhum! 4. Everybody has his/her best way of learning vocabulary. Todo mundo tem seu melhor modo de aprender vocabulário. 5. By the way, does anyone know where little Timmy is? A propósito, alguém sabe onde está o Timmy? 6. Could you take a look at the photos of some suspects? This way, please. Poderia olhar as fotos de alguns suspeitos. Por aqui, por favor. 7. Sorry I can’t take you home this time. It’s too out of the way. Desculpe não poder levar você em casa desta vez. È muito fora de mão. 8. Be careful! This is a two-way street. Tenha cuidado. È uma rua de mão dupla. 9. In a way you’re right about this point. De uma certa forma você tem razão neste ponto. 10. God acts in mysterious ways. Deus atua de formas misteriosas. 11. The place was so crowded that I had to elbow my way in. O lugar estava tão apinhado que tive que abrir caminho às cotoveladas. 12. Debbie wants to become an actress one way or another. Debbie quer se tornar atriz de um modo ou de outro. 13. There are better restaurants along the way. Há melhores restaurantes pelo caminho. 14. I don’t want you to come along with me. Just show me the way. Não quero que venha comigo. Apenas mostre-me o caminho. 15. We removed the dresser to give way to the baby’s cradle. Retiramos a cômoda para dar lugar pro berço do bebê.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO VII. the ... ing forms or the past participle? 1. [made] Nenhum esforço para alcançar a paz foi feito até agora. 2. [taking] Na verdade, os herdeiros não estão tomando conta da propriedade como deveriam. 3. [put] Muito tempo foi colocado na implementação do projeto. 4. [included] Muitos novos exercícios foram incluídos na edição atualizada do livro. 5. [working] Há anos Jones vem trabalhando como sub gerente e não parece ter nenhuma ambição de alcançar postos mais elevados. 6. [celebrated] O início de um novo ano tem sido celebrado por diversos povos de diversa maneiras. 7. [connected] Os ovos de chocolate têm estado ligados à celebração do Domingo de Páscoa em muitas culturas.

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 6 foram alcançados. OBJECTIVES (OBJETIVOS) Draw your attention to the following essential points: Chamar sua atenção para os seguintes pontos essenciais I. Study of Verb Tenses: Present Perfect continuous & its uses Estudo dos tempos verbais: O presente perfeito e seus usos II. Analysis of text 1 ‘Chinese New Year’ Análise do texto 1 ‘O Ano Novo Chinês’ III. Word Forms – The Chinese (people / language) Formação das palavras – Chinês ( povo e língua) IV. Key words: back Palavras –chave: ‘back’ V. Analysis of text 2: ‘Lula urges leaders ...” Estudo do texto 2: ‘Lula pede aos líderes urgência..” VI. Word in Families Palavras em famílias VII. Key words: way(s) Palavras –chave: ‘way(s)’ VIII. Modal Verbs - must Verbos modais – must IX. Present perfect continuous x Present perfect passive O present perfeito contínuo x presente perfeito na passiva X. Analysis of text 3: ‘Police investigate ...” Estudo do texto 3: ‘A Polícia investiga ...” XI. Picture Test 6 Teste com gravuras 6 XII. Exercise Section Seção de Exercícios

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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

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06 -ThePresentPerfectContinuous  
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