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CURSOS ON-LINE – INGLÊS – CURSO REGULAR PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

AULA 4

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE Nesta aula priorizaremos o estudo do past continuous. Veja a conjugação dos verbos to walk (r.v.) (= andar, caminhar) e to give (i.v.) (= dar) AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS I was walking You were walking He was walking She was walking It was walking We were walking You were walking They were walking

I was giving You were giving He was giving She was giving It was giving We were giving You were giving They were giving

Com o past simple do auxiliar ‘be’ + the present participle do verbo principal conjuga-se o past continuous dos verbos ingleses. NEGATIVE STATEMENTS I was not walking You were not walking He was not walking She was not walking It was not walking We were not walking You were not walking They were not walking

I was not giving You were not giving He was not giving She was not giving It was not giving We were not giving You were not giving They were not giving

Para formar negative statements basta acrescentar a partícula ‘not’ após o past simple do auxiliar ‘be’. NB: was not = wasn’t // were not = weren’t

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QUESTIONS Was I walking? Were you walking? Was he walking? Was she walking? Was it walking? Were we walking? Were you walking? Were they walking?

Was I giving? Were you giving? Was he giving? Was she giving? Was it giving? Were we giving? Were you giving? Were they giving?

Basta fazer a inversão do auxiliar ‘be’ com o sujeito para se obter a forma interrogativa. USES OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE a) To describe a past action in progress connected to another past action. Expressa uma ação contínua no passado, ligada a outra ação passada.

I was going to school when I met Susan. Estava indo para a escola quando encontrei a Susan.

The phone was ringing when Mrs. Dawson arrived home. O telefone estava tocando quando a Sra Dawson chegou em casa.

Were you studying last night when I called you up? Você estava estudando ontem à noite quando eu telefonei para você?

She wasn’t playing tennis this afternoon. She was dancing. Ela não estava jogando tênis esta tarde. Estava dançando.

b) It may also be used to describe an action that was happening at the same time another action was in progress. Pode ser também usado para descrever que uma ação passada estava em progressão ao mesmo tempo que outra.

While his wife was doing the housework, Bill was writing letters. Enquanto sua esposa estava fazendo suas tarefas, o Bill estava escrevendo cartas.

All the time the movie star was bathing at the beach, her security agents were keeping an eye on anyone who came close to her. O todo o tempo que a estrela estava se banhando no mar, seus agentes de segurança estavam vigiando qualquer um que dela se aproximasse. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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Text 1: The Boston Tea Party By the middle of the 1700s, the 13 colonies that made up part of England's empire in the New World were finding it difficult to be ruled by a king 3,000 miles across the Atlantic Ocean. They were tired of the taxes imposed upon them. But independence was a gradual and painful process. The colonists could 5 not forget that they were British citizens and that they owed allegiance to King George III. A "tea party” and a “Massacre" were two events that hurried destiny. Along with general unrest these events united the colonists. In 1767 a tea company in India, owned by England, was losing money. To save the company, England 10 levied a tax on tea sold in the colonies in 1773. Partly as a joke, Samuel Adams and other Bostonians dressed up as Indians and dumped a cargo of the India Company Tea into the Massachusetts Bay. King George Ill did not think it was funny, nor did he lift the tax on tea. In the Boston harbor, British soldiers were jeered and stoned by colonists who thought the soldiers had been sent to watch 15 them. The soldiers fired into the crowd and killed a few citizens. The colonists exaggerated the number killed and called it a massacre. (Excerpt from Independence Day, in Celebrate! Holidays in the USA) Visit: http://www.usemb.se/Holidays/celebrate/independ.html

VOCABULARY PRE TEST Sem consultar nenhum dicionário procure correlacionar as colunas A & B: A 1. made up the empire 2. ruled by a king 3. painful process 4. owed allegiance 5. hurried destiny 6. general unrest 7. dumped a cargo 8. lift the tax

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. ( f. ( g. ( h. (

B ) deviam lealdade ) processo penoso ) compunham o império ) governados por um rei ) inquietação generalizada ) apressaram o destino ) suspender o imposto ) jogaram a carga

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Transcreva os dois exemplos do texto de verbos no past continuous. ____________________________________________________________ 2. Escreva aqui quantos exemplos achar no texto de verbos no past simple. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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READING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS Indispensable question words: What…? Who…? Where…? When…?

O que...? Quem...? Onde....? Quando...?

Which…? How…? Why How many…?

Quais ...? Como...? Por que ...? Quantos / as...?

Answer the following questions using complete sentences. 1. Why were the 13 colonies finding it difficult to be ruled by a king in the 1700s? _____________________________________________________________ 2. Who did the citizens owe allegiance to? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Which two events hurried destiny? ____________________________________________________________ 4. What was happening to a tea company in India, owned by England, in l767? ____________________________________________________________ 5. What did England do to save the company? ____________________________________________________________ 6. How did a number of Bostonians react? ____________________________________________________________ 7. Why were the British soldiers jeered and stoned by colonists? ____________________________________________________________ 8. Who fired into the crowd? ____________________________________________________________ 9. How many citizens were killed? ____________________________________________________________ 10. How did the colonists call this incident? ____________________________________________________________

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WORD FORMS From text 1: “But independence was a gradual and painful process…” (L- 4) Porém a independência foi um processo gradual e doloroso...

a) the suffix -FUL Continuando nosso estudo da formação de palavras, outra arma poderosa para facilitar a leitura de textos, vamos estudar o sufixo –FUL acrescentado a substantivos para formar adjetivos. Veja estes exemplos: Noun care power use

Adjective careful powerful useful

Translation cuidadoso / a poderoso / a útil

Acrescente aqui outros exemplos extraídos de suas leituras: Noun

Adjective

Translation

b) the suffix -LESS Aproveitamos para falar do sufixo -LESS com sentido oposto, também usado na formação de adjetivos. Noun care power use

Adjective careless powerless useless

Translation descuidado /a impotente inútil

Acrescente aqui outros exemplos extraídos de suas leituras: Noun

Adjective

Translation

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KEY WORDS // CONFUSABLE WORDS From text 1: “The soldiers fired into the crowd and killed a few citizens.” (L-15) Os soldados atiraram na multidão e mataram alguns cidadãos.

a) a few x a little // few x little Estas palavras tradicionalmente estudadas nos livros textos nos remetem ao conceito de count-nouns e non-count nouns a que já nos referimos. Veja estes exemplos: a.1) few- usado diante de count nouns. The exam was so difficult that few students passed. A prova foi tão difícil que pouquíssimos alunos passaram.

a.2) a few também usado diante count nouns Even though the exam was hard a few students passed. Muito embora o exame tenha sido difícil alguns alunos passaram.

NB: Cuidado com a locução que engana bastante: quite a few (= muitos, um bocado)

Quite a few people attended Prof. Hartley’s lecture. Muita gente assistiu à conferência do Prof. Hartley.

b.1) little (= pouco /a) usado diante de non-count nouns When he came to Brazil Mr. Tanaka spoke very little Portuguese. Quando o Sr. Tanaka veio para o Brasil ele falava português muito pouco.

b.2) a little (= um pouco) usado diante de non-count nouns. I would like a little more sugar in my coffee. Gostaria de um pouco mais de açúcar no meu café.

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COLLOCATION STUDY - PHRASAL VERBS From text 1: “By the middle of the 1700s, the 13 colonies that made up part of England's empire in the New World …” (L-1/2) Por volta de meados do século XVIII as colônias que compunham parte do império britânico no novo mundo...

“Bostonians dressed up as Indians” (L-11/12) Cidadãos de Boston fantasiados de índios.

Como já dissemos, os phrasal verbs se enquadram perfeitamente no conceito de collocations. No passado sempre foram estudados sob várias denominações, two-word verbs, sometimes three-word verbs, idioms, etc mas o certo é que não podemos negar sua importância. Nos exemplos do texto, você já sabe que o verbo make corresponde a ‘fazer’ geralmente. Porém se você reparar bastou acrescentar a partícula ‘up’ e temos: compor, representar nesse contexto. E há vários outros significados para make up. Veja alguns exemplos: Lílian made herself up for the party. Lilian maquiou-se para a festa.

Bill and Alice broke up last month. Now they’ve made up again. O Bill e a Alice brigaram no mês passado. Agora já se reconciliaram de novo.

Did you believe her story? I think she made it up. Você acreditou na história dela? Acho que ela a inventou.

No caso do verbo regular to dress, normalmente significa vestir (-se). O substantivo ‘dress’ significa vestido. Bastou acrescentar a partícula ‘up’ e no exemplo acima já assumiu o significado de fantasiar-se e também significa: Jennifer was all dressed up for the party. Jennifer estava vestida toda elegante para a festa.

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Separable & Inseparable Phrasal Verbs O conceito de separable & inseparable phrasal verbs está ligado ao fato de se poder colocar um pronome, como ‘it’ por exemplo, entre o verbo e a partícula adverbial. Tanto make up quanto dressed up podem ser separable. Todavia há alguns phrasal verbs que são inseparable. Every weekend we used to call on our parents. Todo fim de semana nós costumávamos visitar nossos pais.

Passe a anotar os exemplos de phrasal verbs nas suas leituras. Tenho notado que a cobrança deles em vários concursos organizados por diversas bancas tem aumentado. Num breve flashback vamos buscar alguns exemplos surgidos em texto estudados anteriormente a esta aula. Tente escrever a tradução dos itens in bold nas linhas abaixo: AULA 3 // Text 1: Italian Architecture in Brazil “The skilled hands of the Italian stonemasons and carpenters stood apart from the rest as early as the time of the Brazilian imperial court…” (L-2/3) stood apart - _____________________ AULA 3 // Text 4: Labor Day (III) “At night, fireworks were set off. (L-7) set off - _________________________ “Many politicians kick off their political campaigns by holding rallies on the holiday” (L-12) kick off - _________________________ Procure reparar nos vários textos, principalmente em notícias de jornal, como é muito comum o articulista reportar as palavras de alguém desta forma: the Prime Minister went on (= continuou o primeiro ministro) the Union Leader pointed out (= o líder sindical observou) the president commented on it (= comentou o presidente sobre o assunto) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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MODAL AUXILIARIES - COULD From text 1: “The colonists could not forget that they were British citizens…” Os colonos não podiam se esquecer de que eram cidadãos britânicos.

A forma verbal ‘could’ é o passado do verbo modal ‘can’ que já começamos a estudar. Volto a lembrar-lhes que o significado dos verbos modais depende muito do contexto em que se encontram. a) indicando capacidade, habilidade. I could swim very fast when I was younger. Eu conseguia nadar bem rápido quando era mais jovem.

b) em solicitações, pedidos educados. Could you please turn off the air conditioner? I’m freezing. Poderia por favor desligar o ar condicionado? Estou congelando.

c) indicando possibilidade presente ou futura. You could have a heart attack if you exercise too hard. Você poderia ter um infarto se fizer exercícios muito fortes.

d) para solicitar permissão. Could I borrow your dictionary for a while? Posso pegar seu dicionário emprestado um instante?

e) indicando possibilidade lógica ou uma impossibilidade na negativa. It couldn’t be John at the airport. I know that he’s dead. Não podia ser o John no aeroporto; eu sei que ele está morto.

f) no discurso indireto (reported speech) ‘You can go to the beach tomorrow’, Dot’s father said. Dot’s father said that she could go to the beach on the following day. - Você pode ir à praia amanha, disse o pai da Dot. O pai da Dot disse que ela podia ir à praia no dia seguinte.

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Text 2: Memorial Day: It was 1866 and the United States was recovering from the long and bloody Civil War between the North and the South. Surviving soldiers came home, some with missing limbs, and all with stories to tell. Henry Welles, a drugstore owner in Waterloo, New York, heard the stories and had an idea. He suggested 5 that all the shops in town close for one day to honor the soldiers who were killed in the Civil War and were buried in the Waterloo cemetery. On the morning of May 3, the townspeople placed flowers, wreaths and crosses on the graves of the Northern soldiers in the cemetery. At about the same time, Retired Major General Jonathan A. Logan planned another ceremony, this time for the 10 soldiers who survived the war. He led the veterans through town to the cemetery to decorate their comrades’ graves with flags. It was not a happy celebration, but a memorial. The townspeople called it Decoration Day. (Excerpt from Celebrate! Holidays in the USA, Labor Day) Visit: http://www.usemb.se/Holidays/celebrate/labor.html

VOCABULARY PRE TEST Vamos admitir que você após fazer o skimming do texto consiga dizer com segurança que sabe o significado dos seguintes true cognates e de outras palavras muito comuns: recovering (= recuperando-se) // war (= guerra) // all (= todos) // suggested (= sugeriu) // shops (= lojas) // honor (= homenagear) // killed (= mortos) // cemetery (= cemitério) // flowers (= flores) // ceremony (= cerimônia) // veterans (= ex-combatentes) // flags (= bandeiras) // celebration (= comemoração)

Pois bem, admitindo-se que este fosse o quadro do seu conhecimento com relação às palavras do texto acima. Valendo-se de outras dicas contextuais, sem consultar nenhum dicionário, procure correlacionar as colunas A & B: A 1. surviving soldiers 2. missing limbs 3. drugstore owner 4. were buried 5. placed wreaths

a. ( b. ( c. ( d. ( e. (

B ) membros amputados ) soldados sobreviventes ) colocavam coroas de flores ) proprietário da drogaria ) foram sepultados

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ANALYSIS OF TEXT 2 1. Procure no text 1 (um) exemplo de construção no past continuous: ____________________________________________________________ 2. Procure no texto exemplos de construção no past simple: regular verbs: ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ irrregular verbs: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 3. Quando fizemos um breve estudo das prepositions of time mencionei que se diz in the morning em inglês, lembra-se? Por que, então, o autor usou ‘On the moning... (L- 6/7)? Explique na linha abaixo: _______________________________________________________________ Text 3: Cross-cultural understanding My name is Cindy Ramirez. I am 17 years old, and I am originally from Mexico City, but right now I am living in Lafayette, Indiana. I arrived in the U.S. two years ago because all my family was living here and I wanted to learn more English. Now that I am here, I am trying to meet new people and learn 5 more English because all my classes are in English. When I arrived in the U.S. I did not know English very well, but with time and my teacher’s help I am learning more. Now I can speak, read, and write more than before I arrived; the important thing is that I need to try to learn more and more. I try to pay attention during any conversation, and I am very focused 10 on pronunciation. (From e-Journal, American Teenagers) Visit: http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itsv/0705/ijse/understanding.htm ANALYSIS OF TEXT 3 1. Escreva exemplos do texto acima de construções no past continuous: ____________________________________________________________ 2. Escreva exemplos do texto acima de construções no present continuous: ____________________________________________________________

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3. Procure no texto exemplos de construção no past simple: regular verbs: ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ irrregular verbs: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 4. O que está indicando o verbo modal ‘can’ em “Now I can speak, read, and write more than before I arrived” ____________________________________________________________ 5. Depois de ter lido o pequeno trecho acima como você traduziria o título? Cross-cultural understanding _______________________________

KEY WORD: NOW From text 3 “I am originally from Mexico City, but right now I am living in Lafayette, Indiana” (L-1 / 2) Originariamente sou da Cidade do México, mas neste momento estou morando em Lafayette, Indiana”

“Now I can speak, read, and write more than before I arrived; ” (L-7 / 8) Agora sei falar, ler e escrever mais do que antes dae chegar …

A palavra now, como advérbio significando ‘agora’ em português é, por certo, conhecida de todos vocês. Volto o enfatizar que são as palavras muito comuns que devem ter seu campo colocacional estudado. Por que não aprender também: a) nowadays (adv) (= hoje em dia, nos tempos modernos) In the past people used typewriters in Brazilian offices, nowadays everybody uses computers. No passado as pessoas usavam máquinas de escrever nos escritórios no Brasil, hoje em dia todo mundo usa computadores.

b) as várias expressões onde a palavra ‘now’ aparece: b.1) now and then [or: now and again] (= de vez em quando) Now and then we visit our relatives out of town. De vez em quando visitamos nossos parentes de fora da cidade. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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b.2) from now on (= de agora em diante) From now on I’m not going to let you enter the classroom if you’re late. De agora em diante não vou deixar você entrar na sala, se estiver atrasado.

b.2) just now (= agorinha mesmo) I don’t know where Susan is, but she was here just now. Não sei onde a Susan está, mas estava aqui agorinha mesmo.

b.3) what now (=e agora) What now, my friends. We’ve got two films to see, Make up your mind. E agora, amigos. Temos dois filmes para assistir. Decidam-se.

b.4) by now (= neste momento) Let’s give them a ring. They must have arrived by now. Vamos ligar para eles. Eles já devem ter chegado neste momento.

b.5) (up) until now [up till now] (= até o momento) Up until now I haven’t read a single book that I found really interesting. Até o memento não li um só livro que eu achasse realmente interessante.

b.6) for now (= por enquanto) That’s all for now. I’m not going to teach any more new subject today. È tudo, por enquanto. Não vou ensinar mais nenhum assunto novo hoje.

b.7) it’s now or never (= é agora ou nunca) It’s now or never! I will pass my college entrance examination this time. É agora ou nunca! Desta vez eu vou passar no vestibular.

b.8) Now then (= e então) Now then, who wants to go to the beach with us? E então, quem quer ir à praia conosco?

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FLASHBACK The Prenuptial Dinner Nancy White is hosting the prenuptial dinner at the San Antonio Bar and Grill in Crystal City. You can hop in a taxi from the hotel or you can walk from the Ritz Carlton Hotel. If you prefer to walk, go out the driveway and turn right onto Fairfax Road. Take first left onto 15th Street. Go under 2 viaducts, about 3 blocks up, and immediately following the second one, turn right onto Clark Street. You will follow the road about one block and turn left onto 18th Street. Go one block till dead end. Turn left onto Crystal Drive, about 100 yards. On the left will be Canopy Entrance into ‘Crystal City underground shops; go in that entrance. Once you enter building, The San Antonio Bar and Grill is on the left. Please dress casual and have a great time. I – Depois de ler o texto escreva nas linhas abaixo pelo menos 5 (cinco) exemplos de estruturas no imperative. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ II - Escreva na linha abaixo 1 (uma) construção no present continuous: ________________________________________________________________ III – Tente traduzir os seguintes fragmentos sem consultar nenhum dicionário: You can hop in a taxi - _____________________ about 3 blocks up - _______________________ go one block till dead end - _________________ dress casual _______________________ have a great time - _____________________ IV – Você sabe dizer qual o oposto das seguintes palavras ou locuções? On the left _________________________________ Entrance ______________________________________ Turn left ______________________________________

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IF A PICTURE PAINTS A THOUSAND WORDS (II) A mesma sugestão dada no caso do present continuous vale para o past continuous agora. Ao olhar uma picture você pode se perguntar: ‘What was (s) he doing? What were they doing? Observe bem a figura abaixo e responda as duas perguntas.

1. The man on the left was drunk. What was he doing? ______________________________________________________________ 2. The man on the right seemed very surprised. What was he doing? ______________________________________________________________

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Come on, try it. It’s fifty-fifty, Você tem sempre 50% de chances de acertar! PICTURE TEST 4

Several old men were [a) standing / b) staying] in line at the bank waiting to receive they paychecks.

USEFUL TIPS WORDS IN FAMILIES Habitue-se a pesquisar palavras em ‘families’. Por exemplo: From text 1: “But independence was a gradual and painful process…” (L-4) Porém a independência foi um processo gradual e doloroso...

Além de independence, busque outras palavras derivadas: to depend [on] (r.v), (in)dependent (adj), dependable (= confiável), dependability (adj) (=confiabilidade). Você não só se familiariza cada vez mais com os vários afixos como fica com mais armas para ‘descobrir’ o significado de vocábulos num texto de prova onde você não pode usar o dicionário. Há um exercício sobre esse ponto no final. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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EXERCISES I. Fill in the blanks with the past simple or the past continuous of the verbs in bold: 1. It _______________ (rain - negative) when Mrs. Nelson _________ (arrive) home. 2. ______ you _______ (meet) Jane when you _____________ (study) in Europe? 3. ______ you ______ (sleep) when I __________ (phone) you last night? 4. ______ your father _______ (watch) a news program on TV when I _____________ (call) yesterday? 5. I _______ not __________ (talk) about you. I ______________ (mean) to say that your brother was wrong. II. Complete with the past form of the irregular verbs in brackets. 1. The 13 colonies ________ it difficult to be ruled by a king 3,000 miles away. [FIND] T: _____________________________________________________________ 2. England ________ tea to the 13 colonies in North America. [SELL] T: _____________________________________________________________ 3. King George ________ the incident was not funny at all. [THINK] T: _____________________________________________________________ 4. Soldiers ________ home with many stories to tell about the war. [COME] T: _____________________________________________________________ 5. The Major General _______ the veterans through town to the cemetery. [LEAD] T: _____________________________________________________________

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III. Picture Quiz. Choose the best option to go with the pictures:

1. What were they doing yesterday? a) They were playing soccer. b) They were jogging. c) They were entertaining.

2. What was the Indian Chief carrying? a) He was carrying a revolver. b) He was carrying a machine gun. c) He was carrying a shotgun.

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3. What was the woman doing? a) She was not looking at the engine. b) She was not checking the engine. c) She was inspecting the engine.

4. What was the man doing? a) He was telling his prayers. b) He was pronouncing his prayers. c) He was saying his prayers.

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5. What did the shoeshine guy notice? a) Every body was wearing slippers. b) Every body was wearing socks. c) Every body was wearing sneakers.

6. What was the woman doing? a) She was walking her dog. b) She was carrying her dog. c) She was holding her dog. 7. Strange as it may seem, what was the man doing? a) He was holding the lamppost. b) He was carrying a lamppost. c) He was weighing the lamppost. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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IV. Complete the sentences with one word in bold belonging to the ‘think family’: thought

thoughtful

thoughtless

thinking

thinkers

1. On second ___________ I am going to take my umbrella with me. T: _____________________________________________________________ 2. In fact, it was very ___________ of you to bring your wife a gift. T: _____________________________________________________________ 3. That’s not what they were _______________ at that time. T: _____________________________________________________________ 4. Don’t you like to read books by the most famous world ____________? T: _____________________________________________________________ 5. It was very _____________ of you to leave the keys in the car. T: _____________________________________________________________ V. Translate the sentences into English using one of the ‘NOW’ expressions: 1. Assim como agora, eu não soube dizer a palavra certa para minha namorada. T: _____________________________________________________________ 2. De hoje em diante não vou permitir que fumem na sala de aula. T: _____________________________________________________________ 3. De vez em quando ainda compro aquela revista para praticar o meu inglês. T: _____________________________________________________________ 4. O telefone tinha que tocar justo agora que eu estou vendo o jogo de vôlei. T: _____________________________________________________________ 5. Hoje em dia ninguém acredita mais naquela história. T: _____________________________________________________________ 6. Estou estudando para passar no próximo concurso. É agora ou nunca! T: _____________________________________________________________ 7. Pedi para meu filho me ligar quando chegasse lá, mas até agora não me ligou. T: _____________________________________________________________ 8. Sonia estava aqui agorinha mesmo. Não deve estar longe daqui. T: _____________________________________________________________ www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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VI. Affixes quiz – Add the appropriate prefix or suffix. The translation may help you. 1. part____ as a joke parcialmente, meio que como piada

2. they were recovering from the blood___ war. eles estavam se recuperando da guerra sangrenta

3. surviv ____ soldiers came home soldados que sobreviveram voltaram para casa 4. a drugstore own ____ o proprietário da drogaria

5. plan ____ another ceremony planejou uma outra cerimônia

6. along with general ___ rest junto com inquietação geral

7. the king did not think it was fun ____ o rei não achou engraçado

VII. Practice making up questions. Você pode fazer o exercício seguinte por escrito ou apenas praticar oralmente. Compare com as minhas respostas no final. 1. Virginia was playing her keyboard this afternoon. a) “Who _________________?” “Virginia was.” b) “What ____________________?” “Playing her keyboard.” c) “When __________________________?” “This afternoon.”

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2. It was raining heavily when I woke up this morning. a) “What _________________?” “It was raining heavily.” b) “When ____________________?” “When I woke up this morning.” c) “How __________________________?” “Heavily.”

3. The girls were rehearsing for the talent show at school last night. a) “Who _________________?” “The girls were.” b) “What ____________________?” “Rehearsing for the talent show at school.” c) “When __________________________?” “Last night.”

4. The boys were singing Tom Jobim’s songs in church last Sunday. a) “Who _________________?” “The boys.” b) “What ____________________?” “Singing songs.” c) “Whose __________________________?” “Tom Jobim’s.” d) “Where ____________________?” “In church.”

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ANSWERS Vocabulary Pre Test A 1. made up the empire 2. ruled by a king 3. painful process 4. owed allegiance 5. hurried destiny 6. general unrest 7. dumped a cargo 8. lift the tax

B? a. (4) deviam lealdade b. (3) processo penoso c. (1) compunham o império d. (2) governados por um rei e. (6) inquietação generalizada f. (5) apressaram o destino g. (8) suspender o imposto h. (7) jogaram a carga

ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. past continuous. were finding (L-2) // was losing (L- 9) 2. past simple (como já dissemos, por se tratar de uma narrativa histórica há um grande número de verbos neste tempo) Made (up) (L -1) // imposed (L -3) // was (L -4, 12) // were (L -5, 7) // owed (L -5) // united (L -8) // owned (L -9) // levied (L-10) // dressed (up) (L – 11) // dumped (L-11) // did not think (L- 12) // did he lift (L- 13) // thought (L-14) // fired (L- 15) // killed (L-15) // exaggerated (L-16) // called (L- 16) Reading Comprehension Questions 1. Why were the 13 colonies finding it difficult to be ruled by a king in the 1700s? Because they were tired of the taxes imposed upon them. Por que as 13 colônias estavam achando difícil serem governadas por um rei nos idos de 1700? Porque estavam cansadas dos tributos que lhes eram impostos.

2. Who did the citizens owe allegiance to? They owed allegiance to King George III. (Leia: King George the Third) A quem deviam lealdade os cidadãos? Deviam lealdade ao Rei George III.

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3. Which two events hurried destiny? A ‘tea party’ and a ‘massacre’. Que dois acontecimento precipitaram o destino? Uma ‘festa do chá’ e um massacre.

4. What was happening to a tea company in India, owned by England, in l767? It was losing money. O que estava acontecendo com uma companhia de chá Indiana, de propriedade da Inglaterra, nem 1767? Estava perdendo dinheiro.

5. What did England do to save the company? England levied a tax on tea sold in the colonies in 1773. O que fez a Inglaterra para salvar a companhia? Impôs um tributo sobre o chá vendido para as colônias em 1773.

6. How did a number of Bostonians react? They dumped a cargo of the India Company Tea into the Massachusetts Bay. Como reagiram alguns Habitantes de Boston? Atiraram na Baía de Massachusetts uma carga pertencente à Cia Indiana.

7. Why were the British soldiers jeered and stoned by colonists? Because the colonists thought the soldiers had been sent to watch them. Por que foram os soldados ridicularizados e apedrejados pelos colonos? Porque os colonos pensaram que os soldados haviam sido enviados p/ vigiá-los.

8. Who fired into the crowd? The soldiers did. Quem atirou contra a multidão. Os soldados o fizeram.

9. How many citizens were killed? A few citizens were killed. Quantos cidadãos foram mortos? Apenas alguns cidadãos foram mortos.

10. How did the colonists call this incident? They called it a massacre. Como os colonos chamaram este incidente? Chamaram-no de massacre.

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Phrasal Verbs stood apart – se destacavam ( do resto) set off – queimavam, soltavam (fogos) kick off - O pontapé inicial (de suas campanhas) Text 2: Vocabulary Pre Test A 1. surviving soldiers 2. missing limbs 3. drugstore owner 4. were buried 5. placed wreaths

B a. (2) membros amputados b. (1) soldados sobreviventes c. (5) colocavam coroas de flores d. (3) proprietário da drogaria e. (4) foram sepultados

Analysis of text 2 1. past continuous. was recovering (L-1) // 2. past simple: irrregular verbs: was(L-1) // came (L-2) // heard (L -4) // (L-10) // led (L-10) // was not (L-11) regular verbs: suggested (L-4) // placed (L-7) // planned (L-9) // survived (L -10) // called (L-12 3. Efetivamente diz-se: I study at school in the morning. (= Estudo no colégio de manhã), mas deve-se dizer: on the morning of specific day. Portanto: On the morning of the D Dasy the soldiers … (= Naquela manhaã do Dia ‘D’...) Analysis of text 3 1. past continuous: was living (L-3) 2. present continuous: I am living (L-2) // I am trying (L-4) 3. past simple: arrived (L-2, 6 & 8) // wanted (L-3) // I did not know (L-6) 4. o verbo modal ‘can’ em “Now I can speak, read, and write more than before I arrived” (=Hoje eu consigo falar, ler e escrever mais do que antes de chegar aqui) está indicando capacidade, habilidade. 5. Cross-cultural understanding (= Entendimento / Interação de duasculturas) www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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Flashback- The Prenuptial Dinner imperative: go (L-3,4,7,8) // turn (L-3,5,7) // Take (L-4) // dress (L-10) // have (L-10) II - present continuous: is hosting (=está atuando como anfitriã) III –fragments You can hop in a taxi – você pode pegar um táxi (Literalmente to hop = pular - é só lembrar daquele brinquedo que esteve na moda há alguns: o hophop= o pula-pula) about 3 blocks up - cerca de três quarteirões acima go one block till dead end – seguir um quarteirão até o beco dress casual - vista-se esportivamente have a great time - divirta-se IV – opposites On the left # on the right // Entrance # exit // Turn left # turn right If a picture paints 1000 words (II) 1. The man on the left was walking in the middle of the road // he was walking unsteadily (= caminhando trôpego, sem firmeza) 2. The man on the right was scratching his head.

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EXERCISES I. past simple or past continuous? 1. It was not raining when Mrs. Nelson arrived home. Não estava chovendo quando a Sra. Nelson chegou em casa.

2. Did you meet Jane when you were studying in Europe? Você encontrou com a Jane quando estava estudando na Europa?

3. Were you sleeping when I phoned you last night? Você estava dormindo quando eu telefonei ontem à noite?

4. Was your father watching a news program on TV when I called yesterday? Seu pai estava assistindo ao noticiário na TV quando eu liguei ontem?

5. I was not talking about you. I meant to say that your brother was wrong. Eu não estava falando de você. Queria dizer que o seu irmão estava errado.

II. past form of the irregular verbs 1. [FOUND] As treze colônias achavam difícil serem governadas por um rei a 3000 milhas de distância. 2. [SOLD] A Inglaterra vendia chá para as 13 colônias. 3. [THOUGHT] O Rei George não achou o incidente nada engraçado. 4. [CAME] Os soldados voltaram para casa com muitas histórias para contar sobre a guerra. 5. [LED] O Major General liderou os veteranos numa marcha pela cidade até o cemitério. III. picture quiz 1. (a) eles estavam jogando futebol. Em (b), eles estavam correndo; em (c), lêse: estavam divertindo. 2. (c) o chefe índio estava carregando um rifle. Em (a), carregando um revólver; em (b), carregando uma metralhadora. 3. (b) ela não estava verificando o motor. Em (a) ela não estava olhando para o motor; em (c), ela estava inspecionando o motor. 4. (c) o homem estava rezando (lit: fazendo suas orações). Em (a), o verbo ‘telling’ não forma a collocation correta; em (b), o verbo ‘pronouncing’ não forma a collocation correta. 5. (c) o engraxate notou que todos estavam usando tênis. Em (a), fala-se de chinelos; em (b), fala-se de meias. 6. (a) a mulher estava passeando com o cão. Em (b), tem-se carregando o cão; em (c), tem-se segurando o cão. 7. (b) o homem estava carregando um poste. Em (a) tem-se segurando um poste; em (c) ele estava pesando um poste. www.pontodosconcursos.com.br

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IV. ‘think family’ 1. On second thought I am going to take my umbrella with me. Pensando melhor vou levar meu guarda-chuva comigo.

2. In fact, it was very thoughtful of you to bring your wife a gift. Na verdade foi muito atencioso de sua parte trazer um presente para sua mulher.

3. That’s not what they were thinking at that time. Aquilo não era o que eles estavam pensando na época.

4. Don’t you like to read books by the most famous world thinkers? Você não gosta de ler os livros dos mais famosos pensadores do mundo.

5. It was very thoughtless of you to leave the keys in the car. Foi muita desatenção sua deixar as chaves dentro do carro.

V. ‘NOW’ expressions 1. Just as now I didn’t know how to say the right words to my girlfriend. 2. From now on I won’t let you smoke in class. 3. Now and then I still buy that magazine to practice my English. 4. The phone had to ring just now that I’m watching the volley ball game. 5. Nowadays nobody believes in that story. 6. I’m studying to pass the next public exam. It’s now or never! 7. I asked my son to call when he arrived there, but until now, he hasn’t called. 8. Sonya was here just now. She can’t be far from here. VI. appropriate prefix or suffix 1. partly // 2. bloody // 3. surviving // 4. owner // 5. planned // 6. unrest // 7. funny. VII. Practice making up questions 1. Virginia was playing her keyboard this afternoon. Virginia estava tocando seu teclado esta tarde.

a) “Who was playing her keyboard?” “Virginia was.” b) “What was Virginia doing this afternoon?” “Playing her keyboard.” c) “When was Virginia playing her keyboard?” “This afternoon ”

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2. It was raining heavily when I woke up this morning. Estava chovendo forte quando eu acordei esta manhã.

a) “What was happening this morning?” “It was raining heavily.” b) “When was it raining heavily? “When I woke up this morning.” c) “How was it raining this morning?” “Heavily.” 3. The girls were rehearsing for the talent show at school last night. As garotas estavam ensaiando para o show de talentos na escola ontem à noite.

a) “Who were rehearsing for the school play?” “The girls were.” b) “What were the girls doing?” “Rehearsing for the talent show at school.” c) “When were the girls rehearsing?” “Last night.” 4. The boys were singing Tom Jobim’s songs in church last Sunday. Os rapazes estavam cantando músicas de Tom Jobim na igreja domingo passado.

a) “Who were singing Tom Jobim’s songs in church last Sunday?” “The boys.” b) “What were the boys doing in church last Sunday?” “Singing songs.” c) “Whose songs were the boys singing in church last Sunday?” “Tom Jobim’s.” d) “Where were the boys singing Tom Jobim’s songs?” “In church.”

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Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 4 foram alcançados. OBJECTIVES OBJETIVOS

Draw your attention to the following essential points: Chamar sua atenção para os seguintes pontos essenciais: I. The study of Verb Tenses: The Past Continuous Tense & its uses O estudo dos tempos verbais: O passado contínuo e seus usos; II . Analysis of text 1 ‘The Boston Tea Party’ Análise do texto ‘A Festas do Chá em Boston’ III. Studying Collocation- Phrasal Verbs – Separable & Inseparable Collocations – Phrasal Verbs / separáveis & inseparáveis IV. Word Forms – The suffixes –FUL /-LESS Formação das palavras – os sufixos –FUL / -LESS V. The study of text 2 ‘Memorial Day’ Estudo do texto 2: Dia em Memória (dos Combatentes nas Guerras) VI– Key Word: NOW & expressions Palavras chave: AGORA e expressões VII. Flashback The imperative one more time Revisão – O imperativo uma vez mais VIII. If a picture paints a thousand words (II) Uma imagem vale mais do que 1000 palavras (II) IX. Picture Test 4 Teste com gravuras – 4 X. Exercise Section Seção de Exercícios

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04 -ThePastContinuousTense