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KU Leuven Faculty of Architecture Campus Sint-Lucas Hoogstraat 51 9000 Gent

MAIG34 Design Studio 2020_21 Shenzhen: Urban Villages

tutor: Martine de Maeseneer

students: Amber Van Houdt Elsa Adda Maria Laura Falscone Nidhi Reddy Pamudurthy Tereza Šírerová

白石洲 Revival of the Urban Village


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

7-19 introduction 21-35 business model 37-59 site analysis 61-65 design strategy

67-75 masterplan

77-101 public space

103-135 housing prototype

137-177 roofscape

179-181 conclusion

183-185 bibliography


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Abstract Shenzhen is a densely populated city with a high population of migrant workers. However, their living conditions are not upto standard, living in matchbox houses accessed through narrow alleys, so closely packed that they are often referred to as ‘handshake’ spaces. As redevelopment of the city occurs, the image for the future is one typical to the west. There is a lack of communal ‘ground-bound’ local typologies which connect to and revive historic intelligence. This proposal aims to tackle the redevelopment problem by proposing a bottom-up approach to the new village. The new design also takes into account a business model, encouraging circularity in the economy by providing training centres and smaller spaces for entrepreneurial ideas. This model also plays on the current demographic of china, one that has a high population in the middle-older age group, by trying to include them into post-retirement employment. In terms of architectural and urban design, the intention is to take knowledge from the history and vernacularity of the local context. Keeping in mind the climatic conditions, the urban scale proposes to group small buildings into larger grids, connecting them with sky corridors and integrating common


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courtyards. The streets and ground planes are then developed to enhance the quality of public life by attempting to blur the boundaries between built and open space. Beyond this, the new proposal involves a redesign of the living conditions to accommodate families and co-housing groups of varying sizes. Use of modularity allows for a better quality of living. The balconies are additionally integrated into the design by acting as an extension of the living space. The facades are also considered, and the proposal includes creating more green spaces by integrating a mesh-like textile. Furthermore, the roof acts as an extended public plane. A structure made of bamboo allows for shading and creates communal spaces, and the use of the different textile elements allows for water catching, which is further used to irrigate the courtyard and facades.


1 introduction


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shenzhen from world scale to regional scale

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Shenzhen Before China’s economic reform in the 1980s, Shenzhen was a small fishing village. Because of its proximity to Hong Kong, it was chosen as a special economic zone (SEZ) to learn from and experiment with Hong Kong’s capitalist market economy. Shenzhen has a unique urban structure defined by its borders with both Hong Kong and the mainland. The city is the earliest example of an SEZ in China. As an experimental district for the ‘socialist’s market economy’ for the country, the city is a pioneer of the country’s reform and ‘opening up’ to the rest of the world. Shenzhen is known as the silicon valley of China. With the rapid urbanization in Shenzhen, more and more people from other places come here to work, live and serve the city, leading to the creation of urban villages. The low rents in these Urban Villages attract these migrants and this makes these villages become dual-community, one from the villagers, the other from migrants.


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shenzhen from world scale to regional scale

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Shenzhen_China

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China regions

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Nanshan district

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introduction shenzen urban villages

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History and development of Shenzhen Located in south-east China on the Pearl River Delta, Shenzhen is a very young city. The city has undergone unprecedented growth, transforming from a fishing village into a surging metropolis in only about two decades. From what used to be a small town with an area of 3 km2 in 1978, it expanded to 390 km2 in 1979 and 1,997 km2 in 2010. Rapid urbanization has brought massive economic development, also causing changes in land use. On the one hand, is the expansion of the scale of urban land, on the other hand, is the drastic disappearance of a large number of agricultural and ecological land.


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introduction shenzen urban villages

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introduction baishizhou connectivity with city

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Connectivity Shenzhen is the second largest transportation hub in South China. It has a developed extensive public transportation system, covering rapid transit, buses and taxis. By air, the city is served by its own Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport and the neighbouring Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA). The Shenzhen Metro serves as the city’s rapid transit system. Shenzhen is also served by seven inter-city railway stations. The road network is also highly developed, with the city serving as a fabric to China’s expressway system. It is also connected with Hong Kong and Macau through a ferry system, making the port a highly busy one.


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introduction baishizhou connectivity with city

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BAISHIZHOU

ferry

high speed railway

planned high way

airport

planned high speed railway

metro

train station

highway

boarder


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introduction baishizhou living conditions

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Baishizhou Baishizhou is located in the Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. In 2016 about 150,000 people lived in Baishizhou. The site covers a surface of 0.60 km2 and has a population density higher than that of the city average. Baishizhou Village presents a strong history and for this reason, it was described as “one of the last vestiges of old Shenzhen�. If on one hand, living in the Baishizhou urban village has positive aspects, such as it is very well connected to public transports and linked to the public services of the city, it also represents an opportunity for the inhabitants to find a cheap place where to live. On the other hand, due to the lack of organization, the living conditions of urban villages are threatened by extremely high density, low building quality, insufficient public service delivery, inadequate sanitation, a safety problem, etc. Those conditions are a threat to basic human needs. Thus, the focus of the project revolves around the improvement of these conditions and living environment of the Baishizhou Urban Village.


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introduction baishizhou living conditions

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easy access to public transport & facilities

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low quality building

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unsafe environment

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introduction baishizhou population data

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Demographics Shenzhen has a large population of migrants, accounting to nearly 90% of the population. The gender gap, however, is low, with women making up 49% of the population. Looking at the age division, a large population is of the middle to the older generation. This is by large an outcome of China’s One-child policy in the 1970s. Larger percentages of the migrants are employed in the manufacturing, service and construction sectors.


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introduction baishizhou population data

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Baishizhou age population

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Baishizhou jobs

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introduction baishizhou climate

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Climate The weather Shenzhen and therefore of the Baishizhou Urban Village is characterized by mild, moderately dry winters, while summers are hot and humid. As it is located on the delta of the Pearl River its climate is influenced by the monsoons. The warm season lasts nearly five months with an average daily temperature that passes 85°F. On the other hand, the cool season lasts for a bit less than three months, the average daily temperature can go below 70°F. The precipitation figures of the interested area vary significantly throughout the year. The months with the higher possibility of precipitation go from April to September with an average of 48% chance of a given day being a wet day. Rain falls throughout the entire year in the region of Shenzhen. However, the numbers for the monthly rainfall vary a lot throughout the entire year. The driest months are November, December and January, while most rain falls during June and July, reaching an average accumulation of 9.7 inches. Due to these conditions, the city struggles with floats, stormwater pollution, and water shortage.


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introduction baishizhou climate

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avarage high and low temperature

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2 business model


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business model existing strategy

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Integrated urban village - scenarios The rapid economic growth and the major urbanization trend witnessed by Shenzhen in the last 40 years are strongly interlinked with the growing “floating population,� a concept that refers to a community of citizens made up of rural-urban internal migrants who do not have the status of household registration in the city in which they live, thereby leading to a loss of social welfare and benefits. Blurred property rights under the dual-track land ownership system and rapid urbanization produced the urban villages. These urban villages provide low-cost accommodation for rural migrants and are therefore critical for lowering their living costs, but these urban villages are now facing demolition and redevelopment to modernize their cities. Many people will be negatively impacted by the redevelopment scheme, primarily due to the lack of inexpensive rentals, the loss of business for all of them, and the loss of a favourable central location, which will contribute to additional costs. In the long run, it would be more difficult for the floating population to start a life in the city, thereby depriving Shenzhen of the lowcost workforce that has been key to the city’s development in the last few decades.


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buisness model existing

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business model new strategy

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Business model The business model aims to provide services for the neighbourhood to generate some money while enriching the community. When village owners will negotiate a new development plan with the government, in exchange for the sale of land the villagers will not only receive an “urban� passport but will also be part of a program that will implement a training program in the village. This service aims to boost the local economic activities of the migrants already present today, to guide them into a bigger business generating more qualified employees and to ensure their insertion into the city scale. In return to this program, migrants will have to pay a percentage of their future benefit to the villagers and developers. This allows preserving the identity of the village, rich in its dense and diversified economic activities. In parallel developers will upgrade the village to host these training centres and improve the quality of the place. This system ensures a circular model where all the protagonists of the actual situation can benefit from.


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business model new strategy

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design goal inclusive environment

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Goals for an inclusive environment It is often observed that plans for redevelopment do not include minorities like elderly, women, etc. The business model aims to be inclusive, and to achieve the same, it has to meet certain goals : Participatory - planning with the minorities, not for them Integrated - to promote city citizen relation Power Building - increasing the capacities of the minorities Specifically targeted at diverse communities such as elderly, disabled, etc, this model attempts to achieve inclusion. The age of retirement in China is 55, and there is a large workforce over this age that prefers to be productive and contribute to the economy. The pension might not be sufficient to cover their needs, and creating smaller work systems can helpt them.


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design goal inclusive environment

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reference World Bank vocational training

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World Bank: The Skill Development and Employment Project For rural migrants in China, skills make a difference. China has seen millions of rural workers migrating to cities. But these migrant workers are relatively poorly educated, with the majority lacking skills to make them viable options in city job markets. A program from the World Bank is helping them develop skills. The project focuses on three major challenges that rural migrants generally face in cities: skills development, employment services and worker protection. Bao Jun _ “What I learned at school can be applied in my own business I am running now.” Zhu Zhixu _ “After the practical training, now I run my own excavation company and employ local workers. The biggest gain for me is that I learned labour laws and now know how to use laws to protect rural workers’ interests.” Yang Baohu _ “Before I worked in the field. Since I opened my own restaurant, our life has been getting better. With this restaurant, my social status has also risen. I can support my entire family.”

source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4585230/Shocking-pictures-reveal-tiny-Hong-Kong-coffin-homes.html


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reference World bank vocational training

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Bao Jun, Auto Detailing Shop Owner

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Zhu Zhixu, Excavation Company Owner

03 Yang Baohu, restaurant owner

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training center program

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Training center The training centre is part of a platform named “LEARNING TOGETHER�, attached to a governmental organisation. It will be used to organize tutoring sessions to boost the local economy of the migrants as well as academic learning to increase the education level such as driving license, foreigner language classes, etc. Different activities can be taught, therefore a flexible space is created to host the different possibilities. Two prototypes of two different sizes are characterized by an elevated floor, a plinth. Several steps extend the interior space by creating sitting areas in dialogue with the exterior public space. Flexible furniture is integrated with the room, such as pulled out sitting stored under the plinth with the capacity to accommodate up to 70 people. Furthermore, on the back wall of the room, a flexible storage unit is located, called the Tetris Wall. The wall is locked when the furniture is not in use, allowing free usage of the room while the training programs are not running. An easy closing system of the space is ensured by a metallic curtain similar to the commercial activities in the area. During the night the space can be closed and locked, while during the day it can welcome community activities in parallel to the training centre.


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training center program

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training center flexible space

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training center flexible space

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training center flexible furniture

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Tetris wall The Tetris Wall is conceived in order to allow the most flexible configuration possible. Once closed the furniture only measures 60cm depth and 5m long. Through WeChat on the phone, the app of the training centre LEARNING TOGETHER can be found and used to scan the QR code on the furniture. This will unlock the latter and charges will be registered for each minute of usage. In this way, the responsibility of the furniture is ensured by the user of the space. Maintenance can be done quickly through the app by the notification of a user. The wall furniture is composed of three parts. In the centre are located two cabinets, the water and the technical one. They will provide hot and cold drinkable water, printer, projector, sockets and basic tools. On each side of these two cabinets are located the sliding furniture. They are composed of a cap that can be pulled out and moved in the room to be used as a space divider as well as a storage space or projector surface. Inside are interlocked 4 tables of 110m and 90cm height. Used together they form a complex of sitting and working surfaces. Turned on one side they can be used both as sitting areas.


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training center flexible furniture

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3 site analysis


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site analysis Baishizhou village five villages

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Baishizhou village _ site analysis Baishizhou is one of Shenzhen’s largest urban villages, comprising multiple smaller ones, which includes in the north area the Xintang Village, the Industrial Zone, Upper Baishi Village and the Tangtou Village. In the south, the Baishizhou Village can be found and. The northern areas comprise informal buildings and factories owned by former villages, as well as planned housing estates, such as Qiaoyuan Apartments and Xiangqi. This is an area with a relatively long history and strong traditions, and these historical factors have to be taken into account while considering redevelopment. The area of further study and intervention in this project is the southern area of ‘Baishizhou Village’.


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XINTANG VILLAGE

INDUSTRIAL ZONE UPPER BAISHI VILLAGE

UPPER BAISHI VILLAGE TANGTOU VILLAGE

BAISHIZHOU VILLAGE

site analysis Baishizhou village five villages

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site analysis connectivity within Shenzen

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Connectivity Baishizhou is an important hub in Shenzhen’s extensive transportation network. Baishizhou village is well connected to public transport and daily necessities. The links are mainly through bus, with bus stops scattered across the perimeter, along the bigger roads. It is also connected on two subway lines with 3 metro stops in close proximity.


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site analysis connectivity within Shenzen

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site analysis serial vision Baishizhou village

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43 01

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5678

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site analysis serial vision Baishizhou village Ăż

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5678

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city vs urban village

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inside the urban village

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entrance to urban village

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window of the world park

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89

  !"# $

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011234 567

05 89

the city

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site analysis mapping built area

56% residential 40%

mix program

4%

commercial centre

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site analysis axonometry drawings mix use building

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site analysis mapping unbuilt area

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site analysis section volumes

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site analysis mapping entrances

entrances

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secondary street

primary street

site analysis mapping circulation

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site analysis mapping intersections

intersection

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public open spaces

pocket spaces

site analysis mapping open spaces

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site analysis mapping commercial activities

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hotel _ accomodation

services

shops

beauty faciliies

restaurants_food

offices


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site analysis serial vision commercial activities

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food _ restaurant

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pharmachy

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shop

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car service

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minimarket

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beauty salon

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site analysis mapping public facilities

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cinema

education

parking

public services

health

religion


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site analysis mapping public facilities

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shopping centre

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5678  9 !"#$2%

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police station

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clinic

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car park

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touristic attraction

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car park

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site analysis mapping street width

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0-1 m

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2.5-3.5 m 3.5-4.5 m


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site analysis serial vision street width

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0123ÿ5ÿ6789ÿ5ÿ ÿ5ÿ

wide street commercial street



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two ways street

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secondary street0123ÿ5ÿ6789ÿ5ÿ ÿ5ÿ 04



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narrow street 

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narrow street with no sunlight 0123ÿ5ÿ6789ÿ5ÿ ÿ5ÿ

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site analysis space syntax connectivity

most connected

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less connected


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most integrated

site analysis space syntax integration

mess integrated

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4 design strategy


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design strategy vernacular architecture connection to the past

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SĂŹ hĂŠ yuĂ n The project aims to emulate concepts from vernacular Chinese architecture, updating and applying them to the present. Traditionally present since 2000 years, the vernacular architecture is characterised by a yard enclosed by houses on its four sides offering a safe and harmonious environment independent from the exterior world and regardless of the political and social changes of the society. The spatial organization can be understood through different perspectives. The first one is the climate approach, where the different elements are positioned in order to protect from the dominant north wind, sound, air pollution and sun exposure. The second perspective is the architecture translation of Confucianism philosophy. The importance of hierarchy is highlighted by the position of the buildings as well as their volume. The axes and symmetry also play an important role in the configuration of the house. Furthermore, the entrance located at the opposite side of the main building is marked by a screen wall, to protect the resident from strong wind blowing sand, from the eye of the street and from bad luck. The third perspective is the influence of the Daoism philosophy that is reflected in the attention brought to the harmony between man and nature. The buildings positioned in a square shape are oriented around the centre of the courtyard, QI, the reflection of the cosmos of Heaven and Earth. Around is developed artificial landscapes, manmade environments that control the esthetics of nature to create romantic ensembles. The steps to access the adjacent buildings create a threshold, enabling a dialogue between inside and outside spaces. These concepts are rethought in our design in a modern proposition of the courtyard typology, adapting it to the scale necessary.


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design strategy vernacular architecture connection to the past

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01 climate 02

confucianism

03 daoism

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design strategy four scales proposal

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Proposal at four scales The project tackles the problems experienced by the urban village at 4 scales. On the masterplan level, rearranging how the neighbourhood is planned. On the public street level, redeveloping street typologies and ground-level public space such as courtyards to maximise on positive human experience. Further, delving into individual building blocks and residential units to improve spatial conditions and living standards. It concludes on a detail at the roof level, creating water-catching strategies and bamboo structures to elevate the dimension of public space.


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roof structure

building blocks

open spaces

masterplan

design strategy four scales proposal

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5 masterplan


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masterplan proposition area of intervention

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Intervention strategy The redevelopment strategy aims at preserving the identity and characteristics of the site, with its richness and diversity, while upgrading the living and spatial conditions of it. At the masterplan level, it allows for an identification of spaces that have a scope of improvement. Firstly, the commercial streets remain largely untouched due to their existing functionality. Interventions only happen on smaller scales of rethinking movement patterns and points of intersection. Secondly, applying the historic concept of courtyards, existing buildings are grouped into smaller sections that will look into courtyards - these are of 2 scales, larger neighbourhood level and a smaller more intimate level. These courtyards also act as a base to the business model of training centres and a continuation of the public dimension. The new intervention follows the profile of existing buildings. The constructions along the main commercial streets are preserved and renovated, while new residential buildings are implemented respecting the footprint of the former structures.


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focal points

areas of intervention open spaces

masterplan proposition area of intervention

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masterplan proposition typologies

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courtyard typology delimitation entrances

residential courtyard central neighborhood courtyard


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masterplan proposition typologies

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residential courtyard

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neighborhood courtyard

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commercial street

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masterplan proposition general overview

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Masterplan proposition The design on the masterplan scale proposes a rethink of spatial urban structures - to create smaller pockets of residential spaces around smaller central open ‘courtyards’, to achieve a balance between built and unbuilt space. However, the urban villages already function excellently on the commercial street side. The proposal is to apply the intervention on the inner residential streets, while leaving the buildings on the commercial streets as is, just improving the environment on the public street level.


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existing building

new strategy courtyards

masterplan proposition general overview

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TH

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masterplan proposition building heights

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SOU

The design intention is to create a variation in building heights based on the climate and taking inspiration from the past. This leads to higher buildings in the north, as for the tradition they were inhabited by the owners. Successfully, the eastern building was occupied by their oldest son, as a result, it was translated architecturally by the second most important building, slightly lower than the north building but higher than the west ones which were inhabited by the younger children of the owner. Finally, the servants occupied the southern building, hence these were the lower constructions. However, the base lies in accommodating extra levels to compensate for the building that is demolished for the courtyard. Thus, the buildings are slightly taller than the original structures.


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5 floors

10 floors

6 floors

11 floors

8 floors

12 floors

masterplan proposition building heights

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6 public space


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public space entrances and intersections typology

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1. Entrance and intersection typology The larger pockets of public space that connect the village’s main roads to peripheral roads as well as inner main streets are treated as entry points to the village. The design aims to open up these points, make it more accessible. The method employed is to create a hierarchy within existing levels. The corner points are opened up to incorporate larger visual entrances. Existing street activities are retained and sidewalks are made wider to allow for an extension of store space. Hierarchy of pedestrian over vehicular paths is achieved through material differentiation. The problem of drainage is solved by employing a gentle slope in the road towards a central gutter that connects to a large underground stormwater drain.


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public space entrances and intersections location

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public space entrances and intersections existing situation

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VISION_COLLECTIVE SPACE

ENTRY

HIERARCHY

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

public space entrances and intersections new proposal

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public space entrances and intersections day time

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public space entrances and intersections night life

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public space commercial streets typology

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2. Commercial streets typology Street-level public space is a typically cramped scenario with no clear contrast in space allocation. Addressing this, the concept of hierarchy is further applied, creating a distinction between paths for hawkers, pedestrians and vehicles. The shopfronts also have an extended outdoor space, allowing for a spatial and visual continuation.


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public space commercial streets location

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public space commercial streets existing situation

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION

HIERARCHY

public space commercial streets new proposal

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PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT VERSION


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public space commercial streets day time

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public space commercial streets night life

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public space neighbourhood courtyards typology

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3. Central neighborhood courtyard typology Larger central courtyards are treated as an extension of the street. The concept of community is strongly reinforced, and the courtyards act as a collective space to enable the same. The entrances are marked by commercial spaces to host the local activities. Many smaller units look into the courtyard and it can be perceived as an area of gathering for the residents. The training centres are incorporated around these large common spaces, and the overall environment created is a dynamic one. The courtyard also serves as a pocket for water and greenscape management.


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public space neighbourhood courtyards location

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public space neighbourhood courtyards spatial organisation

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public space neighbourhood courtyards spatial organisation

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building - open space

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entrances - public space

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activity communal spaces

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green and water management

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commercial activities and training center

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dynamic activities and social gathering

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public space neighbourhood courtyards entrance view

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public space neighbourhood courtyards central view

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public space residential courtyards typology

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4. Residential courtyard typology Smaller courtyards within the smaller-scale apartment developments act as more intimate gathering spaces. They connect the living units to the public dimension, yet are private enough to create a sense of inclusion. They are treated as communal spaces on a more personal level and activities that take place around it are on a more intimate scale. From the main streets, one can enter following down the gentle slope. The entrances are marked by a covered space delimited by the screen wall. Its height of 150m protects visually the interior of the courtyard but allows one passing by to have a glimpse of the atmosphere creating a session of intrigue and mystery. The slope ends in the central area where a rain collector circles the greenery. Communal spaces are located around extending the exterior space into the flexible room.


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public space residential courtyards location

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public space residential courtyards spatial organisation

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public space residential courtyards spatial organisation

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building - open space

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entrances - public space

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activity communal spaces

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green and water management

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the screen wall communal expression

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soft activities introverted spaces around the central greenery

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public space residential courtyards entrance view

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public space residential courtyards communal room view

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7 housing prototype


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housing prototype grid study

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Grid study A study of the plan of Baishizhou urban village shows a subdivision of some areas dictated by different grids. The area on the centre-east follows a grid where the footprint of the building is 10x10 between 1.5m wide alleys. The second area can be found on the north of the site and follows a grid of 13x13 m with 3m space between the buildings. Finally, in the remaining areas, the buildings are constructed more organically and do not follow a specific grid. The proposal takes the grid as the base principle for urban renewal to retain village character. For the block prototype, the design utilizes a grid of 10x10m, and the same principle is applied for the second grid. Taking this forward, some buildings will be preserved and renovated, others will be completed in blocks. This will add order and efficiency.


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no grid grid 1 grid 2

housing prototype grid study

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housing prototype standardised modular structure concept

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grid

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volume

following existing grid to preserve village character

adaptable volumes preserving existing character

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primary corridors

secondary corridors

outdoor sky corridors serving as communication and meeting spaces

irregular adaptable sky corridors

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structure

pre-fabricated, mass produces column structure with communication cores

spatial solution

various spatial solutions


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housing prototype transformation strategies

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diverse commercial environment

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building mutual integration

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green network

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greenery part of bulding

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different zones of privacy

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housing prototype current living conditions

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source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4585230/Shocking-pictures-reveal-tiny-Hong-Kong-coffin-homes.html


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housing prototype current living conditions

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housing prototype design principles

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Design principles The new housing proposal involves a rethink of the living conditions by taking into account the demands of diverse target groups. The aim is to accommodate families and cohousing groups of varying sizes and needs. Use of modularity allows for a better quality of living with lower prices. The balconies and outdoor corridors act as an extension of the living space. Community spaces enable different types of activities - from meeting with neighbours to growing vegetables. The design also considers natural principles to provide enough light and ventilation necessary for a better quality of life.


housing prototype spatial concept

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community/commercial spaces communication corridors communication core appartment units

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housing prototype units typology family apartment

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Family apartment Smart and flexible furniture design allows to comfortably accommodate people on a minimal floor area. A fundamental module of 3x10m was explored to accommodate a family of four. An area of 27 m2 offers everything needed for full-fledged life. Longitudinal orientation connecting two opposite facades brings not only enough light but natural ventilation as well. Units are designed as duplex apartments, ergonomically in a minimal but a functional way.

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1st floor

family apartment 27 m2

4 people

housing prototype units typology family apartment

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2nd floor

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S 1:100

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7

housing prototype units typology tiny apartment

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Tiny apartment Another examined type is the Tiny apartment, with floor plan dimensions of 3x5m. This type of unit is designed for one or a maximum of two people. Following the same principles of smart adaptable furniture or duplex sleeping floor, the very minimal area of 13 m2 can offer everything needed for a qualitative living. If in need of more space, every inhabitant can use community areas of the housing block.

3.5 3

5


115

1st floor

1-2 people

7

2nd floor

0

tiny apartment 13 m2

housing prototype units typology tiny apartment

1

S 1:100

3

5


7

housing prototype units typology shared apartment

116

Shared apartment The third type of apartment is a shared unit. This type connects two primary modules which make an area of 58 m2. With a flexible layout, it is possible to comfortably accommodate up to 8 people. Emphasis was made on privacy while sharing a facility. This type is meant as starting accommodation for single migrant workers or couples.

3.5 10 6


117

housing prototype units typology shared apartment

1st floor

shared apartment 58 m2

4-8 people

7

2nd floor

0

1

S 1:100

3

5


7

housing prototype smart furniture design axonometry

118


119

family appartment 27 m2

4 people

housing prototype smart furniture design axonometry

7


7

housing prototype spatial configurations

120

Spatial configuration The basic block layout is formed by the connection of nine neighbouring buildings by external corridors, which allows to eliminate multiple circulation cores inside the buildings and provide more living space in the same area. The central building is demolished, which creates a pleasant green indoor courtyard within each block and helps to bring enough light and fresh air into each dwelling. The number of buildings forming one block is variable and can be adjusted as needed. There is also a variable layout of individual floors. From the second floor up, the houses are designed mainly for living. Housing units are designed so that it is possible to combine and change them according to current needs. Within each block, several flats can be omitted and this free space will be used for community purposes. It offers more space for living outside units with minimal floor area and for strengthening the community.


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housing prototype spatial configuration typical floor plan

0 1

3

S 1:200

5

7

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7

housing prototype community spaces atmosphere

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123

housing prototype atypical floor plan different configuration possibilities

01

7

02

03

01

community living room

02

variable open space with tetris walls

0 1

03

communication corridors and meeting space

S 1:200

3

5

10


7

housing prototype section AA´

124


125

housing prototype section BB´

0 1

3

S 1:200

5

7

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7

housing prototype facade treatment

126

Facade treatment The project aims to preserve as many existing buildings as possible. Construction costs are also reduced by reusing building cores and profiles. The design tackles the facades by following natural principles and modern technologies. Four different types of facades were designed to improve both the outdoor and indoor environment. A combination of green facades and water-catching shading fabrics create a comfortable microclimate. This catalogue of facades are used based on the street character the facade is facing, the interior program or are arbitrarily combined where needed.


127

housing prototype facade treatment elevation

0 1

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S 1:200

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housing prototype green facade

128

Green facade Green facades or greenery in general is one of the main principles of the design proposal. As loss of nature occurred during the concrete expansion of Shenzhen many problems appeared, such as flooding, overheating and loss of biodiversity. Compensating the built-up area by adding green spaces in courtyards, roofs and facade elements, the intention is to reverse these problems while also improving the living conditions of local inhabitants.


129

01

02

03

04

01

biophilia

02

air quality

03

thermal comfort

04

noise absorption

housing prototype green facade principles

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housing prototype facades typology

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01

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housing prototype facades typology references

01

green balcony as an extension of the apartment

02

green facade as a shading system

03

hanging pots for climbing greenery

04

wild greenery system on facades without windows

06

outdoor corridors as an extension of the apartment

05 water-catching fabric shading system

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7

housing prototype facades typology type 1

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133

housing prototype facades typolog type 2

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7

housing prototype facades typology type 3

134


135

housing prototype facades typologytype 4

7


8 roofscape


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roofscape introduction

138

Roofscape The model is focused on the local culture of the inhabitants and on the contemporary problems of space in Shenzhen. The project activates the underused area on the rooftops of the densely populated city. Firstly, by providing an essential resource for life, water, by developing a system that conforms to weather conditions. The two textiles will catch the water and direct it to the collector so that it can be reused for a number of purposes. Secondly, the design creates a social place for the community, enabling users to enjoy open space, something very scarce in Shenzhen. The inhabitants of the urban villages can gather under the shade of the canopy for informal gatherings and activities. The structure can be built with vernacular materials, ensuring it is both fast and economic.


8

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roofscape atmospheric image

01

01

01

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roofscape textile introduction

140

Textile The main purpose of the textile on the structure is to collect water. The system of these textiles is based on the project ‘The Warka Water Tower’ from a rural village in Ethiopia. The climate of Ethiopia can be compared to the climate of Shenzhen, a hot and humid climate. The air always contains a certain amount of water vapour which makes it possible to produce water from the air. The amount will increase at places where there are higher rates of fog and humidity. The system functions only by natural phenomena such as gravity, condensation and evaporation and doesn’t require any electrical power. The textile used can harvest fog. The permeable mesh allows the humid warm air to pass and will capture the water droplets. The water droplets harvested from the fog fall down by the force of gravity and are caught by the canopy. The canopy is an impermeable textile that is working as a dew condenser and will capture a significant amount of water from the humid environment. The textile is very dense and is able to provide a pleasant shaded area. Both of the textiles can be made out of recycled plastic, a material that is available widely in Shenzhen and can be incorporated into the circular community idea.


141

roofscaproofscape textile scheme Mesh

Condensation Detail

Rolls down by gravity

Elevation Elevation

Canopy

Cre

atin

gs

had

ow

Detail

Dew condensor Rainwater

Guided by the canopy

Filter

Collector

8


8

roofscape structure introduction

142

Structure The structure of the roofscape is made out of bamboo poles. Bamboo has a long history in Chinese culture. China is home to 500 species of bamboo, and 40% of all known species in the world. It is used to make paper, musical instruments, furniture, and as a building material. Even now, bamboo scaffolding is widely used in Shenzhen to construct their buildings. Bamboo is a natural sustainable material. It is cheap to use since it is the fastest growing plant on earth. Bamboo doesn’t need to be transported far, since it is a material that is still widely available in the region of Shenzhen. The material is lightweight so it can be efficiently transported to upper levels. The design is kept simple so the inhabitants of the urban villages can assemble the structure with little help from skilled craftsmen. Since they still build with this tradition the know-how is available in Shenzhen.


8

block prototype elevation

143

Elevation

roofscape structure detail model

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8

roofscape structure references

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ROOF STRUCUTURE _LEISURE

01

02

01

conventional material in China

02

natural Material

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product of chinese traditional architecture

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145

roofscape structure references

ROOF STRUCUTURE _SPORTS

01 04

01 05

04

easy to assemble

05

scaffolding in China

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scaffolding with textile wrapped around

01 06

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8

watersystem the water cycle problems in Shenzhen

146

Watersystem Shenzhen is a subtropical region characterised by humid and muggy air and abundant rainfall. Due to rapid urbanisation, heavy rainfall and major hardening of the substrate, Shenzhen has some serious challenges coming regarding water. Now the city is already struggling with floods, stormwater pollution and drinking water shortage. The problems will only increase in the near future in case Shenzhen doesn’t take action. China started in 2015 to implement the ideas of the ‘Sponge City Concept’. This concept is based on the idea to soak up as much rainwater as possible. That can be done by using a combination of storage tunnels, permeable pavements, rain gardens, constructed ponds and wetlands. Thus the water is able to infiltrate in the ground and can become a part again in the water cycle. Unfortunately, the concept is today only implemented in modern and wealthier parts of the city of Shenzhen.


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watersystem the water cycle sponge city

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8

watersystem problem in Shenzhen floods

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149

watersystem problem in Shenzhen floods

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8

watersystem new circle scheme

150

Evaporation

Leftover water flows to courtyard

Infiltration


8

151 Precipitation

Catched by the textiles Guided by the waterpipe in between the bamboo poles

Water collector Water flows to terraces by gravity

01

Provide plants with water

Natural ventilation

01

01


8

watersystem amount of water calculations

152

01

annual rainfall in Shenzhen

=1955mm

02

area of one roof

area = 13m x 13m =169m2

03

rainfall on 1 roof

169m2 x 1,955m2 = 330395m2 = 330395 liters


watersystem amount of water calculations

153

04

water out of fog and dew

+/- 50 litres a day 50 litres x 365 = 18 250 litres

05

total of collected water

330 395 litres + 18250 litres = 348645 = +/- 340 01000

06

tank volume

340 000 x 0,05 = 17 000 litres 01

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watersystem fogging system cooling down

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watersystem fogging system details

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02 01

01

spray nozzle

02 section pressure swirl single-fluid nozzle 03

string of nozzles

01 03

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roofscape activities

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Flexible space The roofs of the tower buildings will contain different structures, each structure defines a specific intention. The first structure is designed for the purpose of leisure. Open space is very rare in Shenzhen, especially for leisure. The bamboo structure is defined by a complex and irregular shape. The balustrade is made out of horizontal bamboo poles connected to the vertical poles. Plants can grow on the balustrade which provides a connection between building and the roof structure. The textile on the roof is extended, creating privacy between the different users and creates hammocks that can be used to escape the bustle of the city. An alternative playground for children as well as space where the parents can relax can also be created out of the extended textile. In the second structure is the steel frame from the facade extends and is wrapped with the same textile as the roof structure textile. The vertical poles are placed angularly towards each other, creating a slope to guide the water into the collector. Three horizontal poles form together a beam to create an open space. This space can be used to play different sports. The third structure opens up towards the view. The main idea of this structure is to create a space where the urban village community can gather and interact. This can be for educational purposes, theater, performances, play board games, etc. A part of the tower is extended at the rooftop to create access and a storage room for the flexible furniture that is also used in the community spaces.


Teaching 01

5678

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Bord games 5678

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5678

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01

157

ÿ

ÿ

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roofscape activities

ÿ

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5678

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0123

0123

Relax area

Playground

0123

Relax 01 area leisure relax area with hammoks

Playground 02 leisure alternative playgrounds 01 01 01

0123

Basketball 03 sports Basketball

Dance 04 sports Dance Dance, yoga, etc

basketball, voleyball, badminton

105

01 01

01

01

5678

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ÿ

0123

05 gathering Teaching education

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5678

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06 games gathering Bord bordgames 01 01

Roofstructures Purposes

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roofscape structure typology axonometric view

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roofscape structure typology axonometric view

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leisure structure

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sport structure

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gather structure

01 03

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roofscape structure 1 leisure activities

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roofscape structure 1 leisure activities

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01

playground

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hammock place

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roofscape structure 2 sport activities

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roofscape structure 2 sport activities

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01

basketball

02

dance - Taekwondo -yoga

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volleybal - Badminton

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1


8

roofscape structure 3 gathering activities

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01


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roofscape structure 3 gathering activities

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01

moveable furniture

02

boardgame configuration

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roofscape structure 3 gathering activities

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roofscape structure 3 gathering activities

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01 02

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theatre configuartion

02

teaching configuration

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roofscape detail

168

Details The bamboo poles can be connected to each other with knotting. This is a phenomenon widely used in Shenzhen, mostly seen in bamboo scaffolding. Typically, nylon straps are used to tie the poles together. The knots that are used in the details of the roofscape are common in lashing and sailing activities. The roofscape construction details are designed in a way that the urban villagers can help to construct and maintain the structure themselves with only simple tools and some practice. All the details are also designed in a way that it is possible to replace poles or parts of the textile in case of damage.


bind adjacent poles together. bind adjacent poles together. The pools can work togheter as The pools can work togheter as one beam. one beam. 169

roof scape detail knots shear lashing

02 SHEAR 02 LASHING SHEAR LASHING 01 01 A Shear ALashing often used to used to Shear isLashing is often bind adjacent poles together. bind adjacent poles together. The pools workcan togheter as Thecan pools work togheter as one beam. one beam.

01

01

Elevation 01

03

01

01

01

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02

SHEAR LASHING A shear lashing is often used to bind adjacent poles together. The different poles work as one beam.01 01

01

01

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roof scape detail knots square lashing

170

01

02

03

04

SQUARE LASHING

05

Square lashing is a type of lashing used to bind spars together. There are different types, but all consist of a series of wraps around the spars, and fraps around the wraps between the spars. Used when lashing two spars together at, or near, right angles to each other. The lashing is designed to be load bearing.


171

01

roofscape detail knots diagonal lashing

02 01

03

04 01 DIAGONAL LASHING Type of lashing used to bind spars or poles together, to prevent racking. It is usually applied to cross-bracing where the poles do not initially touch, but may by used on any poles that cross each other at a 45° to 90° angle.

05

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roofscape detail knots bowline knot

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01

bowline knot

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detail

03

textile - bamboo

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roofscape detail foundation

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bamboo foundation

02

bamboo foundation

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waterpipe foundation

03

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details 3D printed reference

174

01

02

01

bamboo pavilion Jerusalem

02

bamboo pavilion Jerusalem

03

“The Ninja� 3D printing

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details 3D printed textile- waterpipe

01

01 3D printed connector 02 guide rainwater from textile to waterpipe 03 connection between poles

03

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details connections overview

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Overview of connections All the details are designed to be easy to assemble the structure on site. All connections are made with cheap and locally available material. The residents of the urban village can maintain and repair the structure without the help of a skilled craftsman.


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details connections overview

01

01

01

8


9 conclusion


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conclusion

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Conclusion In conclusion, the intention behind the project is to achieve a circularity and balance between the different actors involved - the villagers, migrants, government and developers. The approach is manifold - economic, social, spatial and climatic. The various scales are tackled differently to achieve a diverse range of impact.


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conclusion

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10 bibliography


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bibliography Books and papers

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Books and papers - Al, S., Chu, P., Juhre, C., Valin, I. and Wang, C., (2014). Villages In The City. Hong Kong Univ. Press. - Peng, J. (2014). Inside-Out transition: Urban villages transformation strategy in Shenzhen China. TU Delft. - O’Donnell, M. A., Wong, W., & Bach, J. (2017). Learning from Shenzhen. University of Chicago Press. - van Oostrum, M., Liu, J., Li, Y., Hoek, R., & Yang, Y. (2017). Mapping Atlas of Shenzhen - Urban Villages (L. Qu, Ed.). TU Delft.


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bibliography weblinks

10

Weblinks - Burns, I. (2017, June 9).Pictures reveal tiny Hong Kong “coffin homes.” Mail Online. https://www. dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4585230/Shocking-pictures-reveal-tiny-Hong-Kong-coffin-homes. html - Courtyard (Siheyuan). (2004). China Daily. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/livechina/2004-01/14/content_298861.htm - Dorze, Ethiopia. (2019). Warka Water Inc. https://www.warkawater.org/ethiopia/ - For Rural Migrants In China, Skills Make A Difference. (2014, September 1). World Bank. https:// www.worldbank.org/en/news/video/2014/09/01/for-rural-migrants-in-china-skills-make-a-difference - Equipo Editorial. (2018, February 9). Students Build a Suspended Bamboo Pavilion With 3D Printed Joints. ArchDaily. https://www.archdaily.com/884800/students-build-a-suspended-bamboo-pavilion-with-3d-printed-joints?ad_medium=gallery - F. (2020, May 17). Siheyuan — Chinese Courtyards. China Highlights. https://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/architecture/siheyuan.htm - Siheyuan, Beijing Courtyard - Local Traditional Unique House. (n.d.). Travel China Guide. https:// www.travelchinaguide.com/cityguides/beijing/hutong/yard.htm


KU Leuven Faculty of Architecture Campus Sint-Lucas Hoogstraat 51 9000 Gent

MAIG34 Design Studio 2020_21 Shenzhen: Urban Villages

tutor: Martine de Maeseneer

students: Amber Van Houdt Elsa Adda Maria Laura Falscone Nidhi Reddy Pamudurthy Tereza Šírerová

Profile for Nidhi Reddy

Baishizhou_Revival of the Urban Village  

This project deals with the revival of the urban village of Baishizhou in Shenzhen, China. The video was produced as part of Martine De Maes...

Baishizhou_Revival of the Urban Village  

This project deals with the revival of the urban village of Baishizhou in Shenzhen, China. The video was produced as part of Martine De Maes...

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