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FRAGMENTS of a regenerated Nazareth Urban Threshold to a residential district

Author: nick verbeeck Promoter: StĂŠphane beel Copromoter: Jan mannaerts Thesis presented to obtain the degree Of Master in applied sciences and Engineering: Architecture K.U.Leuven - ASRO - Academic Year 2010 - 2011


Fragments of a regenerated Nazareth urban threshold to a residential district

Nick Verbeeck

Thesis presented to obtain the degree of Master in applied sciences and engineering: Architecture Promoter: StĂŠphane Beel Copromoter: Jan Mannaerts Readers: Els Verbakel Joost Ruland AndrĂŠ Loeckx Academic Year 2011-2012

Master in de ingenieurswetenschappen: architectuur


“Permission for Use of Content The author herewith permits that the present dissertation be made available for consultation; parts of it may be copied, strictly for personal use. Every other use is subject to strict copyright reservations. Particular reference is made to the obligation of explicitly mentioning the source when quoting the present dissertation‘s results. Leuven, 2011�


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Had I known 16 months ago, which experience this master thesis has finally brought to me, the decision to enrol myself for Studio Nazareth would probably not have been this difficult. A trip to the unknown, rather notorious Israel has been such a great adventure, especially combined with the road trip I made with some other friends and colleagues throughout the whole country to really discover what Israel is all about. What’s always been imaged as a country at war, somehow made a big impression on me. No doubt you can see and feel the tension in cities like Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, in the West Bank and especially along every demarcation line, along every threshold. The goal of this architectural master thesis however is not to juggle with facts and figures on the country’s political state, let that be a subject treated by people with more expertise on this complex matter. As complete strangers to situation of Nazareth, my thanks go to the Israeli students of the Technion in Haifa and everyone else who answered all of our questions and helped us during our stay in Israel and even later on: Ez Daher, Samer Hakim, Yazeed Khamis, Rozan Kopty, Nawar Maraee, Daria Munenzon, Elvira Sedletzki, Amit Shani, Guy Shwartz, Neta Strumza, Rami Kopty, Yacob Nweisser and Sally Azzam. This thesis also would not have been possible without the expertise of my promotor Stéphane Beel and copromoter Jan Mannaerts. Thanks for all the sessions we had together and the many useful insights to bring this project to its final state. The same goes out to Joost Ruland for the technical consultations and Els Verbakel for her guidance from the Technion and coordination of our trip. Also thanks to André Loeckx, for being the fifth reader of this master thesis. The idea of working as a studio worked out really nice. The days and nights of collaborative work in the Arenberg Castle made this thesis to what is has become: a partial collective work, be it in form of a common general analysis and strategic plan or by daily comments on each other’s work to refine it or just to motivate one another when needed. Hereby I would like to thank the whole studio for the great months we had together: Tom Berghmans, Anton Draye, Pascaline Lannoo, Paul Mertens, Piet Noben, Matthias Steenackers, Heidi Stroobants,Sofie Vaasen and Thomas Willemse. Special thanks to Heidi for the sometimes difficult coordination throughout the whole year and to Thomas for the closer collaboration we had, not only this year all the way until the end of August, but during the whole of our studies. The latter also goes out to Jan Van Pelt. My final thanks go to all of my friends and family, who have been of major support and help throughout the long-lasting making of this dissertation.


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TABLE oF CONTENTS 01/

ASSIGNMENT 13

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GENERAL ANALYSIS

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03/

STRATEGIC PLAN

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research into the specific context 53

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urban threshold to a residential district

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CONSTRUCTION & details

07/

BIBliography 151

97 139

The general structure of this thesis consists of a systematic approach going from a general group analysis over a strategic plan, the main site-specific preconditions and a personal evaluation of the city to a new project, part of a larger ensemble. The final chapters deal with the conceptualisation and realisation of the project, while taking construction details into account, to obtain a well grounded, thorough and complete design proposal.


10 Nazareth

Aerial photograph of Nazareth and its surroundings


‘Ik kom uit deze stad, ze is m’n moeder en m’n vader, ze is m’n wieg en m’n graftombe. De historie vloeit in haar aderen, M’n warme nest, m’n zon, m’n maan. Een stad van eer, M’n geliefde vaderland in het klein. Haar naam is trots en verzet, Ze is het adres van de uitdaging’

‫ةنيدملا هذه نم تئج دقل‬، ‫يبأو يمأ يه‬، ‫يدلبو ربق يل دهم يهف‬. ‫اهقورع يف تاقفدتلا خيرات‬، ‫ئفاد شع يدلب‬، ‫يدلب دحأ‬، ‫نينثا يدلب‬ ‫فرشلا ةنيدم‬، ‫بيبحلا نطولا يف رغصم يدلب‬. ‫ ةمواقملاو ةزعلا اهمسا‬، ‫يدحتلا ناونع اهنا‬

‘I come from this city, she’s my mother and my father, she’s my cradle and my tomb. History flows in her veins, My warm nest, my sun, my moon. A city of honour, My beloved homeland in miniature. Her name is pride and resistance, She’s the address of challenge.’

‫תאזה ריעל אב ינא‬, ‫ילש אבא תאו ילש אמא איה‬, ‫ילש רבקה ילש שרע איה‬. ‫היקרועב םרוז הירוטסיהה‬, ‫ילש םחה ןקה‬, ‫ילש ןושאר םוי‬, ‫ילש ינש םוי‬ ‫דובכ לש ריע‬, ‫ןיפנא ריעזב ילש הבוהאה תדלומה‬. ‫תודגנתהה הוואג אוה הלש םשה‬, ‫רגתא לש תבותכה איה‬.

‘I come from this city’ (part of a poem) 1 Tawfiq Ziad, former mayor of Nazareth

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01

ASSIGNMENT

INTRODUCTION15 STUDIO NAZARETH

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travel journey

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This first section will start with an introduction of our copromoter Jan Mannaerts on the current status of Nazareth and can be considered as a critical remark on the complex assignment which Studio Nazareth had to deal with. The cooperation with the students of Technion and the itinerary of our travel trough the whole of Israel will also be briefly dealt with.


INTRODUCTION In a region dominated by conflict and contrast, this Master Design Studio of the Architecture Department of the K.U.Leuven focuses on a specific condition: the city of Nazareth, being the largest Arab city within the borders of Israel. It is a condition of inherent coexistence between groups of people that are elsewhere separated by walls and war. Although this condition of inherent coexistence might not be smooth nor evident - the daily praxis is one of friction and even in the layout of the city one can easily recognize the patterns of separation and opposition - it is coexistence nevertheless. It seemed an interesting context to explore how architectural projects can deal with a complex reality - not just morphological, topological or infrastructural, but most of all of social nature. The studio has by no means any pretention to give clear and definitive answers to this situation - hence the title ‘Fragments of a Regenerated Nazareth’ - but what became apparent throughout this one year of architectural investigation, is that within Nazareth people are really trying to built their society and their city within the limits of the daily condition. Urban and architectural projects could have the power to make these efforts visible, real, touchable and even debatable. They can represent possibilities and in this way support people in their often invisible efforts to change things, and - maybe - stimulate others to participate. In this way, we have tried to listen to and understand the ambitions and dreams of local actors, and incorporate them in the different projects of the studio. We found Nazareth as a city that - for obvious reasons within the political climate - has a stunning lack of public infrastructure - be it roads, open spaces, community centres, public administration, cultural buildings, sports centres, leisure centres, libraries, art schools, ... to the amount that one can even argue if Nazareth is a city or just a large group of inhabited buildings. This of course is the result of a total absence of public projects or investments. All the more shocking is the fact that this problem of absence of any public resources is extreme, since Nazareth is considered an Arab city to the Jewish Authorities, but a Jewish city to the rest of the world - thus even failing to apply for support of the international organizations that have projects running in the Palestinian Territories. During our investigation it struck us that the Nazareth condition seemed not so different - set apart the specific issues - from a problematic condition we meet in our European cities: the often neglected outskirts, ‘banlieus’, the 19th century belt. The urban condition is the result of an enormous growth with new inhabitants, with little or no interest of the government, resulting in a complete lack of public infrastructure necessary to sustain a community. The combination with a difficult or at least complex identity - Arab Jews, Belgian-Moroccans - has led to a camp-like situation: most activities are concentrated on the daily life, long term ambitions or realisations seem impossible or naive. But over the last decades, the academic world has done thorough investigations on strategies to tackle this situation of the 19th century belt, and in some cases we see Authorities applying these strategies with results. They are based not on large-scale master plans, but on the contrary, they start from strategical, small scale, very specific actions with a maximum of result. And yes, these actions contain a certain voluntaryism or naivety if you want. But it’s a conscious naivety, well aware of the problematic conditions but nevertheless aiming for improvement and change. In this same spirit, we hope that the result of this studio - Fragments of a Regenerated Nazareth - may be useful to distillate strategies for improvement and development of the city of Nazareth.

Jan Mannaerts, copromoter Studio Nazareth


16 Nazareth

From left to right: Nick Verbeeck, Heidi Stroobants,Yacob Nweisser, Paul Mertens, Sofie Vaasen, Anton Draye, Piet Noben, Pascaline Lannoo, Tom Berghmans, Matthias Steenackers, Thomas Willemse, Ez Daher and Samer Hakim


STUDIO NAZARETH Studio Nazareth is a design studio working around the theme ‘Complex - Complex’. During this studio each student tries to identify tools on how to deal with complex programs in a complex urban context. The purpose of the following introduction is to demonstrate the complexity and interest of the researched area. The studio is a cooperation with the Israeli university of Technion. Ten Belgian and ten Israeli students worked together for one year on complex projects in Nazareth and its surroundings. The aim was a strong interaction between both groups that allowed to compare each other’s perceptions. Looking from the outside in can provide additional insights that aren’t normally perceived. Even throughout the several months we were separated by thousands of kilometres, we stayed in contact, be it via Facebook or email, when we had some questions, the students of Technion were of real help to us all. The rendezvous at the end of April at our university, provided some interesting feedback by presenting our temporary projects to each other and re-stimulate the discussion on Nazareth.

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4 Nov Dome of the Rock

3 Nov Arrival at Jerusalem

5 Nov Western Wall

6 Nov Beach wa lk

Tel Aviv

9 Nov Ha誰fa

12 Nov Michael

8 Nov r at Sudfeh Dinne

11 N Sushoi v d

inner

10 Nov First look at project site

14 N Groupov meetin

g

18 Nazareth

17 Nov Site measuring

15 Nov Ridge

16 Nov Night photograph y

20 Nov wake-up... Jerusalem - early

19 N Tiberiov as

21 Nov Jericho

22 Nov Neot Hakikar


LEBANON

SYRIA

7 Nov Tel Aviv tour

v l Abunofal meetin

g

ISRAEL

13 Nov City Analysis...

JORDAN

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18 Nov Dinner at Ez’s

23 Nov ea Dead S

EGYPT

Travel journey


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GENERAL ANALYSIS

CONTEXT23 SITUATING NAZARETH 23 HISTORY OF SHIFTING MAJORITIES25 COMPLEXITY27 TOPOGRAPHY27 INFRASTRUCTURE31 URBAN MORPHOLOGY 33 SOCIAL TENSIONS 34 NAZARETH & NAZARETH ILLIT 35 MIGRATION FLOWs 37 POTENTIAL FOR TOURISM 39 TOURISM IN Nazareth 39 Origin of current tourism 40 Nazareth 2000 41

The content of this general analysis is based on the work done in co-operation with all other students of Studio Nazareth. The chapter deals with the context and complexity of the city in several aspects, such as shifting majorities, topography, urban morphology, social tensions from several points of view and the potential for tourism in Nazareth.


22 Nazareth

From left to right: Mediterranean area, Israel, Nazareth and surroundings, Nazareth, Paulus Street region


CONTEXT SITUATING NAZARETH

Nazareth is centrally located in North-Israel, twenty kilometres of the occupied Palestinian area. It’s the capital city of the Northern District. The population consists of circa 65 000 inhabitants, of which 31,3% are Christian Arabs and 68,7% are Muslim Arabs, making it the biggest Arab city in Israel. The population density of Nazareth is 4666 people/km2 compared to 1322 people/km2 in the adjacent Natzerat Illit. 2, 3

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24 Nazareth

Jewish territory

1918

1936

1947


HISTORY OF SHIFTING MAJORITIES Throughout history, Nazareth’s growth was mostly influenced by long foreign dominances. At the end of the eighteenth century, Palestine was under control of the Ottoman empire. Nazareth had a population of approximately 1.500 inhabitants, mainly consisting of Muslims. Christians survived during the Muslim dominance because they were defined in the Koran, together with the Jews, as ‘people of the book’ and were granted protection in return for the payment of the Jizya tax. In the nineteenth century, the Ottoman empire had an open policy towards the western powers in general and Christians in particular. Following this ideology, many religious orders got the opportunity to settle in Palestine. The towns of Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth had a biblical interest and an increased grow. In Nazareth, the proportion of Christian immigrants increased to 68% and the village became the most important centre of Palestinian Christians in Israel. 4 During this period Nazareth’s major occupations were commerce, light industry and tourism. In 1875, the Templers completed a carriageway from the port of Haifa to Tiberias through Nazareth. This accelerated the town’s development, securing its place as the main commercial centre in Galilee.5 After that, Nazareth became an administrative centre during the British rule, reinforcing its position in Galilee even further. In the period following World War 2, Zionism ideology led to conflicts on Palestine territory. Nazareth was one of the few Palestinian towns where inhabitants stayed during the war of 1948, and it absorbed considerable numbers Palestinian refugees. This caused the ethnic proportions of the town to shift again. By now the Muslim community consists of approximately 60% of the town’s population. 6 Nazareth is situated in a closed-in valley, the steep slopes limit its urban expansion. Because of this, growth was always coupled with an increasing shortage of land. After the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948, some 300 Jewish settlers, who were often employed by the government, settled on a hill near Nazareth. A high spot was chosen to keep an eye on Palestinian Nazareth and to make the settlement easier to defend. The new town was called Natzerat Illit and was a direct continuation of the military conquest of Israel. Following this event, the shortage of land was even more problematic. This resulted in a stagnate growth and complex social consequences. 7 Nazareth’s history is rich, complex and layered. Several places and monuments in the city possess an important significance for the different cultures and religions. For now they find each other in coexistence. There is however a permanent tension which shows in the revolts between Christians and Muslims following the plans of Nazareth 2000. On another note, the religious significance for a lot of communities over the world makes Nazareth attractive to international visitors. At this time the touristic infrastructure is very limited, and the city faces spatial challenges to implant new functions and facilitate big amounts of tourists without losing its own character. 1960

The continuous social tension makes it a good showcase for a complex, multicultural urbanity, where architecture has to take the many meanings for the different residents into account. 8

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26 Nazareth

Model of Nazareth on 1:1000


COMPLEXITY

TOPOGRAPHY In the open space surrounding Nazareth there are differences in land use, with large scale agricultural activities in the south of the city and more dispersed activities to the north. The main explanation of this difference is the topography of the landscape. Nazareth lies in a transition area between mountainous land to the north and a valley to the south. This difference in land use can also be explained by means of a geological study.9 The northern part mainly consists of chalk, marl and limestone grounds from the Paleocene and middle Eocene, while the southern part exists of mainly alluvium gravel sand and clay from the quaternary. The latter grounds are more suitable to agriculture; hence the large scale activities in this region. The image on the opposite page shows a view to the north of the model our Studio made of Nazareth on scale 1:1000. It clearly highlights the strong topography typical to the city, with each layer representing 5m of height. The total model has a dimension of 1,2 by 1,8m, giving us the opportunity to really understand the complexity of the landscape. From left to right: Open space, topography, geology

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Historical growth, based on a scheme by Yacob Nweisser 10 28 Nazareth

This specific topography also leads to the fact that Nazareth itself is situated in an open bowl broadening to the south of the city. Throughout history, the city expanded from historical centre on the slope of the mountain to the ridge, into the pit of the bowl and continued on the opposite mountainside in search for new open spaces for future developments (phases of scheme above: 1868 - 1914 - 1930 - 1946 - 1976 - 1982 - 1994). Nowadays this tendency is clearly visible in a distinct layering build-up of Nazareth, resulting in a very dense urban fabric spreading all over the bowl. Everywhere you go in the city, you can see the opposite side of the bowl being completely built up, which enhances the feeling of being enclosed, one of Nazareth’s so-called main problems. The strategic town planning of Natzerat Illit (translated as upper Nazareth) to the northeast of the city has retained this spread to the higher grounds. The top of the mountains have become the place for new iconic buildings like the municipality building of Illit, overlooking the old Arab city down in the valley.


Topography

This gradient tries to clarify the specific topography. The dark zones form the mountain ridge and the intense white below form the valley. This mountain ridge defines one of the borders of the built space and the urban sprawl, the other one being Nazareth Illit. The strong topography also has its influence to the infrastructural planning of the city. The main roads of the city, like Paulus Avenue for instance, mainly follow the natural contour lines as much as possible, creating relatively flat and accessible roads, but perpendicular to these are the very steep alleys, sometimes only accessible to pedestrians because of the huge difference in height. The main streets are therefore creating some kind of parallel infrastructure interconnected with a mesh of precipitous shortcuts.

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30 Nazareth

New tunnel on route 60 to the south


INFRASTRUCTURE The main vein through the city is the ‘Tawfiq Ziad - Paulus’ Axis. It follows a logical almost flat path in the topography. This street has a very lively atmosphere and is mostly used by locals. All the main activities such as restaurants, shops and bars are located around this axis. The Old City has an opposite atmosphere. Most of the shops are closed. Only around the touristic axis crossing the Old City, the ‘Pilgrim’s Route’, we find some activity. The main problems of the ‘Tawfiq Ziad - Paulus’ Axis are, the traffic jam caused by both pedestrians and cars and insufficient clearly marked parking areas. Due to new infrastructural developments, the main axis shifted from the original main road, Paulus Street, to the Tawfiq Ziad Street and a part of the Paulus Street. These new developments were implemented to improve the congestion of Natzerat Illit in the first place, but they can be used to improve Nazareth’s infrastructure as well. The new ring road is strongly linked with the road network of Natzerat Illit, but has the potential to support the road network of Nazareth. The construction of a new highway, Route 60, and a Tunnel (picture on opposite page) connects both Nazareth Illit and Nazareth with Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. From left to right: Paulus Street, new ring road + route 60, link to Paulus Street via Tawfiq Ziad

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32 Nazareth


URBAN MORPHOLOGY The different human settlements in Israel have a very specific process of formation and transformation. On the regional scale the distinction between the old Arab villages and the new settlements is clear in the lay-out of the city cores. The Arab villages are characterised by their chaotic street lay-out around a denser built city centre, whereas the new settlements show a clear and rational build-up without centre. The map shows that all of these villages have a big coherence with large open spaces in between, unlike the frequently used ribbon development and isolated buildings in the Flemish countryside. As already mentioned, since the establishment of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948, the city of Nazareth grew very fast. The city could not adapt adequately to the many refugees from surrounding Arab villages. Nazareth became very dense: the population density is 4666 people/km2 compared to 1322 people/km2 in the adjacent Natzerat Illit. The city grew concentric and without planning. The only physical barriers were those of the topography and of the newly established Jewish settlement in the east, Natzerat Illit.

Nazareth has the size of a city, but lacks sufficient urban infrastructure. Important functions that support urban life (beside the touristic ones), such as open public space, cultural facilities, are missing as well. The road network can not cope with the enormous traffic jam. The growth of the city and the visions on its future are mostly following a strategy of expansion instead of infill. This is an Arab adaptation of the Jewish/Zionistic strategy of colonization seen in the different Jewish settlements in the vicinity of Nazareth. Most of the new projects for the city are located at the periphery of the city. While in the core of the city (the Old City and Paulus street) we find a lot of space for future development, now private and inaccessible, but in the future may be part of the whole urban fabric (‘blindspots’).

Left: Nazareth, Belgium / Right: Nazareth, Israel Leftmost: Built space in the surroundings of Nazareth

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SOCIAL TENSIONS

34 Nazareth

Mixture of Arab and Jewish souvenirs in Nazarene shops


Jurisdictional borders of Nazareth and Nazareth Illit

NAZARETH & NAZARETH ILLIT Nazareth’s transformation from a small nucleus to a town began slowly. It was only in the 19th century that it started to expand strongly onto the hilltops and into the valley. Due to the extreme topography, this mainly resulted into a densification of the urban fabric instead of a further expansion. Nazareth became the largest city and centre of the Arab agglomeration situated in the Northern district. After 1948, it became the only region with a majority of Palestinian citizens in Israel. Israeli and Jewish social anthropologist Dan Rabinowitz describes the Palestinians citizens of Israel as a ‘trapped minority’. ‘The Palestinian citizens of Israel are marginal twice over, living in a double bind. Citizens of Israel, they are members of a racialized minority perceived by many Israelis as potentially disloyal and subversive – an adequate excuse for Israel and Israelis to keep them at bay for almost fifty years. Currently representing one-eight of the entire Palestinian people, the Palestinian citizens of Israel are implicated by their residence, acculturation, and citizenship in Israel, and find themselves marginalized by their parent ethnos too. [...] A segment of a transnational group existing as an isolated minority within a state dominated by others, the Palestinian citizens of Israel are ‘Arabs’ for Israelis and ‘Israelis’s for Arabs. They are, as it were, trapped between their host state and their absent, scattered nation.’ 11 Because of this dual exclusion, Nazareth finds itself in a complex political and social situation. Their connection with Palestine is obstructed in many ways by the Israeli government. However, they are not considered as full citizens of the Israeli state, since they don’t enjoy the same rights as Jewish citizens. This position of a trapped minority can be experienced in the way Nazareth is connected to the West Bank. Public busses, the only means of transport in and out of the city, are not allowed to travel there. Nazareth’s public infrastructure is completely oriented towards Haifa and Tel Aviv. In this predominantly Arab region, Natzerat Illit was founded in 1954. Its development is one of the key acts for the state’s plan of ‘Judaizing’ the Galilee. Its name can be understood both literally and figuratively. As it is established on a hilltop east of Nazareth, the new Jewish town is literally overlooking the Arab city. To demonstrate the Jewish sovereignty to the Arab population, the aim was to build a purely Jewish town in the Arab Galilee, that would suppress Nazareth numerically, economically, and politically.

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Immigration 36 Nazareth

Blindspots and Abandonment

France

Blindspots

Greece

Abandoned Sites

United Kingdom Ottoman Italy Soviet Union


MIGRATION FLOWs Due to the topography and the strategic location of Natzerat Illit, Nazareth lacked room to expand. At the same time, the town was swollen with internal refugees. In combination with the severe financial crisis, caused by unequal allocation of state resources to local Palestinian authorities, Nazareth became one of the most expensive real-estate in northern Israel. The first twenty-five years Natzerat Illit grew steadily, corresponding to the waves of immigration into Israel from Central Europe, South America and the Soviet Union. Each wave of immigrants was followed by new residential compounds, financed by the central government. The projects were often from mediocre quality. After this period of growth, a lot of Natzerat Illit residents left because of the economical crisis after the war of 1973. The growth became negative by mid 1980. However, the decisions about building new accommodations were already made. This resulted in new residencies with higher building standards, tempting old residents to leave there flats and releasing a lot of older properties on the market. This resulted in low real-estate prices following the negative growth. The contrast with the neighbouring Nazareth, where real-estate prices were steady, became dramatic. By the late 1970s, the substantial disparity between heavy demand and poor supply turned Nazareth into one of the most expensive real-estate markets in northern Israel. Unable to afford to build or buy apartments and homes in their community, Nazarene couples began to rent and buy in Natzerat Illit. 12 Nowadays, the situation is slightly different. While Natzerat Illit is enjoying all kinds of state support, Nazareth is mainly autonomous, depending on its tourism and pilgrimage. The lack of financial resources made the city unable to adapt its fabric and infrastructure to the growing needs of its expanding population. That results in some major problems such as a lack of urban facilities, a badly accessible old Arab city centre, a permanently congested main street, the absence of green open public areas etc., while the situation in Natzerat Illit was clearly opposite. Over time, more and more civilians were attracted by the living conditions in Natzerat Illit. While in the 1970s the main incentive was the more favourable real-estate market, today it is mainly a search for space and modern infrastructure such as the sufficient provision of parking places and gardens that seem attractive. By now, a migration into Natzerat Illit seems more logic to many than to stay or to search for an appropriate location in Nazareth. Nazareth has lost much of its former attractiveness. The number of vacant or abandoned lots and buildings is still growing, what definitely makes the situation worse . Especially in the old city centre, the situation is problematic with entire clusters of abandoned houses and many closed shops on the Pilgrims route. But the abandonment is unfortunately widely spread over the entire city. Although this entails many problems, it can be seen as a unique opportunity to revitalize the city of Nazareth.

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5

6

4 3

2 1

38 Nazareth


POTENTIAL FOR TOURISM TOURISM IN Nazareth The touristic interest of Nazareth is based on its status as an holy city to Christianity. According to Christian faith, the angel Gabriel informed Mary in Nazareth of the birth of Christ: the Annunciation. It is where Joseph the Carpenter worked and where Jesus spent his childhood. In Jesus’ time, Nazareth was an insignificant village. The Christian traditions relating to the town have been an important factor in its development. Today, despite Nazareth’s importance to the Christian world and its position as one of the most important historic towns in Israel, the majority of the pilgrims spend only a few hours in the city. Left: Main tourist attractions of Nazareth 1 - Central Square 2 - Catholic Basilica of the Annunciation 3 - Saint Joseph’s Church 4 - Synagogue Church 5 - Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation 6 - Mary’s Well’s Square Above, from left to right: Mary’s Well, Catholic Basilica of the Annunciation, Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation

Most visits to the old city focus on three sites: the Catholic Basilica of the Annunciation and the adjacent Saint Joseph’s Church, the Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation and the Synagogue Church which is located in the bazaar. This sequence of churches creates the so-called ‘pilgrims route’ through the old city centre starting at the Central Square, where the pilgrims are dropped to visit the Basilica, via the souq, the Synagogue Church and some small squares in the Old City to the St. Gabriel Church and Mary’s Well Square. This brings them back to the main street where the bus is ready to pick them up. Thus creating a situation in which tour busses drive in and out of town, generating a major congestion on Paulus Avenue, with a typical tourist who only visits the churches without buying anything, nor dining or staying for the night in Nazareth.

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Origin of current tourism There are a number of reasons for this poor state of Nazareth’s tourism despite its undisputed destination for Christian pilgrims. First of all, there is the poor infrastructure and lack of appropriate tourist services. Secondly, the isolated geographical location far from Jerusalem, which makes it less accessible for pilgrims. Last and more recently, the discriminating policy of the central government that gave preference to other tourist areas, at least until the Nazareth 2000 project. The reasons that gave rise to this typical condition of the Nazarene tourism can be found in a comparison with tourism in Bethlehem. Both towns are historically and religiously important to the Christian world and had Christian and Muslim population. Due to its geographical location fewer pilgrims were attracted to Nazareth despite the improvements in access and road transport in the 19th century. By contrast, most visitors of Jerusalem also made the trip to the nearby Bethlehem. During the 19th century many Christian institutions came to Nazareth and constructed buildings in the heart of the city, but the large number of poor pilgrims did not play an important role in the town’s economy. On top of this Bethlehem, being adjacent to Jerusalem, was in the 19th century part of the modernisation and ‘Europeanisation’ with a huge leap in terms of its economic base. Whereas Nazareth was not close to any larger city with which it could enjoy mutual relations – economic or otherwise. Nazareth became a regional centre for local villages and remained an agricultural town.

40 Nazareth

Today, Nazareth receives several hundred thousand international and Israeli visitors every year. However, only a small percentage of these visitors remain to spend the night. Besides the reasons mentioned before are geopolitical reasons, since other towns in the area, such as Tiberias and Netanya, had a preferential status to tourist development. After many years of this discrimination, Nazareth was turned into a ‘Type A’ development area in 1993, a status Tiberias had since 1963. Hotels and other tourist facilities could enjoy the benefits of being classified as ‘Approved Enterprise’, giving big hotel chains tax breaks for construction. Nevertheless, most tourists still sleep in Tiberias, with its sea view, boardwalk restaurants and Jewish majority. 13 The city’s economy doesn’t benefit from being an important tourist attraction, while it suffers from negative impacts such as traffic and parking problems. Another problem is the economic decline of the Old City. In the past the municipality has tried to change this situation, mainly with the Nazareth 2000 project. The aim of the project was to transform the city into a tourist city by renovating the Old City.14 Most hotels and tourist attractions are developed outside the historic core due to greater availability of land which further weakens the Old City. An example is the case of ‘Nazareth Village’, an ‘authentic’ first-century village simulating the time when Jesus died. On top of these issues, tourism in Nazareth is a very sensitive field. When the security and political situation passes a crisis, tourism crashes. The current approach of the municipality is to develop Nazareth in the first place for tourism and at the same time remaining a central city for the surrounding area with a stimulation of the high tech industry. But tourism remains their treasure, a way in which they can ask investments from the central government. Following this vision, the city is applying to become ‘Unesco world heritage’ and trying to stimulate the research of archaeology and history. Left: Main infrastructural connection in Israel


Nazareth 2000 As a result of a formation of a new left government in the year 1993, a peace process with Palestinians became one of the main points in the political agenda, as well as the narrowing of the developmental gaps between Arab and Jewish cities.15 The mayor of Nazareth, Tawfiq Ziad, captured this opportunity to develop a challenging urban project: “Nazareth 2000”. Named after the millennium celebrations around the 2000 years existence of Christianity, wherefore pope John Paul 2 would visit the city. With this project the Israeli government wanted to boost the status of Nazareth as a tourist destination in reaction to ‘losing’ the key Christian pilgrimage centre of Bethlehem to the Palestinian Authority under the Oslo Agreement.16 Therefore, the government, in cooperation with Nazareth Municipality and other ministries, drew up a master plan for Nazareth 2000. Seventy million dollars were invested in the city’s infrastructure, roads and renovation of the old city in the hill basin (El-Souk), all under the guiding plan of a Jerusalemite architect Arie Rahamimoff. During the biggest urban project ever undertaken in Nazareth, local architects were never consulted. In that way, the vernacular Palestinian architecture specifically characteristic of the Ottoman period was being reinterpreted, and perhaps misinterpreted. This wasn’t the reason why on December 1997 a dispute developed between the Christian and Muslim residents of Nazareth. The Muslim community was agitated by the plan to build a central square that would make a direct connection to the church of Annunciation. Between the church and the designed square, there is a Muslim Shrine of Shihab el-din, nephew of Saladin. As a response to the city plan, which didn’t included a proper vision for the shrine, hundreds of Muslims build up a large tent on the site and initiated a sit-in protest. On April 16, 1999, just a year before the big millennium celebrations, the dispute transformed into clashes between the two religious groups. Out of precaution of further escalations, the government had no other choice to agree with the demands to construct a mosque on the central square. This resulted in a bitter dispute between the Vatican and Israel. After an international intervention, including Presidents Bush and Putin, the government authority, accompanied by numerous policemen and soldiers, destroyed the mosque’s foundation in July 2003. 17 One of the major goals of Nazareth 2000 was to encourage tourists to stay longer in the city and spend more money. Despite improvements in basic infrastructure however, this does not appear to be happening. Mayor’s assistant: ‘Do we want Nazareth to be based solely on tourism or add something else, a major dilemma? The Nazareth 2000 project for the visit of the pope did not succeed. The physical side was very good, but the main aim to make Nazareth a centre for tourism for all over the world did not succeed. The first reason is the tension between the local and central authority, secondly a tension within the town. This interior tension was in fact politic covered with religion. We have to learn from this experience not to put Nazareth in one category to push the city forward. In the new strategic approach we want Nazareth firstly as a tourist city, but we do not want to put all our eggs in one basket. We also want to be a metropolitan city for the surrounding area and stimulate high tech. The problems with an exclusive tourism orientation where experienced during the first and second Lebanon war when there was no tourism in Nazareth. After 2007 tourism grew and now Nazareth is the first tourist city in Israel. This is not only a treasure for the local authority, but for the whole country, that is why we ask the central government to invest in the city. We want to emphasize that Nazareth is a tourist city, but also a metropolitan and high tech city.’ 18 Left: Christian souvenirs

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STRATEGIC PLAN DESIGNING A MASTER PLAN?

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STRATEGY44 City or village? 44 Centre of Nazareth 47 Fragments47 Ambitions49 INFRASTRUCTURE49 FRAGMENTS of a REGENERATED NAZARETH51

The following strategic plan could be seen as a way to tackle some of the problems previously mentioned in the general analysis. Studio Nazareth doesn’t aim at designing a master plan, but rather provide an alternative, intelligent approach, not the one and only solution though. Our vision developed throughout our stay in Nazareth and the following months of discussion in our studio in Leuven. The main objects of discussion were the strategy to be used, the infrastructural problems of the city and our ambitions as architectural designers to redevelop the city without harming and neglecting its current qualities.


44 Nazareth

DESIGNING A MASTER PLAN?

STRATEGY

Due to its political, cultural and economic situation, we believe that creating an overall master plan is a naïve and unrealistic approach to redevelop Nazareth as a city. One of the main reasons is the lack of financial support of the government for the development of Nazareth. By not granting them these financial supports, Nazareth is unable to develop itself towards a functional city. With the festivities of Nazareth 2000 however, which had an international significance, the chance was given to the city to redevelop the city centre. However, the cultural differences between different religious groups disturbed these developments and escalated, resulting in an unfinished urban master plan. Above all, expropriation is a very difficult topic for the Arab population because of the political history of Nazareth. These reasons make us believe that we have to use the opportunities present in the city to regenerate its centre.

City or village? Nazareth appears to be a large city when we look at it on a large scale. It is imbedded in a highly developed infrastructural landscape connecting Natzerat Illit, and therefore Nazareth itself, with the largest cities in Israel such as Haïfa, Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Moreover, Nazareth has grown towards the size of a small city, and is the actual centre of the only Arab agglomeration in Israel. However, when visiting Nazareth we concluded that it doesn’t function as a city. It isn’t connected with its surroundings and lacks the sufficient urban program needed. In addition, new developments always seem to aim on the pilgrim tourists that


visit Nazareth for its religious importance instead of aiming to improve Nazareth as a residential area for its inhabitants. A first aspect in our strategy is the believe that Nazareth has to be reinserted with different functions that can be used by locals and if possible, reinforce the touristic infrastructure. By designing functions that are part of an urban program serving the locals, Nazareth will become a more attractive place for people to live in. This will trigger a new wave of people moving back into the city because it can now provide this people in the contemporary requirements they need. This urban program consists of different sorts of functions; new strategies for housing, cultural functions such as conference features or activities that provide some leisure. These functions will not only serve on a local scale, but on a regional scale as well: it will start to function as a true centre of the agglomeration housing the cultural accommodations that nowadays can’t be found in the area. The urban program will stimulate urban life and attract new developments. By becoming a real city, a centre within its region, it will also emerge into a more attractive place for other tourists. Instead of only attracting pilgrims that are interested in the religious significance of the city, it will attract other types of tourism e.g. backpackers, gastronomic and cultural visitors. Above: Panorama of West Nazareth

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Centre of Nazareth When we look at the new developments in Nazareth, we see that they all take place in the periphery of the city. The Nazareth Academy or the High Tech Campus are to be build on the outskirts of town, Big Fashion is constructed near the ring road. Many of the Technion students use a similar approach. It is curious to see that a same strategy to develop the periphery is used in Flanders (or Western Europe). But there are intrinsic differences between the two approaches. Many project sites in a Flemish context are often situated in the so-called ‘19th century belt’. Most West European cities grew tremendously during the 19th century, resulting in new large-scale developments around the old historical cities. This zone contained a mix of industrial sites and housing, but missed adequate facilities and infrastructure. Nowadays, due to the translocation of the industry and the low quality of many workman districts, new projects of mixed use are planned in these belts. The European city centres on the contrary, with their slow growth throughout the centuries, are already densely build and only small open areas can be found. Large developments do not often take place here. The Nazarene strategy cannot rely on the European assumption of the city centre as being ‘developed’ or ‘solved’. As said in previous analysis, the centre of Nazareth faces serious problems including an underdeveloped infrastructure, housing issues and a lack of key urban facilities. The combination of these factors has led to depopulation of the Old City in favour of Natzerat Illit and other districts. By analysing built and planned project, we might conclude that the problems in the centre are not acknowledged or on the contrary that due to these serious issues the potential of the centre as a functioning heart cannot be seen, leaving it slowly to die. In this studio we want to emphasize the strength of the city centre. Studio Nazareth believes in a wellorganised centre, that has an important role as residential area and can provide satisfactory urban facilities on a local, regional and (international) touristic scale. The choice of the centre of Nazareth as project area is a second element of our global strategy. We narrow down the project area to sites along the two major axes: Paulus Avenue / Tawfiq Ziad and the Pilgrims Route. Paulus Avenue has been the backbone of Nazareth throughout history. New infrastructural developments as the ring road and the tunnel have caused a shift to favour the Tawfiq Ziad road above the southern part of Paulus Avenue. A new axis, combining Tawfiq Ziad and northern Paulus Avenue can today be seen as the key road through Nazareth. The Pilgrims Route was part of the Nazareth 2000 project and is the main touristic route, connecting the attractions in the Old City. Both axes are ideal places to develop new urban projects that can respond to the need for housing, facilities and improved infrastructure.

Fragments The third aspect of our strategy is its fragmentary nature. We start from different project sites and varying functional programs. Each site has its own needs, potencies, disadvantages and constraints. Each project is conceived separately, and can be implemented separately. Each project can use a different approach and design method. The main goal of each single project is to regenerate a small part of the city, by dealing with many of the city’s problems on a smaller scale. These problems include among others very explicit social, functional, infrastructural and territorial levels. By defining a well thought urban program, landscape and building on the site, each fragment can be a lever for other new developments in a wider area. The combined effect of each single project can result in the regeneration of the centre of Nazareth. The position of the individual fragments is thus crucial to involve a large part of the city centre. We defined three development poles along Paulus Avenue / Tawfiq Ziad. Each site has its strategic position: at the entrance gate at Tawfiq Ziad, at the Central Square or near Mary’s Well Square, hereby bridging most of the city centre. Other projects are situated on the Pilgrims Route, in the Old City. These fragments bring new modern life in the obsolete urban fabric of the old souq. Left: Development poles of Nazareth

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48 Nazareth


Ambitions The absence of a large-scale master plan, and the fragmentary nature of project developments make it a more realistic strategy to deal with Nazareth’s complex situation. Each fragment has a chance to succeed. If the projects were combined in a master plan, this would not be the case: objections to one fragment, or the master plan as a whole, can stop all negotiations. It is necessary to mention that other new developments are taking place in Nazareth. Examples are the Nazareth Academy, the High Tech Campus, the theatre and the town hall. All are to be build on the outskirts of town, or near the ring road. These urban projects will be constructed in the following years, and can have noticeable influences on life in Nazareth. Our own projects can be placed in line with these new developments on a programmatic level. However, it is our statement to first intervene in the city centre, before shifting to the periphery. Different fragmentary projects along Paulus Avenue can trigger other developments, resulting in a regeneration of the city of Nazareth.

INFRASTRUCTURE Although Studio Nazareth doesn’t believe in a creating a master plan, we can’t deny the fundamental infrastructural problems congesting the Nazarene city centre. We analysed the situation, and searched for solutions. One of the main problems is the constantly changing section of the road, creating different bottlenecks that slow down the traffic. Above all, the infrastructural system doesn’t have any hierarchy that regulates the traffic. Every road (although different in type and width) and every user is equally in importance. This situation creates unnecessary intersections. Our infrastructural project doesn’t aim to be the only solution nor does it aim to be an overall plan that can be implemented to solve all infrastructural problems. The main idea in this infrastructural plan is to imply the least changes possible to the existing infrastructure to create a hierarchical system that doesn’t congest the traffic. We use as much parts of the present-day traffic system as possible and implement changes that acquire the least recourses. The real backbone of the city through which the city centre is made accessible is formed by the axis Paulus Avenue / Tawfiq Ziad. On the other hand we can also use the new ring road, connecting Nazareth Illit with the rest of the Israeli cities. When we combine these two roads into a one directional loop running through the centre, the traffic in the city is reduced and the use of the ring road is intensified. This also redevelops the cities backbone into a uniform two lane wide street, creating more space for parking lots, reducing the number of intersections and giving more space to the pedestrians. In addition to this first big loop we create a secondary smaller loop by implementing the Es Salaam into our traffic system. This smaller loop is only accessible for people already in the city centre, and can be used to make small reverse movements to access different functions in the city. The open spaces and future buildings near this loop can involve a parking lot contributing to an overall parking strategy for the city centre. People can easily access parking lots situated near this loop and start their tour in Nazareth from there by foot. As a last step we also take the El Bishara in account that makes the Old City accessible. This is an important connection because when the Old City isn’t accessible anymore, more inhabitants will fleet this area, which would be in contradiction with our urban strategy. When Nazareth has been revitalized the next step could be to make the centre a pedestrian zone, which happens a lot in European cities. Left: New infrastructural proposal plan of one-way traffic along Paulus Street

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FRAGMENTS of a REGENERATED NAZARETH This studio attempts to offer a strategic approach to this complex situation by designing crucial fragments along the city’s main street in order to regenerate Nazareth from within. To the left, a city plan shows the different projects sites and below, a section through Tawfiq Ziad and Paulus Street shows the sequence of the projects along the main axis of our strategic plan. Whereas the first projects mainly tries to solve the infrastructural problems along the access roads of Nazareth, the others are situated more to the centre of the city, providing a mix of residential and cultural activities. Left: Project sites of Studio Nazareth

1 - An urban reconnection (Tom Berghmans, Pascaline Lannoo) On the Southern edge of Nazareth, the project site is altering into the main entrance towards the city centre as a result of the infrastructural developments improving access to Natzerat Illit. The concerned area, a fragment of a strategic approach to regenerate Nazareth, liberates the city from its cutting infrastructure by creating an urban reconnection and emphasizing Nazareth’s identity. 2 - Architectural opportunities around the central square (ANTON DRAYE) As a result of an urban conflict during the millennium, the central square has become an inconvenient place. A potential strategic plan can create opportunities, such as a neighbouring drop off point and a site with a cooperating architectural program. 3 - Modern housing in the old city (PAUL Mertens, PIET Noben) Our part of the studio deals with the impoverished old city centre. The primary goal is to design high quality housing projects that measure up to all modern needs. Attracting new people to move into the old city centre is the first step of its revival. We aim to redevelop some subordinated clusters into new flourishing places, each of them containing new housing units and at least one additional program (e.g. ateliers, workshops…). 4 - A social and cultural experience (HEIDI Stroobants) There is a crucial need for social and cultural development in the city. To improve the community life in the old city centre, a complex with different functions should be placed next to the pilgrim’s route. Within is a school for dance, music and theatre together with a day-care centre. This building is not only for local inhabitants, tourist will be attracted to the shop, coffee house and the youth hostel as well. The combination ‘local-tourist’ will create an interesting interaction. 5 - Tourist and local interweaving (THOMAS Willemse) A programmatic mix of tourist and local functions such as a hotel, apartments, a gym, a restaurant and a youth centre, is implemented on a node of the main street and the pilgrim’s route, generating a sequence of lacking urban spaces in this area. 5 - Urban threshold to a residential district (Nick Verbeeck) The project will cope with the unique site-specific constraints, blending urban and local activities - like a sports centre with swimming pool, library, conference centre with auditorium and an multifunctional expo hall – to meet both cultural and educational goals in a revitalized Nazareth. 51

6 - Art Academy (MATTHIAS Steenackers) Responding to Nazareth’s need for cultural and educational facilities, this fragment holds the design of an art academy, containing a gallery, classes and ateliers, and a platform for young designers. Positioned on the edge between different cultures and located near main tourist attractions, the academy tries - in relation with the adjacent planned art centre, to create a common factor for these various users involved. The aim is not only to deliver a well thought design but even more to give an impulse to an underdeveloped city centre. 7 - Art centre (SOFIE Vaasen) This project – situated on a focal point of different quarters – provides a cultural platform for all sorts of performing arts, music and visual arts and offers a new public space, embedded in the city centre.

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Research into the specific context PROGRAM DEFINITION

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Adjacent SITE SPECIFIC PRECONDITIONS87 PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

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Whereas the previous two chapters dealt with Nazareth’s political, geographical and infrastructural problems on a general level, the following analysis focuses on the site’s scale and programmatic aspects in detail. While zooming from ‘city scale level’ over ‘surrounding scale level’ to the site itself, several kinds of conditions are treated to provide the reader with a better comprehension of the site’s current status.


A û G F , Ramiz Jaraisy ,the mayor of Nazareth (literal transcription of interview). 19

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[...]One last important project I want to talk about is to built a theatre, it is not a big theatre, but with very modern facilities. I hope also in two-three months to start building that theatre. The auditorium-theatre will also serve as a conference centre in Nazareth. Almost every week in the hotels in Nazareth we have different conferences, local and from abroad coming to Nazareth because of the well known name of the city of Nazareth. [...]Another public square that we created, very near the Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation and the Fountain. All these areas which is now piazza, all these areas were roads, asphalt, so we changed the traffic around and we turned all these areas to pedestrian open piazza. It was not easy because all around were businesses, shops and so on, cars were arriving at the door of the shop and it was not easy to convince them that it will be much better for you if we will create a pedestrian open space. Millions of tourists are going to come to Nazareth so it is important to give people spaces not just for cars. Also it was not easy because of the crash at the year 2000, it was not easy to maintain what we did. But now I hope that all are admitting that what we did is the right thing to do. So we looked for every piece of land, even if it was roads to turn it to be an open space. [...] So the issue of traffic is one of the issues that we are very busy dealing with it, and not just dealing with the issue of roads. Of course projects to supply big parking. Now we have one big under construction to supply about 400 parking places in the middle of the city. It is a big building and the municipality is partner in that project with private investors. Another project that we are going to launch very soon to built another parking very close to the centre of the city in the old part of the city to supply another additional 300 parking places. Suheil Diab, the mayor’s personal assistant (literal transcription of interview). 22 [...] The strategic plan needs to incorporate Nazareth as a central city in the area. We need to modernize this town on two levels: first to modernize the staff and professional departments in the municipality and secondly to modernize the facilities in the town to be open for people from all over the world. [...]In 2010 there was the first academic conference in Nazareth with 22 researches from all over the world. [...]In the new strategic approach we want Nazareth firstly as a tourist city, but we do not want to put all our eggs in one basket. We also want to be a metropolitan city for the surrounding area and stimulate high tech. The problems with an exclusive tourism orientation where experienced during the first and second Lebanon war when there was no tourism in Nazareth. After 2007 tourism grew and now Nazareth is the first tourist city in Israel. [...]


,y Ô f r e } PROGRAM DEFINITION The program introduced by this project aims both at tourist activities as local use by the inhabitants and scholars of Nazareth. Throughout the following analysis the importance of the site itself along Paulus Street will become clear and will also justify the location of the proposed program. The development of new cultural leisure facilities throughout the city, as proposed by our Studio, will also attract new visitors to the city. The regeneration of Nazareth by means of several fragments thus attempts to address a large variety of user profiles, either local or global. The conference centre meets one of the many goals mayor Ramiz Jaraisy is trying to reach with his ambitious plans to revitalise the city of Nazareth. A central conference centre should combine the many small meeting rooms in hotels nowadays to one communal point at the heart of the city. More advanced and modern facilities with an auditorium, which can also be used for artistic performances, emphasise the importance of Nazareth as a meeting place, be it for political, religious, cultural or educational purpose. The addition of functions related to the citizens and students in the city is based on both the location of the project site, as well as the lack of amenities for sports and cultural activities. A sports centre combined with an outdoor swimming pool and a public library, can be used by students of the many schools surrounding the project site, but also by all inhabitants of the city, aiming at a better physical and cultural development. Both functions combine very well with the strong developed educational facilities of Nazareth, and are undoubtedly some added value to the rising importance of Nazareth as a well-known city of education. This part of the program also aims at providing the youth of Nazareth with some extracurricular activities, because nowadays youngsters in Nazareth tend to have the habit of just hanging around in the streets, cruising down Paulus Street with their ‘pimped’ cars. Other projects of our Studio also contribute to this goal by means of an art academy and art centre, a conservatory and a cooking school combined with several youth centres throughout Nazareth. As already mentioned in our general analysis, one of Nazareth’s main problems is the congestion of traffic along Paulus Street and the chaos of randomly parked cars in every possible way. The city’s council also acknowledges this problem and plans on creating several big parking lots, even in the old city. Our aim of safeguarding the old city from traffic jams does not correspond to that solution, but rather aims at providing sufficient organised parking possibilities along Paulus Street. The presented project also contributes to this general aspect of our strategic plan by supplying a large underground parking lot, accessible both to visitors of the library, sports and congress centre, as to local residents.

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CITY scale Thresholds

Left: Aerial photograph of Nazareth Above, upper, from left to right: Jurisdictional border, infrastructural border Above, lower, from left to right: Open space, topography

These images point up the difference between the old city to the west and the newly constructed village of Nazareth Illit to the east. Whereas the old centre is characterised by its chaotic and historic urban fabric, the new developments of Illit show a pronounced form of town planning with modern roads and housing. The jurisdictional border between these two parts is presented by the jagged line running from north to south, and is tangible in reality as the main routes (route 60 and 75) encircling the old city, surrounded by lots of unused open space, some kind of no man’s land. Together with the strategic position of Nazareth Illit, they form a real boundary to the development of Nazareth. The west and north part of the city also have to deal with steep mountainsides, impeding new developments outside the city. The strategy of our studio aims at regenerating the city by (re)developing fragments inside the centre, instead of searching for ‘extra muros’ opportunities for new projects. The topography on this scale shows that Nazareth has developed throughout history from the valley, up on the flanks of the mountains surrounding it, in search of open space. The city is characterised by this urban sprawl to higher levels, resulting in very steep streets and alleys. The planning of Illit was eventually much easier due to the more subtle change of heights on the mountains to the east of the city.

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FUNCTIONS A general view of the functions combined in the project’s program shows a distinct difference between Nazareth and its ‘upper’ part. Parking in the city is one of its main problems nowadays. The many scattered parking lots (paying) around the centre’s main Paulus street are often empty, whereas the streets are full of randomly and wrongly parked cars. Towards the border of the city, bigger spaces are available with developments like the Big Fashion shopping mall of Nazareth and another shopping centre in Illit, on the other side of route 75. Sporting facilities are also spread across the city, mainly as small, outside basketball courts, property of some kind of organisation or school, whereas Illit has some large-scale sports centres, also for indoor sporting. The project could be a counterpart of this calibre outside Illit, serving a large group of Nazarene citizens. The current library of the city is insufficiently dimensioned for Nazareth’s number of schools and inhabitants and can hence use a ‘regeneration’. Sports facilities Schools Culture Parking lots

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SURROUNDING SCALE Left: Aerial photograph of project site’s surroundings

FUNCTIONS

RELIGION

The nearby function analysis shows in more detail the many scattered parking lots and the small outdoor sports facilities. One to the east of the site is enclosed by the Baptist High School and the one on the other side of the road, on top of a roof, is property of a youth movement and only opened a couple of hours a day.

The many churches and especially Mary’s Well, an end to the pilgrim’s route that runs through the historic centre of Nazareth, characterise the religious importance of the project site’s environs.

Sports facilities Schools Culture

Pilgrim’s route

Parking lots

Religious places

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IMPORTANT BUILDINGS The following analysis of the most important buildings surrounding the project site is made in collaboration with Thomas Willemse, who works on the same site.

Left: Most important buildings in project site’s surroundings 1 - Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation 2 - Mary’s Well 3 - Friendship House 4 - Former Sakhini Café 5 - Baptist Church and Baptist Seminary 6 - Coptic Orthodox Church of the Annunciation Above, from left to right: Catholic Basilica of the Annunciation, Greek Orthodox Church of the Annunciation, Christian souvenirs

1 - Greek orthodox St. Gabriel Church 20 Two churches built in Nazareth each claim to mark the exact location of the messianic Annunciation where the Angel Gabriel appeared to Mary in fulfilment of the prophecy in Isaiah 7:14: “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will be with child and will give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel.” For Roman Catholics the apparition of the Angel Gabriel to Mary occurred within the courtyard confines of the Basilica of the Annunciation. The Basilica was constructed anew in 1969 and is labelled as the largest house of Christian Worship for Roman Catholics in the Middle East. Parallel claims of the Greek Orthodox Church locate the Annunciation in the Greek Orthodox St. Gabriel Church. Next to these two Annunciation sites, there are also two, or even three, wells where it is said the Virgin Mary, accompanied by the child Jesus, drew water for her every day needs: one located within the enclosure walls of the Roman Catholic Basilica and a second, within the Greek Orthodox Church in the Chapel of the Spring. Both churches have been renowned tourist and pilgrimage destinations for centuries.

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2 - Mary’s Well 21 Despite the well in the crypt of the Orthodox Church, popular belief – the local Arab Christian population – connects Mary’s Well to a site, hydrologically connected to this well at Nazareth’s central spring. This is also known as the Virgin’s Fountain or the St. Mary’s Well Square. Mary’s Well is the third opening for water flowing from springs in the hilly ridges to the north of Nazareth. This water flowed to a well that united Nazareth’s spring water, then continued 16.5 meters trough a rock-cut channel into the crypt of the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Gabriel. It then passes through an underground aqueduct to reappear at Mary’s Well on the Square and to be accessible to all inhabitants. Thus water and belief align Palestine’s Arab Christian and Muslim communities. The well was the chief source for the town’s water supply, women used to draw water from the well and carry the long earthenware jars on their heads and take it home where it would be emptied into smaller jars, to be once again filled at the fountain. Due to increasing tourism and population growth, the well was surrounded by an extensive stone arch structure surrounding the well in 1862. It served as a focal point of public sociable space, as a watering spot where men and women mingle, animals and children meet, news is exchanged, and rumours circulate.

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During the British control from 1918 to 1948 the water supply was modernised. Two new reservoirs were constructed in the hills to aid Nazareth’s water supply that relied on Mary’s Well and numerous domestic cisterns. Under the British Mandate in 1926, a concession was granted to the Jewish-owned Palestine Electricity Corporation to exploit the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers for electricity. This transaction – known as the ‘Rutenberg Concession’ – had far reaching consequences. The transaction and the Palestine Electricity Corporation functioned as a pre-state, de facto ministry of agriculture and water. Large-scale water projects were undertaken during the British Mandate to sustain primarily the Jewish sector at the expense of the Arab population. This shows the core aspects of the segregated Jewish economy but also the ways in which the British rule aided the formation of lasting structural forms and institutions that produced self-government for the Jewish sector. Thus, the Christian wells were replaced by incompatible, unequal ethnically divided water systems, already two decades before the Nakba – the Arab-Israeli war of 1948. This groundwork for the separate Jewish and Arab social services was in fact laid by the British and reduced the use of Mary’s Well as Nazareth’s primary water source. These modernisations and the introduction of piped water for household needs diminished women’s presence in public spaces and transformed the female dominated Mary’s Well Square into a ‘masculinised‘


space of sociability with many outdoor cafés. By the 1920s the area around Mary’s Well was populated by cafés for educated, male Christians, rather than Muslims. Today, most do not longer exist. For example, the Jneinah Café in the vicinity of Mary’s Well was forced to close in 1968 and had to move across the street due to malfunctioning, incompetent municipal works which cut the water supply to the café, but also to Mary’s Well. In the 1970s, the structure of Mary’s Well was replaced by a far taller, new architectural structure. It was afterwards again rebuilt in the context of ‘Nazareth 2000’ – the redevelopment of the Pilgrim’s Route for the year 2000 festivities accompanied by the Pope’s visit – to return to the long, low former fountain. These drastic measures were taken to eliminate confusing the pilgrims, who are directed to the interior well in St. Gabriel’s Greek Orthodox Church crypt, away from the exterior square well of the popular belief. ‘The community supported replacing the structure, because then pilgrims and tourists could note that because of its newness it was not a traditional site. Farah, [the general secretary of the Greek Orthodox Christian Council, the lay organization of Greek Orthodox Christians in Israel] took action to further ensure that pilgrims visited the correct site by personally cutting the pipes leading down to Mary’s Well. Hygiene was also a factor in redirecting the flow. The pipes were not under anyone’s control and the cleanliness of the water could not be controlled as it now can within the church.’ 22

In 1957 Natseret Illit – Jewish Upper Nazareth – was constructed northeast of the city. From the higher grounds of Upper Nazareth, pollutants – such as untreated hazardous household, industrial, and agricultural sewage water - leaked into the groundwater, flowing all the way down to the city centre. In 1989, the Greek Orthodox Council was forced to connect the remaining well in the church to Israel’s main piped water system. The water threat from Jewish Israeli hydraulic and environmental practices, together with the distaste by the municipality for practices exemplified by pilgrims praying at Mary’s Well, also meant the end of the well as a meeting place. Nowadays, after the redevelopment of Nazareth 2000, the square has in the first place become the starting point of the Pilgrim’s Route. The square is a relatively calm area with benches covered and shaded by the foliage of olive trees next to the noisy junction of the Paulus Avenue with its continuous traffic jams.

From left to right: Women fetching water from Mary’s Well Male occupation during British Mandate Mary’s Well in 1898, 1973, 2006

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3 - Friendship house 23 The increasing importance and influence of the communist party Rakah in 1970s Nazareth led to the development of the so-called ‘Friendship house’, a combination of offices with public functions like shops, a youth centre, etc. Architect Michael Abunofal’s design was only partially completed in 1975, the time Rakah won the municipal Nazarene elections. With the appointment of Tawfiq Ziad as new mayor of Nazareth, the victory of Rakah also meant the beginning of a significant re-emergence of the Arab population. What once should have been one of the new catalysts in an obsolete city centre, has become a derelict site along the city’s main street. The last occupied office was used by the 80-year-old architect of the building and his assistant.

From left to right: Scheme based on a sketch of the friendship house by Michael Abunofal Friendship house in current state Former Sakhnini Café with Mary’s Well Square behind it Coptic Orthodox Church of the Annunciation

Closed shops, broken windows, scattered publicity panels, mouldy walls and piles of illegal dumping, all signs of long-time neglect and vast aggravating conditions of the building, even so bad that the two architects had to leave the place, due to safety prescriptions, two months after we visited them.


4 - former Sakhnini café 24 On the opposite side of the Friendship house, on a mound inside the excavated project site, the vacancy of the former Sakhnini café emphasizes the desolate character in contrast to the vividness of Mary’s Well on the opposite side of Paulus Avenue. From 1945 to circa 1960 the Sakhnini was one of the main cafés in the Greek Orthodox quarter around Mary’s Well, later became the communist party’s headquarters and has been vacant for some years now. Baptist church and Baptist seminary

5 - Baptist church and Baptist seminary 25 The Nazareth Protestant Baptist Church was founded in 1926 and still stands today, it is referred to as ‘the modern church’ within the Association of Baptist Churches in Israel (ABCI). In 2011 the Israeli Baptists celebrate 100 years of Baptist work in the Holy Land. One of the main establishments of the ABCI was the reopening of the Nazareth Baptist School (NBS) in 1949, which had been closed since the eruption of World War 2 in 1940. The school, founded in 1937, moved to its current buildings in 1960, combining both Primary and Secondary school into one location. 6 - Coptic orthodox church of the annunciation 26 The Coptic community, an ethnoreligious group of Egyptian Christians originated around the 1st century, found its way to Nazareth by the end of the 19th century. In 1952 they established their Coptic Church of Annunciation, following the example of many other Christian fractions in Nazareth.

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TOPOGRAPHY The more detailed contour lines show that the project site is somewhat enclosed by a bowl a half-open bowl, a fact which counts for almost whole Nazareth. A section through the site from north to south shows the closed character to the northern mountains, in contrast to the valley to the south of the city. The perpendicular section demonstrates the enclosure on both sides. This specific topography translates into two very different panoramas on the city, one wide view over the valley, opposite to the distinct layer build-up on the steep mountainsides. The layer in front shows the current state of the project site, an abandoned pit, along Paulus Street with its bustling traffic, while the background is completely taken by residential districts climbing up the mountains. Left: North-south section West-east section Total topography Above: Openness of the valley Leftmost: Scheme depicting the layered buildup

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SHORTCUTS Another consequence of the specific topography of the site’s surroundings is the layout of the streets. The main roads, as the Paulus Street in the middle mostly follow the contour lines, resulting in relatively flat and accessible streets. The perpendiculars to these main roads result in very steep alleys, sometimes inaccessible to cars, and create a network of shortcuts throughout the city. A network that can be continued on the project site, connecting the residential area to the south of Paulus Street to the northern, more public areas like Mary’s Well Square. Leftmost: Network of shortcuts around project site Left: Tunnel shortcut north of the project site

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THRESHOLD The difference between both sides around the project site along Paulus Street is very noticeable in the urban fabric. This analysis of two typical fragments shows the dissimilarity in open space. It’s even more perceptible when we exclude the enclosed private open spaces, 48 to 72% of open space in this case. We can conclude that the project site is situated on some kind of fracture, a threshold between public and residential activities.

Left: Adjacent urban areas Above: Built space in selected fragments

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Moskubiyeh

Church of the Annunciation

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PUBLIC SPACES

Built space In the old city centre you can find bigger connected building volumes, whereas the size of the individual buildings at the border of the city centre become smaller. On this scale you can also start to see some notable buildings, such as the Church of the Annunciation and the Moskubiyeh.

From left to right: Aerial photograph of Paulus Street region Built space Open space Main squares along walked route through old city centre


Open space

SQUARES

The inverse of the built space shows all uncultivated space and the map creates the clear distinction between the very narrow streets and alleys of the old city and the bigger open spaces which are located very near to this centre, such as the garden of the Church of the Annunciation or the large Islamic cemetery. Other large black blots represent parking lots or other enclosed areas which prevent the experience of this openness in the city. Near the borders of the city the size of the uncultivated open spaces increases.

Something that struck us instantly when we analysed the public squares is the lack of large traditional open spaces in the old city centre. We did find a lot of different smaller squares with a kind of vernacular architecture and a tendency to transform the public exterior space to a more intimate interior (shopping) space. The claiming of the street and the covering of the streets and squares are the mayor and most striking elements of this transformation. Another sub category that can be defined are the large open tourist squares which were designed for tourists and because of the religious connotation and lack of connection with vernacular architecture aren’t used and appropriated by the locals.

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1 - Mary’s Well Square

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5 - Olive Tree Square

6 - Abandoned Square

ATMOSPHERES 7 - Residential Square in Upper City

8 - Grocery Market

9 - Market Crossroads

The ‘soundscapes’ of the different squares along the pilgrim’s route give a nice image of the prevalent atmospheres(see left page). Each fragment shows a sound recording of about 1 minute between 11 and 12 AM and represent a city at work. The images also picture the difference in activities and hence the consistency with the soundscapes. Whereas the public squares along Paulus Street and inside the busy market are full of people an noise, the abandoned and residential squares are the exact opposite of this. The project site, situated across Mary’s Well Square is therefore one of the city’s main open squares full of liveliness. Leftmost: Soundscapes Left: Panoramic pictures of squares

10 - Central Square

Above: Sequence of squares

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Left: Day and night panoramic pictures of old market and Mary’s Well Square Right: Day and night soundscapes of the same squares


Time of day The use of open spaces constantly changes throughout the day, making the previous analysis only applicable for the moment we’ve been there. To take this into account we also visited most of them between 7 and 8 PM. For example the narrow streets of the market place, with all the merchant’s goods claiming the street during day, suddenly become a real open space, but totally deserted after closing time and perceived as a dangerous place to hang out at night, even for Nazarenes. The two soundscapes of Mary’s Well Square now show that the square is even alive when darkness falls. The traffic along Paulus Street being the largest contributor.

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SITE SPECIFIC PRECONDITIONS The following site-specific preconditions are of major importance to the approach of the design. The curvature Paulus Street makes around the site provides a very pronounced border on one hand, while the others sides are more straightforward. This bend follows the contour lines of the landscape and is hence almost a natural limitation, translated into an infrastructural one. The difference in traffic between ‘front and back’ of the site is obvious in the use of the surrounding streets. The busy Paulus Street with its active movement of cars, buses and pedestrians on one side, while the other one is enclosed by the less busy Derech E Salam and its adjacent side streets with a residential appeal. According to our overall strategic plan, both main streets are one-way traffic, trying to avoid unnecessary congestions.

According to the neighbouring functions, a variance in public/private atmosphere is also very noticeable. The private housing districts with their private character border right to the edge of the project site, combined with semi-private functions like a school for local inhabitants. The public appeal of the other side of the road is caused by tourism and strengthened by the artificial layout of the Mary’s Well Square. The corresponding bus stop on the project site makes the connection to the Pilgrim’s route along the Orthodox Church all the way down to the Basilica of the Annunciation. The project’s aim is to blend both educational and residential needs together with the cultural and tourist activities of Nazareth. The contour lines (per 1 meter) once again show their inevitable presence in a section through the project site, a significant difference in height of about 6 to 7 meters.

From left to right: Paulus Street curvature, Surrounding street, Private/Public, Link to pilgrim’s route, Linked functions, Topography

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SITE EXPANSION When we examine the project site, Paulus Street shouldn’t be an insurmountable border, but rather some kind of vein running through a bigger picture created by the adjacent buildings. This way Mary’s Well Square and the site enclosed by Paulus Street and El Bishara also become part of this bigger frame, consisting of three regions delineated by their surrounding infrastructure. Mary’s Well Square will remain in its current layout, but the other two will be redeveloped in the proposed project.


Enclosedness

When we look at the degree how the neighbouring buildings enclose these regions, the main project site can use some kind of buffering zone to the houses along the east and south border, while the border along Paulus Street retains his public and open character due to the position of Mary’s Well Square. The thicker the black border on this scheme, the more enclosed you are on each side. This also emphasises the current open character of Mary’s Well Square, a quality which will remain in the new design.

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Adjacent SITE SPECIFIC PRECONDITIONS This adjacent site also has its site-specific preconditions or constraints. The site is completely enclosed by a U-turn made by the busy Paulus Street running to the north and the El Bishara running to the south. It is positioned between residential and commercial functions to the south and west, while the north of the site can be intensely linked to the nearby Mary’s Well. To the east of this site lies the other project site which will provide mainly cultural functions. The specific form of this lot gives rise to a challenging approach of planning, mainly because of its (lack of) width, varying from 22 to only 15m (sidewalks included), combined with a length of nearly 64 meters. As the surrounding roads follow the contour lines of the local topography, the difference in height between the eastern and western border of the site is nearly 4 meters. A residential building with ground floor commercial functions adjoins the south of the project site, needing some buffering distance to safeguard the openings in this building’s facade. The specific narrowing form can be schematised by two converging lines, intersecting at Mary’s Well, a characteristic used in the new design to interact with this opposing important square. From left to right: Street curvature, Surrounding street, Linked functions, Site’s specific form, Topography, Narrowing of site

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PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS Nothing can compare to the visiting and experience of the site itself, but these following pictures will try to clarify and visualize some of the preconditions and characteristics previously stated. The image above shows the main project site, seen from the old friendship house. Down in the pit you can see the former Sakhnini CafÊ and the open space, scarcely and chaotically used as a public parking. The second image pictures the adjacent project site, seen from the west. To the left, you have Mary’s Well Square, while a residential building is bordering the site to the south. The important difference in height is also visible for both sites.

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The current retaining wall gives the pit a very massive, concrete look and clearly shows the difference in height between Paulus Street and ground level of the main project site. Nowadays, the zone bordering the residential area is already used as a parking lot/playground for children, which still has the appeal of an unfinished working yard of the friendship house. This will remain the ideal place to make the connection to the residential districts.

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Mary’s Well is definitely one of Nazareth’s main attractions for tourism, especially because it is not claimed by any religious organisation in contrast to the abundance of churches in the city that claim the annunciation. The auditorium of the conference centre can point up this iconic identity of the city by framing an image of Mary’s Well as a scenery behind the lectors and performers. A view to the south as seen today from the top of the friendship house, gives a totally different perspective to the city. The more open character to the valley and skyline accents of a minaret and the dome of the Basilica of the Annunciation clearly show the religious diversity of the city.

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The previously mentioned network of shortcuts perpendicular to the main roads as seen around the project site. The first panoramic picture shows the northern ‘entrance’ to the project site, running through the historical building bordering Mary’s Well Square. The second one shows the western pedestrian ‘entrance’, linking the project site with the pilgrim’s route by means of several stairs. 95

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Urban threshold to a residential district INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT

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CONCEPT100 UNITY100 Functions102 User Flows 104 HELIX106 FACADE112 DRAWINGS118 FLOOR PLANS 118 SECTIONS & ELEVATIONS 134

The following chapter builds upon the previous analysis to generate some conceptual ideas about the new project. By describing each of these main aspects, together with some visualisations, a better comprehension of the floor plans and sections is intended.


Meaning of THRESHOLD, according to wordnetweb.princeton.edu 27 S: (n) threshold (the starting point for a new state or experience) “on the threshold of manhood” S: (n) doorway, door, room access, threshold (the entrance (the space in a wall) through which you enter or leave a room or building; the space that a door can close) “he stuck his head in the doorway” S: (n) brink, threshold, verge (a region marking a boundary)

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Synonyms of and related words to THRESHOLD, according to Thesaurus Babylon 28 French door, archway, back door, barway, beginning, border line, bound, boundary condition, boundary line, bourn, break boundary, breakoff point, brink, bulkhead, carriage entrance, ceiling, cellar door, cellarway, circumscription, commencement, compass, confine, cutoff, cutoff point, dawn, deadline, delimitation, determinant, division line, door, doorjamb, doorpost, doorsill, doorstep, doorstone, doorway, edge, end, entrance, entrance hall, entranceway, entry, entryway, extremity, finish, floor, foyer, front door, frontier, galilee, gate, gatepost, gateway, groundsel, hatch, hatchway, hedge, high-water mark, interface, limen, limit, limitation, limiting factor, line, line of demarcation, lintel, lobby, low-water mark, lower limit, march, mark, mete, mudsill, narthex, outset, point, porch, portal, porte cochere, portico, postern, propylaeum, pylon, side door, sill, start, starting line, starting point, stile, stoa, storm door, target date, term, terminal date, terminus, time allotment, trap, trap door, turnstile, upper limit, verge


INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT The previous chapter clearly showed the importance of the site’s location in the city of Nazareth. Along Paulus Street, public functions like shops, parking and tourism all come together on a ribbon winding through the city with the project site as one of the many intermediate un(der)developed places. Its current status of almost total abandonment exposes a glimpse of a very large residential area, which apparently almost reaches to Paulus Street, but is mostly hidden behind a curtain of public functions. The project site’s condition of being on a threshold between the public and private is hence very important, and one of the main focal points of the proposed design. The mixture of the new functions like the conference centre with an auditorium, the library and the sports centre are combined into one coherent planning, structuring this large open area for both tourist and local use. The continuation of the mentioned network of shortcuts through the city will also strengthen this renewed use of the project site, making it, together with the presence of Mary’s Well Square, one of the three main development poles of the new strategic plan proposed by Studio Nazareth. As a threshold, the newly developed area will be transformed from a boundary between public and private functions to a new starting point, an entrance or foyer to both the tourist and local Nazarene activities.

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CONCEPT UNITY

PHASE ONE

PHASE TWO

The current state of the projects sites is sprinkled with scattered buildings different in size and function and lacks coherence. The main idea of the project is to create unity between the different sites, crossing the infrastructural borders like Paulus Street.

The proposed functions demand for a large building which can be integrated in the height difference of the site, avoiding an overwhelming volume in comparison to the surrounding buildings. As a strip, different zones are created: a public zone to Mary’s Well Square, and a more private, residential serving area to the south and east of the building. The narrowing connection between the two areas serves as a public/private filter (see upper plan).


PHASE THREE

PHASE FOUR

PHASE FIVE

As the building volume sinks into the topography of the site, an underground connection between the two parts, inevitably separated by Paulus Street, maintains the consistency of the whole project, together with the aligned facades.

By aligning the cross facades of both parts to Mary’s Well and by adapting to the street’s layout, a specific formal language arises. The space between serves as some kind of vestibule, as a narrowing space directing the view to Mary’s Well while driving along Paulus Street and also the place with the main entrance to the building.

By continuing the grid of trees on Mary’s Well Square and planting olive trees on the intersections where possible and appropriate, the public space to the north of the building will also be characterised by its infrastructural crossing unity. This way the scheme of enclosedness in the analysis is translated into a new open, extended square.

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Functions

Area ratio: function / specific site Volume ratio: function / project volume

LIBRARY

CONFERENCE CENTRE

The library will be the only function on the smaller site, comprising 5 floors, of which one below street level and containing the entrance to the library at the end of the underground connection. This way the library functions as an independent building.

As the function with the most public character to visitors, the main entrance and foyer of the conference centre is situated at street level with an internal connection to the restaurant, the conference rooms, the auditorium and also the sports hall, which can also serve to host large happenings in Nazareth.

Area ratio: 218% (2150m2 / 984m2) Volume ratio: 12% (7310m3 / 59089m3)

Area ratio: 27% (1456m2 / 5400m2) Volume ratio: 12% (7349m3 / 59089m3)


SPORTS CENTRE

OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL

UNDERGROUND PARKING LOTS

The large dimensions of the main sports hall (w,d,h: 28x48x10,88m) are inevitable for this function. The sports centre has its own entrance from Paulus Street to level -1 and an internal link to the gym on level 0. Together with the cafeteria, all functions are visually linked.

Thanks to the climate of Israel, an outdoor swimming pool is much more interesting than an indoor one. When placed on top of the building, the habit of using roofs for recreation is maintained and also provides some privacy to the scarcely dressed swimmers. The entrance of the pool is the same as the sports centre. The volume ratio mentioned below only accounts for the covered parts like the dressing rooms, entrance hall etc., hence the low number of only 4%.

The parking uses whole of level -2 and also a leftover part of level -1 with a direct connection to the underground passageway, the slope to street level, the library and the sports cafeteria.

Area ratio: 41% (2247m2 / 5400m2) Volume ratio: 31% (18367m3 / 59089m3)

Area ratio: 33% (1760m2 / 5400m2) Volume ratio: 4% (2457m3 / 59089m3)

Area ratio: 97% (5240m2 / 5400m2) Volume ratio: 28% (16783m3 / 59089m3)

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User Flows

TOURISTS

The several types of users of the building each have their own movement patterns or ‘user flows’.

The tourists are dropped off by the square opposite of Mary’s Well Square and follow a planned route along some little shops in the middle of the square, catching a glimpse of the activities inside the sports centre, acquiring some tourism information at the conference centre’s main desk, and continuing their route via the slope to the underground connection. By taking the stairs to street level again, their view will be immediately directed to Mary’s Well.


ACADEMICS,...

LOCALS

The visitors of the conference centre use the same drop-off point and route to the main entrance and foyer of the conference centre and are subsequently directed to their meeting location inside the building, be it the auditorium, the restaurant/reception area or one of the conference rooms.

The locals of Nazareth don’t have a clear movement pattern across the site because they go in every possible direction. The bus stop of local traffic is placed inside of the ‘vestibule’ with immediate access to the sports centre and the slope to the underground connection and library entrance. This scheme also shows the continuation of the network of shortcuts around the site.

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HELIX The expansion of the project site on the other side of the road will be the location of a new municipal library. Currently, four small buildings occupy this lingering region: a taxi post and some shops, accompanied by a little lottery stand. This chaotic and simple organization is in big contrast to the fine laidout Mary’s Well Square on the other side of the road.

Due to the big difference in height of 6 meters between the ground level of the main site’s pit and Paulus Street, the opportunity to make an underground connection between the two sites is definitely one to take. This linking would not only create an entrance to the library on the main project site, but also a safe passageway between the two sides of Paulus Street. This would continue the previously mentioned network of shortcuts.


The opposite slope movements of Paulus Street and El Bishara create a very short increase of height in section perpendicular to these streets.

This principle is repeated several times inside the library, generating a circulation helix stretched along the length of the site, making the library also accessible to disabled.

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Resulting from this particular circulation pattern, two nodes are created at both ends of the building. The one adjacent to the existing building contains vertical circulation and services, while the U-turn at the other end holds the ideal location for reading rooms with a view to Mary’s Well.

By adapting the shape of the building to the street’s layout and the overall guidelines of the total project, an aligned form which reinforces the program’s unity, is created.


By aligning the building according to the previously stated measures, the continuation of the shortcuts around the building can be achieved. To the south, a buffering zone between the library and the next building along Paulus Street creates the opportunity of some stairs connecting both streets at different levels. The northern passageway makes the underground connection between both parts of the project, allowing a secure crossing of Paulus Street, with emphasis on Mary’s Well when reaching the end of the stairs. Meanwhile, the passageway also serves as the main entrance to the library and entry to both the sports cafeteria and the underground parking.

The library’s internal circulation along the slopes is organised along the spine of the helix, safeguarding the building’s facade and permitting vistas through the concrete facade elements while wandering through the library. The two opposite slopes are each divided into 5 sections to avoid excessive slopes. This results in sequentially stacked platforms, each belonging to a different department of the library and containing either bookshelves or work islands. The method used above of cutting one of the platforms as a slope to depict the helix, will also be used in the detailed plans.

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The internal organisation of the library is based upon the continuous flow along the different slopes connecting all different departments in the building. When entering the library at level -1, the front desk is the starting point of an architectural walk along consecutively the department of multimedia, children’s literature, the youth section, the adult’s section, the magazines section and finally the study hall at the upper floor level. To enhance internal circulation and also to meet fire safety regulations, two extra staircases, of which one with an additional elevator, are placed at both ends of the building, providing a shortcut between all levels. While the southern end also contains the sanitary units, the northern facade, without direct sunlight coming in, uses the opportunity to provide an unimpeded view to Mary’s Well square, creating the ideal location for reading a book or magazine.

The study hall, located at the most silent place of the building, away from the multimedia and the children’s department and without any troublesome passing circulation at the end of the helix, also emphasises this quality. By organising several rows of desks one after another on the open consecutive platforms, the visitors can study and do some research with Mary’s Well on the background. Due to the open structural plan of the library, the proposed sequence of departments is just one of the many possibilities. With the slopes concentrated along the spine of the helix, the remaining space can be organised according to the different needs of each department. Throughout the building, an evolution of playfulness of organising the bookshelves reflects the profile of the users, varying from an organic form of the children’s section to a very rational layout of the adult’s section.

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FACADE One of the typical characteristics of public open spaces in Nazareth, and all southern climates by extension, is the habit of covering them with (worn-out) canvasses. This form of sun protection creates pleasant places to hang out with lots of shadows with an elementary but very efficient and yet inexpensive method.


When studied more in detail, the structure of the used textiles are the result of a simple weaving of horizontal and vertical threads, creating a orthogonal pattern. The same straightforward pattern with similar characteristics can be found in the structure of grass concrete pavers, a material often used to combine parking lots with greenery, mostly mosses and grass. However, when used as a vertical facade element, it has the same qualities of the canvasses of providing shadows, permitting vistas and being a very primitive element, but in this case used in an inventive way for construction.

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As a perforated facade, the concrete elements both regulate privacy, climate and views just like a typical Mashrabiya 29, an element of traditional Arabic architecture. The issue of privacy is an essential aspect of the Arabic culture which is present in Nazareth. Thanks to the refined network of the Mashrabiya, the people inside standing close to the openings have a good view of the streets without being seen, creating a private interior next to the public space outside. The pattern of the grass concrete pavers will be repeated for the solid panels which cover closed facades. This way three different storey high facade elements of 1m width are used throughout the whole project: a perforated panel, a solid panel and plain windows. The use of each of these elements depends on the adjacent rooms, whether they need privacy, shading, vistas, ventilation or insulation and also on the orientation of the building. The northern facade, being the most public oriented to Mary’s Well, gives the opportunity to create some open views in and out of the building. The restaurant on the south facade uses withdrawn windows to create an open atmosphere and a terrace, reducing the risk of overheating.

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Floor plan +1 Floor plan -2

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Floor plan +2 Floor plan -1


Floor plan +3 Floor plan 0

Floor plan +4

This spread is just an overview of the different floor plans of the project and mainly serves to show the northern parts. An underground parking claims almost whole of the main project site on level -2 and -1, with an open square, the continuation of Mary’s Well square, on ground level. Following are more detailed plans on scale 1:200 with the different sections (scale 1:200 and 1:250), combined with some visualisations.

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FLOOR PLAN -2 (-5.10m) 1/200

1 - UNDERGROUND PARKING

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121

05

-6.80


FLOOR PLAN -1 (-2.04m) 1/200

1 - FRONT DESK 2 - ARCHIVE 3 - MULTIMEDIA DEPARTMENT 4 - TECHNICAL INSTALLATIONS 5 - UNDERGROUND PASSAGE 6 - UNDERGROUND PARKING 7 - SPORTS CAFETERIA 8 - KITCHEN 9 - CARETAKER’s ROOM 10 - SPORTS HALL 11 - SPORTS CENTRE ENTRANCE 12 - FIRST AID ROOM 13 - DRESSING ROOMS 14 - DRESSING ROOMS 15 - EQUIPMENT ROOM

-3.74

-3.74

5

-3.40

1 3

2

122 Nazareth -2.04

8

4 11 -5.44

-3.74


8

-3.74

6

7

10

123

05

9

12

13

14

14

14

14

15

-3.74

-4.59


+1.02

FLOOR PLAN 0 (+1.70m) 1/200

1 - CHILDREN’s DEPARTMENT 2 - YOUTH DEPARTMENT 3 - SHOPS 4 - SPORTS CENTRE ENTRANCE 5 - FOYER 6 - FRONT DESK 7 - STAFF’s ROOM 8 - DRESSING ROOMS (M/F) 9 - GYM

-3.74

-3.74

+0.00

+0.00

2 1 124 Nazareth +1.36

4 -1.70

+0.00

+0.00

-3.74


+1.02

+0.00

3

-3.74

5 125

05

6

7

8 9

+0.00

+0.00

8

-4.59


+1.02

FLOOR PLAN +1 1/200

1 - ADULT DEPARTMENT 2 - AUDITORIUM 3 - MEZZANINE 4 - RESTAURANT 5 - STORAGE ROOM 6 - KITCHEN 7 - STAFF’s ROOM 8 - TERRACE

-3.74

-3.74

+3.40

2 +3.74

+0.00

126 Nazareth

1 +4.76

+3.74

3 +1.70

+0.00

+0.00

-3.74


+1.02

+0.00

-3.74

127

05

5 4 6 +3.74

8

-4.59

+3.74

7


+1.02

FLOOR PLAN +2 1/200

1 - ADULT DEPARTMENT 2 - INTERPRETER’s ROOM 3 - PROJECTOR ROOM 4 - CONFERENCE ROOMS (divisible) 5 - STORAGE ROOM 6 - TECHNICAL INSTALLATIONS

-3.74

-3.74

+6.80

+3.74

1

128 Nazareth

+8.16

2

+5.10

+0.00

+0.00

-3.74


+1.02

+0.00

+7.48

129 +7.48

6

5

05

3

4

+7.48

4 +7.48

-4.59


+1.02

FLOOR PLAN +3 1/200

1 - MAGAZINES 2 - STUDY ROOM 3 - WAITING ROOM 4 - STAFF’s ROOM 5 - SWIMMING POOL FRONT DESK 6 - FIRST AID ROOM 7 - RESCUER’s ROOM 8 - STORAGE ROOM 9 - GROUP DRESSING ROOM 10 - CUBICLE DRESSING ROOMS 11 - OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOL

-3.74

-3.74

+10.2

+3.74

2

1

130 Nazareth

+11.6

+8.50

+0.00

+0.00

-3.74


+1.02

+0.00

+11.2

8

11

7

6

131

05

+7.48

3

4 5 10

9

10

9

+11.2 +11.2

-4.59

+11.2


+1.02

FLOOR PLAN +3 1/200

1 - STAFF’s ROOM

-3.74

-3.74

+13.6

132 Nazareth

+14.9

1

+11.9

+0.00

+0.00

-3.74


+1.02

+0.00

+11.2

133

05

+14.9

-4.59


LONGITUDINAL SECTION L1 1/250

+14.9

+11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+1.02

-3.74

-6.80

LONGITUDINAL SECTION L2 1/250

+14.9

134 Nazareth +11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80


+15.3 +13.6

+10.2

+6.80

+3.40

+15.3 +13.6

+10.2

+6.80

+3.40

+0.00

-3.74

135

05


LONGITUDINAL SECTION L3 1/250

+15.3 +13.6 +11.9 +10.2 +8.50 +6.80 +5.10 +3.40 +1.70

-1.70

-5.44

LONGITUDINAL SECTION L4 1/250

+15.3

136 Nazareth

+13.6 +11.9 +10.2 +8.50 +6.80 +5.10 +3.40 +1.70

-1.70

-5.44


+14.9

+11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80

+14.9

137

05 +11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80


138 Nazareth

Right: Library Entrance Left (from top to bottom): Mezzanine Conference Room Sports Hall


139

05

Library Entrance


LONGITUDINAL SECTION L5 1/250

+15.3 +13.6 +11.9 +10.2 +8.50 +6.80 +5.10 +3.40 +1.70

-1.70

-5.44

LONGITUDINAL SECTION L6 1/250

+15.3

140 Nazareth

+13.6 +11.9 +10.2 +8.50 +6.80 +5.10 +3.40 +1.70

-1.70

-5.44


+14.9

+11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80

+14.9

141

05 +11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80


142 Nazareth


143

05

Left page: Shortcut to site Left (from top to bottom): Shops and view to Sports Hal Outdoor Swimming Pool Restaurant Terrace


CROSS SECTION C1 1/200

+15.3 +13.6 +11.9

144 Nazareth

+10.2

+8.50 +6.80 +5.10 +3.40 +1.70 +0.00

-1.70 -3.74 -5.44


145

05


CROSS SECTION C5 1/200

+14.9

+11.2 146 Nazareth

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80


147

05


148 Nazareth

Left (from top to bottom): Narrowing along Paulus Street Underground Passage Children’s Department in Library


CROSS SECTION C3 1/250

+14.9

+11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

CROSS SECTION C2 1/250

+15.3 +13.6 +11.9 +10.2 +8.50 +6.80 +5.10 +3.40 +1.70 +0.00

-3.74

149

05


CROSS SECTION C6 1/200

150 Nazareth


+14.9

+11.2 151

05 +7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80


152 Nazareth

Left (from top to bottom): Auditorium and slope to underground passage Interior of Auditorium Foyer


CROSS SECTION C4 1/250

+14.9

+11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80

CROSS SECTION C7 1/250

+14.9

153

05 +11.2

+7.48

+3.74

+0.00

-3.74

-6.80


06

CONSTRUCTION & details CONSTRUCTION157 MAIN PROJECT SITE 157 CONCRETE HELIX 159 DETAILS161

The following chapter deals with the construction & details on a more detailed level.


4m

10,88 m

28

156 Nazareth

3,74 m

8m

8

m

m


Level +1

Level +2

Level +3

Level -2

Level -1

Level 0

CONSTRUCTION MAIN PROJECT SITE

An overview of the load-bearing parts of the construction clearly show a rational build-up. A grid of 8 by 8 meters with 30cm x 30cm concrete columns and 40cm high beams along the south of the building is adapted according to the functions inside like the rotated auditorium and the large sports hall. The location of the outdoor swimming pool on top of this hall requires a special concrete construction rather than a traditional, slender steel construction with lightweight roof. The spacing of the trusses is therefore reduced to only 4m and each span 28m (28m x 48m x 10,88m). The opposite page gives a summary of all dimensions of the selected part above on level -1. Another consequence of placing the pool (level +3) on top of the sports hall, is the creation of an intermediate level (+2, image to the left) which serves as a general technical installation room. It provides the swimming pool with its water filtering installations and room for the two pools themselves, but also serves as a room for the central air filtering installation of the whole building. This way, air ducts can directly make their way into the underlying sports hall and surrounding conference centre. The extraction of fresh air and cooling of the installation also led to the use of perforated facade elements on this level.

157

06


5,8

2m

158 Nazareth

6m

3,1

6m

3,1


CONCRETE HELIX The construction of the library can be clarified by one simple plan, due to its repetitive, helical build-up. The narrow dimensions of the project site led to a column grid of 3,16 by 5,82m, and adapted along the kinked eastern facade to obtain an open plan with circulation slopes in the centre of the library. The shaft of sanitary and vertical circulation also contributes to the load-bearing of the library. All columns are independently placed in double to provide each stacked series of platforms with its own load-bearing construction of four columns. To span the 3,16m, a beam of 15,8cm(1/20) is required, but with a slab of 23,3cm (1/25 rule) to span the remaining 5,82m, a solid concrete floorboard of minimum 25cm with additional layers on top are used throughout the whole library. This way all the beams are ‘hidden’ inside the slabs to avoid an overwhelming image of construction parts inside the narrow library. Therefore the emphasis remains on the dynamic effect of the helical slopes.

159

06


160 Nazareth


Detail 1

+14.9

Detail 2

Detail 3

Detail 4

Detail 5

+7.48

Detail 6

Detail 7

+3.74

Detail 8

Detail 9

+0.00

+11.2

DETAILS

Detail 10

Detail 11

-3.74

-6.80

The south facade of cross section C6 will be taken as an example to clarify 11 different nodes in the facade’s build-up.

161

06


Before discussing the different details, a little remark has to be made. From our experience of building activities in Israel, there’s a huge difference in detailing to what we’re used to, due to the difference in climate and common habits. The use of simple concrete block walls with a rendering on top is very commonly used but lacks any form of thermal insulation. In agreement with all studio members though, we decided to detail on Western European standards and avoid thermal bridges, not only to raise the complexity of new technologies, but rather to state that insulated buildings also have their advantage in a hot climate, like the one in Nazareth. The facade elements are each suspended with integrated Halfen30 anchors on the concrete beams on top and are supported below with another type of anchor. By use of this system, each panel’s position can be adjusted. Where two panels meet, a joint sealing is applied on an expansion strip. The aluminium windows 31 behind the perforated elements are of a revolving type to ensure the possibility of cleaning them on the outside. The steel folding frame windows 32 inside serve a multifunctional use of the restaurant and the conference rooms. Both rooms also have an acoustic ceiling 33 for better comfort with bigger groups of people. The finishing of floors and walls is generally conducted with a polished cement screed and respective rendering. In case of wet spaces, like the dressing rooms of the swimming pool and sports hall, a tile finishing is applied on both floors and walls. The rain pipes coming from the roof are hidden behind each column and are accessible through one of the adjacent revolving windows. The gutters integrated in the floor all lead to the nearest vertical draining (max 4m).

DETAIL 2 (1:10) 4. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 8mm wall tiling 70mm x 250mm x 600mm lightweight insulation concrete block 12mm rendering

162 Nazareth

5. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 8mm floor tiling, 500mm x 500mm in 22mm mortar 110mm reinforced cement screed with integrated piping Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 70mm thermal insulation Vapour barrier Rockfon Krios acoustic ceiling

4 Dressing room (exterior)

5

6. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 140mm reinforced cement screed with integrated piping Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering 7.

Janisol Kd38.22 steel folding frame window (Jansen) Joint sealing on top

Hallway (exterior)

6

7 Conference room

Hallway (exterior)


DETAIL 1 (1:10) 1. Roof construction: Double bituminous sealing layer Lightweight concrete ramp, 1,5%, minimum 30mm 70mm diameter water drainage with leaf catcher 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering 1

2

3

2.

Halfen angle plate anchor WPA-A 70mm diameter rain pipe Prefab concrete eaves Joint sealer and expansion strip

3. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 300mm x 400mm concrete beam, integrated in concrete slab Halfen anchor HB-V in concrete beam Halfen facade element anchor FPA-5 100mm x 3730mm prefab perforated concrete facade element

Hallway (exterior)

DETAIL 3 (1:10) 3. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 300mm x 400mm concrete beam, integrated in concrete slab Halfen anchor HB-V in concrete beam Halfen facade element anchor FPA-5 100mm x 3730mm prefab perforated concrete facade element

Hallway (exterior)

6

8

9

3

Hallway (exterior)

6. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 140mm reinforced cement screed with integrated piping Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering 8.

Water drainage system ACO ‘Euroline Discreet’ Steel L profile 260mm x 150mm x 10mm

9.

Halfen push/pull housing with bolt type DS

163

06


DETAIL 4 (1:10) 7. Janisol Kd38.22 steel folding frame window (Jansen) Joint sealing on top 10. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 70mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site Rockfon Krios acoustic ceiling

Conference room

Hallway (exterior)

11

10 12

11. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 70mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 70mm XPS thermal insulation 10mm rendering 12.

Janisol Kd38.22 steel folding frame window (Jansen) Joint sealing Wooden support block

7 Restaurant

Terrace

Restaurant

Terrace

DETAIL 6 (1:10) 12.

164 Nazareth

Janisol Kd38.22 steel folding frame window (Jansen) Joint sealing Wooden support block

14. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 110mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering 15. Water drainage system ACO ‘Euroline Discreet’ 16. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 75mm reinforced polished cement screed, 1,5% slope Water drainage connection to facade gutter Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering

14

16 12 15

Gym


DETAIL 5 (1:10) 8.

Hallway (exterior)

11

Water drainage system ACO ‘Euroline Discreet’ Steel L profile 260mm x 150mm x 10mm

11. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 70mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 70mm XPS thermal insulation 10mm rendering

8

13.

Halfen push/pull housing with bolt type DS 70mm PUR thermal insulation

13

Terrace

DETAIL 7 (1:10) 16. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 75mm reinforced polished cement screed, 1,5% slope Water drainage connection to facade gutter Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering

Terrace 16

18

19

17. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 300mm x 400mm concrete beam, integrated in concrete slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation Halfen anchor HB-V in concrete beam Halfen facade element anchor FPA-5 100mm x 3730mm prefab perforated concrete facade element 17

Gym 20

18.

Water drainage system connected to rain pipes behind columns Steel L profile 260mm x 150mm x 10mm

19.

10mm safety glass baluster in steel U profile and fitting

20.

Reynaers CS68 aluminium revolving window Joint sealing on top

165

06


DETAIL 8 (1:10) 4. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 8mm wall tiling 70mm x 250mm x 600mm lightweight insulation concrete block 12mm rendering

Gym 21

21. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 70mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering

Dressing room

Hallway 4

DETAIL 10 (1:10) 4. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 8mm wall tiling 70mm x 250mm x 600mm lightweight insulation concrete block 12mm rendering

166 Nazareth

Dressing room

23

Hallway 4

24

23. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 8mm floor tiling, 500mm x 500mm in 22mm mortar 40mm reinforced cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 24. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 70mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site Parking


DETAIL 9 (1:10) 9. Gym

17. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 300mm x 400mm concrete beam, integrated in concrete slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation Halfen anchor HB-V in concrete beam Halfen facade element anchor FPA-5 100mm x 3730mm prefab perforated concrete facade element

21

22

20.

9

17

Hallway

Halfen push/pull housing with bolt type DS

21. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 70mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site 10mm rendering 22.

20

Reynaers CS68 aluminium revolving window Joint sealing on top

Reynaers CS68 aluminium revolving window Welded aluminium drip on window Joint sealing

DETAIL 11 (1:10) 9.

Hallway

17. WALL CONSTRUCTION: 300mm x 400mm concrete beam, integrated in concrete slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation Halfen anchor HB-V in concrete beam Halfen facade element anchor FPA-5 100mm x 3730mm prefab perforated concrete facade element

24

22

22. 9 17

Parking

Halfen push/pull housing with bolt type DS

Reynaers CS68 aluminium revolving window Welded aluminium drip on window Joint sealing

24. FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 70mm reinforced polished cement screed Polyethylene sheeting 10mm acoustic insulation slab 70mm PUR thermal insulation with integrated piping 250mm reinforced concrete floor, on site

167

06


07

Bibliography END NOTES

170

IMAGES171 BOOKS, ARTICLES, MAGAZINES,...

171

INTERVIEWS171

This last chapter is an overview of all resources used to construct this master thesis. A difference will be made between end notes, textual, nontextual and other references.


END NOTES 01/ ASSIGNMENT 1. DOKWERK - Nazareth 2000, VPRO, 2000, http://zoeken.beeldengeluid.nl/internet/index.aspx?chapterid=1164&filterid=974&contentid=7&searchID=72 4434&columnorderid=-1&orderby=1&itemsOnPage=10&defsortcol=12&defsortby=2&pvname=personen&pis=expressies;selecties&startrow=1&resultit emid=1&nrofresults=7&verityID=/10722/10722/10722/22521@expressies, consulted on 17-04-2011. 02/

GENERAL ANALYSIS

2. COPTI, R., Presentation ‘Coexistence in Architecture’, 09-11-2010. 3. MANNAERTS, J., VERBAKEL, E., Studio Nazareth – Israel, Assignment, K.U.Leuven, 2010. 4. RABINOWITZ, D., Overlooking Nazareth - the ethnography of exclusion in Galilee, Cambridge University Press, University press, Cambridge, 1997, pp 25-26. 5. RABINOWITZ, D., Overlooking Nazareth - the ethnography of exclusion in Galilee, Cambridge University Press, University press, Cambridge, 1997, p 28. 6. JABAREEN, Y., ‘Conceptualizing Space of Risk: The Contribution of Planning Policies to conflicts in cities, lessons from Nazareth’, in Planning Theory & Practice, 2006 (7) nr 3, pp 305-323. 7. RABINOWITZ, D., Overlooking Nazareth - the ethnography of exclusion in Galilee, Cambridge University Press, University press, Cambridge, 1997, p 28. 8. MANNAERTS, J., VERBAKEL, E., Studio Nazareth – Israel, Assignment, K.U.Leuven, 2010. 9. SNEH, A., BARTOV, Y., WEISSBROD, T., ROSENSAFT, M., Geological Map of Israel, 1:200,000., ISR. Geol. Surv. (4 sheets ), 1998. 10. NWEISSER, Y., Presentation ‘Urban Quartyard’, 09-11-2010. 11. RABINOWITZ, D., Overlooking Nazareth - the ethnography of exclusion in Galilee, Cambridge University Press, University press, Cambridge, 1997, p 13. 12. RABINOWITZ, D., Overlooking Nazareth - the ethnography of exclusion in Galilee, Cambridge University Press, University press, Cambridge, 1997, p 29. 13. MARTIN, A., DE PRENEUF, F., ‘Nazareth, on the way to Tiberias’, UNESCO Sources, 2000 nr 120, pp 11-12. 14. SHOVAL, N., ‘The Case Study of Nazareth’, Proceedings of the second international seminar of tourism management in heritage cities, 2000, pp 35-44. 15. JABAREEN, Y., ‘Conceptualizing Space of Risk: The Contribution of Planning Policies to conflicts in cities, lessons from Nazareth’, in Planning Theory & Practice, 2006 (7) nr 3, pp 305-323. 16. SROUJI, S., ‘Nazareth - Intersecting Narratives of Modern Architectural Histories’, in Third Text, 2006, 20(3), pp 355-371. 17. JABAREEN, Y., ‘Conceptualizing Space of Risk: The Contribution of Planning Policies to conflicts in cities, lessons from Nazareth’, in Planning Theory & Practice, 2006 (7) nr 3, pp 305-323. 18. Interview DIAB, S., Mayor’s assistant, 17-11-2010. 04/

170 Nazareth

research into the specific context

19. Interview JARAIZY, R., Mayor of Nazareth, 08-11-2011. 20. SLYMOVICS, S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu /journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, consulted on 10-03-2011, p.16. 21. SLYMOVICS, S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu /journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, consulted on 10-03-2011, pp.18-31. 22. Chad F. Emmett, Beyond the Basilica: Christians and Muslims in Nazareth, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1995, 83.–84 quoted in SLYMOVICS,S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu/ journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, consulted on 10-03-2011, p.29. 23. INSTITUTE FOR PALESTINE STUDIES, Rakah Victory in Nazareth, in: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 5, No. 3/4 (Spring - Summer, 1976), University of California Press, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2536027, consulted on 03-03-2011, pp. 178-180. 24. SLYMOVICS, S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu /journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, consulted on 10-03-2011, p.28. 25. MANSOUR, B., Baptisits in Israel to mark 100 years of Baptist Witness in 2011, in: Baptist World, April/June 2009, http://www.lbc-nazareth.org/lbcdata/ en-events/ev125/files/bader2011.pdf, consulted on 10-03-2011, p.18. 26. NAZARETH CULTURAL & TOURISM ASSOCIATION, Coptic Church of the Annunciation, http://www.nazarethinfo.org/show_item.asp?levelId=63485, consulted on 10-03-2011.


05/

URBAN THRESHOLD TO A RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT

27. 28. 29.

http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?o2=&o0=1&o7=&o5=&o1=1&o6=&o4=&o3=&s=threshold&h=00000&j=0#c , consulted on 15-04-2011. http://thesaurus.babylon.com/threshold , consulted on 15-04-2011. http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/197404/the.magic.of.the.mashrabiyas.htm, consulted on 17-07-2011.

06/ CONSTRUCTION & DETAILS 30. 31. 32. 33.

http://www.halfen.nl/d/85_4957/de/media/catalogues/precastsystems/fb-d.pdf, http://www.halfen.nl/s/85_4957/halfen/modules/brochures/index.php, consulted on 12-08-2011. http://www.reynaers.com/upl/634078969134485000_CS%2068.pdf, consulted on 12-08-2011. http://www.jansen.com/bin/masterframe.pl?startpage=http://www.jansen.com/e/s/profil/profil17.html, consulted on 12-08-2011. http://producten.rockfon.nl/nl/products/modular-ceilings/design-white/krios/krios.aspx, consulted on 12-08-2011.

IMAGES All images and photographs are of own production, unless otherwise stated below. The following aerial photographs are courtesy of Google Earth: pp. 10, 11, 22, 23, 27, 32, 33, 56, 60, 72, 73, 76. P 24-25: Shoshan, M., Atlas of the Conflict:Israel-Palestine, 010 Publishers, 2010, Rotterdam, p132. P 27: SNEH, A., BARTOV, Y., WEISSBROD, T., ROSENSAFT, M., Geological Map of Israel, 1:200,000., ISR. Geol. Surv. (4 sheets ), 1998. P 64: ‘Women fetching water from Mary’s Well’ , http://hphotos-snc6.fbcdn.net/191624_10150109350992477_23704147476_6925025_2757946_o.jpg, consulted 29-05-2011. P 64: ‘Male occupation during British Mandate ‘SLYMOVICS, S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, consulted on 10-03-2011. P 65: ‘Mary’s Well in 1898’, http://hphotos-snc6.fbcdn.net/172823_10150444694960338_762370337_17569657_1060576_o.jpg, consulted on 20-04-2011. P 65: ‘Mary’s Well in 1973’, SLYMOVICS, S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, consulted on 10-03-2011. P 65: ‘Mary’s Well in 2006’, SLYMOVICS, S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, consulted on 10-03-2011. P 113: ‘Twill Weave’, http://www.finemeshmetals.co.uk/images/Twill_Weave.JPG, consulted on 13-07-2011.

BOOKS, ARTICLES, MAGAZINES,... JABAREEN, Y., ‘Conceptualizing Space of Risk: The Contribution of Planning Policies to conflicts in cities, lessons from Nazareth’, in Planning Theory & Practice, 2006 (7) nr 3. MANSOUR, B., Baptisits in Israel to mark 100 years of Baptist Witness in 2011, in: Baptist World, April/June 2009, http://www.lbc-nazareth.org/lbcdata/ en-events/ev125/files/bader2011.pdf. MARTIN, A., DE PRENEUF, F., ‘Nazareth, on the way to Tiberias’, UNESCO Sources, 2000 nr 120. RABINOWITZ, D., Overlooking Nazareth - the ethnography of exclusion in Galilee, Cambridge University Press, University press, Cambridge, 1997. Rahmimov, A., ‘Nazareth 2000. - Tourism infrastructure development plan for 1995-1999 Summary Report’, Nazareth Municipality, Tourism Development Corporation, Ministry of Tourism, Nazareth, 1995 SHOVAL, N., ‘The Case Study of Nazareth’, Proceedings of the second international seminar of tourism management in heritage cities, 2000. SLYMOVICS, S., Edward Said’s Nazareth, in: Framework 50, Nos. 1&2, Spring & Fall 2009, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, http://muse.jhu.edu /journals/frm/summary/v050/50.1-2.slyomovics.html, SNEH, A., BARTOV, Y., WEISSBROD, T., ROSENSAFT, M., Geological Map of Israel, 1:200,000., ISR. Geol. Surv. (4 sheets ), 1998. SROUJI, S., ‘Nazareth - Intersecting Narratives of Modern Architectural Histories’, in Third Text, 2006, 20(3).

INTERVIEWS Interview DIAB, S., Mayor’s assistant, 17-11-2010. Interview JARAIZY, R., Mayor of Nazareth, 08-11-2011.

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Thesis Nick Fragments of a regenerated Nazareth: Urban threshold to a residential district  

Master thesis architectural design at KULeuven.

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