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Idaho Education News 1910 University Drive Boise, Idaho 83725-1916 208-473-8811 jswindell@idahoednews.org Kevin Richert has been instrumental in leading Idaho Education News to record growth by producing a variety of exceptional projects and providing leadership to a growing team. He is worthy of the Idaho Press Club’s Reporter of the Year honors. Idaho Education News doubled its website traffic and social media followers in 2016, in large part because of Kevin’s work. He broke news, produced features, followed Idaho’s most pressing education issues and developed three in-depth, watchdog reports that affected change in Idaho’s education conversations. Kevin’s reporting spanned not only topics and genres, but also platforms. He writes a daily blog, appears as an education expert on a weekly TV program and he stars in a weekly podcast. His writing and reporting has uncovered wasteful state government spending, misuse of tax dollars and dispelled rumors about Idaho’s refugee population and how it affects education. Kevin has the talent and experience to write about how the presidential election affects Idaho education and how a tiny Idaho school district can improve student achievement with innovation. But most impressive this year was Kevin’s investigative report on an Idaho tax shift that spanned 10 years and affected billions of dollars. In other great work, he wrote about the impact of refugees on education in Idaho and he produced a series on literacy. He was the first to report that 37,000 young students in Idaho are not able to read at grade level. The Legislature devoted $11 million to attack the reading woes of Idaho’s youngsters and Kevin revealed what various districts proposed to do to fix the problem. Kevin reviewed more than 150 plans to produce a five-story series. He partnered with Idaho Public Television to share the report as a complete public awareness service. Also impressive in 2016 was Kevin’s efforts to press state agencies to adhere to Idaho’s open meeting laws. Behind Kevin’s leadership, Idaho Education News caught four different boards breaking Idaho’s open meeting laws. All were forced to self-cure their mistakes, making him a leader in First Amendment reporting. Kevin Richert would be an excellent selection as Idaho’s top reporter. ENTRY 1: Tax shift of 2006 adds up to tax increase https://www.idahoednews.org/news/tax-shift-2006-addstax-increase/ ENTRY 2: Idaho schools try to bridge a wide reading gap https://www.idahoednews.org/news/idaho-schoolstry-bridge-wide-reading-gap/ ENTRY 3: Idaho’s go-on woes. What happened? What happens now? https://www.idahoednews.org/news/idahos-go-woes-happened-happens-now/ Respectfully, Jennifer Swindell Managing Editor IdahoEdNews.org


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To Bridge a Wide Reading Gap

In Erika Carpenter’s second-grade class, a handful of students are working on the basics of reading. They are sounding out letters, one by one, in small words: real words and nonsense words alike.

and as a consequence, they are less likely to succeed as their school career continues.

Literacy logoDown the hall at Boise’s Koelsch Elementary School, kindergartners are working on similar drills. The second-graders are trying to catch up — and there is no way to rush them along. The best way to bridge the gap is through constant and time-consuming repetition.

On the spring 2016 IRI, 16,816 third-graders scored at grade level.

Meanwhile, Idaho faces its own gap. Each fall, four of every 10 kindergarten through third-grade students show up for school unable to read at grade level. This year, Koelsch and other elementary schools are sharing $11.25 million in state money, earmarked to reading. It’s up to local educators to figure out how to spend their money — and how to address their schools’ unique challenges and demographics.

THE PROBLEM, SUMMARIZED

One startling number illustrates the size of Idaho’s literacy challenge: 36,904. From 2013 through 2015, an average of 36,904 K-3 students scored below grade level on the fall Idaho Reading Indicator — a short screening exam designed to identify at-risk readers. The IRI is a snapshot — and it doesn’t mean at-risk readers are hopelessly behind their classmates. In the spring of 2016, exactly 25,000 students scored below grade level on the IRI, down from 36,780 in the fall of 2015. The end of third grade looms as a pivotal point in a student’s academic career. It is at this point that children go from learning to read to reading to learn. As students are expected to think more critically, their ability to comprehend class materials becomes paramount. The end of third grade also represents a point of no return. Third-graders who struggle to read are unlikely to make up this gap — .

Which brings us to another set of important numbers.

But 6,222 did not. And that’s 27 percent of the state’s third-graders.

THE PLAN, SUMMARIZED

Education leaders and elected officials have long been aware of Idaho’s reading challenge. But in 2016, the Legislature and Gov. Butch Otter agreed on a plan, and opened up the state’s checkbook. They passed a literacy initiative that is designed to give more students extra help in reading — providing added time for repetition and drills in classes such as Carpenter’s. For students who score “below basic,” the lowest of three levels on the IRI, this is supposed to translate to 60 hours of extra help during the year. This is an increase from the 40 hours of extra help available under old state law. For students who receive a score of “basic” — the IRI’s middle score, but still below grade level — that means 30 hours of extra help, where none was available previously. The added help comes with an added cost. The $11.25 million budget represents a $9.1 million increase. Districts and charter schools get their share of the money based on the number of their students who scored below grade level on the IRI. This year, that comes to about $305 per student. But beyond the 30- or 60-hour instruction time requirements, schools are free to craft their own


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reading plans. Every school is, in effect, a pilot school.

Rep. Wendy Horman has mixed feelings as well. As a member of the Joint Finance-Appropriations Depending on who you ask, that is one of the initiative’s strengths — or a weakness that could result Committee, and a lead writer of the committee’s K-12 budget bills, Horman will have a hand in what future in squandered taxpayer dollars. literacy budgets look like.

TRIAL AND ERROR?

Boise will not roll out a centerpiece of its $831,000 literacy strategy until after the 2016-17 school year. The district will expand its summer school program, inviting all students who score below grade level on the IRI. The free half-day sessions will be available at four schools, and is one way to get students more hours of instruction in reading and other topics.

I believe in local control, but I also believe in using evidence-based approaches,” said Horman, R-Idaho Falls. “

But the pilot plan still has a lot of powerful support — even if it entails some taxpayer-financed trial and error. Senate Education Committee Chairman Dean Mortimer likes the approach. So does new House Education Committee Chairwoman Julie VanOrden, Boise and other districts are looking at ways to extend an author of the new literacy laws. JFAC’s Senate cothe school day, or the school year. Other districts are chair, Shawn Keough, supports the block grant looking to add teachers or paraprofessionals to provide approach, but she expects the schools to deliver more intensive or small-group instruction. Other results in the end. districts are spending their literacy dollars elsewhere, in hopes of making the most of students’ classroom “If we’re going to believe at the state level in local time. control, we’re going to have to have some trust,” said Keough, R-Sandpoint. The Coeur d’Alene district is receiving $321,000, and its biggest line item is $118,000 for teacher training. Twin Falls is receiving $384,000, and its big-ticket item is a plan to spend $99,000 on Chromebooks and charging At the start of the school year, only 39 percent of stations. Koelsch’s kindergartners read at grade level — well below the statewide average of 51 percent, and the Experimentation is not only allowed. It’s encouraged. Boise district’s average of 63 percent. Located in an In a state where Otter, Superintendent of Public older, working-class neighborhood, Koelsch faces Instruction Sherri Ybarra and key legislators extol the some daunting demographic challenges, especially virtues of local control, the literacy plan was written when compared to the rest of the Boise district. with that principle in mind. Sixty-two percent of Koelsch’s 442 students fall Newly elected Boise school trustee Beth Oppenheimer below the federal poverty line; only two of Boise’s is concerned by the scattershot approach. As a leading schools have a higher poverty rate. In 2015-16, 21 percent of Koelsch’s students had advocate for pre-K, and executive director of Idaho’s limited English skills. The district’s LEP population Association for the Education of Young Children, was 12.5 percent. Oppenheimer also believes the state would be better These demographic realities are not just academic. An off making cost-effective investments in preschool, instead of giving schools free rein and little guidance. Idaho Education News data analysis reveals statistically significant correlations between poverty, limited English skills and reading scores. Schools and “I understand that districts need to do what districts districts with high poverty rates and high LEP can do,” she said. “But at the same time … kids learn populations tend to also have higher numbers of atthe same in Weippe as they do in Rupert.” risk readers.

DEMOGRAPHIC CHALLENGES


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Koelsch’s teachers and administrators encounter these realities on a daily basis. Many students come in with limited vocabularies — a reflection of the fact that English is their second or third language. Engaging parents, and getting them to attend night meetings to discuss reading and math skills, requires a little bit of creativity. We always provide food,” principal Ken Pahlas said. That gets a lot of them in here.”

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The new literacy money is going to help, school officials say, but only to a point. It’s not enough to cover the cost of all-day kindergarten, one option under the law. And it simply isn’t realistic to expect many Koelsch parents to pay tuition for expanded kindergarten, reading specialist Loni Westrick said. But Koelsch has some success to build on. The school’s IRI scores consistently improve from fall to spring, said Westrick — a sign of student growth and

the result of quality instruction. In the fall of 2015, only 36 percent of kindergartners scored at grade level on the IRI. By spring, that number had zoomed to 89 percent. (Other grades showed improvement as well, although their spring proficiency rates came in at 59 to 65 percent.) So the plan at Koelsch is much the same as it has been in the past. Persistent drilling and repetition. Watching for that surge in reading skills, a breakthrough that can occur at any time. And finetuning the learning plan on the fly. If the teachers are doing their jobs right, Pahlas said, students will receive different instruction as the year unfolds. It’s a lot of work, said Westrick. “But it’s the right work.”


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In August 2006, then-Gov. Jim Risch promised Idahoans $260 million in property tax relief. He did deliver a tax cut to property owners. But he did not deliver Idahoans an overall tax cut, according to an in-depth Idaho Education News analysis. tax-overhaul-featuredInstead, in 2015-16, Idahoans paid an additional $21.7 million for K-12 than they would have paid under the old tax structure — mostly because they now pay a higher sales tax. By the same token, that also means schools are collecting more tax dollars than they would have received under the pre-2006 tax structure. But there are winners and losers. The losers: 18 of Idaho’s 115 school districts are collecting fewer state and local dollars than they did a decade ago, when the Risch tax shift went into law. The winners: 26 districts are collecting more local property tax dollars than they did a decade ago.

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Risch and his legislative allies said House Bill 1 would provide $50 million in net tax relief. And in the midst of a housing and commercial boom, they said it would provide some much-needed relief from skyrocketing property taxes — and possibly even head off a property tax revolt.

TEN YEARS LATER: A MATH PROBLEM So, what really happened? Let’s crunch the numbers, based on State Department of Education and the Division of Financial Management:

The maintenance and operations levy. As promised, drastically cutting the M&O levy provided $260 million in property tax relief in 2006-07. And because statewide property values have grown by 13.1 percent since 2006-07, the value of the property tax break has increased as well. In 2015-16, the tax break carried a value of $303.1 million.

The increase in supplemental levies. The past decade has seen a proliferation in supplemental levies — voter-approved taxes that run one or THE TAX OVERHAUL, EXPLAINED school two years. When lawmakers approved House Bill 1, 59 of Idaho’s districts had supplemental levies on the Idaho’s school finance formula is notoriously books, for a total of $79 million. By 2015-16, 94 districts complicated. But Risch’s House Bill 1 — passed in a rare, had supplemental levies worth $186.6 million. This one-day special legislative session on Aug. 25, 2006 — increase comes to $107.6 million was fairly simple. The sales tax. In 2015-16, Idahoans paid slightly more In order to understand what has happened over the than $1.3 billion in sales taxes. One-sixth of that total past 10 years, let’s walk through the way this law was — reflecting the sixth cent of sales tax passed in put together: August 2006 — translates to $217.2 million. First, House Bill 1 eliminated Idaho’s “maintenance In other words, Idahoans paid out $324.8 million in and operations” property tax levy for schools — supplemental property tax levies and added sales better known as the “M&O levy.” This levy came to taxes in 2015-16, while reaping property tax relief roughly $300 for every $100,000 of residential, worth $303.1 million. The net effect: a tax increase of business or agricultural property. Projected tax $21.7 million. savings: $260 million Second, House Bill 1 added a sixth cent onto Idaho’s sales tax rate. Projected impact: $210 million. Third, House Bill 1 set aside $100 million into a new state rainy-day account, dedicated only to K-12 — the Public Education Stabilization Fund.


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THE SUPPLEMENTAL LEVY SHUFFLE

There is no debating the fact that, in the past decade, the supplemental levy has become almost commonplace in Idaho schools. More than 80 percent of Idaho’s school districts collect a voterapproved levy. Instead, the debate centers on cause and effect. Did the tax overhaul — and the unprecedented state budget cuts from the Great Recession — force cashstarved school districts to plead their case to local voters? Or did House Bill 1’s property tax relief actually make it easier for school districts to secure voter support for levies and bond issues? A decade later, that debate continues. Like nearly every Democrat in the Legislature in August 2006, Rep. John Rusche of Lewiston voted against House Bill 1. Democrats said the shift would move school funding from a stable property tax levy to a volatile statewide sales tax — and leave districts scrambling to fill their budgets at the first sign of economic malaise. We set ourselves up to fail with education,” said Rusche, now the House’s minority leader. “

In August 2006, Emmett Republican Brad Little was one of 24 Republican state senators who helped pass House Bill 1. The lieutenant governor and gubernatorial candidate says the overhaul was an imperfect attempt to address growing public unrest over an already unpopular property tax. The little button on the top of the pressure cooker was up,” Little said. “

Little and Risch say they were not surprised by the increase in supplemental levies. And in a recent interview, Risch said the supplemental levies offer a distinct advantage. They allow patrons to have a say over how much they are willing to pay for local schools.

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It just boggles my mind that people are afraid to let people vote on these things,” said Risch, now in his second term in the U.S. Senate. “

WINNERS AND LOSERS

The old M&O levy had a built-in equalization mechanism. The state would send more general fund dollars to poorer school districts that had a smaller property tax base. But when it comes to the supplemental levy, districts are on their own. They collect and retain what they can pass locally. Districts that cannot pass a levy are almost wholly dependent on state funding. The result: The bottom line varies widely from district to district. Twenty-six of Idaho’s 115 districts collect more property tax dollars than they collected in 200506, under the old M&O levy. This list includes Blaine County and McCall-Donnelly, two tourist communities that were granted special taxing authority under the 2006 law. Most of the others are rural districts, where administrators have convinced voters to pass supplemental levies that exceeded the M&O levies that were in place a decade before. In other words, these districts benefit both from the local supplemental levy and from their share of an increased sum of state dollars. However, 18 districts received fewer state and local dollars in 2015-16 than they did in 2005-06, the year before the tax overall went into effect. Almost all of these districts are small and rural. Seventeen of these districts have seen their student numbers drop since 2005-06. Eleven of these districts collected a supplemental levy in 2015-16, but seven did not. Thirteen of these districts have adopted a four-day school calendar — a move often driven by budgetary constraints. In researching this series, Idaho Education News compiled a number of key findings on school taxes and budget impacts, and emailed them to key decision makers — including Risch. During an Aug. 6


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interview, Risch said he had not reviewed the findings, emailed to his staff on July 21, and said he had no insight into the funding gaps. I m not familiar with those numbers,” he said.

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Other sitting lawmakers are more familiar with the funding gaps, but they view it differently. The funding gaps can best be explained by student attendance, said Rep. Wendy Horman, R-Idaho Falls, a former school trustee who is a key member of the budget-writing Joint Finance-Appropriations Committee.

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impose unprecedented cuts on the public school system. Driven by global economic forces, the recession surely would have wreaked havoc on the state’s budget, with or without House Bill 1. And even critics say House Bill 1 provided a valuable buffer, creating a $100 million education reserve that helped stave off even deeper budget cuts.

Still, the critics say the tax shift left schools at the mercy of the global economy. The schools were weaned off a reliable property tax levy and forced to depend on an unstable sales tax. And when sales tax collections crashed — taking school budgets down Average student attendance is still the main yardstick with them — school administrators were forced to go used to carve up Idaho’s K-12 dollars. When a district to voters seeking stopgap supplemental levies. grows from one year to the next, it will qualify for a funding increase. But when student attendance And for districts that could not secure a drops, state funding drops accordingly. The 18 supplemental levy, the picture became even more districts that lost funding over the past decade would grim, said Rob Winslow, executive director of the have lost funding, with or without the 2006 tax shift, Idaho Association of School Administrators. said Horman. That’s because almost all of the districts had a decline in student numbers. “You’ve had to do some pretty drastic things to hang on,” he said. But to Rusche, the gaps underscore a bigger question about whether Idaho is meeting its constitutional Sen. Shawn Keough is concerned about the equity mandate to provide a common and uniform public issues between districts, although the problem isn’t school system. His hometown district in Lewiston is easily solved. The Sandpoint Republican supported better-equipped to handle a downturn than Kamiah, House Bill 1 in August 2006 — and like Little, she says a nearby rural district that has struggled with the law empowered local voters to decide how much declining enrollment and shrinking budgets. they were willing to support local schools. Ultimately, he says, Kamiah students do not live in a vacuum. The kids in Kamiah are the ones who seek jobs in Lewiston,” he said.

She has heard the argument against supplemental levies — since districts can pass only one- or two-year levies, administrators cannot rely on the money as a stable, predictable funding source. But as co-chair of JFAC, Keough has to help write the state’s budgets every winter, so her sympathy for local school administrators only goes so far.

By any measure, the decade since August 2006 has been a turbulent one for Idaho school administrators.

A DECADE OF INSTABILITY

The Great Recession came only a couple of years after the passage of House Bill 1. Declining sales and income tax revenues forced the Legislature to

Welcome to the rest of the world,” she said.


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UPDATED, 10:33 a.m., Oct. 28, to correct the way career-technical programs factor into Idaho’s postsecondary completion numbers.)

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The new numbers, released by the State Board of Education a week ago, were a disappointment to Lt. Gov. Brad Little, the prime mover behind the resolution. But Little still believes the state is investing in initiatives that will turn these numbers around — and some educators agree. It s fair to say our go-on rate didn’t reflect the things we’re doing,” Little said Thursday. “ ’

A WIDESPREAD CHALLENGE The State Board’s go-on data is extensive. For each group of graduating seniors, the board tracks postsecondary enrollment immediately after high school, and at several points from 12 months to 36 months after high school. Idaho Education News focused on the 12-month numbers — the percentage of high school graduates who are still in school a year after receiving their diploma. Idaho Education News compared the numbers for 2011, 2014 and 2015, and looked at the State Board’s data covering more than 250 traditional public high schools, charter schools and alternative schools.

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From 2011 to 2015, the go-on rate dropped in 66 percent of Idaho’s high schools. Only 28 percent of high schools managed to improve go-on rates during that time. The one-year trend is only slightly better. From 2014 to 2015, the go-on rates dropped in 59 percent of the state’s high schools, and improved in 36 percent of high schools. In 2015, only 17 percent of high schools had a go-on rate of 60 percent or higher. And this short-term metric addresses only attendance. The state is shooting for a 60 percent postsecondary completion rate.

It was a non-binding and symbolic vote. But with little dissent, they approved a resolution that reaffirmed their support for Idaho’s hallmark education goal: getting 60 percent of the state’s 25to 34-year-olds to hold some kind of postsecondary degree, by 2020.

Only 46 percent of the class of 2015 enrolled in postsecondary school — down from 52 percent just a year earlier.

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The data reveals the scope of the challenge:

This winter, legislators cast a yes vote for college.

Meanwhile, Idaho’s high school graduates voted with their feet.

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WHAT HAPPENED?

The theories seem to gravitate toward two phenomena: religion and economics. In 2012, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints lowered its minimum age for missionary service — affecting go-on rates across the state. The effects are most profound in Eastern Idaho, home to a larger LDS community. Idaho’s scant 3.8 percent unemployment rate also affects the equation. When jobs are easier to find, high school graduates are more likely to jump into the work force. And this aggravates a long-standing gender gap. Young men are already less likely to go straight from high school to college. They’re also more likely to be enticed by a job after graduation, State Board spokesman Blake Youde said. Coeur d’Alene district Superintendent Matthew Handelman doesn’t have to look far to see the effects of a robust economy. When the local job market improves, enrollment decreases at North Idaho College, Coeur d’Alene’s community college. People are just sort of following what they need to do individually,” he said. “They’re not going to pay attention to the goal of the state.” “


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The new go-on numbers are certainly grim. But they might not signal a long, downward spiral. Instead, they might be a fluke. Youde points to this year’s college enrollment numbers. Boise State University reached record enrollment and the University of Idaho saw its first enrollment increase since 2012. Meanwhile, education leaders point to a menu of new programs that they expect to pay dividends — such as dual credit. The state is expected to bankroll $5.7 million in dualcredit coursework in high schools this year, up from $4.8 million. In districts such as Nampa, dual credit is taking off. In 2015-16, 3,305 students enrolled in dual-credit classes, up from 2,422 a year ago, said assistant superintendent Nicole MacTavish. Dual credit can pack a dual benefit. It can cut the price of a college education, and give high school students the confidence to continue in school. “They have to be able to see themselves as a college student,” Blaine County district Superintendent GwenCarol Holmes said. Other efforts are just cranking up. School officials are looking forward to spending their share of the $5 million the 2016 Legislature put into college and career counseling. The State Board is launching its second year of a “direct admissions” program — sending out letters to high school seniors who are, in essence, preapproved to attend Idaho colleges or universities. All of these programs are designed to get high school seniors thinking about college — and state leaders hope all of this will help get Idaho closer to the 60 percent milepost. But meanwhile, Idaho’s increased emphasis on career-technical education actually has an inverse effect on the numbers — since careertechnical education doesn’t necessarily factor into

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the 60 percent goal. Some career-technical programs apply toward the 60 percent equation, but some do not. This troubles educators such as Boise district Superintendent Don Coberly. Career-technical graduates can land high-paying and satisfying jobs, and these personal successes should be part of the 60 percent equation. Little agrees. He doesn’t think the state should water down its 60 percent goal. But he thinks it’s important to find a way to take into account career-technical programs that provide graduates with valuable job skills.

IS 60 PERCENT REALISTIC?

Ultimately, the go-on rate and the 60 percent goal measure two different things. The go-on rate measures college enrollment, something directly tied to State Board policies. Economy trends will affect whether Idaho hits its 60 percent goal — because the work force changes whenever a college graduate leaves Idaho to find a job, or whenever a college graduate moves to Idaho to take a job. Nonetheless, the State Board first floated the 60 percent goal in 2010, and since then, it has grown into Idaho’s educational touchstone. Political and business leaders have rallied behind the idea. The Legislature’s 2016 resolution represents one more show of political support. Yet the 2015 go-on numbers represent another troubling sign, as the 2020 target date looms. No one seems willing to abandon the 2020 goal, at least not publicly. But everyone seems to acknowledge that it’s a tall order. The latest go-on numbers are cause for concern, said Carson Howell, the State Board’s research director. It is reason for the board to take action,” he said.

It isn’t just that the 60 percent goal is ingrained into the education debate. Gov. Butch Otter and legislators have put millions of dollars into new


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programs designed to make this number a reality. If 2020 comes and goes without success on the 60 percent goal, there could be some second-guessing, said Twin Falls district Superintendent Wiley Dobbs. But Dobbs, who will retire in 2017, still sees the value in setting a lofty goal. “You don’t want your targets to be too low.” Coberly isn’t too worried about the blame game, given recent history, In 2013, Otter convened a diverse education task force that settled on 20 recommendations to reshape the state’s school system. Since then, education groups and political and business leaders have maintained a good working relationship. I think we’re all in it together,” he said. “We just have to focus on trying different approaches that will get us to improve.” “

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Idaho Education News data analyst Randy Schrader contributed to this report.

Kevin Richert  

Kevin Richert: Reporter of The Year submission 2016-2017

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