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SAINT TROPH IME 1. Who is the architect or founder of the building? 2. Where and when was the building built? 3. What is the form, or shape of the building? 4. What is the function or purpose of the building? 5. What materials / methods are used for construction? 6. What makes your building historically significant / meaningful?

Nicole Hooi Yi Tien 0313611

What is the function or purpose of the building ? Based on my research, Saint Trophime is a Roman Catholic church formerly a cathedral in the city of Arles of Southern France. It is now an example of famous well preserved and magnificient Romanesque architecture inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Saint Trophime was first a church, not an ordinary church but an important pilgrimage church visited by pilgrims.The church served as a starting point on the Via Tolosa which is one of the main pilgrimage routes through France leading to Santiago de Compostela in Spain. It is called as the Route of St.James. James had travelled to the farthest (Galicia, Spain) to preach the gospel following Jesus’s death whereas the non-wealthy Christians traverse the route to earn forgiveness for their serious earthly sins. It was then transferred into a cathedral to replace the previous basilica dedicated to Saint Stephen (the first Christian martyr) and the previous basilica where the relics of Saint Trophimus (first were. The Cathedral’s status is firmly solidified as one of the church’s power centers as The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was crowned here by the archbishop of Arles and the church was also home to the bishop’s chair. It is the first bishop of Arles. The building is divided into different part. The portal which was built first, followed by the cloister , the northen gallery, the eastern gallery, the southern gallery and ended with the western gallery. THE PORTAL The magnificently detailed portal is what sets the site apart.. It is the main and only entrance of the church. The west portal of St. Trophime is detailed with sculptures and carvings. A ) It depicts Christ in Majesty surrounded by the four apocalyptic beasts . That symbolise The Four Evangelists. They are Matthew as an angle, Mark as a lion, Luke as an ox and John as an eagle. They are the creators of the Gospels. It is to represent the nature of Christ, and virtues required of a Christian for salvation. B) It portrays the theme of Judgment Day, heaven and hell. On either side of Christ are the Damned and the Blessed. The Damned are shown naked and shackled in the chains of their sins on the right whereas the blessed are lined up on the left. C) The event of Jesus' birth are depicted in a band of narrow reliefs above the heads of the large standing saints and below the reliefs of the last judgment.

THE CLOISTER The cloister is surrounded by arcaded walkway with the sheltered ones known as ambulatories. The ground floor of the cloister features a quadrangle court surrounding an open courtyard.The cloister is attached to the church and lies within the cathedral enclosure, surrounding an open courtyard. The

cloister was constructed for the use of Cannons (the priests who attend the bishop and manage the church property) who were required to live like monks with a common dormitory, refectory and cloister within the cathedral enclosure separated by a wall from the city. The cloister roof and first floor define

those areas above the cloister’s ambulatory, including the roofs, towers, and interiors of the upper floor, which would have historically been the monastery’s dormitory. Within the upper interior of St. Trophime's cloister is a tiny museum room featuring several loose pieces of St. Trophime's elegant ecclesiastical detailing. Among these is this replica statue of one of St. Trophime's many saints.

THE NORTHEN GALLERY It is the walk gallery parallel to the church. It bordered the calefactory which is an important room to store the communal fire so that the Canons could warm themselves after long hours of study in the cloister. Northen gallery also bordered refectory which is a common dining place, pantries (a place to store food) and kitchens.

The carvings of the northen gallery columns capitals are devoted to the Easter Mystery and to the glorification of the patron saints of Arles. This corner pillar at the beginning of the northern gallery (the west end) places the figure of St. Trophimus, the patron saint and bishop of Arles, between those of St. Peter and St. John The relationships between the figures on the pillars and the capitals of the columns show the

relationships between the Old and New Testaments. THE EASTERN GALLERY This gallery features an entrance to the church’s sanctuary which also bordered the chapter house which is next to the church. This is a common arrangement of chapter house in a church. A chapter house is a larger room in a church where large meetings are held. It also bordered the business reception parlor and the workroom.

The columns in this gallery depict the same stories as the column of northen gallery which is the relationships between the Old and New Testaments. THE SOUTHERN GALLERY This gallery usually held the scriptorium and library. A scriptorium is a necessary attachment of library. It is a place for writing. Carved columns and capitals in this section of the southern gallery are carved to depict a wide range of local historical events combined with biblical stories, particularly concerning the events in the life of Saint Trophimus. A) Christian martyrs surrounded by their torturers who have been interpreted as relatives of Saint Trophimus, sentenced to death by the Emperor Charlemagne for slapping the archbishop Turpin.

THE WESTERN GALLERY The west walk served a the principal portal to the cloister. The west walk bordered the cellars located between the kitchens and a churchside porter's lodge. The carvings along the west wing depict scenes from the biblical event and this includes the stoning of St.Stephen. It represents the moment when Stephen was stoned outside the city by his many tormentors.

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