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“Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept at crafts, but still more by adapting design to the requirements of mass production” - Bevis Hillier

Decorative arts, are unaware of the term – ART DECO; a retrospective term coined by the English art historian Bevis Hillier in 1968, which prior to this was called Style Moderne. The movement denotes a sharper, modernity reflected and defined through a variety of mediums – architecture, the decorative arts, graphics, jewelry, sculpture and fashion that existed from 1909 – 39. It was not a singular style but a culmination of a number of design ideas and influences that came together and reached its zenith in the interwar period. But how was it and is it defined? Most of us can probably identify an example of the style of the period. Architectural icons such as the Chrysler building in New York, The New India Assurance Building in Mumbai, The Metro Cinema Hall in Kolkata, the De la Warr pavilion in Britain and the quintessential “flapper” dresses and cloche hats popular in America and Europe are all excellent examples of Art Deco style. The roots of Art Deco however lie in the late nineteenth century movement of Art Nouveau, a decadent, stylized art form to which avant-garde groups of artists and designers reacted. The move towards cleaner, classical lines and less decorative craft designs was the preference. ”Art Deco is characterized by a linear, hard edge or angular composition, often with a vertical emphasis and highlighted with stylized decoration” (Blumenson 77). Style Moderne/Art Deco married luxury and function in a versatile design and its widespread applications proved its appeal was based on more than simple visual allure. Other art movements like Cubism, Expressionism and Fauvism influenced the style. The Russian Ballet, ancient Egypt and American Indian art were also some of the other influences. The pivotal moment for the style was the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, a high profile event, to present the evolution of design. In many ways from this exposition emerged, the decorative arts, are unaware of the term – ART DECO; a retrospective term coined by the English art historian Bevis Hillier in 1968, which prior to this was called Style Moderne. The movement denotes a sharper, modernity reflected and defined through a variety of mediums – architecture, the decorative arts, graphics, jewelry, sculpture and fashion that existed from 1909 – 39. It was not a singular style but a culmination of a number of design ideas and influences that came together and reached its zenith in the interwar period. But how was it and is it defined? Most of us can probably identify an example of the style of the period. Architectural icons such as the Chrysler building in New York, The New India Assurance Building in Mumbai, The Metro Cinema Hall in Kolkata, the De la Warr pavilion in Britain and the quintessential “flapper” dresses and cloche hats popular in America and Europe are all excellent examples of Art Deco style. The roots of Art Deco however lie in the late nineteenth century movement

of Art Nouveau, a decadent, stylized art form to which avant-garde groups of artists and designers reacted. The move towards cleaner, classical lines and less decorative craft designs was the preference. ”Art Deco is characterized by a linear, hard edge or angular composition, often with a vertical emphasis and highlighted with stylized decoration” (Blumenson 77). Style Moderne/Art Deco married luxury and function in a versatile design and its widespread applications proved its appeal was based on more than simple visual allure. Other art movements like Cubism, Expressionism and Fauvism influenced the style. The Russian Ballet, ancient Egypt and American Indian art were also some of the other influences. The pivotal moment for the style was the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, a high profile event, to present the evolution of design. In many ways from this exposition emerged, the decorative arts, are unaware of the term – ART DECO; a retrospective term coined by the English art historian Bevis Hillier in 1968, which prior to this was called Style Moderne. The movement denotes a sharper, modernity reflected and defined through a variety of mediums – architecture, the decorative arts, graphics, jewelry, sculpture and fashion that existed from 1909 – 39. It was not a singular style but a culmination of a number of design ideas and influences that came together and reached its zenith in the interwar period. But how was it and is it defined? Most of us can probably identify an example of the style of the period. Architectural icons such as the Chrysler building in New York, The New India Assurance Building in Mumbai, The Metro Cinema Hall in Kolkata, the De la Warr pavilion in Britain and the quintessential “flapper” dresses and cloche hats popular in America and Europe are all excellent examples of Art Deco style. The roots of Art Deco however lie in the late nineteenth century movement of Art Nouveau, a decadent, stylized art form to which avant-garde groups of artists and designers reacted. The move towards cleaner, classical lines and less decorative craft designs was the preference. ”Art Deco is characterized by a linear, hard edge or angular composition, often with a vertical emphasis and highlighted with stylized decoration” (Blumenson 77). Style Moderne/Art Deco married luxury and function in a versatile design and its widespread applications proved its appeal was based on more than simple visual allure. Other art movements like Cubism, Expressionism and Fauvism influenced the style. The Russian Ballet, ancient Egypt and American Indian art were also some of the other influences. The pivotal moment for the style was the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, a high profile event, to present the evolution of design. In many ways from this exposition emerged, the

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A rt D e c o

Whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture,

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got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. The whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical ill. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera

House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter

P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depresplete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines the were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stif the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. have a great rebuild in the economy.

got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-towear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new

Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depresplete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the pg hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre wThe Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illus The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929.

because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-towear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depresplete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the pg hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illus The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with the new rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929.

P r e fa c e

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whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building.

Furniture

Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Argete jsgsty masdkhg madgjs skjdhd elhdf akwuhd alkdh kdbh jbd awbd kahwd aw,mbd awmbde aw,ejbn qwkheb wkehd qkebdamd whdqns ckehq, kadh jqld khdbd kdhb qk qmdh adwan afmeb jfhb kwdhf imard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). 10


F u r n it u r e

A rt D e c o The whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the 11

stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes.

whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905).

The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). lding and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear.

Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style.

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United

States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. 12


A rt D e c o The whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the 13

stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest 1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .


A rt D e c o whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designens the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition 15

F u r n it u r e of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern fand marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. marketing their wfor business purterm did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. His style was curvilinear. His style was curvilinear. His style was curvilinear. His style was curvilinear. His style was curvilinear. His style was curvilinear.

To move their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building.

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern faccxj curvilinear. was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. have has has is theie 16


A rt D e c o Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decora Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe ris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highestdesign ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion desEurope recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decora Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decade has had a art deco coloring to the is

F u r n it u r e whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes.

Is a whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes.

Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building.

The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building.

Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (18671942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Decfhbnvjkd ect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest whole notion of a complete igners of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. Tthe new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the mods for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stans during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nrench architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nohsdjk sjadhwk jahflafhj ladwhl alwdhf kahdfyl lwfhli akwuf afhkd lafh kawfh kwhfaf khf ksfdh tations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Regfhtfjj fhdn jfd jgd ynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest.

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style.

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris.

“La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear, characteristic of Art Nouveau. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the Internation the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication ofillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). His style was curvilinear. 18


A rt D e c o The whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes. The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuilding after the war, it did have to rebuild its economy after the Great Depression of 1929. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructrbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurshshd ueu duhd idh isdhw ashdkjbfe ” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, inclu” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing. 19

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .


2

whole notion of a complete design ethos, not just for the elite as in previous generations but for most of the middle classes. Indeed as the epoch drew to its close at the outbreak of the Second World War, most people had access to Art Deco design whether it was in ready-to-wear fashion, rail or ocean travel or cinema design. Graphics and fine arts however were the two disciplines that not only seemed to encapsulate the Art Deco style but were also the medium for promoting its aesthetic. There is no finer expression of the language of Art Deco in fine art than the paintings of Tamara de Lempicka. Her work expressed many of the design qualities of the era, such as striking hard lines and bold color. She illustrates the new woman of the Art Deco era, independent, emancipated and confident. Worth, Patou and Poiret fashion designers of the time were instrumental in promoting the new look of the shorter length skirts and slim fitting clothes without the stiff corset or pre war bustier. The new freedom of travel by car, plane or ocean liner demanded clothes that would fit the modern lifestyle. The Russian artist and fashion designer Erte, whose delicate and fantastical illustrations for stage costumes and sets did much to promote the Art Deco look in fashion and recapture the intensity and passion of the Ballet Russes.

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

The story of Art Deco occurs against the backdrop of the Roaring Twenties in the U.S. and a scarred Europe recovering from World War One. While the U.S. wasn’t faced with rebuild. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creations at the International Exposition

of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art in Paris in 1925. The Decorative Artists Society inspired the name “Art Deco,” but the term did not become popular until the publication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). Among many examples, two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the two American buildings represent Art Deco—New York’s Chrysler Building and Radio City Music Hall. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen between 1928 and 1930. He initially

Textiles

worked for William Reynolds (cigarette tycoon), but his plan was later acquired by Walter P. Chrysler (automotive tycoon). For a short time, this 77-story skyscraper dominated the Manhattan skyline and enjoyed fame as the world’s highest building. Radio City Music Hall is a landmark in New York City’s theatre district. The site was leased by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was not ideal for his dream to construct a new Metropolitan Opera House because of the 1929 stock market collapse. In a partnership with Radio Corporation of America (RCA) and S.L. “Roxy” Rothafel, Rockefeller constructed the Radio City Music Hall. An unknown designer named Donald Deskey, specialist in carpets and furniture, got the job of decorating the new entertainment hall. His Jazz Age furniture theme is an extant example of Art Deco design. Other Art Deco style furniture adorns the lobbies of the boutique hotels of South Beach in Miami, Florida. This hotel district was refurbished in the 1980s and has become a hub of international culture. When you walk into a hotel in the Art Deco district, the interior design and the furnishings are true to Art Deco style. Art Deco is a form of Modernism that flourished in the United States and Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. The origins of Art Deco began two decades earlier in Paris. “La Societe des artistes decorateurs” or the Decorative Artists Society was founded following the Universal Exposition of 1900. Early members, including architect Hector Guimard, believed in the importance of France’s decorative arts and marketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creatiothe pketing their wfor business purposes. These artists also displayed their creatiothe p,jhgf kgytd thtdjh yrublication of “Art Deco of the 20’s and 30’s” by Bevis Hillier in 1968. A founder of the Decorative Artists Society, Hector Guimard (1867-1942) was a French architect famous for designing modern facades for the entrances to Paris Metro stations during the Art Nouveau movement (1890-1905). 22


A rt D e c o

To a great extent, Art Deco is epitomized by the works that were shown at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern and Industrial Decorative Arts), held in Paris in 1925. Indeed, the name of this vast exhibition would later be abbreviated to Art Deco, giving a catch-all label—perhaps somewhat imprecise—to the enormous range of decorative arts and architecture created between the first and second world wars. Disillusioned by the commercial failure of Art Nouveau and concerned by competitive advances in design and manufacturing made by Austria and Germany in the early years of the century, French designers recognized that they could rejuvenate a moribund industry (and an important sector of the French economy) by reestablishing their traditional role as international leaders in the luxury trades (a reputation that reached its apex in the eighteenth century). The founding in 1900 of the Société des Artistes Décorateurs (the Society of Artist-Decorators), a professional designers’ association, marked the first official encouragement of new standards for French design and production through their annual exhibitions of member work. In 1912, the French government voted to sponsor an international exhibition of decorative arts to promote French preeminence in the design field. The exhibition, originally scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925. The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris was a vast state-sponsored fair that dazzled more than 16 million visitors during its seven-month run. The works exhibited—everything from architecture and interior design to jewelry and perfumes—were principally intended to promote and proclaim French supremacy in the production of luxury goods. The primary requirement for inclusion (more than twenty countries were invited to participate) was that all works had to be thoroughly modern, no copying of historical styles of the past would be permitted. Nonetheless, much of what was exhibited was firmly rooted in the traditions of the past. The stylistic unity of exhibits indicates that Art Deco was already an internationally mature style by 1925—one that had flourished in the years following World War I and peaked at the time of the fair. The enormous commercial success of Art Deco ensured that designers and manufacturers throughout Europe continued to promote this style until well into the 1930s. During the 1920s, Joseph Breck, the Metropolitan’s curator of decorative arts, took a serious interest in European modern design. With the help of a fund established in 1922 by Edward C. Moore Jr. (son of the silversmith Edward C. Moore who also served as president of Tiffany & Company), Breck was able to acquire important works by notable French Art Deco designers such as Ruhlmann, Süe et Mare, Rateau, and Lalique. In 1923, he established the first Museum gallery for modern design, which he reinstalled frequently as new examples were added to the collection. Though Breck’s 23

Te x t i l e s

taste may be considered somewhat conservative by today’s standards, he nonetheless identified the works he acquired as representing the highest achievements of his own day, demonstrating their continuity with longstanding established traditions of design and craftsmanship. The 1925 Exposition has been considered a triumph of ornament in a variety of guises, and indeed this is one of the defining characteristics of Art Deco. Sometimes ornamentation was straightforwardly applied to the surface of an object, like a decorative skin; other times, potentially utilitarian designs—bowls, plates, vases, even furniture—were in and of themselves purely ornamental, not intended for practical use but rather conceived for their decorative value alone, exploiting the singular beauty of form or material. Painting and sculpture—again, conceived mainly as decoration rather than as serious works of fine art—were an important aspect of Art Deco, as well. Among the most popular and recurring motifs are the human figure, animals, flowers, and plants; abstract geometric decoration was also prevalent.

The invention of Cubism by the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in 1907–9 was particularly significant: with its arrival, old artistic conventions—realistic depictions of subjects— were turned on their head. Cubism, in its most basic definition, proposed the visual reduction of a subject to its most basic shapes and planes through geometric stylization. The resulting loss of naturalism allowed a “pure” representation expressing the essence of the subject, projecting a more objective and real vision of it than a mere depiction could. Many French designers borrowed the abstracted shapes of Cubism for their decorative effects.

Exoticism played an important role in the conception of Art Deco. Early on, in 1908, the Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev arrived in Paris with his dance troupe, the Ballets Russes. The company’s productions—characterized by their somewhat brilliantly colored, outré orientalist sets and costumes that brought to mind the richness of an Ali Baba cave—became instantly popular among fashionable Parisians, making an immediate impact on French taste. During the 1920s and 1930s, the French government encouraged designers to take advantage of resources—like raw materials and a skilled workforce—that could be imported from the nation’s colonies in Asia and Africa. The resulting growth of interest in the arts of colonial countries in Asia and Africa led French designers to explore new materials (sharkskin, ivory, and exotic woods), techniques (lacquering, ceramic glazes), and forms that evoke faraway places and cultures. This trend reached its culmination in the state-sponsored Exposition Coloniale, an enormous display of French colonial culture held on the outskirts of Paris in 1931.

A particularly strong relationship between fashion and decoration developed during the Art Deco era; each profession was aware of the benefits the other could provide. Couturiers asked artist-decorators to create suitably stylish showrooms and shops, while those same decorators recognized the benefit in bringing their work to the couturiers’ rich and fashionable clientele. In collaborating, both professions acknowledged that fashion involved more than clothing, and recognized the potential in addressing desires and aspirations through the branding of the domestic environment as an important component of a stylish life. Some individuals—like Paul Poiret—straddled both professions, and came to be seen as important tastemakers in general.

Further, during the Art Deco period there was a fairly wide acceptance by the consumer public of many of the ideas put forth by avant-garde painters and sculptors, especially as they were adapted by designers and applied to fashionable luxury objects that encapsulated the sophisticated tastes of the times. Fauvism, Cubism, and Orphism were among the many fine-arts movements that played an important role in the development of the style. .Fauvism (exemplified in the paintings of Henri Matisse and André Derain) was one of the first major avant-garde developments in twentieth-century European art, in which artists explored the emotional and decorative effects of color and pattern, usually combined with distortion or simplification of form. The movement lasted only from 1905 to 1907, although its impact lingered—especially in the decorative arts—into the 1920s.

as though the designers and their clients were trying to escape the increasingly dismal reality of daily life. In 1937, the French government sponsored the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (International Exhibition of Arts and Techniques in Modern Life). Less ambitious than the 1925 exhibition, the fair also did not promote the French luxury trades, but rather place in the modern world as reflected through her achievements in science and technology, unconsciously marking the end of the Art Deco era. The years following World War II were characterized by enormous change on every level. The war ended, leaving a new generation of veterans with young families struggling to rebuild their lives. The pressing need for affordable housing and the furnishings for it led to a boom in design and production. A new optimism—filled with the promise of the future—prevailed. The elaborate households of the prewar years were gone, replaced by informality and adaptability. Gone, too, was the conventional approach to furnishings as expensive and permanent status objects. New materials and technologies, many of which had been developed during wartime, helped to free design from tradition, allowing for increasingly abstract and sculptural aesthetics as well as lower prices for mass-produced objects.Many different jewelry designs have shaped the way that people live. One of the most notable has been the creation of Art Deco jewelry. You’ll find a wide variety of art deco pieces available for sale online, including rings, earrings, necklaces and watches. The Art Deco Movement.

Orphism, a development of Cubism that can be considered the first truly nonrepresentational art movement in France, promoted the attempt to convey meaning—lyrically intangible concepts— through compositions of abstract form and color. The term was invented in 1912 by the poet Apollinaire to differentiate works by artists such as Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, and Francis Picabia from that of the Cubists.

The 1930s saw radical changes in design. The Art Deco style, which had reached its apogee at the 1925 Exposition, gradually waned; its decorative flourishes and emphasis on rich and exotic materials seemed increasingly irrelevant, particularly in light of the exigencies of the Great Depression. At the same time, the geometric forms and plain undecorated surfaces concurrently favored by the International Style modernists (such as Le Corbusier or designers of the German Bauhaus) proved too demanding for most people. It was with relief that high-end consumers sought refuge in the familiar language of classicism in the years before World War II. The so-called Return to Order (from Jean Cocteau’s 1926 book Le rappel à l’ordre) was characterized by its reliance, albeit simplified, on historical precedent. Unlike early French Art Deco designers, who mined ancien-régime taste for its sophistication, refinement, and charm, their counterparts of a quarter-century later looked instead to the icy monumentality of the French past, creating designs that projected through their stately opulence a sense of unassailable security and authoritative confidence in a period that was characterized by growing economic and social crisis. A quality of almost desperate theatricality pervaded the era,

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

Art Deco reached every corner of the globe during its heyday and still manages to be popular even in modern times. It had a simple beginning for such a dramatic movement. It began when people were entrenched in the troubles of World War 1. After the First World War, people were ready for a change in style. The economic downturn and pressures of social life ushered in a new mood for a precise and orderly look. Art Deco was a style popular in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art Deco was coined after an exposition of modern and industrial art that was held in Paris in 1925. It’s modern and streamlined design added tasteful elegance to the time period at hand. Art Deco went hand in hand with jazz music, the age of machinery, and the newfound Flapper movement. The hottest designers of the time included Coco Chanel and Elsa Schiaparelli. Their influences ranged from all over the world, including Africa, Egypt, and the Orient. They also leaned on the art styling of futurism and cubism. But the real influence on Art Deco jewelry from the 1920-1930’s period was geometry and the precise use of circles, rectangles, triangles, and squares. Another notable designer from this period was Rene Lalique, who used glass jewelry to create romanticized designs from nature. Another iconic designer of the time was Jean Dunand from Switzerland. He used a variety of non-western styles and the majority of his pieces employed pieces of silver lacquered with black and red. Dunand’s earrings, bracelets, and brooches used very strong

geometric shapes with very strong motifs such as zigzagging and superimposed lines. Designer Raymond Templier was from a long line of Paris jewelers. He used bold designs with bright. The term ‘Art Deco’ was coined in 1926, following a retrospective exhibition entitledLes Années ‘25, held at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris. This commemorated the 1925 Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes. Originally planned for 1915, but postponed on account of World War I (1914–18), the 1925 Exposition was distinctive from previous exhibitions for two reasons. For the first time, the decorative and applied arts held centre stage. The criteria for inclusion in the Exposition emphasised the modern, to the extent that well-established decorative artists might be excluded because they were seen as representative of a previous generation. The architecture and decorative arts shown at the 1925 Exposition embodied a whole range of unconnected styles and sources, including a modern interpretation of the 18th-century style of Louis XVI (reigned 1643–1715), seen as the golden era of the French decorative arts, and references to the avant-garde art movements of the time, such as Cubism and the Bauhaus. Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes and exotic and ancient cultures such as ancient Egyptian (following the discovery of the Pyramid tombs) and Mayan civilisations, and the art of Japan and Africa, also had an impact on the style. Unlike Modernist art movements, with their social philosophies and manifestos, Art Deco was purely decorative. A modern style, responding to the machine and to new materials such as plastic, Art Deco in its 1925 context was also sumptuous, a luxury style, characterised by individually produced luxury goods for wealthy connoisseurs. The 1925 Exposition had a major influence on the decorative arts in America. Although the United States was not represented, many Americans visited the exhibition. In 1926 the Metropolitan Museum of Art held a retrospective exhibition to which original contributors were asked to send material. The American contribution to Art Deco is known and is characterised by clean lines and strong curves. It was applied to the design of cars, architecture and furniture. It was also applied to new mass-produced goods such as refrigerators and radios. In their attempt to reach new consumers from around 1930, manufacturers took iconic elements of the Art Deco styles and simplified them for mass production. Married to modern machine age materials such as bakelite and chrome, this style heralded an era of ‘modern’ design for mass consumption of affordable consumer goods. The best sources for finding out what was considered new or representative of a particular time are the International or Colonial exhibitions, which were conceived as international trade showcases, and, following the 1851 Great Exhibition, were held at increasingly frequent intervals. The best way to access the catalogues of these is to search under the Author Keyword for the main words of the exhibition name. Sources include official cat

some Art Deco buildings notable mostly for their ornament; more repackaging than innovation. That said, by the mid-1920s a combination of prosperity, optimism, exotic materials and fine craftsmanship produced some spectacular and exciting architecture. For big business, Art Deco was ideal for expressing corporate wealth and dominance. Banks used the style to convey security. Hollywood used it to define the good life. But soon, the good life proffered by Hollywood would be just that; the stuff of dreams. When the stock market crash brought down the curtain in 1929, it took the first phase of the Art Deco era with it. In Manhattan, the Empire State Building was completed in 1931 and for some time after there was little construction of any kind, with the sole exception of Rockefeller Center. For better or worse, in those days it took time for Wall Street’s problems to fully affect other parts of the world. So, in far away places like Australia, Art Deco buildings were built into the 1940s. But in the birthplace of the skyscraper, the party was over. One consequence of the Depression was the emergence of a more austere architectural style, referred to on this site as Streamline Moderne. Why not just say Art Deco? Because nearly everything about the Streamline Moderne was different and sometimes even a reaction to Art Deco. If Art Deco skyscrapers could be thought of as “vertical”, Streamline Moderne buildings typically embraced horizontal massing. The ornament in a streamlined building, if any, was typically modest and cost-effective, whereas with Art Deco, the sky was the limit. While Art Deco buildings dazzled with intricate details and sharp angles, streamlining featured clean surfaces and curves. In a few places, the two styles were combined but in the simplest terms, Art Deco was born before the financial collapse and Streamline Moderne, after. None of this is to say that the Streamline Moderne couldn’t produce delightful results, and with its graceful curves, streamlining translated beautifully into thousands of objects that are still treasured. I should point out that the Art Deco houses on this site are, with few exceptions really Streamline Moderne. Although true Art Deco houses exist, they are so few in number that any collection of Art Deco homes really has to include streamlined examples. There is no way to measure, but it seems that Art Deco and Streamline Moderne buildings are more popular today then they were in their own time. Of the two, the Streamline Moderne had a much longer run. It survived the war and went on to be used for a new generation of schools, factories, grocery stores and gas stations. In an earlier version of this essay I remarked that I often wonder how things might look today often wonder how things might look today often wonder how things might look today often wonder how things might look today, had there been no Depression or a second World War. But this sort of guessing is a fool’s errand especially when so much from the period remains, to be seen, preserved and enjoyed.

24


Te x t i l e s

To a great extent, Art Deco is epitomized by the works that were shown at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern and Industrial Decorative Arts), held in Paris in 1925. Indeed, the name of this vast exhibition would later be abbreviated to Art Deco, giving a catch-all label—perhaps somewhat imprecise—to the enormous range of decorative arts and architecture created between the first and second world wars. Disillusioned by the commercial failure of Art Nouveau and concerned by competitive advances in design and manufacturing made by Austria and Germany in the early years of the century, French designers recognized that they could rejuvenate a moribund industry (and an important sector of the French economy) by reestablishing their traditional role as international leaders in the luxury trades (a reputation that reached its apex in the eighteenth century). The founding in 1900 of the Société des Artistes Décorateurs (the Society of Artist-Decorators), a professional designers’ association, marked the first official encouragement of new standards for French design and production through their annual exhibitions of member work. In 1912, the French government voted to sponsor an international exhibition of decorative arts to promote French preeminence in the design field. The exhibition, originally scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925.

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris was a vast state-sponsored fair that dazzled more than 16 million visitors during its seven-month run. The works exhibited—everything from architecture and interior design to jewelry and perfumes—were principally intended to promote and proclaim French supremacy in the production of luxury goods. The primary requirement for inclusion (more than twenty countries were invited to participate) was that all works had to be thoroughly modern, no copying of historical styles of the past would be permitted. Nonetheless, much of what was exhibited was firmly rooted in the traditions of the past. The stylistic unity of exhibits indicates that Art Deco was already an internationally mature style by 1925—one that had flourished in the years following World War I and peaked at the time of the fair. The enormous commercial success of Art Deco ensured that designers and manufacturers throughout Europe continued to promote this style until well into the 1930s. During the 1920s, Joseph Breck, the Metropolitan’s curator of decorative arts, took a serious interest in European modern design. With the help of a fund established in 1922 by Edward C. Moore Jr. (son of the silversmith Edward C. Moore who also served as president of Tiffany & Company), Breck was able to acquire important works by notable French Art Deco designers such as Ruhlmann, Süe et Mare, Rateau, and Lalique. In 1923, he established the first Museum gallery for modern design, which he reinstalled frequently as new examples were added to the collection. Though

Breck’s taste may be considered somewhat conservative by today’s standards, he nonetheless identified the works he acquired as representing the highest achievements of his own day, demonstrating their continuity with longstanding established traditions of design and craftsmanship. The 1925 Exposition has been considered a triumph of ornament in a variety of guises, and indeed this is one of the defining characteristics of Art Deco. Sometimes ornamentation was straightforwardly applied to the surface of an object, like a decorative skin; other times, potentially utilitarian designs—bowls, plates, vases, even furniture—were in and of themselves purely ornamental, not intended for practical use but rather conceived for their decorative value alone, exploiting the singular beauty of form or material. Painting and sculpture— again, conceived mainly as decoration rather than as serious works of fine art—were an important aspect of Art Deco, as well. Among the most popular and recurring motifs are the human figure, animals, flowers, and plants; abstract geometric decoration was also prevalent.

The invention of Cubism by the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in 1907–9 was particularly significant: with its arrival, old artistic conventions—realistic depictions of subjects— were turned on their head. Cubism, in its most basic definition, proposed the visual reduction of a subject to its most basic shapes and planes through geometric stylization. The resulting loss of naturalism allowed a “pure” representation expressing the essence of the subject, projecting a more objective and real vision of it than a mere depiction could. Many French designers borrowed the abstracted shapes of Cubism for their decorative effects.

Exoticism played an important role in the conception of Art Deco. Early on, in 1908, the Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev arrived in Paris with his dance troupe, the Ballets Russes. The company’s productions—characterized by their somewhat brilliantly colored, outré orientalist sets and costumes that brought to mind the richness of an Ali Baba cave—became instantly popular among fashionable Parisians, making an immediate impact on French taste. During the 1920s and 1930s, the French government encouraged designers to take advantage of resources—like raw materials and a skilled workforce—that could be imported from the nation’s colonies in Asia and Africa. The resulting growth of interest in the arts of colonial countries in Asia and Africa led French designers to explore new materials (sharkskin, ivory, and exotic woods), techniques (lacquering, ceramic glazes), and forms that evoke faraway places and cultures. This trend reached its culmination in the state-sponsored Exposition Coloniale, an enormous display of French colonial culture held on the outskirts of Paris in 1931.

A particularly strong relationship between fashion and decoration developed during the Art Deco era; each profession was aware of the benefits the other could provide. Couturiers asked artist-decorators to create suitably stylish showrooms and shops, while those same decorators recognized the benefit in bringing their work to the couturiers’ rich and fashionable clientele. In collaborating, both professions acknowledged that fashion involved more than clothing, and recognized the potential in addressing desires and aspirations through the branding of the domestic environment as an important component of a stylish life. Some individuals—like Paul Poiret—straddled both professions, and came to be seen as important tastemakers in general.

Further, during the Art Deco period there was a fairly wide acceptance by the consumer public of many of the ideas put forth by avant-garde painters and sculptors, especially as they were adapted by designers and applied to fashionable luxury objects that encapsulated the sophisticated tastes of the times. Fauvism, Cubism, and Orphism were among the many fine-arts movements that played an important role in the development of the style. .Fauvism (exemplified in the paintings of Henri Matisse and André Derain) was one of the first major avant-garde developments in twentieth-century European art, in which artists explored the emotional and decorative effects of color and pattern, usually combined with distortion or simplification of form. The movement lasted only from 1905 to 1907, although its impact lingered—especially in the decorative arts—into the 1920s.

Orphism, a development of Cubism that can be considered the first truly nonrepresentational art movement in France, promoted the attempt to convey meaning—lyrically intangible concepts— through compositions of abstract form and color. The term was invented in 1912 by the poet Apollinaire to differentiate works by artists such as Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, and Francis Picabia from that of the Cubists.

The 1930s saw radical changes in design. The Art Deco style, which had reached its apogee at the 1925 Exposition, gradually waned; its decorative flourishes and emphasis on rich and exotic materials seemed increasingly irrelevant, particularly in light of the exigencies of the Great Depression. At the same time, the geometric forms and plain undecorated surfaces concurrently favored by the International Style modernists (such as Le Corbusier or designers of the German Bauhaus) proved too demanding for most people. It was with relief that high-end consumers sought refuge in the familiar language of classicism in the years before World War II. The so-called Return to Order (from Jean Cocteau’s 1926 book Le rappel à l’ordre) was characterized by its reliance, albeit simplified, on historical precedent. Unlike early French Art Deco designers, who mined ancien-régime taste for its sophistication, refinement, and charm, their counterparts of a quarter-century later looked instead to the icy monumentality of the French past, creating designs that projected through their stately opulence a sense of unassailable security and authoritative confidence in a period that was characterized by growing economic and social crisis. A quality of almost desperate theatricality pervaded the era, 26


A rt D e c o

To a great extent, Art Deco is epitomized by the works that were shown at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern and Industrial Decorative Arts), held in Paris in 1925. Indeed, the name of this vast exhibition would later be abbreviated to Art Deco, giving a catch-all label—perhaps somewhat imprecise—to the enormous range of decorative arts and architecture created between the first and second world wars. Disillusioned by the commercial failure of Art Nouveau and concerned by competitive advances in design and manufacturing made by Austria and Germany in the early years of the century, French designers recognized that they could rejuvenate a moribund industry (and an important sector of the French economy) by reestablishing their traditional role as international leaders in the luxury trades (a reputation that reached its apex in the eighteenth century). The founding in 1900 of the Société des Artistes Décorateurs (the Society of Artist-Decorators), a professional designers’ association, marked the first official encouragement of new standards for French design and production through their annual exhibitions of member work. In 1912, the French government voted to sponsor an international exhibition of decorative arts to promote French preeminence in the design field. The exhibition, originally scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925. The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris was a vast state-sponsored fair that dazzled more than 16 million visitors during its seven-month run. The works exhibited—everything from architecture and interior design to jewelry and perfumes—were principally intended to promote and proclaim French supremacy in the production of luxury goods. The primary requirement for inclusion (more than twenty countries were invited to participate) was that all works had to be thoroughly modern, no copying of historical styles of the past would be permitted. Nonetheless, much of what was exhibited was firmly rooted in the traditions of the past. The stylistic unity of exhibits indicates that Art Deco was already an internationally mature style by 1925—one that had flourished in the years following World War I and peaked at the time of the fair. The enormous commercial success of Art Deco ensured that designers and manufacturers throughout Europe continued to promote this style until well into the 1930s. During the 1920s, Joseph Breck, the Metropolitan’s curator of decorative arts, took a serious interest in European modern design. With the help of a fund established in 1922 by Edward C. Moore Jr. (son of the silversmith Edward C. Moore who also served as president of Tiffany & Company), Breck was able to acquire important works by notable French Art Deco designers such as Ruhlmann, Süe et Mare, Rateau, and Lalique. In 1923, he established the first Museum gallery for modern design, which he reinstalled frequently as new examples were added to the collection. Though Breck’s 27

Te x t i l e s

To a great extent, Art Deco is epitomized by the works that were shown at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern and Industrial Decorative Arts), held in Paris in 1925. Indeed, the name of this vast exhibition would later be abbreviated to Art Deco, giving a catch-all label—perhaps somewhat imprecise—to the enormous range of decorative arts and architecture created between the first and second world wars.

taste may be considered somewhat conservative by today’s standards, he nonetheless identified the works he acquired as representing the highest achievements of his own day, demonstrating their continuity with longstanding established traditions of design and craftsmanship. The 1925 Exposition has been considered a triumph of ornament in a variety of guises, and indeed this is one of the defining characteristics of Art Deco. Sometimes ornamentation was straightforwardly applied to the surface of an object, like a decorative skin; other times, potentially utilitarian designs—bowls, plates, vases, even furniture—were in and of themselves purely ornamental, not intended for practical use but rather conceived for their decorative value alone, exploiting the singular beauty of form or material. Painting and sculpture—again, conceived mainly as decoration rather than as serious works of fine art—were an important aspect of Art Deco, as well. Among the most popular and recurring motifs are the human figure, animals, flowers, and plants; abstract geometric decoration was also prevalent.

Disillusioned by the commercial failure of Art Nouveau and concerned by competitive advances in design and manufacturing made by Austria and Germany in the early years of the century, French designers recognized that they could rejuvenate a moribund industry (and an important sector of the French economy) by reestablishing their traditional role as international leaders in the luxury trades (a reputation that reached its apex in the eighteenth century). The founding in 1900 of the Société des Artistes Décorateurs (the Society of Artist-Decorators), a professional designers’ association, marked the first official encouragement of new standards for French design and production through their annual exhibitions of member work. In 1912, the French government voted to sponsor an international exhibition of decorative arts to promote French preeminence in the design field. The exhibition, originally scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925.

Exoticism played an important role in the conception of Art Deco. Early on, in 1908, the Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev arrived in Paris with his dance troupe, the Ballets Russes. The company’s productions—characterized by their somewhat brilliantly colored, outré orientalist sets and costumes that brought to mind the richness of an Ali Baba cave—became instantly popular among fashionable Parisians, making an immediate impact on French taste. During the 1920s and 1930s, the French government encouraged designers to take advantage of resources—like raw materials and a skilled workforce—that could be imported from the nation’s colonies in Asia and Africa. The resulting growth of interest in the arts of colonial countries in Asia and Africa led French designers to explore new materials (sharkskin, ivory, and exotic woods), techniques (lacquering, ceramic glazes), and forms that evoke faraway places and cultures. This trend reached its culmination in the state-sponsored Exposition Coloniale, an enormous display of French colonial culture held on the outskirts of Paris in 1931. Further, during the Art Deco period there was a fairly wide acceptance by the consumer public of many of the ideas put forth by avant-garde painters and sculptors, especially as they were adapted by designers and applied to fashionable luxury objects that encapsulated the sophisticated tastes of the times. Fauvism, Cubism, and Orphism were among the many fine-arts movements that played an important role in the development of the style. .Fauvism (exemplified in the paintings of Henri Matisse and André Derain) was one of the first major avant-garde developments in twentieth-century European art, in which artists explored the emotional and decorative effects of color and pattern, usually combined with distortion or simplification of form. The movement lasted only from 1905 to 1907, although its impact lingered—especially in the decorative arts—into the 1920s.

Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris was a vast state-sponsored fair that dazzled more than 16 million visitors during its seven-month run. The works exhibited—everything from architecture and interior design to jewelry and perfumes—were principally intended to promote and proclaim French supremacy in the production of luxury goods. The primary requirement for inclusion (more than twenty countries were invited to participate) was that all works had to be thoroughly modern, no copying of historical styles of the past would be permitted. Nonetheless, much of what was exhibited was firmly rooted in the traditions of the past. The stylistic unity of exhibits indicates that Art Deco was already an internationally mature style by 1925—one that had flourished in the years following World War I and peaked at the time of the fair. The enormous commercial success of Art Deco ensured that designers and manufacturers throughout Europe continued to promote this style until well into the 1930s. During the 1920s, Joseph Breck, the Metropolitan’s curator of decorative arts, took a serious interest in European modern design. With the help of a fund established in 1922 by Edward C. Moore Jr. (son of the silversmith Edward C. Moore who also served as president of Tiffany & Company), Breck was able to acquire important works by notable French Art Deco designers such as Ruhlmann, Süe et Mare, Rateau, and Lalique. In 1923, he established the first Museum gallery for modern design, which he reinstalled frequently as new examples were added to the collection. Though

Breck’s taste may be considered somewhat conservative by today’s standards, he nonetheless identified the works he acquired as representing the highest achievements of his own day, demonstrating their continuity with longstanding established traditions of design and craftsmanship. The 1925 Exposition has been considered a triumph of ornament in a variety of guises, and indeed this is one of the defining characteristics of Art Deco. Sometimes ornamentation was straightforwardly applied to the surface of an object, like a decorative skin; other times, potentially utilitarian designs—bowls, plates, vases, even furniture—were in and of themselves purely ornamental, not intended for practical use but rather conceived for their decorative value alone, exploiting the singular beauty of form or material. Painting and sculpture— again, conceived mainly as decoration rather than as serious works of fine art—were an important aspect of Art Deco, as well. Among the most popular and recurring motifs are the human figure, animals, flowers, and plants; abstract geometric decoration was also prevalent.

The invention of Cubism by the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in 1907–9 was particularly significant: with its arrival, old artistic conventions—realistic depictions of subjects— were turned on their head. Cubism, in its most basic definition, proposed the visual reduction of a subject to its most basic shapes and planes through geometric stylization. The resulting loss of naturalism allowed a “pure” representation expressing the essence of the subject, projecting a more objective and real vision of it than a mere depiction could. Many French designers borrowed the abstracted shapes of Cubism for their decorative effects.

Exoticism played an important role in the conception of Art Deco. Early on, in 1908, the Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev arrived in Paris with his dance troupe, the Ballets Russes. The company’s productions—characterized by their somewhat brilliantly colored, outré orientalist sets and costumes that brought to mind the richness of an Ali Baba cave—became instantly popular among fashionable Parisians, making an immediate impact on French taste. During the 1920s and 1930s, the French government encouraged designers to take advantage of resources—like raw materials and a skilled workforce—that could be imported from the nation’s colonies in Asia and Africa. The resulting growth of interest in the arts of colonial countries in Asia and Africa led French designers to explore new materials (sharkskin, ivory, and exotic woods), techniques (lacquering, ceramic glazes), and forms that evoke faraway places and cultures. This trend reached its culmination in the state-sponsored Exposition Coloniale, an enormous display of French colonial culture held on the outskirts of Paris in 1931.

A particularly strong relationship between fashion and decoration developed during the Art Deco era; each profession was aware of the benefits the other could provide. Couturiers asked artist-decorators to create suitably stylish showrooms and shops, while those same decorators recognized the benefit in bringing their work to the couturiers’ rich and fashionable clientele. In collaborating, both professions acknowledged that fashion involved more than clothing, and recognized the potential in addressing desires and aspirations through the branding of the domestic environment as an important component of a stylish life. Some individuals—like Paul Poiret—straddled both professions, and came to be seen as important tastemakers in general.

Further, during the Art Deco period there was a fairly wide acceptance by the consumer public of many of the ideas put forth by avant-garde painters and sculptors, especially as they were adapted by designers and applied to fashionable luxury objects that encapsulated the sophisticated tastes of the times. Fauvism, Cubism, and Orphism were among the many fine-arts movements that played an important role in the development of the style. .Fauvism (exemplified in the paintings of Henri Matisse and André Derain) was one of the first major avant-garde developments in twentieth-century European art, in which artists explored the emotional and decorative effects of color and pattern, usually combined with distortion or simplification of form. The movement lasted only from 1905 to 1907, although its impact lingered—especially in the decorative arts—into the 1920s.

Orphism, a development of Cubism that can be considered the first truly nonrepresentational art movement in France, promoted the attempt to convey meaning—lyrically intangible concepts— through compositions of abstract form and color. The term was invented in 1912 by the poet Apollinaire to differentiate works by artists such as Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, and Francis Picabia from that of the Cubists.

The 1930s saw radical changes in design. The Art Deco style, which had reached its apogee at the 1925 Exposition, gradually waned; its decorative flourishes and emphasis on rich and exotic materials seemed increasingly irrelevant, particularly in light of the exigencies of the Great Depression. At the same time, the geometric forms and plain undecorated surfaces concurrently favored by the International Style modernists (such as Le Corbusier or designers of the German Bauhaus) proved too demanding for most people. It was with relief that high-end consumers sought refuge in the familiar language of classicism in the years before World War II. The so-called Return to Order (from Jean Cocteau’s 1926 book Le rappel à l’ordre) was characterized by its reliance, albeit simplified, on historical precedent. Unlike early French Art Deco designers, who mined ancien-régime taste for its sophistication, refinement, and charm, their counterparts of a quarter-century later looked instead to the icy monumentality of the French past, creating designs that projected through their stately opulence a sense of unassailable security and authoritative confidence in a period that was characterized by growing economic and social crisis. A quality of almost desperate theatricality pervaded the era, 28


Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .


A rt D e c o

To a great extent, Art Deco is epitomized by the works that were shown at the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern and Industrial Decorative Arts), held in Paris in 1925. Indeed, the name of this vast exhibition would later be abbreviated to Art Deco, giving a catch-all label—perhaps somewhat imprecise—to the enormous range of decorative arts and architecture created between the first and second world wars. Disillusioned by the commercial failure of Art Nouveau and concerned by competitive advances in design and manufacturing made by Austria and Germany in the early years of the century, French designers recognized that they could rejuvenate a moribund industry (and an important sector of the French economy) by reestablishing their traditional role as international leaders in the luxury trades (a reputation that reached its apex in the eighteenth century). The founding in 1900 of the Société des Artistes Décorateurs (the Society of Artist-Decorators), a professional designers’ association, marked the first official encouragement of new standards for French design and production through their annual exhibitions of member work. In 1912, the French government voted to sponsor an international exhibition of decorative arts to promote French preeminence in the design field. The exhibition, originally scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925. The Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris was a vast state-sponsored fair that dazzled more than 16 million visitors during its seven-month run. The works exhibited—everything from architecture and interior design to jewelry and perfumes—were principally intended to promote and proclaim French supremacy in the production of luxury goods. The primary requirement for inclusion (more than twenty countries were invited to participate) was that all works had to be thoroughly modern, no copying of historical styles of the past would be permitted. Nonetheless, much of what was exhibited was firmly rooted in the traditions of the past. The stylistic unity of exhibits indicates that Art Deco was already an internationally mature style by 1925—one that had flourished in the years following World War I and peaked at the time of the fair. The enormous commercial success of Art Deco ensured that designers and manufacturers throughout Europe continued to promote this style until well into the 1930s. During the 1920s, Joseph Breck, the Metropolitan’s curator of decorative arts, took a serious interest in European modern design. With the help of a fund established in 1922 by Edward C. Moore Jr. (son of the silversmith Edward C. Moore who also served as president of Tiffany & Company), Breck was able to acquire important works by notable French Art Deco designers such as Ruhlmann, Süe et Mare, Rateau, and Lalique. In 1923, he established the first Museum gallery for modern design, which he reinstalled frequently as new examples were added to the collection. Though Breck’s 29

Te x t i l e s

taste may be considered somewhat conservative by today’s standards, he nonetheless identified the works he acquired as representing the highest achievements of his own day, demonstrating their continuity with longstanding established traditions of design and craftsmanship. The 1925 Exposition has been considered a triumph of ornament in a variety of guises, and indeed this is one of the defining characteristics of Art Deco. Sometimes ornamentation was straightforwardly applied to the surface of an object, like a decorative skin; other times, potentially utilitarian designs—bowls, plates, vases, even furniture—were in and of themselves purely ornamental, not intended for practical use but rather conceived for their decorative value alone, exploiting the singular beauty of form or material. Painting and sculpture—again, conceived mainly as decoration rather than as serious works of fine art—were an important aspect of Art Deco, as well. Among the most popular and recurring motifs are the human figure, animals, flowers, and plants; abstract geometric decoration was also prevalent.

The invention of Cubism by the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque in 1907–9 was particularly significant: with its arrival, old artistic conventions—realistic depictions of subjects— were turned on their head. Cubism, in its most basic definition, proposed the visual reduction of a subject to its most basic shapes and planes through geometric stylization. The resulting loss of naturalism allowed a “pure” representation expressing the essence of the subject, projecting a more objective and real vision of it than a mere depiction could. Many French designers borrowed the abstracted shapes of Cubism for their decorative effects.

Exoticism played an important role in the conception of Art Deco. Early on, in 1908, the Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev arrived in Paris with his dance troupe, the Ballets Russes. The company’s productions—characterized by their somewhat brilliantly colored, outré orientalist sets and costumes that brought to mind the richness of an Ali Baba cave—became instantly popular among fashionable Parisians, making an immediate impact on French taste. During the 1920s and 1930s, the French government encouraged designers to take advantage of resources—like raw materials and a skilled workforce—that could be imported from the nation’s colonies in Asia and Africa. The resulting growth of interest in the arts of colonial countries in Asia and Africa led French designers to explore new materials (sharkskin, ivory, and exotic woods), techniques (lacquering, ceramic glazes), and forms that evoke faraway places and cultures. This trend reached its culmination in the state-sponsored Exposition Coloniale, an enormous display of French colonial culture held on the outskirts of Paris in 1931.

A particularly strong relationship between fashion and decoration developed during the Art Deco era; each profession was aware of the benefits the other could provide. Couturiers asked artist-decorators to create suitably stylish showrooms and shops, while those same decorators recognized the benefit in bringing their work to the couturiers’ rich and fashionable clientele. In collaborating, both professions acknowledged that fashion involved more than clothing, and recognized the potential in addressing desires and aspirations through the branding of the domestic environment as an important component of a stylish life. Some individuals—like Paul Poiret—straddled both professions, and came to be seen as important tastemakers in general.

Further, during the Art Deco period there was a fairly wide acceptance by the consumer public of many of the ideas put forth by avant-garde painters and sculptors, especially as they were adapted by designers and applied to fashionable luxury objects that encapsulated the sophisticated tastes of the times. Fauvism, Cubism, and Orphism were among the many fine-arts movements that played an important role in the development of the style. .Fauvism (exemplified in the paintings of Henri Matisse and André Derain) was one of the first major avant-garde developments in twentieth-century European art, in which artists explored the emotional and decorative effects of color and pattern, usually combined with distortion or simplification of form. The movement lasted only from 1905 to 1907, although its impact lingered—especially in the decorative arts—into the 1920s.

as though the designers and their clients were trying to escape the increasingly dismal reality of daily life. In 1937, the French government sponsored the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (International Exhibition of Arts and Techniques in Modern Life). Less ambitious than the 1925 exhibition, the fair also did not promote the French luxury trades, but rather place in the modern world as reflected through her achievements in science and technology, unconsciously marking the end of the Art Deco era. The years following World War II were characterized by enormous change on every level. The war ended, leaving a new generation of veterans with young families struggling to rebuild their lives. The pressing need for affordable housing and the furnishings for it led to a boom in design and production. A new optimism—filled with the promise of the future—prevailed. The elaborate households of the prewar years were gone, replaced by informality and adaptability. Gone, too, was the conventional approach to furnishings as expensive and permanent status objects. New materials and technologies, many of which had been developed during wartime, helped to free design from tradition, allowing for increasingly abstract and sculptural aesthetics as well as lower prices for mass-produced objects.Many different jewelry designs have shaped the way that people live. One of the most notable has been the creation of Art Deco jewelry. You’ll find a wide variety of art deco pieces available for sale online, including rings, earrings, necklaces and watches. The Art Deco Movement.

Orphism, a development of Cubism that can be considered the first truly nonrepresentational art movement in France, promoted the attempt to convey meaning—lyrically intangible concepts— through compositions of abstract form and color. The term was invented in 1912 by the poet Apollinaire to differentiate works by artists such as Robert and Sonia Delaunay, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Léger, and Francis Picabia from that of the Cubists.

The 1930s saw radical changes in design. The Art Deco style, which had reached its apogee at the 1925 Exposition, gradually waned; its decorative flourishes and emphasis on rich and exotic materials seemed increasingly irrelevant, particularly in light of the exigencies of the Great Depression. At the same time, the geometric forms and plain undecorated surfaces concurrently favored by the International Style modernists (such as Le Corbusier or designers of the German Bauhaus) proved too demanding for most people. It was with relief that high-end consumers sought refuge in the familiar language of classicism in the years before World War II. The so-called Return to Order (from Jean Cocteau’s 1926 book Le rappel à l’ordre) was characterized by its reliance, albeit simplified, on historical precedent. Unlike early French Art Deco designers, who mined ancien-régime taste for its sophistication, refinement, and charm, their counterparts of a quarter-century later looked instead to the icy monumentality of the French past, creating designs that projected through their stately opulence a sense of unassailable security and authoritative confidence in a period that was characterized by growing economic and social crisis. A quality of almost desperate theatricality pervaded the era,

A. Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept . B. Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept . C. Art Deco’s ultimate aim was to end the old conflict between art and industry, the old snobbish distinction between artist and artisan, partly by making artists adept .

Art Deco reached every corner of the globe during its heyday and still manages to be popular even in modern times. It had a simple beginning for such a dramatic movement. It began when people were entrenched in the troubles of World War 1. After the First World War, people were ready for a change in style. The economic downturn and pressures of social life ushered in a new mood for a precise and orderly look. Art Deco was a style popular in the 1920s and 1930s. The term Art Deco was coined after an exposition of modern and industrial art that was held in Paris in 1925. It’s modern and streamlined design added tasteful elegance to the time period at hand. Art Deco went hand in hand with jazz music, the age of machinery, and the newfound Flapper movement. The hottest designers of the time included Coco Chanel and Elsa Schiaparelli. Their influences ranged from all over the world, including Africa, Egypt, and the Orient. They also leaned on the art styling of futurism and cubism. But the real influence on Art Deco jewelry from the 1920-1930’s period was geometry and the precise use of circles, rectangles, triangles, and squares. Another notable designer from this period was Rene Lalique, who used glass jewelry to create romanticized designs from nature. Another iconic designer of the time was Jean Dunand from Switzerland. He used a variety of non-western styles and the majority of his pieces employed pieces of silver lacquered with black and red. Dunand’s earrings, bracelets, and brooches used very strong

geometric shapes with very strong motifs such as zigzagging and superimposed lines. Designer Raymond Templier was from a long line of Paris jewelers. He used bold designs with bright. The term ‘Art Deco’ was coined in 1926, following a retrospective exhibition entitledLes Années ‘25, held at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris. This commemorated the 1925 Paris Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes. Originally planned for 1915, but postponed on account of World War I (1914–18), the 1925 Exposition was distinctive from previous exhibitions for two reasons. For the first time, the decorative and applied arts held centre stage. The criteria for inclusion in the Exposition emphasised the modern, to the extent that well-established decorative artists might be excluded because they were seen as representative of a previous generation. The architecture and decorative arts shown at the 1925 Exposition embodied a whole range of unconnected styles and sources, including a modern interpretation of the 18th-century style of Louis XVI (reigned 1643–1715), seen as the golden era of the French decorative arts, and references to the avant-garde art movements of the time, such as Cubism and the Bauhaus. Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes and exotic and ancient cultures such as ancient Egyptian (following the discovery of the Pyramid tombs) and Mayan civilisations, and the art of Japan and Africa, also had an impact on the style. Unlike Modernist art movements, with their social philosophies and manifestos, Art Deco was purely decorative. A modern style, responding to the machine and to new materials such as plastic, Art Deco in its 1925 context was also sumptuous, a luxury style, characterised by individually produced luxury goods for wealthy connoisseurs. The 1925 Exposition had a major influence on the decorative arts in America. Although the United States was not represented, many Americans visited the exhibition. In 1926 the Metropolitan Museum of Art held a retrospective exhibition to which original contributors were asked to send material. The American contribution to Art Deco is known and is characterised by clean lines and strong curves. It was applied to the design of cars, architecture and furniture. It was also applied to new mass-produced goods such as refrigerators and radios. In their attempt to reach new consumers from around 1930, manufacturers took iconic elements of the Art Deco styles and simplified them for mass production. Married to modern machine age materials such as bakelite and chrome, this style heralded an era of ‘modern’ design for mass consumption of affordable consumer goods. The best sources for finding out what was considered new or representative of a particular time are the International or Colonial exhibitions, which were conceived as international trade showcases, and, following the 1851 Great Exhibition, were held at increasingly frequent intervals. The best way to access the catalogues of these is to search under the Author Keyword for the main words of the exhibition name. Sources include official cat

some Art Deco buildings notable mostly for their ornament; more repackaging than innovation. That said, by the mid-1920s a combination of prosperity, optimism, exotic materials and fine craftsmanship produced some spectacular and exciting architecture. For big business, Art Deco was ideal for expressing corporate wealth and dominance. Banks used the style to convey security. Hollywood used it to define the good life. But soon, the good life proffered by Hollywood would be just that; the stuff of dreams. When the stock market crash brought down the curtain in 1929, it took the first phase of the Art Deco era with it. In Manhattan, the Empire State Building was completed in 1931 and for some time after there was little construction of any kind, with the sole exception of Rockefeller Center. For better or worse, in those days it took time for Wall Street’s problems to fully affect other parts of the world. So, in far away places like Australia, Art Deco buildings were built into the 1940s. But in the birthplace of the skyscraper, the party was over. One consequence of the Depression was the emergence of a more austere architectural style, referred to on this site as Streamline Moderne. Why not just say Art Deco? Because nearly everything about the Streamline Moderne was different and sometimes even a reaction to Art Deco. If Art Deco skyscrapers could be thought of as “vertical”, Streamline Moderne buildings typically embraced horizontal massing. The ornament in a streamlined building, if any, was typically modest and cost-effective, whereas with Art Deco, the sky was the limit. While Art Deco buildings dazzled with intricate details and sharp angles, streamlining featured clean surfaces and curves. In a few places, the two styles were combined but in the simplest terms, Art Deco was born before the financial collapse and Streamline Moderne, after. None of this is to say that the Streamline Moderne couldn’t produce delightful results, and with its graceful curves, streamlining translated beautifully into thousands of objects that are still treasured. I should point out that the Art Deco houses on this site are, with few exceptions really Streamline Moderne. Although true Art Deco houses exist, they are so few in number that any collection of Art Deco homes really has to include streamlined examples. There is no way to measure, but it seems that Art Deco and Streamline Moderne buildings are more popular today then they were in their own time. Of the two, the Streamline Moderne had a much longer run. It survived the war and went on to be used for a new generation of schools, factories, grocery stores and gas stations. In an earlier version of this essay I remarked that I often wonder how things might look today often wonder how things might look today often wonder how things might look today often wonder how things might look today, had there been no Depression or a second World War. But this sort of guessing is a fool’s errand especially when so much from the period remains, to be seen, preserved and enjoyed.

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