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Nicole Kang  

Table of  Contents   —  The  Blue  Earth   —  Zones  of  the  Sea   —  Life  in  the  Sea   —  Challenges   —  Adaptations   —  Bioluminescence   —  Biomimicry   —  Deep  Sea  Vents   —  Deep  Sea  Creatures  

What can  you  tell  me?  

The Blue  Earth   —  More  then  70%  of  the  Earth  is  covered  by  water  and  

that’s just  the  surface!   —  The  ocean  is  deep  and  holds  an  enormous  living  space   —  Majority  of  the  sea  floor  is  covered  in  deep-­‐sea  mud,  

where microscopic  animals  live  in  the  top  10cm  

—  It represents  more  than  99%  of  the  living  space  on  

this planet  

Life in  the  Sea?   —  Untold  billions  of  organisms  live  beneath  the  ocean.   —  Life  survives  and  lives  well–  even  in  a  habitat  that  

some scientists  once  believe  it  could  not  possibly   support  life.    


Discussion Ques<on!   ©  Gary  Larson  

—  Which one  of  the  

following would  you   rather  live  without?   —  Sunlight   —  Oxygen   —  Food   —  Safety   —  Friends  

How Can  Life  Exist…?  

Without sunlight?   NASA  

How Can  Life  Exist…?   How  Can  Life  Exist…?  

At near  freezing  temperatures?   Kari  Liimatainen  

How Can  Life  Exist…?   With  little  to  no  oxygen?

National Geographic  

How Can  Life  Exist…?  

At pressures     that  could     flatten  a  submarine?  

How Can  Life  Exist…?   With  scarce    food  supplies?  

© Gary  Larson  

How Can  Life  Exist…?   While     avoiding     predators?  

© Gary  Larson  

How Can  Life  Exist…?

While needing  to   find  a  mate?  

And yet…   —  These  waters  are  full  of  life   —  Life  that  is  perfectly  adapted  to  these  challenges  and  

have evolved  in  strange  and  amazing  ways    

Life Span   —  Many  deep-­‐sea  animals  

grow slowly  and  live   very  long  lives   —  Deep-­‐sea  rockfish  can   live  more  than  200  years   old…   —  Some  corals  can  live  to   be  hundreds,  even   thousands  of  years  old  

Biggest rockfish  caught,  weighs  27kg!  

Let There  Be  (No)  Light…     —  Sunlight  is  rapidly  absorbed  

in the  sea.   —  At  1  m  only  60%  is  left.   —  Long  waves  in  the  color   spectrum  disappear  more   rapidly    

In deep  waters:  substances  on  reef   fishes’  bodies  capture  light  at  other   wavelengths  and  release  the  energy   as  red  light  

Darkness Survival  Strategies   —  No  sunlight  means  no  photosynthesis!  What  does  this  

mean?! —  Giant  Squid-­‐  cope  with  low  levels  of  light  by  having   enormous  eyes  the  size  of  dinner  plates!   —  Tripod  fish-­‐  detects  their  prey  by  sensing  vibrations   instead  of  seeing   National  Geographic  

Buoyancy —  How  do  some  fish  and  other  sea  

creatures not  sink  to  the  bottom?   —  Very  light  bones  and  flesh   —  Gas  bladders  that  stop  them  from  


Brown Sharptail  Eel  

—  Heavier species  sink  if  they  stop  

swimming so  they  spend  much  of   their  time  resting  on  the  sea  floor   searching  it  for  food.   Pancake  Batfish  

Pressure —  The  weight  of  air  in  the  Earth’s  

atmosphere is  1kg  per  square   centimeter  at  sea  level   —  In  the  ocean  the  pressure  is  much   greater  because  of  the  water   pressing  down  heavily   —  At  4km  half  a  ton  of  weight  presses  

on every  square  cm  

—  Many survive  because  their  body  is  

mostly made  of  liquid  which  can’t   be  compressed.  

Sad fish   live  down   here…  D=  

—  There is  little  to  eat  in  the  deep  

Marine Snow   —  sea   Bits  of  food  drift  slowly  down  

from surface  waters  in  what  is   called  “marine  snow”     —  This  includes  dead  and  dying  

organisms, animal  waste,   sediment,  and  dust  

—  Most but  not  all  of  the  marine  

snow is  consumed  by  microbes   and  plankton.     —  The  rest  ends  up  on  the  seafloor   which  sustains  animals  living   on  the  bottom  

Avoid GeNng  Eaten!   —  Hide!     —  The  vampire  squid  which  lives  in  

depths where  there  is  very  little  oxygen  

—  Be too  big  to  be  eaten!   —  A  Big  Red  Jelly  is  too  big…   —  Be  invisible!   —  Camouflage-­‐  many  deep  sea  

animals are  dark  red  which   absorbs  light  rather  than  reflects   like  Red  Jelly  

—  What are  some  other  ways?    

Midwater Polychaete      Slickhead  Fish  

Lazy Fish   —  Fish  don’t  ‘drink’  water,  but  they  do  breathe  oxygen  

inside of  it.   —  There  is  a  low  amount  of  dissolved  oxygen  in  the  deep   sea  waters.   —  Therefore,  to  conserve          energy,  many  fish  have          low  metabolic  rates,  so            they  are  less  active  and            need  less  energy.  

Ma<ng and  Reproduc<on  

Environmental News   Network  

—  Some squid  female  stores  the  sperm  

but does  not  develop  her  eggs  until  the   time  is  right.     —  Anglerfish  males  are  tiny  compared  to   the  females    

Glass Squid   Pixar  

—  Male latches  and  fuses  onto  her  female  

and stays  there  for  the  rest  of  his  life.    

—  Hermaphroditic animals  such  as  comb  

jelly are  able  to  reproduce  on  their  own.    


Bioluminescence —  Nature’s  artificial  light  uses  chemicals  within  their  

bodies to  produce  light.  What  other  organisms  do   this?     —  Mainly  a  marine  phenomenon  though  not  found  in   freshwater.  

Deep Sea  Hydrothermal  Vents  

Deep Sea  Hydrothermal  Vents   —  Discovered  late  1970’s   —  Nearly  8000  ft  (2,438.4  

meters) below  the   surface  was  what  looked   like  chimneys  expelling   clouds  of  black  smoke.     —  Proof  for  the  first  time   that  life  could  be   sustained  by  the  Earth   itself  

Chimneys and  Black  Smokers   —  Seawater  goes  into  the  Earths’  crust  through  cracks  and  fissures  

in the  ocean  floor.     —  The  water  is  heated  by  magma  below  the  surface,  expands  and   rises  back  to  the  surface   —  On  the  way  up  the  hot  water  dissolves  minerals  and  other   chemicals  from  the  rock  to  make  a  dark  chemical  soup   —  Some  minerals  harden  on  the  rim  of  the  vent  which  build  to  a  tall   chimney-­‐like  structure.   —  The  dark  color  of  the  water  was  then  named  “black  smokers.”  

Living off  the  Earth   —  Organisms  get  food  directly  from  the  vents  themselves.   —  This  process  is  known  as  chemosynthesis.   —  Bacteria  in  the  water  feed  on  what  is  normally  a  lethal  

soup of  chemicals.   —  An  entire  ecosystem  totally  separate  from  the  world  of   light  is  made.  

—  These waters  are  so  fertile  that  shrimps  have  been  known  to  

number in  the  millions  near  these  vents.    

Biomimicry —  Copying  nature  and  using    

     it  to  solve  human  problems.   —  Olympic  athletes  now  wear          swim  suits  designed  from   Sharklet  Technologies          shark  skin!   —  The  scales  speed  up  surrounding  water  with  ridges.   —  89%  of  swimming  medals  won  in  the  Beijing   Olympics  were  won  by  shark  suit  swimmers!  

David Gallo   —  Renowned  

oceanographer who   travels  under  the  sea  to   explore    and  map  the   ocean.   —  He  has  visited  the   sunken  Titanic!   —  Biomimicry   —  Deep  Sea  Life  

Vampire Squid   —  Vampyrotenthis  Infernalis   —  Means  ‘vampire  squid  from  Hell’   —  Found  3000  feet  under  the  sea  level     —  Last  surviving  member  of  order  Vampyromorphida   —  Similar  to  both  squids  and  octopuses  as  all  three  are  

descended from  the  cephalopod  mollusk   —  Lacks  ink  sacs,  but  can  eject  a  cloud          of  thick  bioluminescent  mucus  

Firefly Squid   —  (Watasenia  scintillans)          7  cm  :D   —  Found  365  m  in  the  day  but  at  night  

migrate to  surface  to  search  for  food   —  Equipped  with  light  producing  organs,   photopores,  which  emit  blue  light.     —  Lights  can  be  flashed  in  unison  or   alternated  thought  to  serve...   —  as  communication  with  mates  or  rivals     —  to  disguise  the  squid’s  shape   —  confuse  predators  allowing  for  escape  

—  Believed to  be  the  only  squid  with  

color vision  

Lights in  Japan   —  Famous  for  the  light  

show that  occurs  each   year  off  the  coast  of   Japan  as  millions  of   these  tiny  animals   gather  to  spawn.     —  Found  to  be  a  delicacy  in   Japan  and  widely  fished   during  the  spawning   season  

Giant Isopod   —  (Bathynomus  giganteus)   —  Found  77m  to  2,140m  under  sea  

largest member  of  the  isopod  family  (related  to   shrimps  and  crabs)     —  Can  grow  to  over  16  inches    

Giant Isopod  (cont.)   —  Some  researches  believe  large  size  may  

have been  an  adaptation  to  help  the   animal  deal  with  enormous  pressures   —  They  reproduce  by  laying  eggs  which   are  stored  in  a  pouch    

Fangtooth (Anoplogaster  cornuta)   Why  do  you  think  this  fish    is  called  “Fangtooth”?   —  Largest  teeth  for  body  size  

Fangtooth: Quick  Facts!   —  Lives  in  temperate  and  tropical  ocean  

regions (commonly  600-­‐6500  ft.  deep,  but   have  been  found  as  deep  as  16,000  ft.  =  can   withstand  intense  pressure,  near-­‐freezing   temperature!)  

—  Is actually  small-­‐-­‐  maximum  6  inches  (16  

cm) —  Eyes  set  high  on  its  head;  poor  eyesight  

Baby Fangtooth   —  Eggs  hatch  into  tiny  plankton-­‐

sized larvae   —  Look  very  different  from  adults   (at  first,  marine  biologists   mistook  them  as  a  different   species!)   —  Feed  by  filtering  plankton  from   water  using  specially-­‐formed  gill   rakes  that  disappear  as  they  reach   maturity  

Fangtooth —  The  juveniles  begin  to  resemble  adults  as  they  reach  a  

size of  about  3  inches,  and  then  they  start  to  descend   down  to  deeper  waters   —  We  still  do  not  know  how  long  they  live!  

T is for twilight zone  
T is for twilight zone